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1. the Word as the Basic Unit of the Language.

1. the Word as the Basic Unit of the Language.

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1. The word as the basic unit of the language. The size-of-unit and identity-of-unit problems.
Lex studies the word of the vocabulary of the language. The term lex comes from Greek. “lexic” means“word” and “logos” means the study of. The word studies from different points of view. EG: It was a verygood ball. (the exam. shows that without the context we can give two translations and it touches uponsemantics.) EG: The temp. (-orary)(сокращение) – название фильма “Временная секретарша» (thisexample touches upon the problem of word-building. This word is a shortening.) EG: Crackerjack (thisexample touches upon of the problem of stylistic classification of the eng. vocabulary. this word areexplained in the dictionary of slang as a person who is remarkable, perfect).This examples show that the word is a unity of meaning and form.In speech a word is realized in one of its meanings and in a certain wordform. All the forms of the wordmake up its paradigm. EG: to take: takes, took, taken, taking (парадигмы).there are several problems connected with the word.
The side-of-unit problem (проблема проведения границ между словом и словосочетанием.)
EG: 1.) shipwrecks (кораблекрушение) 2.) the wrecks of the ships (крушение корабля) a) wrecks b) shipsc) wrecks/shipsThe size of unit problem makes us investigate the size of the border line between a word and a wordcombination in speech N1 is a word, N2 is a word combination. To prove that we have to use the criterion of single and separate grammatical framing. N1 and N2 are different in the grammatical framing. In N1 it issingle framing. In N2 it is separate framing, it can be formed in 3 times: a, b, c.Besides that we can insert one or separate word in a word combination. EG: The wreck of a big ship (this isan additional criterion and it shows the unit of the word, because we can’t insert any element between the parts of the word.
The identify-of-unit problem (проблема поиска границ между значениями одного и того же словаи словами совпадающими по значению)
EG: Of all the saws I ever saw saw I never saw a saw saw as that saw saws (сколько я не видел как пилятпилы, я никогда не видел, чтобы пила пилила так, как пилит эта пила) если у слова формы различныто и слова разные. The problem is: how many words that sounds alike are there? There are three words inour exam., there are: saw-пила (it used 3 times) saw-пилить (3 times) saw-видеть(P.Simple.2t). To provethat there are 3 different words we have to analyze form of word. These form words are different, so thewords are different. 1) saw-пила (noun) has two forms: that is of the sing. and plur. This paradigm is typicalof the English noun.2) saw-пилить (verb). It has different form: saws (3л., ед.ч.), sawed, sawing 3) saw-видел (verb) It isalready a word form of a different word “to see”The second part of the problem is semantic, it deals with meaning. We have to find out if we are dealing withthe meaning of one the same word or with different words (homonyms) EG:1.1)It was a very good ball. Itwas red. 1.2) It was a very good ball. I danced till 3 in the morning. (<омонимы) 2.1) His hands are large.2.2) He has season hands on his farm.The problem is: are the words “ball” and “ball”, “hands” and “hands” one of the same word or the diff. word.In the first case: “ball” and “ball” are homonyms. There is no semantic link between them. In the second case“hands” and “hands” are variants one of the same word. There is a semantic link between them (seasonworkers use hands in their work). Such variants of words are called lexica-semantic variants. (лексико-семантическое значение слова)Besides there are phonetic, grammatical and derivational (словообразование) variants of the words. EG:often, often, historic-historical.So, the identify of unit problem is the problem of finding the border line between the usages the one and thesame word and diff. words, which are called homonyms.
2. The concept of the morpheme.
Lexical and grammatical morphemes
. The two aspects of the wordanalysis: on the morphemic and derivational levels.
The morpheme is the smallest indivisible meaningful language unit. It’s different from the word as itcan’t function in a sentence alone. It’s always a part of the word, where it combines with other morphemes.Let’s compare the examples: 1) heart-heartless (слово) 2) hearty-ier-iest (формы)In first example a new word is formed. In the second – new forms the word are formed. Thesemorphemes, which make up new words are called lexical morphemes. In the second example themorphemes are grammatical. They are not studing in the lexicology. The lexical morphemes may beroots and affixational (affixes morphemes)Root morphemes are the semantic centre of the word. As for affixes, they can be prefixes and suffixes.Prefixes stand in front of the root. Suffixes follow the root.Morphemes can be free and bound. Root morphemes are free. They coincide with independent words,and can function in the sentence by themselves. EG: boyish (boy можно употреблять отдельно)Affixes are bound morphemes. They can’t function in the sentence alone. But: ladd|like, eat|able.(thereare exist semi-sufficsis. –like,–able can be both suffices and independent words.)
The two aspects of the word analysis: on the morphemic and derivational levels.
 
