(where the
w
’s are letters), denoted by Freq
w
(
a
), is lim
n
→∞
1
n

w
0
w
1
···
w
n
−
1

a
, if this limitexists.Let Σ and ∆ be alphabets. A
morphism
is a map
µ
from Σ
∗
to ∆
∗
that obeys theidentity
µ
(
wx
) =
µ
(
w
)
µ
(
x
) for all words
w,x
∈
Σ
∗
. If Σ = ∆, then the application of amorphism can be iterated. For example, if
µ
is the morphism mapping
0
to
1
and
1
to
10
,then
µ
(
0
) =
1
,
µ
2
(
0
) =
µ
(
µ
(
0
)) =
µ
(
1
) =
10
, and so on. We deﬁne
µ
1
(
w
) =
µ
(
w
) and
µ
0
(
w
) =
w
for any word
w
.A morphism
µ
: Σ
∗
→
∆
∗
is
k
uniform
if there is a constant
k
such that

µ
(
a
)

=
k
forall
a
∈
Σ. A
coding
is a 1uniform morphism.A
ﬁxed point
of a morphism
µ
: Σ
∗
→
Σ
∗
is a ﬁnite word
w
(or inﬁnite word
w
) suchthat
µ
(
w
) =
w
(or
µ
(
w
) =
w
). If there exists a letter
a
∈
Σ such that
µ
(
a
) =
ax
and
x
is aword composed of letters
x
i
∈
Σ such that
µ
m
(
x
i
)
=
for any
m
∈
Z
+
, then the morphism
µ
is
prolongable
on the letter
a
. If so, then lim
m
→∞
µ
m
(
a
) (denoted by
µ
ω
(
a
)) is the ﬁxedpoint of
µ
iterated on
a
, where the length of the iterates from the letter
a
tends to inﬁnity.Let
w
denote the
complement
of the ﬁnite binary word
w
(and
w
denote the complementof the inﬁnite binary word
w
) where the overbar represents the morphism mapping
0
→
1
and
1
→
0
. For example, if
w
=
001
, then
w
=
110
.Given a ﬁnite word
w
=
a
0
a
1
···
a
n
, where the
a
’s are letters, its
reversal
, denoted by
w
R
, is
a
n
···
a
1
a
0
.
Deﬁnition 1.
A
generalized choral sequence
is an inﬁnite binary word
c
(
r
0
,r
1
,r
c
,z
) =(
c
n
)
n
≥
0
deﬁned by
c
3
i
+
r
0
=
0
,
c
3
i
+
r
1
=
1
,
c
3
i
+
r
c
=
c
i
, and
c
0
=
z
(where the
r
’s are distinct ﬁxed elements of
{
0
,
1
,
2
}
and
z
=
0
if
r
0
= 0
,
z
=
1
if
r
1
= 0
, and
z
could either be
0
or
1
if
r
c
= 0
) for all
i
∈
N
.
There are eight distinct choral sequences: (Spaces have been inserted to improve readability.)
c
(0
,
2
,
1
,
0
) =
001001011 001001011 001011011
···
c
(1
,
2
,
0
,
0
) =
001001101 001001101 101001101
···
c
(0
,
1
,
2
,
0
) =
010011010 010011011 010011010
···
c
(2
,
1
,
0
,
0
) =
010110010 110110010 010110010
···
c
(1
,
2
,
0
,
1
) =
101001101 001001101 101001101
···
c
(1
,
0
,
2
,
1
) =
101100101 101100100 101100101
···
c
(2
,
1
,
0
,
1
) =
110110010 110110010 010110010
···
c
(2
,
0
,
1
,
1
) =
110110100 110110100 110100100
···
Sequence
c
(0
,
2
,
1
,
0
) is Stewart’s choral sequence. (Stewart [11] presented the sequence(
c
n
)
n
≥
1
and not (
c
n
)
n
≥
0
.) Sequence
c
(0
,
1
,
2
,
0
) is from Berstel and Karhum¨aki [2].
Deﬁnition 2.
A generalized choral sequence
c
(
r
0
,r
1
,r
c
,z
)
is called a
type012 sequence
if
(
r
0
,r
1
,r
c
)
is a circular permutation of
(0
,
1
,
2)
. Otherwise (if
(
r
0
,r
1
,r
c
)
is a circular permutation of
(2
,
1
,
0)
), it is called a
type210 sequence
.
2 Some Properties
A previous work [8] presented a characteristic function for generalized choral sequences aswell as proofs of the following two theorems.
Theorem 1.
A generalized choral sequence is
cubefree
, that is, it does not contain any subword of the form
xxx
, where
x
is a nonempty ﬁnite subword.
2