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giaotrinhlinhkien

giaotrinhlinhkien

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Published by api-3762218

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Published by: api-3762218 on Oct 16, 2008
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03/18/2014

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Gi\u00e1o tr\u00ecnh Linh Ki\u1ec7n\u0110i\u1ec7n T\u1eed
L\u1eddi n\u00f3i\u0111\u1ea7u
*********
Linh ki\u1ec7n\u0111i\u1ec7n t\u1eed l\u00e0 ki\u1ebfn th\u1ee9c b\u01b0\u1edbc\u0111\u1ea7u v\u00e0 c\u0103n b\u1ea3n c\u1ee7a ng\u00e0nh\u0111i\u1ec7n t\u1eed.

Gi\u00e1o tr\u00ecnh\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c bi\u00ean so\u1ea1n t\u1eeb c\u00e1c b\u00e0i gi\u1ea3ng c\u1ee7a t\u00e1c gi\u1ea3 trong nhi\u1ec1u n\u0103m qua t\u1ea1i Khoa C\u00f4ng Ngh\u1ec7 v\u00e0 C\u00f4ng Ngh\u1ec7 Th\u00f4ng Tin, Tr\u01b0\u1eddng\u0110\u1ea1i h\u1ecdc C\u1ea7n Th\u01a1 v\u00e0 c\u00e1c Trung T\u00e2m Gi\u00e1o d\u1ee5c th\u01b0\u1eddng xuy\u00ean \u1edf \u0111\u1ed3ng b\u1eb1ng s\u00f4ng C\u1eedu Long sau qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh s\u1eeda ch\u1eefa v\u00e0 c\u1eadp nh\u1eadt.

Gi\u00e1o tr\u00ecnh ch\u1ee7 y\u1ebfu d\u00f9ng cho sinh vi\u00ean chuy\u00ean ng\u00e0nh\u0110i\u1ec7n T\u1eed Vi\u1ec5n Th\u00f4ng v\u00e0 T\u1ef1 \u0110\u1ed9ng
H\u00f3a. C\u00e1c sinh vi\u00ean kh\u1ed1i K\u1ef9 thu\u1eadt v\u00e0 nh\u1eefng ai ham th\u00edch\u0111i\u1ec7n t\u1eed c\u0169ng t\u00ecm th\u1ea5y\u1edf\u0111\u00e2y nhi\u1ec1u\u0111i\u1ec1u
b\u1ed5 \u00edch.

Gi\u00e1o tr\u00ecnh bao g\u1ed3m 9 ch\u01b0\u01a1ng:

T\u1eeb ch\u01b0\u01a1ng 1\u0111\u1ebfn ch\u01b0\u01a1ng 3: Nh\u1eafc l\u1ea1i m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 ki\u1ebfn th\u1ee9c c\u0103n b\u1ea3n v\u1ec1 v\u1eadt l\u00fd vi m\u00f4, c\u00e1c m\u1ee9c
n\u0103ng l\u01b0\u1ee3ng v\u00e0 d\u1ea3i n\u0103ng l\u01b0\u1ee3ng trong c\u1ea5u tr\u00fac c\u1ee7a kim lo\u1ea1i v\u00e0 ch\u1ea5t b\u00e1n d\u1eabn\u0111i\u1ec7n v\u00e0 d\u00f9ng n\u00f3 nh\u01b0
ch\u00eca kh\u00f3a\u0111\u1ec3 kh\u1ea3o s\u00e1t c\u00e1c linh ki\u1ec7n \u0111i\u1ec7n t\u1eed.