The morphemic structure of the word may be studied on 2 levels: morphemic and derivational. The mainunit of the morphemic level is morpheme. While analyzing we want to know how many morphemesthere are in the word and what these morphemes are. EG: in the word “eatable” there are twomorphemes: eat is the root, able is a suffix. Root is a free. And “-able”, which is a semi-suffix is semi-free. The main unit of the derivational level is the stem. It is that part of the word, to which grammaticalflexions are added EG: government – Governments suffix –ment основообразующий.While analyzing on this level we want to know how the word was built. EG: the word “eatable” isformed by adding the suffix –able to the root of the word. According to the morphological structure of the word, all words (stems) may be devited into the following groups.1.) simple (root) words. a hat, a boy. 2.) derived (производные) words (derivatives). They include rootand affixal morphemes.: ladylike, eatable, sunny. 3.) compound (сложные) words. they have two or more stems. EG: snow-fall, girlfriend. 4.) Compound derivatives (сложнопроизводные). They have twoor more stems in their structure and derivational affixes. EG: film-goer 5.) Contracted compounds(сложносокращенные) In such words one of the stems is shortened. EG: TV-setSo, on the derivational level we are interested in word building pattern (словообр. модель)
3. Affixation. Classification of affixes. Productivity of affixes.
1.) Affixation is the formation of words by adding derivational affixes to the root (stem). Prefixes, as a rule,change only the meaning of the word, the part of speech of a new word remains the same. EG: lucky-unlucky(оба прил.)With suffixation a new word belongs to a new part of speech. EG: luck-lucky (сущ.-прил.)Affixes are more abstract than the root morphemes. EG: to drive-driver. er-suffix shows the agent of theaction, but we do not know, which exactly action is meant.2.) Derivation affixes are divided according to the following principle: 1.) Etymological 2.) Lexical-grammatical 3.) Semantically.According to the first one, affixes are divided into native and borrowedIt a word consist of a native and a borrow morpheme it is called a hybrid. (лексич. гибрид) EG: beauty|ful – исконная часть (суффикс) заимств. (корень) eat|able – наоборотAccording to the second principle, affixes can be noun-forming, verb-forming and so on. EG: sun-sunny.According the third principal every affix has its own lexical meaning. EG: Everybody took part in thedecoration of the hall. 2) The decoration of the hall was beautiful. the meaning of the first one is process. Thesecond is result. Productivity of affix.Word building means do not remain the same in the historical development of the language.Some of them are productive now and some are not.Productivity is the ability of the affixes to form new words at a certain period. EG: -er, -tion, -re – productiveaffixes. –dom, -hood – non productiveThere are dead affixes, which are no longer felt in the word. EG: answer Productivity should not be missed up with frequency (частность) of usage. EG: soften –en – productive,now it’s non-productive.
4. Conversion: different points of view. Semantic change accompanying the instances of conversion. Thesynchronic and diachronic aspects of conversion.
A.) EG: 1.) hand-handful 1.) hand – (to) hand конверсия, нулевое словообразование. hands(plur.)-hands(3лицо), handed (past), handing (причастие) – морфологический подход для различия слов.In both the examples new words are formed. In the first example-by affixation, in the second-by zero-derivation or conversion.Conversion is very productive in English. It’s a specific type of word building, where the word buildingmeans is the paradigm of the word itself. In the words hand(n) – hand(v) the paradigms are different. So wehave a case of verb-formation, typical in the English language N>VThis approach (подход) was worked out by professor Смерницкий. It’s a morphological way of formingnew words. There is another approach worked out by professor Arnold (женщ.). She tracts conversion as amorphology-syntactical type of word building. EG: If one were lucky, he had a good buy. Смотрим насинтакс. связь. Есть артикль, прилагательное (опред. сущ-ое) => это сущ. дополнение.The word “buy” is a noun, formed by conversion, and the prove is found in the syntactic-function and thesyntactic connection of the word. It’s function in the sentence is that of a direct object. Besides it has adescriptive attribute “good” and the indefinite article “a”. All that is typical of the English noun.B.) Cases of conversion are accompanied by semantic change.Let’s analyze the ”N>V” formation, which is typical of English.
 
