Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Disinfection and Chlorination

Disinfection and Chlorination

Ratings: (0)|Views: 762 |Likes:
deals with disinfection and disinfectants and with chlorination. it also deals with the design of the system for chlorination
deals with disinfection and disinfectants and with chlorination. it also deals with the design of the system for chlorination

More info:

Published by: Dr. Akepati Sivarami Reddy on Nov 11, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
See more
See less


Dr. Akepati S. Reddy Associate Professor, Thapar University Adjunct Scientist, TCIRD Patiala (Punjab)
 147 004
Biological water quality
Assessed by MPN test (Multiple tube fermentation technique and membrane filtration technique)
Improved by disinfection: deactivation (render harmless), not sterilization, of pathogens (causing water borne diseases)
Disinfection two types
Primary disinfection: achieving desired level of microbial kills or inactivation
Secondary disinfection: maintaining disinfectant residual in finished water to prevent regrowth of microorganisms
Disinfection can be brought about by
Chemical agents (disinfectants)
Chlorine and hypochlorite; Chlorine dioxide; and Chloramines
Mixed oxidants
Irradiation (UV radiation) and Heating
Sonification, electrocution,
Filtration (and membrane filtration, nano-filtration!), Coagulation-flocculation, and Settling also assist
Inactivation processes include denaturation of
proteins (structural proteins, enzymes, transport proteins)
nucleic acids (genomic DNA or RNA, mRNA, tRNA, etc)
lipids (lipid membranes, other lipids)
Disinfection kinetics is described by
Chick’s law (1908)
Follows first order kinetics - when the disinfectant level is constant the number of microbes surviving is function of contact time
Equal susceptibility and uniform dispersion of the microbes is assumed
Reduction of microbes is expressed in log reductions (1 log reduction = 10% survival, 2 log reduction = 1% survival, 3 log reduction = 0.1% survival and so on.
k N  N kdt dN 
    
 N is the number of microbes
‘t’ is contact time
‘k’ is disinfection rate constant

Activity (24)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
Vishavpal Goyal liked this
1 thousand reads
Amarbir Kang liked this
1 hundred reads
vk100 liked this
miguel_marsh liked this
Dishika Jagga liked this
Dishika Jagga liked this
eugen1990 liked this
harmohan_kaul liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->