T\u1eeb ch\u01b0\u01a1ng 4\u0111\u1ebfn ch\u01b0\u01a1ng 8:\u0110\u00e2y l\u00e0\u0111\u1ed1i t\u01b0\u1ee3ng ch\u00ednh c\u1ee7a gi\u00e1o tr\u00ecnh. Trong c\u00e1c ch\u01b0\u01a1ng n\u00e0y,
ta kh\u1ea3o s\u00e1t c\u1ea5u t\u1ea1o, c\u01a1 ch\u1ebf ho\u1ea1t\u0111\u1ed9ng v\u00e0 c\u00e1c\u0111\u1eb7c t\u00ednh ch\u1ee7 y\u1ebfu c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c linh ki\u1ec7n\u0111i\u1ec7n t\u1eed th\u00f4ng
d\u1ee5ng. C\u00e1c linh ki\u1ec7n qu\u00e1\u0111\u1eb7c bi\u1ec7t v\u00e0 \u00edt th\u00f4ng d\u1ee5ng\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c gi\u1edbi thi\u1ec7u ng\u1eafn g\u1ecdn m\u00e0 kh\u00f4ng\u0111i v\u00e0o
ph\u00e2n gi\u1ea3i.

Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng 9: Gi\u1edbi thi\u1ec7u s\u1ef1 h\u00ecnh th\u00e0nh v\u00e0 ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n c\u1ee7a vi m\u1ea1ch.

Ng\u01b0\u1eddi vi\u1ebft ch\u00e2n th\u00e0nh c\u1ea3m\u01a1n anh Nguy\u1ec5n Trung L\u1eadp, Gi\u1ea3ng vi\u00ean ch\u00ednh c\u1ee7a B\u1ed9 m\u00f4n Vi\u1ec5n Th\u00f4ng v\u00e0 T\u1ef1 \u0110\u1ed9ng H\u00f3a, Khoa C\u00f4ng Ngh\u1ec7 Th\u00f4ng Tin, Tr\u01b0\u1eddng\u0110\u1ea1i h\u1ecdc C\u1ea7n Th\u01a1\u0111\u00e3\u0111\u1ecdc k\u1ef9 b\u1ea3n th\u1ea3o v\u00e0 cho nhi\u1ec1u \u00fd ki\u1ebfn qu\u00fd b\u00e1u.

C\u1ea7n Th\u01a1, th\u00e1ng 12 n\u0103m 2003
Tr\u01b0\u01a1ng V\u0103n T\u00e1m
Trang 1
Bi\u00ean so\u1ea1n: Tr\u01b0\u01a1ng V\u0103n T\u00e1m
Gi\u00e1o tr\u00ecnh Linh Ki\u1ec7n\u0110i\u1ec7n T\u1eed
M\u1ee5c l\u1ee5c
---------
Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng I.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 4
M\u1ee8C N\u0102NG L\u01af\u1ee2NG V\u00c0 D\u1ea2I N\u0102NG L\u01af\u1ee2NG......................................................................................................................... 4

I. KH\u00c1I NI\u1ec6M V\u1ec0 C\u01a0 H\u1eccC NGUY\u00caN L\u01af\u1ee2NG:................................................................................................................. 4 II. PH\u00c2N B\u1ed0\u0110I\u1ec6N T\u1eec TRONG NGUY\u00caN T\u1eec THEO N\u0102NG L\u01af\u1ee2NG:............................................................................. 6 III. D\u1ea2I N\u0102NG L\u01af\u1ee2NG: (ENERGY BANDS)........................................................................................................................8

Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng II...................................................................................................................................................................................... 12
S\u1ef0 D\u1eaaN\u0110I\u1ec6N TRONG KIM LO\u1ea0I........................................................................................................................................... 12

