e) Other equivalent means.
Survey at sea or anchorage may be undertaken when the Surveyor is fully satisfied with thenecessary assistance from the personnel onboard and provided the following conditions andlimitations are met:
Surveys of tanks by means of boats or rafts is at the sole discretion of the attendingSurveyor, who is to take into account the safety arrangements provided, including weatherforecasting and ship response in reasonable sea conditions. Appropriate life jackets are tobe available for all participants. The boats or rafts are to have satisfactory residual buoyancyand stability even if one chamber is ruptured. A safety checklist is also to be provided. Anoxygen-meter, breathing apparatus, lifeline and whistles are to be at hand during thesurvey. For oil tankers and chemical tankers an explosimeter is also to be provided.
A communication system is to be arranged between the survey party in the tank and theresponsible officer on deck. This system must include the personnel in charge of ballastpump handling if boats or rafts are to be used.
Surveys of tanks by means of boats or rafts will only be permitted for the under deck areasof tanks when the coating of the under deck structure is in GOOD condition and there is noevidence of wastage. The only exception to this, at the discretion of the Surveyor, is wherethe depth of under deck web plating is 1,5 m or less. Alternatively, rafting may be used if apermanent means of access is provided in each bay to allow safe entry and exit. This meansof access is to be direct from deck via a vertical ladder and a small platform fittedapproximately 2 m below deck. Where these conditions are not met, then the under deckarea will require to be staged for survey.7.On ships of 20,000 tonnes deadweight and above, and where the notation ESP is assigned startingwith Special Survey III, all special and Intermediate hull surveys are to be carried out by at least twoexclusive surveyors attending on board to jointly perform the Survey. On single side skin bulkcarriers of 100,000 tonnes deadweight and above the Intermediate Survey between 10 and 15years of age is also to be carried out by at least two exclusive Surveyors attending onboard to jointly perform the Survey. Though each attending Surveyor is not required to perform all aspects of the required survey, theattending Surveyors are required to consult with each other and to do joint examinations to theextent necessary for them to agree on actions required to complete the survey (i.e. with respect toOverall surveys, Close-up surveys, renewals, repairs, and conditions of class).
Corrosion in Cargo Spaces and Ballast Tanks
Corrosion of cargo tank structure is a fact of life when operating oil tankers in the harshenvironment encountered at sea. The internal structure of the cargo tanks, often un-coated, isexposed to potentially corrosive gases, sea water, crude oil and oil products. The effect of thiscorrosion over a period of years is to reduce the material thickness and hence the strength of thestructure.Corrosion in the cargo tanks of oil tankers can generally be classified as general corrosion, localcorrosion, pitting corrosion or weld metal corrosion.
This type of corrosion generally appears in tanks that are un-coated as a crumbly scale that isevident over large areas and which, when it is dislodged, exposes fresh steel to the corrosion cycle.General corrosion is allowed for in the design and construction of the oil tanker and an averagevalue of in-service wastage is generally accepted as being around 0.1mm/year or less.Classification Society corrosion allowances would typically offer a useful life for structural membersof around 20-25years.