the representation of the static aspects of reality).
- A schema describes both the mental and physical actions involved in understandingand knowing. Schemas are categories of knowledge that help us to interpret and understand theworld. In Piaget's view, a schema includes both a category of knowledge and the process of obtaining that knowledge. As experiences happen, this new information is used to modify, addto, or change previously existing schemas. For example, a child may have a schema about a typeof animal, such as a dog. If the child's sole experience has been with small dogs, a child might believe that all dogs are small, furry, and have four legs. Suppose then that the child encountersa very large dog. The child will take in this new information, modifying the previously existingschema to include this new information.
- The process of taking in new information into our previously existing schema’sis known as assimilation. The process is somewhat subjective, because we tend to modifyexperience or information somewhat to fit in with our preexisting beliefs. In the example above,seeing a dog and labeling it "dog" is an example of assimilating the animal into the child's dogschema.
- Another part of adaptation involves changing or altering our existingschemas in light of new information, a process known as accommodation. Accommodationinvolves altering existing schemas, or ideas, as a result of new information or new experiences. New schemas may also be developed during this process.
- Piaget believed that all children try to strike a balance between assimilation andaccommodation, which is achieved through a mechanism Piaget called equilibration. Aschildren progress through the stages of cognitive development, it is important to maintain a balance between applying previous knowledge (assimilation) and changing behavior to accountfor new knowledge (accommodation). Equilibration helps explain how children are able tomove from one stage of thought into the next.
Piaget's four stages
According to Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development, intelligence is the basic mechanism
of ensuring equilibrium in the relations between the person and the environment. This isachieved through the actions of the developing person on the world. At any moment indevelopment, the environment is assimilated in the schemes of action that are already availableand these schemes are transformed or accommodated to the peculiarities of the objects of theenvironment, if they are not completely appropriate. Thus, the development of intelligence is acontinuous process of assimilations and accommodations that lead to increasing expansion of the field of application of schemes, increasing coordination between them, increasinginteriorization, and increasing abstraction.