I.\u0110\u1ed8 LINH\u0110\u1ed8NG V\u00c0 D\u1eaaN XU\u1ea4T:.................................................................................................................................. 12 II. PH\u01af\u01a0NG PH\u00c1P KH\u1ea2O S\u00c1T CHUY\u1ec4N\u0110\u1ed8NG C\u1ee6A H\u1ea0T T\u1eec B\u1eb0NG N\u0102NG L\u01af\u1ee2NG:............................................ 14 III. TH\u1ebe N\u0102NG TRONG KIM LO\u1ea0I:..................................................................................................................................... 15 IV. S\u1ef0 PH\u00c2N B\u1ed0 C\u1ee6A\u0110I\u1ec6N T\u1eec THEO N\u0102NG L\u01af\u1ee2NG:.................................................................................................. 18 V. C\u00d4NG RA (H\u00c0M C\u00d4NG):................................................................................................................................................ 20 VI.\u0110I\u1ec6N TH\u1ebe TI\u1ebeP X\u00daC (TI\u1ebeP TH\u1ebe):................................................................................................................................. 21

Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng III..................................................................................................................................................................................... 22
CH\u1ea4T B\u00c1N D\u1eaaN\u0110I\u1ec6N............................................................................................................................................................... 22

I. CH\u1ea4T B\u00c1N D\u1eaaN\u0110I\u1ec6N THU\u1ea6N HAY N\u1ed8I B\u1ea8M:........................................................................................................ 22
II. CH\u1ea4T B\u00c1N D\u1eaaN NGO\u1ea0I LAI HAY C\u00d3 CH\u1ea4T PHA:................................................................................................... 24
1. Ch\u1ea5t b\u00e1n d\u1eabn lo\u1ea1i N: (N - type semiconductor)............................................................................................................... 24
2. Ch\u1ea5t b\u00e1n d\u1eabn lo\u1ea1i P:......................................................................................................................................................... 25
3. Ch\u1ea5t b\u00e1n d\u1eabn h\u1ed7n h\u1ee3p:..................................................................................................................................................... 26
III. D\u1eaaN SU\u1ea4T C\u1ee6A CH\u1ea4T B\u00c1N D\u1eaaN:............................................................................................................................... 27
IV. C\u01a0 CH\u1ebe D\u1eaaN\u0110I\u1ec6N TRONG CH\u1ea4T B\u00c1N D\u1eaaN:........................................................................................................... 29
V. PH\u01af\u01a0NG TR\u00ccNH LI\u00caN T\u1ee4C:.......................................................................................................................................... 30

Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng IV..................................................................................................................................................................................... 32
N\u1ed0I P-N V\u00c0 DIODE..................................................................................................................................................................... 32

I. C\u1ea4U T\u1ea0O C\u1ee6A N\u1ed0I P-N:................................................................................................................................................. 32
II. D\u00d2NG\u0110I\u1ec6N TRONG N\u1ed0I P-N KHI\u0110\u01af\u1ee2C PH\u00c2N C\u1ef0C:............................................................................................. 34
1. N\u1ed1i P-N\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ph\u00e2n c\u1ef1c thu\u1eadn:......................................................................................................................................... 35
2. N\u1ed1i P-N khi\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ph\u00e2n c\u1ef1c ngh\u1ecbch:................................................................................................................................ 38
III.\u1ea2NH H\u01af\u1edeNG C\u1ee6A NHI\u1ec6T\u0110\u1ed8 L\u00caN N\u1ed0I P-N:.............................................................................................................. 40
IV. N\u1ed8I TR\u1ede C\u1ee6A N\u1ed0I P-N. .................................................................................................................................................. 41
1. N\u1ed9i tr\u1edf t\u0129nh: (Static resistance). ....................................................................................................................................... 41
2. N\u1ed9i tr\u1edf \u0111\u1ed9ng c\u1ee7a n\u1ed1i P-N: (Dynamic Resistance)............................................................................................................ 42
V.\u0110I\u1ec6N DUNG C\u1ee6A N\u1ed0I P-N. ............................................................................................................................................ 44
1.\u0110i\u1ec7n dung chuy\u1ec3n ti\u1ebfp (\u0110i\u1ec7n dung n\u1ed1i)........................................................................................................................... 44
2.\u0110i\u1ec7n dung khu\u1ebfch t\u00e1n. (Difusion capacitance)................................................................................................................ 45
VI. C\u00c1C LO\u1ea0I DIODE TH\u00d4NG D\u1ee4NG................................................................................................................................. 45
1. Diode ch\u1ec9nh l\u01b0u:.............................................................................................................................................................. 45
2. Diode t\u00e1ch s\u00f3ng. .............................................................................................................................................................. 53
3. Diode schottky:................................................................................................................................................................53
4. Diode\u1ed5n \u00e1p (diode Zenner):............................................................................................................................................ 54
5. Diode bi\u1ebfn dung: (Varicap \u2013 Varactor diode).................................................................................................................. 57
6. Diode h\u1ea7m (Tunnel diode)............................................................................................................................................... 58

