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Unconsolidated Clastic Sediments

Unconsolidated Clastic Sediments

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Published by: Prahastomi Muttahari S. on Mar 15, 2011
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07/20/2013

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EaES 350-2 1
Contents
IntroductionUnconsolidated clastic sedimentsSedimentary rocksDiagenesisSediment transport and depositionSedimentary structuresFacies and depositional environmentsGlacial/eolian/lacustrine environmentsFluvial/deltaic/coastal environmentsShallow/deep marine environmentsStratigraphic principlesSequence stratigraphySedimentary basinsModels in sedimentary geologyApplied sedimentary geologyReflection
 
EaES 350-2 2
Unconsolidated clastic sediments
Particles (or clasts) are the basic elements of any sedimenClastic (terrigenous clastic or siliciclastic) sediments (80-85% of the stratigraphic record) consist of particles derived from pre-existing rocks, as opposed to non-clastic sediments
Texture
Grain (particle) sizeGrain shapeClast/matrix relationshipsFabric
Lithology
is the general characterization of a sediment or asedimentary rock (e.g., coarse sand, mudstone)
 
EaES 350-2 3
Unconsolidated clastic sediments
The Udden-Wentworth grain-size scale is based on factors of two:
*
=
-log
2
(mm)Mud (<63
Q
m; >4
*
)
Clay (<4
Q
m; >8
*
)Silt (463
Q
m; 48
*
)
Sand (632000
Q
m; -14
*
)Gravel (>2000
Q
m; <-1
*
)Grain-size (particle-size, granulometric) analysis
The old-fashioned way: direct measurement (gravel) andsieve/pipette analysis (sand and mud)The modern technology: laser particle sizing (sand and mud)
 
2
log
!*

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