1. The word as the basic unit of the language. The size-of-unit and identity-of-unit problems.
Lex studies the word of the vocabulary of the language. The term lex comes from Greek. “lexic” means“word” and “logos” means the study of. The word studies from different points of view. EG: It was a verygood ball. (the exam. shows that without the context we can give two translations and it touches uponsemantics.) EG: The temp. (-orary)(сокращение) – название фильма “Временная секретарша» (thisexample touches upon the problem of word-building. This word is a shortening.) EG: Crackerjack (thisexample touches upon of the problem of stylistic classification of the eng. vocabulary. this word areexplained in the dictionary of slang as a person who is remarkable, perfect).This examples show that the word is a unity of meaning and form.In speech a word is realized in one of its meanings and in a certain wordform. All the forms of the wordmake up its paradigm. EG: to take: takes, took, taken, taking (парадигмы).there are several problems connected with the word.
The side-of-unit problem (проблема проведения границ между словом и словосочетанием.)
EG: 1.) shipwrecks (кораблекрушение) 2.) the wrecks of the ships (крушение корабля) a) wrecks b) shipsc) wrecks/shipsThe size of unit problem makes us investigate the size of the border line between a word and a wordcombination in speech N1 is a word, N2 is a word combination. To prove that we have to use the criterion of single and separate grammatical framing. N1 and N2 are different in the grammatical framing. In N1 it issingle framing. In N2 it is separate framing, it can be formed in 3 times: a, b, c.Besides that we can insert one or separate word in a word combination. EG: The wreck of a big ship (this isan additional criterion and it shows the unit of the word, because we can’t insert any element between the parts of the word.
The identify-of-unit problem (проблема поиска границ между значениями одного и того же словаи словами совпадающими по значению)
EG: Of all the saws I ever saw saw I never saw a saw saw as that saw saws (сколько я не видел как пилятпилы, я никогда не видел, чтобы пила пилила так, как пилит эта пила) если у слова формы различныто и слова разные. The problem is: how many words that sounds alike are there? There are three words inour exam., there are: saw-пила (it used 3 times) saw-пилить (3 times) saw-видеть(P.Simple.2t). To provethat there are 3 different words we have to analyze form of word. These form words are different, so thewords are different. 1) saw-пила (noun) has two forms: that is of the sing. and plur. This paradigm is typicalof the English noun.2) saw-пилить (verb). It has different form: saws (3л., ед.ч.), sawed, sawing 3) saw-видел (verb) It isalready a word form of a different word “to see”The second part of the problem is semantic, it deals with meaning. We have to find out if we are dealing withthe meaning of one the same word or with different words (homonyms) EG:1.1)It was a very good ball. Itwas red. 1.2) It was a very good ball. I danced till 3 in the morning. (<омонимы) 2.1) His hands are large.2.2) He has season hands on his farm.The problem is: are the words “ball” and “ball”, “hands” and “hands” one of the same word or the diff. word.In the first case: “ball” and “ball” are homonyms. There is no semantic link between them. In the second case“hands” and “hands” are variants one of the same word. There is a semantic link between them (seasonworkers use hands in their work). Such variants of words are called lexica-semantic variants. (лексико-семантическое значение слова)Besides there are phonetic, grammatical and derivational (словообразование) variants of the words. EG:often, often, historic-historical.So, the identify of unit problem is the problem of finding the border line between the usages the one and thesame word and diff. words, which are called homonyms.
2. The concept of the morpheme.
Lexical and grammatical morphemes
. The two aspects of the wordanalysis: on the morphemic and derivational levels.
The morpheme is the smallest indivisible meaningful language unit. It’s different from the word as itcan’t function in a sentence alone. It’s always a part of the word, where it combines with other morphemes.Let’s compare the examples: 1) heart-heartless (слово) 2) hearty-ier-iest (формы)In first example a new word is formed. In the second – new forms the word are formed. Thesemorphemes, which make up new words are called lexical morphemes. In the second example themorphemes are grammatical. They are not studing in the lexicology. The lexical morphemes may beroots and affixational (affixes morphemes)Root morphemes are the semantic centre of the word. As for affixes, they can be prefixes and suffixes.Prefixes stand in front of the root. Suffixes follow the root.Morphemes can be free and bound. Root morphemes are free. They coincide with independent words,and can function in the sentence by themselves. EG: boyish (boy можно употреблять отдельно)Affixes are bound morphemes. They can’t function in the sentence alone. But: ladd|like, eat|able.(thereare exist semi-sufficsis. –like,–able can be both suffices and independent words.)
The two aspects of the word analysis: on the morphemic and derivational levels.