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Answers to Bar Examination Questions in Labor Law 2008 38 Pages 2

Answers to Bar Examination Questions in Labor Law 2008 38 Pages 2

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1
ANSWERS TO BAR EXAMINATION QUESTIONS IN LABOR LAW & SOCIAL LEGISLATION
 
From
the ANSWERS TO BAR EXAMINATION QUESTIONS in POLITICAL LAW by the UP LAW COMPLEX and PHILIPPINE ASSOCIATION O
F
LAWSCHOOLS
LABOR LAW 
² Bar Q & A (as arranged by Topics) 
1994-2006 
 
GENERAL PRINCIPLES
 
C
o
nstituti
o
nal P
rov
isi
o
ns
o
n Lab
or
(1998)
 
What are the salient features of the protection to labor provision of theConstitution? [5%]
 
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
 
 T 
he salient features of the
P
ro
tecti
o
n t
o
Lab
or
p
rov
isi
o
n
of the Constitution(Article XIII. Section 3) are as follows:
 
1. Extent of Protection -
F
ull p
ro
tecti
o
n t
o
lab
or
;
 
2
. Coverage of Protection -
o
cal and
ov
e
r
seas,
org
anized andun
org
anized;
 
3. Employment Policy -
F
ull e
m
pl
o
y
m
ent and equality
of 
e
m
pl
o
y
m
ent
o
pp
or
tunities
for
all;
 
4. Guarantees
 
4.1. Unionism and Method of Determination Conditions of Employment - Right of all workers to self-organization, collectivebargaining and negotiations.
 
4.
2
. Concerted Activities - Right to engage in
peace
ul c
o
nce
r
tedacti
v
ities, includin
g
the
r
i
g
ht t
o
st
r
ike
in accordance with law.
 
4.3. Working Conditions - Right to
secu
r
ity
of 
tenu
r
e, hu
m
anec
o
nditi
o
ns
of 
w
or
k and a li
v
in
g
wa
g
e.
 
4.4. Decision Making Processes -
Ri
g
ht t
o
pa
r
ticipate
in policy and decision making processes affecting their rights and benefitsas way to provided by law.
 
5.
Sha
r
e in
Fr
uits
of 
p
ro
ducti
o
n
- Recognition of right of labor to its just share in fruits of production.
 
 
2
 
ANOTHER SUGGESTED ANSWER:
 
 T 
he Constitution (In Article XIII, Section 3) provides that the State shall
a
ffor
d p
ro
tecti
o
n t
o
lab
or
, l
o
cal and
ov
e
r
seas,
org
anized and un
org
anized
.
 
 T 
he State shall afford protection to labor by 
p
romo
tin
g
 
ulle
m
pl
o
y
m
ent and equality
of 
e
m
pl
o
y
m
ent
o
pp
or
tunities
for
all.
 
Workers are entitled to
secu
r
ity
of 
tenu
r
e, hu
m
ane c
o
nditi
o
ns
of 
 w
or
k and a li
v
in
g
wa
g
e
.
 T 
he State shall guarantee the
r
i
g
ht
of 
all w
or
ke
r
s t
o
 sel
 
org
anizati
o
n, c
o
llecti
v
e ba
rg
ainin
g
and ne
go
tiati
o
ns, and peace
ulc
o
nce
r
ted acti
v
ities, includin
g
the
r
i
g
ht t
o
st
r
ike,
in accordance with law.
 
Workers shall also
pa
r
ticipate in p
o
licy and decisi
o
n
m
akin
g
 p
ro
cesses a
ff 
ectin
g
thei
r
 
r
i
g
hts and bene
its
as may be provided by law.
 
 T 
he State shall promote the
p
r
inciple
of 
sha
r
ed
r
esp
o
nsibility
betweenworkers and employers and the
p
r
e
e
r
ential use
of 
 
vo
lunta
r
y
mo
des
insettling labor disputes, including conciliation, and shall enforce mutualcompliance therewith to foster industrial peace.
 
 T 
he State shall regulate the
r
elati
o
ns between w
or
ke
r
s and e
m
pl
o
ye
r
s,
r
ec
og
nizin
g
the
r
i
g
ht
of 
lab
or
t
o
its just sha
r
e in the
fr
uits
of 
p
ro
ducti
o
nand the
r
i
g
ht
of 
ente
r
p
r
ises t
o
 
r
eas
o
nable
r
etu
r
ns
o
n in
v
est
m
ents, and t
o
 expansi
o
n and
gro
wth.
 
