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Seamanship 2 - Cargo Handling and Stowage

Seamanship 2 - Cargo Handling and Stowage

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no copyright infringement.. just wanna share and help :D
no copyright infringement.. just wanna share and help :D

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Published by: Frenzie Mae Vasquez Rivera on Jun 19, 2010
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Frenzie Mae V. Rivera
Feb. 23, 2010Seamanship 2 – Cargo Handling and Stowage
Inspect and Report defects and damage to cargo spaces and hatch covers and ballast tanksA
Cargo hold
is an enclosed structure in a ship whose main purpose is to store cargoes in the ship.A
ballast tank 
is a compartment within a boat or ship that holds water. A vessel may have a singleballast tank near its center or multiple ballast tanks typically on either side. A large vessel typically willhave several ballast tanks including double bottom tanks, wing tanks as well asforepeakandaftpeak  tanks. Adding ballast to a vessel lowers its center of gravity, and increases thedraftof the vessel.Increase draft may be required for proper propeller immersion.A ballast tank can be filled or emptied in order to adjust the amount of ballast force. Ships designed forcarrying large amounts of cargo must take on ballast water for proper stabilitywhen travelling with light loads and discharge water when heavily laden with cargo. Small sailboats designed to be light weight forbeing pulled behind automobiles on trailers are often designed with ballast tanks that can be emptiedwhen the boat is removed from the water.Insubmarinesballast tanks are used to allow the vessel to submerge, water being taken in to alter thevessel's buoyancy and allow the submarine to dive. When the submarine surfaces, water is blown out from the tanks using compressed air, and the vessel becomes positively buoyant again, allowing it to riseto the surface. A submarine may have several types of ballast tank: the main ballast tanks, which are themain tanks used for diving and surfacing, and trimming tanks, which are used to adjust the submarine'sattitude (its 'trim') both on the surface and when underwater.A
is the opening at a wall or floor particularly on the ship’s deck at the top of acargo hold. The mechanical devices which allow hatches to be opened and closed are called hatchcovers. In general, hatch covers are between 45% and 60% of the ship's breadth, or beam, and 57% to67% of the length of the holds. To efficiently load and unload cargo, hatches must be large, but largehatches present structural problems. Hull stress is concentrated around the edges of the hatches, andthese areas must be reinforced. Often, hatch areas are reinforced by locally increasing the scantlings orby adding structural members called stiffeners. Both of these options have the undesired effect of addingweight to the ship.
General Guidance : Preparation for Survey
 Tanks and spaces are to be safe for access, i.e. gas freed, ventilated and illuminated.
In preparation for survey, thickness measurements and to allow for a thorough examination, allspaces are to be cleaned including removal from surfaces of all loose accumulated corrosionscale. Spaces are to be sufficiently clean and free from water, scale, dirt, oil residues etc. toreveal corrosion, deformation, fractures, damages or other structural deterioration. However,those areas of structure whose renewal has already been decided by the owner need only becleaned and de-scaled to the extent necessary to determine the limits of renewed areas.
Sufficient illumination is to be provided to reveal corrosion, deformation, fractures, damages orother structural deterioration.
Means are to be provided to enable the Surveyor to examine the structure in a safe andpractical way.5.For surveys, including close-up survey where applicable, in cargo spaces and ballast tanks, oneor more of the following means of access, is to be provided:a) Permanent staging and passages through structures.b) Temporary staging and passages through structures.c) Lifts and movable platforms.d) Boats or rafts.
e) Other equivalent means.
Survey at sea or anchorage may be undertaken when the Surveyor is fully satisfied with thenecessary assistance from the personnel onboard and provided the following conditions andlimitations are met:
Surveys of tanks by means of boats or rafts is at the sole discretion of the attendingSurveyor, who is to take into account the safety arrangements provided, including weatherforecasting and ship response in reasonable sea conditions. Appropriate life jackets are tobe available for all participants. The boats or rafts are to have satisfactory residual buoyancyand stability even if one chamber is ruptured. A safety checklist is also to be provided. Anoxygen-meter, breathing apparatus, lifeline and whistles are to be at hand during thesurvey. For oil tankers and chemical tankers an explosimeter is also to be provided.
A communication system is to be arranged between the survey party in the tank and theresponsible officer on deck. This system must include the personnel in charge of ballastpump handling if boats or rafts are to be used.
