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Physics Revision Forces

# Physics Revision Forces

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09/16/2011

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Topic
4:
Forces
Hooke'sLawstates
that within
the
limits
of
proportionalitv.
the
magnitude
of
the
force
F
applied
to
anelastic
spring
or
body
is
proportionalto
its
displacementr.or
rt
x2Force
-
extension
Raaoh
Forces
due
to fields
When
a body
is
deformed
elasticall,
elastic
potentialenergy
(EPE)
isstored
in
it.
The
amount
of
EPE
stored canbe
determined
by
calculating
the
area
under
the
Force
-
Extension graph.
lf deformation
is
fromn
=
0,
then
l._
1
FPE
:rk\':tr
\
lim't
of
stored
EPF
Gravitational
Electric
Magnetic
qodyj'{e9!e4_
Magninudeof
forceDefinitionof
field
maSs
electriccharge
electric
charge
F=-g
F=qE
*F
:
Bqv
The
gravitationalforce
per
unit
mass
exertedon
any
body
placed
at
thatpoint.
The
electric
force
per
uflit
positivechargeexertedon
any
body
placedat
that
point-*Themagnetic force
per
unit
positivechargeper
unit
speed
at
!gb!3!gles
to
thefield,exerted on
any
body
placed
at
that
point.Directionln
the
directionof
the
gravitationalfield.
ve
charge:opposite
to
direction
of
elecJri.field.
+ve
charge:
in
thedirection
of
the
electric
field-
.
I
\J,,',
-
+{+
)-r--
Perpendicular
to
both the
magnetic
field
and
the
velocity
(as
determined
using
Fleming's
left-hand
rule).
llPage

Pressute
(also
known
as
stress)
direction
ofmotion
ot P:hgg+P.h
Due
to
a
column
of
fluid
ofI'eight,
and
densityp
(Poh
=
atmosphericpressure)Frictional
vs viscous
forces
Viscous
force
is
the
equivalence of
friction
in
fluids
-just
like
friction,
it
resists
relative motion.
,,,:,,onf
--l,ou*n,uu"."
The
magnitude
of
the
frictional force
between
the
body
and
the
surface is
proportional
to
the
weieht of
the
bodv{not
the
area
of contact!).The magnitude
of
the
viscous
force
acting
on
a
body
as
it
travels
through a
fluid
is
directlvrelated
to
its
velocitv.
(Relationship
between
viscous
force
and
velocity
will
be
given
in
the
qLlestionif
you
are
expected
to
perform
calculations.)
Note:
if
an
object
is
moving
with
constant velocitvover
a
roughhorizontal surface, net
force
acting
on
the
ob.iect
must be
zero.
This
doesnot
necessarilymean
that
no external force
actson
the
object
-
at
simply
means
that the
netexternal
force
is
equal
to the friction
between
the
object
and
the
surface
the
object
is
on!
This
is a
consequence
of Newton's
First
Law.
Momentof
a
force
or
toraue
The
moment of
a
force
ortorque
an
axis
(of
rotation)
is
theproduct
ofthe
force
and
the
perpendicular
distance
from
the line
of
action
oJ
the force
to the
axis.
The
torque of
a
couple
is
given
by:
.
/oemendicular
distance
r
torque
[one
force)
,1.
1
\
betwem
the
lorces
J
2lPase

Equilibriumof
Forces
Ttanslational
Equilibriunl
The sum
of
the
componentsof
allthe
forces
(inany
direction)
is
zero.
2
forces:
they
must
be
equalin
maqnitudeand opposite
in
direction.
3
forces:
their vector
5Um
must
be
zero(or
form
a
closed
triangle).
RotationalEqutlibrium
.
The
sllo
of
clockwise
torques
point
is
equalto
the
sum
of anticlockwise
torques
that
same
Point.
Eouilibrium
of
Forces
pivot
,4
,r''
:-
rh-j'
*
whencalculating
thetorque
(force
xldistance)
makesure
the
distance
used
is
corre.t!
Vector sum
of
Effecl
forceg
torques
2eroNo
linearacceleration;
no
rotation
i.e.
body remajnat rest
or
move
at itsoriginal constant
velocitvnot
zero
No
linearacceleration;
rotation
happensnotzero
Linear
acceleration
no
rotationnot
zeronotzero
Linear
acceleration;
rotation
happensTvpicalaoproach
to
solvine
Forces
(inEquiljbrium)questjonsStep
1:
lsolate
the
object
and
draw
FBD
Step
2l
Resolve
the
the forces
into
itsperpendicularcomponents
usually
the
x
andy
axes.
*
For
inclined
plane-choose
the direction
along
and
perpen
dicu
lar
to
the
inclined.Step
3:
Solve using
the
equation
forrotationalequilibrium
*
When
unsure
what
point
to
take
as
the
pivot,
it
is
often
choose a
point
where
most number
ofthe
unknown forces
pass
through-
Step
4:
Solve using
theequations
fortranslational equilibrium
3l

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