B\u00e0i t\u1eadp cu\u1ed1i ch\u01b0\u01a1ng...................................................................................................................................................................... 59
Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng V....................................................................................................................................................................................... 61
TRANSISTOR L\u01af\u1ee0NG C\u1ef0C..................................................................................................................................................... 61

I. C\u1ea4U T\u1ea0O C\u01a0 B\u1ea2N C\u1ee6A BJT.......................................................................................................................................... 61 II. TRANSISTOR\u1ede TR\u1ea0NG TH\u00c1I CH\u01afA PH\u00c2N C\u1ef0C. .................................................................................................... 61 III. C\u01a0 CH\u1ebe HO\u1ea0T\u0110\u1ed8NG C\u1ee6A TRANSISTOR L\u01af\u1ee0NG C\u1ef0C. ......................................................................................... 63 IV. C\u00c1C C\u00c1CH R\u00c1P TRANSISTOR V\u00c0\u0110\u1ed8 L\u1ee2I D\u00d2NG\u0110I\u1ec6N. ......................................................................................... 64 V. D\u00d2NG\u0110I\u1ec6N R\u1ec8 TRONG TRANSISTOR. ........................................................................................................................66 VI.\u0110\u1eb6C TUY\u1ebeN V-I C\u1ee6A TRANSISTOR. ........................................................................................................................... 67

1. M\u1eafc theo ki\u1ec3u c\u1ef1c n\u1ec1n chung:......................................................................................................................................... 68
2. M\u1eafc theo ki\u1ec3u c\u1ef1c ph\u00e1t chung. ........................................................................................................................................ 69
3.\u1ea2nh h\u01b0\u1edfng c\u1ee7a nhi\u1ec7t\u0111\u1ed9 l\u00ean c\u00e1c\u0111\u1eb7c tuy\u1ebfn c\u1ee7a BJT. ....................................................................................................... 72
VII.\u0110I\u1ec2M\u0110I\u1ec0U H\u00c0NH \u2013\u0110\u01af \u1edcNG TH\u1eb2NG L\u1ea4Y\u0110I\u1ec6N M\u1ed8T CHI\u1ec0U............................................................................... 73
VIII. KI\u1ec2U M\u1eaaU M\u1ed8T CHI\u1ec0U C\u1ee6A BJT. ............................................................................................................................. 78

Trang 2
Bi\u00ean so\u1ea1n: Tr\u01b0\u01a1ng V\u0103n T\u00e1m
Gi\u00e1o tr\u00ecnh Linh Ki\u1ec7n\u0110i\u1ec7n T\u1eed

IX. BJT V\u1edaI T\u00cdN HI\u1ec6U XOAY CHI\u1ec0U.................................................................................................................................. 80 1. M\u00f4 h\u00ecnh c\u1ee7a BJT:............................................................................................................................................................ 80 2.\u0110i\u1ec7n d\u1eabn truy\u1ec1n (transconductance)................................................................................................................................82 3. T\u1ed5ng tr\u1edf v\u00e0o c\u1ee7a transistor:............................................................................................................................................. 83 4. Hi\u1ec7u\u1ee9ng Early (Early effect).......................................................................................................................................... 85 5. M\u1ea1ch t\u01b0\u01a1ng\u0111\u01b0\u01a1ng xoay chi\u1ec1u c\u1ee7a BJT:......................................................................................................................... 86

