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Research Handouts

Research Handouts



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Published by: Michelle Manibale R.N on Mar 10, 2010
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Research: An IntroductionMa. Irma Bustamante, RN, PhDSources of knowledge
: accepted as given on the basis of inherited customs
: comes from people with expertise
Trial and error 
IntuitionSources of knowledge
Logical reasoning
: combines, intellectualfaculties and formal system of thought
Disciplined research
: the most sophisticatedmethod of acquiringknowledge.
is a systematic, controlled, empiricaland critical investigation of hypothetical propositionsabout the presumed relations among naturalphenomena. 
Kerlinger, 1973
 – follows certain steps 
 – every step of the investigation is planned 
 – evidence is on hand, there is confidence inthe results
in its broadest sense is an attempt togain solutions to problems. More precisely, it is thecollection of data in a rigorously controlled situation for the purpose of prediction or explanation. 
Treece and Treece, 1974
Nursing research
is research for nursing. Itincludes the breadth and depth of the discipline of nursing: the rehabilitative, therapeutic, and preventiveaspects of nursing, as well as the preparation of practitioners and personnel
involved in the total nursing
Nursing research
is defined as a scientificprocess that validates and refines existing knowledgeand generates new knowledge that directly and indirectlyinfluences nursing practice. 
Burns and Grove, 2005 
Purposes of Research
1. Describe2. Explain3. Predict4. Control
- involves identifying andunderstanding the nature of phenomena and sometimesthe relationship among them.
- It clarifies the relationships amongphenomena and identifies the reasons why certainevents occur. It could be the basis for conductingresearch for prediction and control
- Through prediction, one can estimatethe probability of a specific outcome in a given situation.However, predicting an outcome does not necessarilyenable one to modify or control the outcome.
- If one can predict the outcome of asituation, the next step is to control or manipulate thesituation to produce the desired outcome.
Nurses do research because…
Nursing is a profession
Nursing should contribute to the generation of new knowledge
Through research, nurses could evaluate anddocument their contributions to their clients’ health and wellbeing andto the health care delivery system 
Cruz-Earnshaw, 2007 
Nurses do research because…
RA 9173 Section 28 (e )states that:It shall be the duty of the nurse to:(e) Undertake nursing and health human resourcedevelopment training and researchwhich shall include, but not limited to thedevelopment of advance nursingpractice;
Classifications of Research
According to level of investigation1. Exploratory2. Descriptive3. Experimental
Classifications of Research
According to approach1. Experimental2. Non-experimental
Classifications of Research
According to measurement & data analysis1. Quantitative2. Qualitative
Classifications of Research
According to time frame1. Longitudinal2. Cross sectional
Classifications of Research
According to motive or objective1. Basic research2. Applied research
Classifications of Research
According to time line1. Retrospective2. Prospective
Classifications of Research
According to research environment1. Field2. Laboratory
Quantitative Research
Quantitative research
is the investigation of phenomena that lend themselves to precisemeasurement and quantification, often involving arigorous and controlled design.
Quantitative Research Methods
– provides an accurate portrayal or account of characteristics of a particular individual,situation or group.
Quantitative Research Methods
 – involves the systematicinvestigation of relationships/association between two or more variables
Quantitative Research Methods
 – used to describe the differencesin variables in two or more groups in a natural setting
Quantitative Research Methods
– causal relationshipsbetween two selected variables are examined throughmanipulation of the independent variable but withoutcontrol or randomization.
Quantitative Research Methods
 – it is an objective, systematic,controlled investigation for the purpose of predicting andcontrolling phenomena. Characteristics includemanipulation, control, and randomization.
Quantitative Research Methods
Ex post facto
– the independent variable is notmanipulated, either because it is inherentlyunmanipulable or because it occurred in the past
Qualitative Research
Qualitative research
is the investigation of phenomena typically in an in-depth and holistic fashion,through the collection of rich narrative materials using aflexible research design.
Qualitative Research Methods
 – describes an experienceas they are lived by people
Qualitative Research Methods
Grounded theory
– discovers what problemsexist in a social scene and the process persons use tohandle them
Qualitative Research Methods
 – it is associated withanthropology and focuses on the culture of a group of people, with an effort to understand the world view of those under study.
Qualitative Research Methods
– a narrative description or analysisof events that occurred in the remote or recent past.
Qualitative Research Methods
Philosophical inquiry
– involves usingintellectual analysis to clarify meanings, makes valuesmanifest, identify ethics, and study the nature of knowledge
Qualitative Research Methods
Case study
– involves a thorough, in-depthanalysis of an individual, a group, or an institution or other social units.
