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Midterm Chart

Midterm Chart

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Published by Sue Roh

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Published by: Sue Roh on Dec 10, 2010
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1
Paleolithic/Neolithic Era, Mesopotamia (Akkad, Amorites, Hittites, Assyrians, Chaldeans)
Economic Social Religious
PaleolithicEra
Nomadic –
hunter gatherer
civilizations (womengathered and men hunted): women most probably made the turn to sedentary agriculture because they  were in charge of gatheringSociety was relatively egalitarian – womenand men were interdependent
Neolithic Era
Formation of agriculture societies There was a population explosion due to thetransition towards sedentary agriculture(increase of food production)Status of women usually declines with thetransition to agriculture
Mesopotamia(Akkad)
Slavery 
 was common (prisoners of war and debt), but was not hereditary 
Fertile Crescent
(lands between Tigris & Euphrates):climate was harshCompetition for resources (ex:
Sumer
and
Ur
)Long-distance trade was vital for city-states (all the way from the Indus River)
Sargon
instituted a good taxing systemMostly patriarchal, but women had somepower – could become scribes, but as time went on, they lost more freedom (were veiledlater on)Kings and priests were elites
Slavery 
 was common (prisoners of war anddebt), but was not hereditary Their gods were capricious because theclimate was harsh and unforgiving
Babylonian(Amorites)
Strict social hierarchy, largely due to
Hammurabi’s Law Code
: different set of punishments for lower/upper classesSocial welfare due to Hammurabi’s law code(ex: widows were taken care of via law code)
Hittites
Indo-European invaders (far more diverse)
 Assyrians
Made their large cities (
Nineveh
), so people couldmarvel at their might
The Ten Lost Tribes of Israel
(rebelled & Assyrians scattered them all over the empire -assimilated and culture was lost) Were a warrior culture (bas reliefs depictedlions, war, hunting, ferocity of the Assyrians)
Neo-Babylonians(Chaldeans)
King Nebuchadnezzar wanted to make a showplace of the city (
Ishtar Gate, The Tower of Babel
and the
Hanging Gardens
) – attracted tourists and tourists would spend $Further suppressed the Hebrews:
Babylonian Captivity 
and destroyed
TheTemple of Solomon
(later reconstructed inthe Persian Empire)
 
2
Innovative Political International Scope
PaleolithicEra
Used stone tools Women made the move to sedentary agriculturePeople during this time could cross overto Alaska & Americas through the
BeringStrait
Neolithic Era
Polished stone tools for agricultureEmergence of 
pastoral societies
(followed aset route for their animals)Some societies developed systems of writing orsystems of keeping track of records (ex: Incas)Developed
city-states
(city in the middle withfarmland surrounded it to supply the city withresources)
Mesopotamiaand Akkad
The creation of the wheel –
Potter’s Wheel
wasan important innovation (efficient to produce &more uniform) – aided in transportation and warchariotsBronzeBoats (helpful for trade & transport)Calendar (helped maximize crop yields andceremonial ritual calendars) Written language was
cuneiform
(wedge clay tablets) for trading (ex: beer recipe) Warring city-states (ex:
Sumer
and
Ur
)
 Akkad
was the first world emperor – conqueredSumerian city-states – established the beginnings of a
 bureaucracy 
 Instituted a good taxing system
Enseis
(kings communicated with the gods) –unlike the pharaohs in Egypt where the king waspartly godReached Persian Gulf & Indus River Valley (largely because of the innovationof boats)Long-distance trade was vital for city-states (all the way from the Indus River)
Babylonian(Amorite)
Established the capital at
Babylon
 
