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00147-2006 1

00147-2006 1



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Published by: act on Sep 14, 2007
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The Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press,Politics and Public PolicyWorking Paper Series
Soft Power and Hard Views: How AmericanCommentators are Spreading over the World’sOpinion Pages
By Julia BairdShorenstein Fellow, Spring 2005Opinion Editor,
Sydney Morning Herald 
Copyright © 2006, President and Fellows of Harvard CollegeAll rights reserved
Executive Summary
“Power over opinion is… not less essential for political purposes than military andeconomic power, and has always been closely associated with them. The art of persuasion has always been a necessary part of the equipment of a political leader.But the popular view that regards propaganda as a distinctively modern weapon is,nonetheless, substantially correct… Democracies, or the groups which control them,are not altogether innocent of the arts of molding and directing public opinion.”
 E. H. Carr
In 1981, British realist and writer E. H. Carr defined international power as being divided intothree categories: military, economic and power over opinion.
The last of these is notoriouslydifficult to measure, and to consciously control. To date, theorists like Joseph Nye have usedpublic opinion polls, particularly those canvassing the attitudes people in other countries holdtowards the United States, to try to gauge how effective American soft power is, and howpalatable its ideals are beyond its borders. For this paper, I chose to examine the export of American thought by documenting the presence of American columnists on newspaper opinionpages around the world in the 2000s. This was in part an attempt to assess what impact, if any,September 11 and the war in Iraq had on the demand for American opinion by editors who act aslocal gatekeepers of thought.In this paper, I sought to answer three questions:1.
Were there any studies on America’s power over opinion, measured by the presence of their commentators - including those from think tanks - on the op-ed pages in othercountries?2.
Had there been an increase in the number of American opinion pieces published in othercountries? If so, why was this happening?3.
Were American columnists conscious of, or writing for, their global audience?
 2First of all, I determined that this subject had never been studied before. The work and influenceof American columnists has been curiously unexamined, with only a handful of books on thesubject – and not a single study on their global reach. Through a series of searches on the LexisNexis and Factiva databases, I then found that there had been a marked rise in the number of op-ed pieces by American writers in foreign publications, notably those from think tanks, since thelate 1990s. The country where the greatest growth is occurring is the United Kingdom.Conservative think tanks such as the American Enterprise Institute have had the greatest rate of growth, along with think tanks focused on foreign policy. Significantly, the profile of keyAmerican think tanks – as measured by mentions in major English speaking newspapers – hasgrown more rapidly outside the US than within it.I also found almost all of the thought being exported from the United States is male. The notableexception was Maureen Dowd, although demand for her pieces was stronger before the war thanafter it in some countries. Somewhat troublingly for opinion editors keen to kindle debate in theirown countries by using American writers, many of the columnists I spoke to said they do notwrite for a broader audience – they write for Americans, and rarely keep track of where, and howoften, their work is reprinted.My research has documented that the subtle but growing Americanization of opinion pages inmany countries has largely been driven by a demand from opinion page editors for pieces onAmerican foreign policy in the wake of September 11 and in the lead up to, and aftermath of, thewar in Iraq. Other influences have been the marketing and strategic thinking of think tanksseeking to expand their influence beyond the United States, the strong relationship the businesspress and Murdoch papers have with American think tanks – and, significantly, the fact thatmany op-eds from think tanks are free. At a time of shrinking newspaper audiences and aconsequent tightening of editorial budgets across the world, this last factor should not beunderemphasized.

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