Qualitative Research Methods
Critical theory
– an approach to viewing theworld that involves a critique of society, with the goal of envisioning new possibilities and effecting social change
Qualitative Research Methods
Feminist research
– seeks to understand,typically through qualitative approaches, how gender and a gendered social order shape women’s lives andtheir consciousness.
Mixed Methods Research
 – the use of multiplemethods to collect and interpret data about aphenomenon, so as to converge on an accuraterepresentation of reality
Steps in the Research Process
Identification of problem
Review of related literature
Construction of a framework
Formulate the hypothesis
Select the research design
Select the sample
Collect the data
Analyze and interpret the data
Write the research report
Communicate the research reportMajor Steps: Quantitative Study
Phase I
The Conceptual Phase
Step 1: Formulating and delimiting the problemStep 2: Reviewing the related research literatureStep 3: Undertaking clinical fieldworkStep 4: Defining the framework and conceptualdefinitionsStep 5: Formulating the hypothesis
Phase II: The Design and Planning Phase
Step 6
Selecting a research designStep 7
Developing protocols for interventionStep 8
Identifying the population to be studiedStep 9
Designing the sampling planStep 10
Specifying methods to measure variablesStep 11: Developing methods to protect human/animalrightsStep 12: Finalizing and reviewing the research plan
Phase III: The Empirical Phase
Step 13: Collecting the dataStep 14: Preparing data for analysis 
Phase IV: The Analytic Phase
Step 15: Analyzing the dataStep 16: Interpreting the results
Phase V: The Dissemination Phase
Step 17: Communicating the findingsStep 18: Utilizing research evidence in practiceActivities: Qualitative Study
Conceptualizing and planning a qualitative study
Identifying a research problem
Doing a literature review
Selecting and gaining entrée into researchsites Designing qualitative studies
Addressing ethical issues
Activities: Qualitative Study
Conducting a qualitative study
Obtaining and analyzing qualitative data
Disseminating qualitative findings
Writing qualitative research
Thank you for your attention
The Problem
Ma. Irma Bustamante, RN, PhD
What is a research problem?
A problem is a condition requiring a solution.
In research, a problem statement is anexpression of a dilemma or adisturbing situation that needsinvestigation.Sources of research problems
Personal experiences and observations
Conversations with peers, experts, clientsAttendance in conferences, lecturesEveryday occurrencesSocial and politicalissues affecting healthCharacteristics of a researchable problem
NoveltyFeasibility of time and resourcesEthicalAvailability of dataAbility of the researcher Situations manifesting a problem
Absence of information
Incomplete information
Conflicting informationA fact exists and you intend your studyto explain it.There is a gap in knowledgeThe research question
The problem is specifically stated in the form of a research question.
The research question should be clear,concise, and stated in measurable termsspecifically in quantitativeresearch.The research question
ExampleWhat is the level of creativity among senior student nurses of a center of excellencecollege in Manila in terms of originality and flexibility?The title
Functions of a title1. It draws in summary form, the content of the entire investigation.2. It serves as a frame of reference for the whole thesis.3. It enables the researcher toclaim the title as his own.4. It helps the other researchersrefer to the work.The title
Titles should be clear and specific.
It should include variables, relationships,target population, and setting.Ideally, it should have a maximum of 20 substantive words, withfunction words not included inin the counting.The title
ExampleThe Effects of Home Visits of Public HealthNurses on the Dietary Compliance of AdultDiabetic Patients in Two Barangays inQuezon CityThe Variable
 – an attribute of a person or object thatvaries, that is, takes on different values. It is anythingthat is liable to change or likelyto vary. 
Independent variable
– cause 
Dependent variable
– effect 
Extraneous variables
– notstudied but affects results The Variable
 – comes between the dependentand independent variables. Ex. - stress, anxiety,motivation
– those that can not be changedthrough manipulation. Ex. – age, sex, race 
– interferewith the study design and the datagathering process by influencingthe subjects or the dependentvariable. Ex. – social support The Variable
 – occurs earlier than theindependent variable and bears a relationship both to itand to the dependent variable. Ex.- poor health,superstitious beliefsRANDOMIZATION is the best controlover unknown variables.Significance of the study
Issues relevant in considering the significance of the study:1. Implications for nursing practice – Is it ableto produce evidence for nursing practice?2. Extension of knowledge base –Is it able to produce newknowledge which is useful?Significance of the study3. Promotion of theory development – Is it able to test or develop a new theory?4. Correspondence to research priorities – Isit in line with research priorities of thecountry, profession, or fundinginstitutions?Scope and Limitations
defines where and when the study wasconducted and who the participants (subjects) were. Thescope sets thedelimitations and establishes theboundaries of the study. 
 – are theweaknesses and shortcomings

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