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101918713 Kinematics in One DimensionRatings: (0)|Views: 1|Likes: 0

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/214659776/101918713-Kinematics-in-One-Dimension

03/26/2014

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Kinematics in OneDimension

P H Y S I C S

Kinematics in One Dimension

2

KINEMATICS IN ONE DIMENSION

IIT JEE Syllabus:

Kinematics in one dimension (Cartesian coordinaes only), Relative velocity.

1. INTRODUCTION

Mechanics

is the branch of physics that focuses on the motion of objects and the forces that cause the motion tochange. There are two branches of Mechanics: Kinematics and Dynamics. The word kinematics comes from the Greek word "Kinema" meaning motion.

Kinematics

deals with the concepts that are needed to describe motion, without any reference to forces or thecause of the motion. The word dynamics comes from the Greek word "dynamis" meaning power.Dynamics deals with the relation between the forces and the motion.

Scalar quantity :

Any physical quantity, which can be measured on some scale, is said to be a scalar quantity. The valuesof physical quantities (such as mass, distance etc.) that have only magnitude add according to the rules of arithmetic.Mass, length, time, volume, density etc., are examples of scalar quantities.

Vector quantity :

Any physical quantity, which has a magnitude as well as the direction, is called a vector quantity.Displacement is a vector quantity. Vectors can be represented as a straight-line segment. Vectors are added by geometricaddition.

NOTE:

To understand a physical quantity we should know:

Definition

Measuring Technique or Formula

Scalar or vector nature

Units

2. REVIEW OF BASIC CONCEPTS

Particle

An object of negligible dimensions, i.e., a point mass is known as a particle. This is only mathematicalidealization. The earth can be treated as a particle if we consider the motion of the earth around the sun. The radius of theearth is very small, when we compare the distance between the earth and sun.

Rest and Motion :

The concept of motion is a relative one and a body that may be in motion relative to one referencesystem, may be at rest relative to another.

REST :If the position of an object does not change as time passes, it is said to be at rest with reference to observer. MOTION : If the position of the object changes as time passes, it is said to be at motion with respect to observer.

Motion is Relative :

While sitting in a moving train, your distances from the walls, roof and the floor of the compartmentdo not change. That is, with respect to the compartment, your position does not change. You are at rest with respect to thecompartment. But your distance from the platform, from which you boarded the train, changes as time passes. So you aremoving with respect to the platform. This means that an object can be at rest with respect to one thing and in motion withrespect to some other thing at the same time. So

motion is not absolute; it is relative.

Translational Motion :

The motion in which all the particles of a body move through the same distance in the same timeis called translational motion.

Examples :

An automobile moving along a road, freely falling body, firing of a bullet from a gun, etc., are some of theexamples of translational motion.

The motion of translation is of two types :

1.Rectilinear Motion :

When a body moves in a straight line, like a ball dropped from a height, the motion described by the body is rectilinear motion.

Examples of rectilinear motion :

A train moving along a straight track; a car moving on a straight road.

2.Curvilinear motion :

When a body moves along a curved path, the motion described by the body is called curvilinear motion.

Examples of curvilinear motion:

The motion of a baseball hit in the air; a car negotiating a bend; a ball thrownupward at an angle.

3 MEASURING POSITION :Referense Systems and Co-ordinate System.

The motion of a particle is always described with respect to a reference system. A reference system is 'made' bytaking an arbitrary point as origin and imagining a co-ordinate system to be attached to it. This co-ordinate system chosenfor a given problem constitutes the reference system for it. We generally choose a coordinate system attached to the earthas the reference system for most of the problems.

Kinematics in One Dimension

3

ABCABCCABBACFig 1(a) Rectillinear MotionFig 1(b) Curvillinear MotionFig. 1

The location of a point on a line can be described by one coordinate; a point on a plane can be described by twocoordinates; a point in a three dimensional volume can be described by three coordinates. In general,

the number of coordinates equals the number of dimensions.

A coordinate system consists of :1.a fixed reference point (origin)2.a set of axes with specified directions and scales3.instructions that specify how to

label

a point in space

relative to the origin and axes.

For Example :

Cartesian coordinate system (rectangular coordinate system) : (x, y)

x

0

Oy

0

yP(x

0

,y

0

)xFig.2 Cartesian Co-ordinate System

Position :

The position of a particle moving along a straight line is the distance of a particle specified in magnitude and direction from the origin of a reference system.The line shown in figure resembles with the x - axis, the position of a particle moving along a straight line is described byx. The details of the origin, positive and negative directions are shown in Fig.3.

Negative PositiveOrigin

3

2

10123Fig. 3

To

describe the

position of

the

particle at a given time, we have to specify(i)Its

distance from the origin

, i.e., numberical value with unit(ii)Whether the particle is moving towards right seen from the origin or moving towards left seen from the origin, i.e.,the positive direction or the negative direction with the sign.

Illustration 1.

Consider the situation shown in Figure . (a) What is the position of a particle when it is at A and when it is at B? (b)Are the two position the same? (c) Are the two distances of the particle from the origin the same ? (d) What is the positionof particle at 'O'?

Solution.

(a)The position of the particle is x = 2 m when it is at A, and x = -2 m when it is at B.(b)The two positions are not the same.(c)The distances of the particle from the origin in the two positions are the same, and equal to 2 m.(d)The position of the particle is x = 0 m when it is at O.

4 DISTANCE TRAVELLED AND DISPLACEMENTTrajectory :

When a body is displaced from one point to another, it describes a certain curve, which is called a trajectoryof a moving body. We call the motion of a particle as rectilinear or straight line if its trajectory is a straight line.

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