B\u00e0i t\u1eadp cu\u1ed1i ch\u01b0\u01a1ng...................................................................................................................................................................... 90
CH\u01af\u01a0NG 6................................................................................................................................................................................... 91
TRANSISTOR TR\u01af\u1edcNG\u1ee8NG..................................................................................................................................................91

I. C\u1ea4U T\u1ea0O C\u0102N B\u1ea2N C\u1ee6A JFET:.................................................................................................................................... 91 II. C\u01a0 CH\u1ebe HO\u1ea0T\u0110\u1ed8NG C\u1ee6A JFET:.................................................................................................................................93 III.\u0110\u1eb6C TUY\u1ebeN TRUY\u1ec0N C\u1ee6A JFET. ................................................................................................................................ 99 IV.\u1ea2NH H\u01af\u1edeNG C\u1ee6A NHI\u1ec6T\u0110\u1ed8 TR\u00caN JFET. ............................................................................................................... 100 V. MOSFET LO\u1ea0I HI\u1ebeM (DEPLETION MOSFET: DE MOSFET)................................................................................... 102 VI. MOSFET LO\u1ea0I T\u0102NG (ENHANCEMENT MOSFET: E-MOSFET)............................................................................ 107 VII. X\u00c1C\u0110\u1ecaNH\u0110I\u1ec2M\u0110I\u1ec0U H\u00c0NH:................................................................................................................................... 111 VIII. FET V\u1edaI T\u00cdN HI\u1ec6U XOAY CHI\u1ec0U V\u00c0 M\u1ea0CH T\u01af\u01a0NG\u0110\u01af\u01a0NG V\u1edaI T\u00cdN HI\u1ec6U NH\u1ece........................................ 113 IX.\u0110I\u1ec6N D\u1eaaN TRUY\u1ec0N (TRANSCONDUCTANCE) C\u1ee6A JFET V\u00c0 DEMOSFET. ....................................................... 117 X.\u0110I\u1ec6N D\u1eaaN TRUY\u1ec0N C\u1ee6A E-MOSFET. ....................................................................................................................... 118 XI. T\u1ed4NG TR\u1ede V\u00c0O V\u00c0 T\u1ed4NG TR\u1ede RA C\u1ee6A FET. ........................................................................................................ 119 XII. CMOS TUY\u1ebeN T\u00cdNH (LINEAR CMOS). ...................................................................................................................... 120 XIII. MOSFET C\u00d4NG SU\u1ea4T: V-MOS V\u00c0 D-MOS.............................................................................................................. 122

1. V-MOS:......................................................................................................................................................................... 122
2. D-MOS:......................................................................................................................................................................... 123
B\u00e0i t\u1eadp cu\u1ed1i ch\u01b0\u01a1ng.................................................................................................................................................................... 125
CH\u01af\u01a0NG VII............................................................................................................................................................................. 126
LINH KI\u1ec6N C\u00d3 B\u1ed0N L\u1edaP B\u00c1N D\u1eaaN PNPN V\u00c0 NH\u1eeeNG LINH KI\u1ec6N KH\u00c1C............................................................... 126

I. SCR (THYRISTOR \u2013 SILICON CONTROLLED RECTIFIER)..................................................................................... 126
1. C\u1ea5u t\u1ea1o v\u00e0\u0111\u1eb7c t\u00ednh:....................................................................................................................................................... 126
2.\u0110\u1eb7c tuy\u1ebfn Volt-Ampere c\u1ee7a SCR:................................................................................................................................. 128
3. C\u00e1c th\u00f4ng s\u1ed1 c\u1ee7a SCR:.................................................................................................................................................. 129
4. SCR ho\u1ea1t\u0111\u1ed9ng\u1edf \u0111i\u1ec7n th\u1ebf xoay chi\u1ec1u............................................................................................................................ 130
5. V\u00e0i\u1ee9ng d\u1ee5ng\u0111\u01a1n gi\u1ea3n:................................................................................................................................................. 131
II. TRIAC (TRIOD AC SEMICONDUCTOR SWITCH)..................................................................................................... 133
III. SCS (SILICON \u2013 CONTROLLED SWITCH). ................................................................................................................ 135