EG: nose-to nose, elbow-to elbow, hammer-to hammer. The noun is the name of a tool and the verb is thename of an action, which is performed by this tool.EG: dog-to dog (следовать по пятам), monkey-to monkey (передразнивать, словесно), ape-to ape(передразнивать, кривляться). The noun is the name of an animal and the verb denotes behavior typical of this animal. (антруш. 91-93)С.) Синхронический - связанный с одним периодом времени.Диахронический – идущий вниз к историиlove-to love др.англ. lufu(n)-lufian(v) – окончание стали ослабевать, произошло отпадение окончание,озвончение звука – совпали формы love-to love – этимологические омонимыOne of the problems connected with conversion is the problem of the original word. It’s not easy to state,which of the pair is the original word, and which of the pair is the original word, and which was made byconversion.If we look at the pair synchronically it does not differ from the example (hand-to hand). That is the noun isthe original word. Diachronically these words are not linked by conversion. The identify of their form is theresult of the historical development.In old English they had two words: lufu(n)-lufian(v) later due to the dropping of the ending and other  processes we have two homonyms today. They are called historical or etymological homonyms.So, conversion is very productive in English, because it’s analytical character. Root word, which are typicalof its structure easily enter semantic relations in conversion pairs.
5. Composition. Structural classification.
Composition is the making of a new word by joining two or more stems together.Structurally these words are classified into the following groups:1.) простые сложные слова. neutral compounds, where the stems are joined together, without any linkingelement. EG: shop-window, badroom.2.) морфологические слож. слова. morphological compounds, in which the stems are joined by a vowel or a consonant. EG: Anglo-Saxon, statesman, bridesmaid3.) Синтаксич. слож. слова или компрессивы или телескопные. Synthetic compounds, in which stems are joined by a prepositions or by some other form-word. The formal sign is a hyphen. EG: mother-in-law, good-for-northing.4.) Сложнопроизводные слова. Derivational compounds, in which the stems have affixes in their stems.EG: film-goer, blue-eyed.5.) Сложносокращ. слова. Contracted compounds, in which one of the stems is shortened. EG: TV-set,sitcom.
6. Semantic aspect of compound words. Unstable compounds.
Semantically compounds are divided into idiomatic and non-idiomatic. Non-idiomatic compounds are the words in which the meaning of the whole is the sum of the meanings of components. EG: classroom, writing-table, bedroom.Idiomatic compounds are those in which the meaning is changes or transferred EG: blackbird-(дрозд),tallboy-комодThe degree of transparence of meaning may be different. There are idiomatic compounds in which only oneof the components has change its meaning. The meaning of the whole can be guessed. EG: blackbird,cranberry (we guess it’s a kind of a berry)Side by side there are idiomatic compounds with a global change of meaning. The meaning of the word cannot be guessed or understood from the meanings of the components. EG: tallboy, a wall flower (n)-девушкакоторую не пригласили танцевать.So the difference between non-idiomatic and idiomatic compounds is based on the degree of the semanticcohesion of its elements.In the word “tallboy” this degree of cohesion is the strongest. It doesn’t exist all together in the word like“bedroom”, “classroom”“Stone wall” problemThe problem is: “Is the “stone wall” a compound or a word combination. The answer depends on how wetreat the first component. If we understand it as a noun stem then it is a compound. If the first component isan adjective it’s a word combination. The generally accept point of view is that “stone wall” is a specifictype of compound, so called unstable compound. \

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