Hammurabi
(c. 1750 BCE) created
Hammurabi’s law code
: different set of punishments based on class – “eye for an eye” –Hebrews used this for their law code
Semitic peoples
were the Babylonians– not originally from Mesopotamia, butmigrated from the Arabian Peninsula
Hittites
They had
iron technology 
 Created war chariotsMoved from the steppe region to Anatolia (attacked Anatolia and caused the fall of the BabylonianEmpire)
Hittites
were Indo-European invaders(Indo-Europeans) came from the
steppe
 – far more diverse than the Semiticpeoples
 Assyrians
They were great builders – made their largecities (
Nineveh
), so people could marvel at theirmightCreated the
Great Library of Nineveh
(where we founded the Epic of Gilgamesh) Assyrian art:
 bas relief 
(carved out part of thestone to make it look three-dimensional): artisticthemes were war & ferocity of the Assyrians(lions)(Started like Sargon): created a centralized state in Assyria and expanded westwardEstablished the capital at
Nineveh
 Able to build their empire due to
terrorpsychology The Ten Lost Tribes of Israel
(rebelled & Assyrians scattered them all over the empire -assimilated and culture was lost)
The Ten Lost Tribes of Israel
 (rebelled & Assyrians scattered them allover the empire - assimilated and culture was lost). The remaining two tribes didnot rebel and kept their culture
Neo-Babylonians(Chaldeans)
King Nebuchadnezzar wanted to make ashowplace of the city (
Ishtar Gate, The Towerof Babel
and the
Hanging Gardens
) –attracted tourists and tourists would spend $Reestablished the capital at
BabylonKing Nebuchadnezzar
was the most famous ruler(wanted to make a showplace of the capital)Destroyed the
Temple of Solomon
(laterreconstructed in the Persian Empire)
Babylonian Captivity 
(two remainingsouthern tribes of Israel – moved them toBabylon)Destroyed the
Temple of Solomon
 (later reconstructed in the PersianEmpire)
 
3
Economic Social Religious
Hebrews
King Solomon
was the last king of theHebrews/the kingdom of Israel – constructedthe
Temple of Jerusalem
 Part of the
Semitic
peoples – migrated to theFertile CrescentHebrews settled into the promised lands – somemoved to North (Ten Lost Tribes of Israel) and somemoved to their southern regions (BabylonianCaptivity)Contribution of 
ethical monotheism
 (belief in one god)
Ten Commandments
In exchange for upholding the TenCommandments, God created a special bond (
covenant
)During the Babylonian captivity, Hebrews were allowed to practice their religions –met in small groups (
synagogues
).Scholars (during the BabylonianCaptivity) began to collect the stories of the Hebrews –
Torah
(Old Testament)Babylonian Captivity cements thecreation of Judaism
Phoenicians
 Were big on trading, because of their innovativeships (sailed across the Mediterranean & Straitof Gibraltar
Britain)
 AncientEgypt
The first civilizations developed along the
NileRiver Valley 
Migrants moved to the Nile River Valley becauseof temperature change (grasslands
Sahara)Nile was more consistent in floodingMore isolated geographically – less invasionEgypt traded with their neighbor (
Nubia
) – brought ideas and goods (later would beconquered) Warriors were not as prominent as in Mesopotamia(less need for warfare) Women had lower statuses – some straying from thenorm (ex:
Hatshepsut
)
Book of the Dead
made a social distinction(distinction of wealth)Gods were less capricious, because of more consistent weatherPharaohs claimed they were a descendantof 
 Amon-Re
(associated with the sun)
 Akhenaten
(wanted to make religionmonotheistic – worshiped
 Aten
)Egyptians believed theirleaders/pharaohs would have an afterlife(
mummification
) – extended topharaoh’s family Priests made the
Book of the Dead
made a “cheat sheet” to get to the afterlife
Bantu andsub-Saharan Africa
Migrated from the Niger River and intermarried with the local populationRuled by small clans – elders of each clan would bein charge A need to keep the
ancestors
happy because of their monotheistic beliefsBantu religion was monotheistic, but notethical monotheism – believed inancestral spirits (emphasis on keepingthe ancestors happy)
Xia Dynasty 
The coast is where majority of crops are grown –the rest of China is mostly desert (
TaklamanDesert
)Civilization arose by rivers (
Huang Ho
and
 Yangzi
Rivers) – Yellow River was “China’sSorrow”Tried to organize large-scale building projects tocontrol floodingChina is divided by 
dynasties
(ruling family) –power is usually passed from father to son

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