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Print Media

Print Media

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Published by Suresh Babu Reddy

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Published by: Suresh Babu Reddy on Sep 21, 2010
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Project Report
INTORDUCTION
HISTORY OF PRINT MEDIAFor centuries, civilizations have used print media to spread news andinformation to the masses. The Roman Acta Diurna, appearing around59 B.C, is the earliest recorded “newspaper”. Julius Caesar, wanting toinform the public about important social and political happenings,ordered upcoming events posted in major cities. Written on large white boards and displayed in popular places like the Baths, the Acta keptcitizens informed about government scandals, military campaigns, trialsand executions. In 8th century China, the first newspapers appeared ashand-written newssheets in BeijingThe printing press, invented by Johann Gutenberg in1447, ushered in the era of the modern newspaper. Gutenberg’s machineenabled the free exchange of ideas and the spread of knowledge --themes that would define Renaissance Europe. During this era,newsletters supplied a growing merchant class with news relevant totrade and commerce. Manuscript newssheets were being circulated inGerman cities by the late 15th century. These pamphlets were oftenhighly sensationalized; one reported on the abuse that Germans inTransylvania were suffering at the hands of Vlad TsepesDrakul, also
HET’S Institute of Management Studies, Hubli
 
 
Project Report
known as Count Dracula. In 1556 the Venetian government published Notizie scritte, for which readers paid a small coin, or “gazetta”. In the first half of the 17th century, newspapers began to appear as regular and frequent publications. The first modern newspapers were products of western European countries like Germany (publishingRelation in 1605), France (Gazette in 1631), Belgium (NieuweTijdingen in 1616) and England (the London Gazette, founded in 1665,is still published as a court journal). These periodicals consisted mainlyof news items from Europe, and occasionally included information fromAmerica or Asia. They rarely covered domestic issues; instead English papers reported on French military blunders while French paperscovered the latest British royal scandal
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Newspaper content began to shift toward more local issues in thelatter half of the 17th century. Still, censorship was widespread andnewspapers were rarely permitted to discuss events that might incitecitizens to opposition. Newspaper headlines did announce the beheadingof Charles I at the end of the English Civil War, although Oliver Cromwell tried to suppress all news books on the eve of the execution.In 1766, Sweden was the first country to pass a law protecting pressfreedom.
HET’S Institute of Management Studies, Hubli
 
 
Project Report
 
The invention of the telegraph in1844 transformed print media. Now information could be transferredwithin a matter of minutes, allowing for timelier, relevant reporting. Newspapers were appearing in societies around the world. Japan’s firstdaily newspaper, Yokohama Mainichi Shim bun , appeared in 1870(although printing from movable type was introduced in Japan in thelate 16th century).By the middle of the 19th century, newspapers were becoming the primary means of disseminating and receiving information. Between1890 to 1920, the period known as the “golden age” of print media,media barons such as William Randolph Hearst, Joseph Pulitzer, andLord Northcliffe built huge publishing empires. These men hadenormous influence within the media industry, and gained notoriety for the ways in which they wielded their power.Newspapers have also played a role as disseminators of revolutionary propaganda. Iskra (The Spark), published by Lenin in1900, is one notable example. On June 21, 1925, Thanh Nien made its
HET’S Institute of Management Studies, Hubli
 

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