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Pathology Disease Processes

Pathology Disease Processes

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Published by: prtemn on Jun 29, 2010
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05/23/2012

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Test # 1 Pathology Study Guide1
Disease Processes
 AAA (Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm)
a localized dilatation (ballooning) of the abdominal aorta
y
 
occur below the origin of the renal arteries (below the kidneys)
y
 
can increase and rupture leading to massive hemorrhage which can be fatal
y
 
appears curvilinear calcification in the wall of an aneurysm
y
 
can be treated by surgical graft or stent placement
achondroplasia
most common form of dwarfism
y
 
defective ossification of the growth plate
y
 
intelligence is not impaired but individuals have short limbs and trunk, normal size head
adenocarcinomas
arise in the peripheral area of the lung (outside areas of the lung)
y
 
spreads to the other lung as well as liver, kidney, bone, and the brain
y
 
slower growing tumor
y
 
tends to have a more favorable outcome
y
 
radiographs can reveal obstruction or atelectasis but cant predict cell type but can detecta lesion 2 years before symptoms occur
aneurysm
localized dilatation of an artery usually involving the aorta
y
 
saccular- involves only 1 side of the arterial wall
y
 
fusiform  bulging of the entire circumference of the vessel wall
y
 
appears as curvilinear calcification in the wall of an aneurysm
y
 
can be treated by surgical graft or stent placement
ankylosing spondylitis
rheumatoid arthritis that affects males in the 3
rd
decade of life
y
 
referred to as bamboo spine because it usually affects the spine and SI joints
y
 
begins in the lumbar area first as low back pain then moves up to the thoracic and cervicalareas
y
 
it can involve the aorta
y
 
vertebral bodies look square rather than cylindrical
atelectasis
a collapse of all or part of the lung
y
 
can be acute (quick onset) or chronic (long term)
y
 
caused by obstruction of a bronchus caused by fluid consolidation, or iatrogenic(misplaced endotracheal tube), pleural effusion (fluid accumulation within the pleuralspace)
y
 
mimics pneumonia
y
 
appears as plate-like streaks, increased density
atherosclerosis
 
Test # 1 Pathology Study Guide2thickening and hardening of the arteries from fatty (plaque) build up
y
 
can cause narrowing or complete occlusion of arteries
y
 
can cause stroke (CVA) or myocardial infarction (MI)
y
 
appears as calcifications on plain films; filling defects on arteriograms
bone cyst
idiopathic
y
 
more prevalent in young males
y
 
75%
are found in distal femur and proximal tibia and humerus
y
 
some relationship to trauma or hemorrhagic disorder
y
 
appear lytic lucency in the central part of the long bone with thinning of the cortex,accompanied by symmetrical expansion
y
 
can be unicameral (solitary cavity), multicameral/multilocular (contain numerous cavities),aneurysmal ) usually unicameral and can become very large  assoc. with a fracture)
bronchiectasis
weakening of the wall of the bronchus due to chronic inflammation becoming permanentlydilated
y
 
affects the lower lobes bilaterally
y
 
appears as a peribronchial thickening
y
 
areas of ateletasis
y
 
honeycomb pattern
y
 
PFT (pulmonary function test) - group of tests that measure how well the lungs take inand release air and how well they move gases such as oxygen from the atmosphere intothe body's circulation
bursitis
inflammatory of the bursae, small fluid-filled sacs located near the joints that reduce the frictioncaused by movement
y
 
repeated physical activity commonly causes bursitis
y
 
trauma, rheumatoid arthritis, gout or infections can also cause inflammation
y
 
more common in the shoulder
y
 
appears as calcified tendonitis
C
AD (
C
oronary Artery Disease)
narrowing, usually caused by fatty deposits on the arterial wall, of the coronary arteries causesoxygen deprivation of the myocardium and ischemic heart disease
y
 
angina pectoris (CP) is due to oxygen insufficiency
y
 
normal CXR except for possible calcifications of CHF
y
 
surgical bypass graft or stent placement
y
 
can use nitroglycerin to help relieve pain by dilating the vessels
y
 
#1 killer
CHF
(
C
ongestive
H
eart
F
ailure)
inability of the heart to supply sufficient blood flow to meet the body's needs
y
 
left sided: cardiac enlargement, pulmonary edema, and pulmonary effusion
 
Test # 1 Pathology Study Guide3
y
 
right sided: widened mediastinum and elevated right half of the diaphragm
coarctation of the aorta
narrowing of the aorta
at the distal arch that most commonly occurs just beyond the branching of the blood vessels to the head and arms resulting in decreased blood to the abdomen and legs
y
 
rib notching usually involving the posterior 4
th
to 8
th
ribs occurring from pressure erosionby dilated and pulsating intercostal collateral vessels.
y
 
has a figure 3 caused by the aortic knob
congenital hip dysplasia
malformation of the acetabulum rather than the femoral head
y
 
more common in first born females
y
 
possible cause  certain hormones that relax the maternal ligaments in preparation forlabor may also cause laxity of the infants ligaments around the capsule of the hip joint
y
 
AP  hips will not be aligned
CO
PD (
C
hronic
O
bstructive Pulmonary Disorder)
obstruction of the airways leads to an ineffective exchange of respiratory gases and makesbreathing difficult
y
 
causes include preexisting diseases such s bronchitis, emphysema, asthma as well ascigarette smoking, air pollution long-term exposure to irritants
y
 
cardiac silhouette is elongated, aortic arch is predominantly visible
y
 
diaphragms usually flattened
y
 
increased radiolucency noted bilaterally in the lower lung fields
y
 
has a fuzziness or dirty chest appearance and may include tram lines (may look like O2lines)
y
 
also reveals emphysema with COPD
croup
viral infection of young children
y
 
bark-like cough
y
 
laryngitis with laryngeal spasm
y
 
obstruction of upper airway (subglottic portion of trachea) in neck
y
 
AP soft tissue neck is done to demonstrate narrowing of subglottic region
dissection
separation of layers
DJD (Degenerative Joint Disease)
or
 
O
steoarthritis
extremely common generalized disorder characterized pathologically by loss of joint cartilage andreactive new bone formation
y
 
caused by wear and tear and aging
y
 
secondary causes are repeated traumatized or subjected to abnormal stresses
y
 
affects weight bearing joints such as spine, hip, knee, ankle
y
 
appears as irregular narrowing of joint space with small bony spurs (steophytes)

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