Kinematics in One Dimension
KINEMATICS IN ONE DIMENSION
IIT JEE Syllabus:
Kinematics in one dimension (Cartesian coordinaes only), Relative velocity.
is the branch of physics that focuses on the motion of objects and the forces that cause the motion tochange. There are two branches of Mechanics: Kinematics and Dynamics. The word kinematics comes from the Greek word "Kinema" meaning motion.
deals with the concepts that are needed to describe motion, without any reference to forces or thecause of the motion. The word dynamics comes from the Greek word "dynamis" meaning power.Dynamics deals with the relation between the forces and the motion.
Scalar quantity :
Any physical quantity, which can be measured on some scale, is said to be a scalar quantity. The valuesof physical quantities (such as mass, distance etc.) that have only magnitude add according to the rules of arithmetic.Mass, length, time, volume, density etc., are examples of scalar quantities.
Vector quantity :
Any physical quantity, which has a magnitude as well as the direction, is called a vector quantity.Displacement is a vector quantity. Vectors can be represented as a straight-line segment. Vectors are added by geometricaddition.
To understand a physical quantity we should know:
Measuring Technique or Formula
Scalar or vector nature
2. REVIEW OF BASIC CONCEPTS
An object of negligible dimensions, i.e., a point mass is known as a particle. This is only mathematicalidealization. The earth can be treated as a particle if we consider the motion of the earth around the sun. The radius of theearth is very small, when we compare the distance between the earth and sun.
Rest and Motion :
The concept of motion is a relative one and a body that may be in motion relative to one referencesystem, may be at rest relative to another.
REST :If the position of an object does not change as time passes, it is said to be at rest with reference to observer. MOTION : If the position of the object changes as time passes, it is said to be at motion with respect to observer.
Motion is Relative :
While sitting in a moving train, your distances from the walls, roof and the floor of the compartmentdo not change. That is, with respect to the compartment, your position does not change. You are at rest with respect to thecompartment. But your distance from the platform, from which you boarded the train, changes as time passes. So you aremoving with respect to the platform. This means that an object can be at rest with respect to one thing and in motion withrespect to some other thing at the same time. So
motion is not absolute; it is relative.
Translational Motion :
The motion in which all the particles of a body move through the same distance in the same timeis called translational motion.
An automobile moving along a road, freely falling body, firing of a bullet from a gun, etc., are some of theexamples of translational motion.
The motion of translation is of two types :
1.Rectilinear Motion :
When a body moves in a straight line, like a ball dropped from a height, the motion described by the body is rectilinear motion.
Examples of rectilinear motion :
A train moving along a straight track; a car moving on a straight road.
2.Curvilinear motion :
When a body moves along a curved path, the motion described by the body is called curvilinear motion.
Examples of curvilinear motion:
The motion of a baseball hit in the air; a car negotiating a bend; a ball thrownupward at an angle.
3 MEASURING POSITION :Referense Systems and Co-ordinate System.
The motion of a particle is always described with respect to a reference system. A reference system is 'made' bytaking an arbitrary point as origin and imagining a co-ordinate system to be attached to it. This co-ordinate system chosenfor a given problem constitutes the reference system for it. We generally choose a coordinate system attached to the earthas the reference system for most of the problems.