Surveys of tanks by means of boats or rafts will only be permitted for the under deck areasof tanks when the coating of the under deck structure is in GOOD condition and there is noevidence of wastage. The only exception to this, at the discretion of the Surveyor, is wherethe depth of under deck web plating is 1,5 m or less. Alternatively, rafting may be used if apermanent means of access is provided in each bay to allow safe entry and exit. This meansof access is to be direct from deck via a vertical ladder and a small platform fittedapproximately 2 m below deck. Where these conditions are not met, then the under deckarea will require to be staged for survey.7.On ships of 20,000 tonnes deadweight and above, and where the notation ESP is assigned startingwith Special Survey III, all special and Intermediate hull surveys are to be carried out by at least twoexclusive surveyors attending on board to jointly perform the Survey. On single side skin bulkcarriers of 100,000 tonnes deadweight and above the Intermediate Survey between 10 and 15years of age is also to be carried out by at least two exclusive Surveyors attending onboard to jointly perform the Survey. Though each attending Surveyor is not required to perform all aspects of the required survey, theattending Surveyors are required to consult with each other and to do joint examinations to theextent necessary for them to agree on actions required to complete the survey (i.e. with respect toOverall surveys, Close-up surveys, renewals, repairs, and conditions of class).
Corrosion in Cargo Spaces and Ballast Tanks
Corrosion of cargo tank structure is a fact of life when operating oil tankers in the harshenvironment encountered at sea. The internal structure of the cargo tanks, often un-coated, isexposed to potentially corrosive gases, sea water, crude oil and oil products. The effect of thiscorrosion over a period of years is to reduce the material thickness and hence the strength of thestructure.Corrosion in the cargo tanks of oil tankers can generally be classified as general corrosion, localcorrosion, pitting corrosion or weld metal corrosion. 
General Corrosion
  This type of corrosion generally appears in tanks that are un-coated as a crumbly scale that isevident over large areas and which, when it is dislodged, exposes fresh steel to the corrosion cycle.General corrosion is allowed for in the design and construction of the oil tanker and an averagevalue of in-service wastage is generally accepted as being around 0.1mm/year or less.Classification Society corrosion allowances would typically offer a useful life for structural membersof around 20-25years. 
Local Corrosion
 Highly stressed structural components tend to "work" during alternate compression and tensioncycles when the ship is in-service. Surface rust or scale on these components becomes dislodgedduring this flexing process, exposing bare steel to further insidious corrosive attack. To furtherexacerbate the situation, as the material thickness diminishes, the stress on the component isincrementally raised and the corrosion continues at an accelerated rate. Localized corrosion, ingrooving form, occurs at structural intersections where water collects or flows. Grooving corrosioncan also occur on the vertical structural members at the water flow path or on the flush sides of bulkheads in way of flexing of plating. 
Pitting Corrosion
 Pitting corrosion is a localized corrosion that is more commonly found in the bottom plating of tanksand horizontal surfaces or structural detail where water tends to accumulate. Bare steel plates incargo tanks are often coated with black rust and a residual waxy oil coating from previous cargoeswhich tends to protect the metal surface from heavy corrosion. Localized breakdown of thesenatural tank coatings, particularly in way of cargo bell mouths, or cleaning medium impingementareas, can quickly cause very severe pitting where seawater collects and electrolytic and/ormicrobial induced corrosion can occur. Severe pitting corrosion creates a tendency for the pits tomerge to form long grooves or wide scabby patches with an appearance resembling that of generalcorrosion. Extreme pitting corrosion in addition to causing loss of structural strength necessitatingextensive and costly steel renewals can, if not adequately repaired, lead to hull penetration and aserious pollution incident.
d.Weld Metal Corrosion
Weld metal corrosion is an electrolytic action between the weld material and the base metal whichcan result in pitting or grooving corrosion.
 OCIMF has examined a variety of causes of accelerated corrosion identified as possible contributingfactors for a number of reasons, including: • Evidence obtained when examining the vessel experiencing accelerated corrosion.• noting the cause to be one which normally contributes to corrosion.• differences in the design, materials, operating procedures and trading routes between those oiltankers experiencing accelerated corrosion and those which are not.  These causes of corrosion in the cargo tanks include, inter alia: a.Coating not appliedb.Excessive crude oil/water washingc.High sulphur content of cargo oild.Inert gas qualitye.Inadequate Earthing/Grounding of Electrical Equipmentf.Localized coating defectsg.Material of Constructionh.Microbial Attacki.Sludge/Scale Accumulation j.Water in Cargo Tanksk.High Humidityl.High Temperaturem.Structural Flexing
Detection of Defects and Damages in cargo holds and ballast tanks (Regulation 12,SOLAS Chapter XII)
Hold, ballast and dry space water level detectors
(This regulation applies to bulk carriers regardless of their date of construction)

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