IV. DIAC................................................................................................................................................................................136
V. DIOD SHOCKLEY. .........................................................................................................................................................137

VI. GTO (GATE TURN \u2013 OFF SWITCH). ........................................................................................................................... 138
VII. UJT (UNIJUNCTION TRANSISTOR \u2013 TRANSISTOR\u0110 \u1ed8C N\u1ed0I). ............................................................................ 140
1. C\u1ea5u t\u1ea1o v\u00e0\u0111\u1eb7c t\u00ednh c\u1ee7a UJT:......................................................................................................................................... 140
2. C\u00e1c th\u00f4ng s\u1ed1 k\u1ef9 thu\u1eadt c\u1ee7a UJT v\u00e0 v\u1ea5n \u0111\u1ec1 \u1ed5n\u0111\u1ecbnh nhi\u1ec7t cho\u0111\u1ec9nh:................................................................................ 143
3.\u1ee8ng d\u1ee5ng\u0111\u01a1n gi\u1ea3n c\u1ee7a UJT:......................................................................................................................................... 144
VIII. PUT (Programmable Unijunction Transistor)................................................................................................................. 145

CH\u01af\u01a0NG VIII............................................................................................................................................................................ 148
LINH KI\u1ec6N QUANG\u0110I\u1ec6N T\u1eec................................................................................................................................................ 148

I. \u00c1NH S\u00c1NG. ....................................................................................................................................................................148 II. QUANG\u0110I\u1ec6N TR\u1ede (PHOTORESISTANCE)................................................................................................................149 III. QUANG DIOD (PHOTODIODE).................................................................................................................................... 151 IV. QUANG TRANSISTOR (PHOTO TRANSISTOR). ....................................................................................................... 152 V. DIOD PH\u00c1T QUANG (LED-LIGHT EMITTING DIODE)............................................................................................ 154 VI. N\u1ed0I QUANG.................................................................................................................................................................... 155

CH\u01af\u01a0NG IX............................................................................................................................................................................... 157
S\u01a0 L\u01af\u1ee2C V\u1ec0 IC........................................................................................................................................................................ 157

I. KH\u00c1I NI\u1ec6M V\u1ec0 IC - S\u1ef0 K\u1ebeT T\u1ee4 TRONG H\u1ec6 TH\u1ed0NG\u0110I\u1ec6N T\u1eec.............................................................................. 157
II. C\u00c1C LO\u1ea0I IC. ................................................................................................................................................................. 159
1. IC m\u00e0ng (film IC):......................................................................................................................................................... 159
2. IC\u0111\u01a1n t\u00ednh th\u1ec3 (Monolithic IC):.................................................................................................................................... 159
3. IC lai (hibrid IC). ........................................................................................................................................................... 160
III. S\u01a0 L\u01af\u1ee2C V\u1ec0 QUI TR\u00ccNH CH\u1ebe T\u1ea0O M\u1ed8T IC\u0110\u01a0N TINH TH\u1ec2. ............................................................................... 160
IV. IC S\u1ed0 (IC DIGITAL) V\u00c0 IC T\u01af\u01a0NG T\u1ef0 (IC ANALOG). ............................................................................................ 162
1. IC Digital:...................................................................................................................................................................... 162
2. IC analog:...................................................................................................................................................................... 163

T\u00e0i li\u1ec7u tham kh\u1ea3o...................................................................................................................................................................... 163
Trang 3
Bi\u00ean so\u1ea1n: Tr\u01b0\u01a1ng V\u0103n T\u00e1m

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