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Public Rhetoric Of Aristotle_Simplified

Public Rhetoric Of Aristotle_Simplified

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Published by: Rajesh Cheemalakonda on Mar 06, 2011
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07/27/2011

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PUBLIC RHETORIC
OF
ARISTOTLE
/
The
Greeks
and
Romans distinguished
five
parts,
or
divisions
of
thc
stud-v
of
rhetoric.
l
lnvention
-
discovery
ofconvincing
arguments.
2.
Arrangement
-
organizing materialfor
best
impact
3.
St)le
-
selection
ofappropriate
lalguage
4.
Delivcry
-
coordinating voice
andgestures
5.
Memory
-
mastery and
rehearsal
of
content
/
The
Greek
philosopher Plato
regarded
rhetoric
as
mostly flattery.
Far
from
seeing
it
as
an
art,he
describedrhetoric
as
a
.'Knack"
similar
to
cooking or the
clcver
use
of
cosmctics-
Both
are
attempts
to
make things
seem
bette
r
than
theyrealll'
are.
/
Aristotle.
a
student
of
Plato.
made
rhetoric
as
an
academic
subject.More
than
2000
l
ears ago-
Aristotle's
Rhetoric
sl
stematicalll
explored
the
topics
of
speaker.mcssagc,
and audicnce.
/
Ancient
Grsece$'as
knou'n
for
its
traveling
speechteachers
called
sophists.
Particularly
in
Athens,
these teachers
trained
aspiring
larvy'ers
and
politicians
to
participate
effectivel-v
in
thecourts
and
deliberative councils.RHETORIC
:
MAKING
PERSUASION
PROBABLE
v/
Aristotle
saw
the
firnction
of
rhetoric
as
the
discovery
in
each
case
of
'-the
availablc
mears
of
persuasion."
Hc
neverspcllcd
out
r.vhat
he
meant
by
persuasion
buthis
concem
rvith non-coercive
methods makes
it
clear thathe ruled
out
force
of
law, torture,
and
u'ar.
His
threefold classification
ofspeech
situationsaccording
to
thenature
ofthe
audience
shoxs that
he
hadaffarrs
ofstate
in mind.
l.
Courtroom(forcnsic)
speaking
which
addresses
iudges
who
are
trying
todecide thefacts
ofa
person's
guilt
or
innocence.
2.
Political
(deliberative)
speakingattempts
to
influencelegislators
or
voters
llho
decidcfuturc
polic1,.
3.
Ceremonial
(epidcictic)
speaking
heaps
praise
or blame on
anotlle
rfor
the
benefit
of
spectators.
/
Becausc
thestudents
of
Aristotlc
n'ere
familiarwith
the
question-and-ansncr
style
of
Socratic dialogue,
Aristotle
classifiedrhetoric
as
a counterpart
or
offshoot
of
dialectic.
Dialecticis
one-on-one discussion;
rhetoric
is
one
person
addressing
manl-:
Dialectic
is
a
search
for
truth:
rhetoric tries
to
demonstrate
truth
that's
alreadl
been
found.Dialectic
ansrvers
general
philosophical
questions: rhetoric
addresses
specific-practical
ones.
Dialectic
deals
with
certaint):
rhetoric
deals
n
i&
probabiliS
.
 
RHETORICAL
PROOF:LOGOS,ETHOS,
pATHOS
Logical
proof:
Linesof
Argumentthat
make
sense
The
available
means
of
penuasion
is
based
on
three
kinds
of
proof:
Logical
(Logos),ethical
(ethos)and
elnotional
(Pathos).
Logical
proof
comes
from
tle
line
argument
in
the
speech,
ethical
proof
is
the
waythe
speaker'scharacter
is
revealedthrough
the
message,
and
emotional
proof
isthe
feeling
the
speech
dralvsout
ofthe
hearers.
Aristotle
focuseson
two tenns
of
logical
proof-
the
elthymerne
and
the cxample.
He
regarded
the
enthymemeas
"the
strongest
of
the
proofs."
An
enth;rmemi
is
merely
an
incomplete
version
of
a
formaldeductivesyllogism.
Major
or
generalpremise:
All
peopleare
created
equal
Minor
or
specific
premise:
I
am
a
person
-
Conclusion:
I
arn
equal
to
otherpeople.
Ethical Proof:
PerceivedSource
Credibility
*
Accordingto
Aristotle,
it's
'ot
enough
for
a
speech
to
contain
plausible
argument.
The
speaker
must
seem
credible
as
well.
Many
audience
impressions
are
formed
beforethe
speaker
ever begins.
l.
Pcrceived
intelligence:The
qualirl,*
of
iltelligence
has
more
to do
withpracticalwisdom
and
shared
values
than
it
does
lvith
training at
plato.s
academy. Audiences
judge
intelligence
by
the
overlap
between their
beliefs
and
the speaker's
ideas.
2.
Virtuous
Character:Character has
to
do
$'ith
the
speaker's
imageas
a
goodhonestperson.
3.
Good
will:
Good
will
is
apositivejudgment
of
the
speaker'sintentiontoward
the
audience.
Aristotle
thought
it
possible
for
an
orator
to
possess
extraordinary intelligenceand
sterlirg
character.
Yetstill
not
have
the
Iisteners'
best
interestat
heart.
Although Aristotle's
comments
on
ethos
lvere
stated
in
a
felv
brief
sentences
no
otherportion
ofhis
Rhetoric
has
received
such
close
scientific
scrutinv.
Emotion
Proof:
Striking
a
Responsive
Chord
.i.
Aristotle
believed
that
the effective
speaker
must
knolv how
to
stir up
various
emotions
in&e
audience.
He
catalogued
a
series
of
opposite feelings,
then
explained
the
conditions under
which
each
mood
is
experienced-
and finally
described
how
the
speaker can
get
an
audience
to
feelthat $'ay.
I.
Anger
Vs
Mildness:
Aristotle's
discussion
of
aager
rvasan
early
version
of
Freud's fmstration-aggressionhypothesis.
People
feelangry when
they
are thuarted
in
their
attempt
to
futfill
a
need.
Remind
them
of
interpersonal
insights,
ard
thcy
rvill
become
irate.
Showthem
that
the
 