Inte
r
p
r
etati
o
n
of 
Lab
or
Laws (1998)
 
3. Article 4 of the Labor Code provides that in case of doubt in theimplementation and interpretation of the provisions of the Code and itsImplementing Rules and Regulations,
the d
o
ubt shall be
r
es
o
l
v
ed in
a
vor
 
of 
 lab
or
. A
r
ticle 1702
of 
the Ci
v
il C
o
de als
o
p
rov
ides that in case
of 
d
o
ubt,all lab
or
le
g
islati
o
n and all lab
or
c
o
nt
r
acts shall be c
o
nst
r
ued in
a
vor
 
of 
 the sa
ety and decent li
v
in
g
 
for
the lab
or
e
r
.
Mica-Mara Company assails thevalidity of these statutes on the ground that they violate its constitutional rightto equal protection of the laws. Is the contention of Mica Mara Company tenable? Discuss fully 
 
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
 
N
o, the Constitution provides that the state shall
a
ffor
d
ull p
ro
tecti
o
n t
o
 lab
or
.
F
u
r
the
rmor
e, the State a
ff 
i
rm
s lab
or
as a p
r
i
m
a
r
y ec
o
n
om
ic
for
ce.It shall p
ro
tect the
r
i
g
hts
of 
w
or
ke
r
s and p
romo
te thei
r
wel
a
r
e.
 
 
3
 
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
 
a)
N
o, because a law which promotes a constitutional mandate does not violatethe equal protection clause.
 T 
he constitutional mandate is for the State to
a
ffor
d
ull p
ro
tecti
o
n t
o
lab
or
such that, when c
o
n
lictin
g
inte
r
ests
of 
 lab
or
and capital a
r
e t
o
be wei
g
hed
o
n the scales
of 
justice, the hea
v
ie
r
 in
luence
of 
the latte
r
sh
o
uld be c
o
unte
r
balanced by the sy
m
pathy the lawsh
o
uld acc
or
d the unde
r
p
r
i
v
ile
g
ed.
 
b)
 T 
he contention of Mica-Mara Company is not tenable.
 T 
he constitutionalright to equal protection of the laws is not
v
i
o
lated by
r
eas
o
nableclassi
icati
o
n
.
 T 
hus, it is constitutionally possible to treat workers differently from employers.
 T 
he social justice principle embodied in the Constitution couldbe the basis for treating workers more favorably than employers, in theimplementation and interpretation of the provisions of the Labor Code and of its implementing rules and regulations.
 
Inte
r
p
r
etati
o
n
of 
Lab
or
Laws; Libe
r
al App
ro
ach (2006)
 
What is the concept of liberal approach in interpreting the Labor Code and itsImplementing Rules and Regulations in favor of labor? (
2
.5%)
 
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
 
 T 
he
w
or
ke
r
s· wel
a
r
e sh
o
uld be the pa
r
a
mo
unt c
o
nside
r
ati
o
n ininte
r
p
r
etin
g
the Lab
or
C
o
de and its I
m
ple
m
entin
g
Rules and Re
g
ulati
o
ns.
 T 
his is rooted in the Constitutional mandate to afford full protection to labor.Article 4 of the Labor Code provides that ´all doubts in the implementation andinterpretation of the provisions of the Labor Code including its implementingrules and regulations shall be resolved in favor of laborµ (PLO
 T 
v.
N
LRC, G.R
N
o. 111933, July 
2
3,1997). It
unde
r
sc
or
es the p
o
licy
of 
s
o
cial justice t
o
 acc
ommo
date the inte
r
ests
of 
the w
or
kin
g
class
o
n the hu
m
ane justi
icati
o
n that th
o
se wh
o
ha
v
e less in li
e shall ha
v
e
mor
e in law
(PAL v.Santos, G.R.
N
o. 77875, February 4, 1993).
 
Lab
or
Le
g
islati
o
ns; Pu
r
p
o
se (2006)
 
What is the purpose of labor legislation? (
2
.5%)
 
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
 
Labor legislation is an exercise of 
p
o
lice p
o
we
r
.
 T 
he purpose of laborlegislation is to
r
e
g
ulate the
r
elati
o
ns between e
m
pl
o
ye
r
s and e
m
pl
o
yees
r
espectin
g
the te
rm
s and c
o
nditi
o
ns
of 
e
m
pl
o
y
m
ent
, either by providing forcertain standards or for a legal framework within which better terms and

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