Silicon is the most popular semiconductor material in the world.It is a gray, crystalline element. It has four electrons, thus possessing the material characteristics of a semiconductor. It isnever found as a free element in nature, but its dioxide and other compounds constitute nearly 9/10ths of the earth's crust. Its mostcommon form is sand or sandstone. Initially, it was very hard touse to create transistors due to its high melting point, brittleness,and other difficult characteristics. But, with advanced silicon processing techniques developed in the 1950's (many developedat Bell Labs) silicon eventually became the semiconductor material of choice over germanium, in no small part due to itsabundance and durability.
What is Silicon