2.3.4.
)
6.
offender
is
sorr1.
deserves
praise,
or
hasgreat
power, and the
audience
rvill
calm
dorvn.
Love
or
friendship
Vs
hatred:
Co
sistent
rvith
present-day research
on
attraction,
Aristotle
considered
similarly
as
the
kev
to
mutual
lvarmth
The
speaker
must
point
out
commongoals,experience,attitudes
anddesires.
Fest
Vs
Confidence:
Fear comes
from
mental
image
of
potential
disaster'
The
speaker
should
paint
a
vivid
llold
picture
ofthe
tragedy,showingthat
its occurrence
is
probable.
Shame
Vs
Shamelessne
ss:
We
feel
cmbarrassedor
guilty
lvhen
loss
is
due
to
our
o$,n
weakness
or
vice.
The
emotion
is
e
specialll''acutc$'hen
a
speakerrecites
our
failingsin
the
presoncs
of
famil.v,
fiiends-
or
those
n'e
admire.
lndignationVsPity:
We
all
have
a
built-in
sense
of
faimess.
Appeal
to
the
faimess
ofpersons.
Admiration
Vs.
Envl
:
Pe
oplc
admire
moral
viftue'
porver,
rl
ealth,
and
bcauty.
Bl
demonstrating
that
anindividual
has acquired
life's
goods
through
hard
lvork
rathcr
than
merc
luck. admiration
rvill
increase
THW
FIVE
CANONSOF
RHETORIC
*
Although
theorganization
ofAristotle's
Rhetonc
is
somewhat
puzzling,
scholars
and
practitioneri
s.vnthesize
his
tvords
into
four
distinct
standards
for
measuring
the
quality
ofa
spiaker:
the construction
ofan
argument
(invention)'
ordering
of
materiallanangeinent)-
selection
oflanguage(s\1c),
and
techniques
of
delivery,.
L
lnvention:
To
generate
effectivc
enthymemesand examples'
the
speaker
clrar,vs
on
both
specialized
knorvledge
abor'rt
the
subject
and
general lines
of
rcasoning
comnonto all
kinds
of
speeches.
Orato
r hunts
for
arguments
as
hunterhunts
for
game.
2.
Arrangement:
Thcre
are
tlvo
pats
to
a
spcech:
for
it
is
nec€ssary
first
to
state
ihe
subjectand
then
to
demonstrale
it
Tho
introduction
should
captureattention-establish
credibili4'
aId
makeclear
the
purpose
of
thespeech.
The conclusionshouldremind
the
listenersrvhat
-vou
have
said
und
l"uu"
themfeeling
good about
you
and
your
ideas
3.
Style:
Aristotle
believed
that
'-to leam easily
rs naturall-v
plcasant
to
allpeople,"
and
that
"metaphor
mostbrings
aboutleaming
"
Uscmetaphor
that
has
clarity,
s\\'eetness
and
strangencss.
4.
Memory:Ariitotle
's
studentsneeded
no
reminderthat
good
speakers
are
ableto
iraq,'upon
a
collectionofideas
andphrases
stored
in
the
mind'
5.
Delivery:
Audieuces
rejectdelivery
that
scerns
planned
or
staged.
Naturalness
is
persuasivc:
artificc'
just
the
reverse
Any
form
of
presentation
that
calls
attention
to
itself
takesawa)'
from
the
speakers'
p
roofs.

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