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Aplastic Anemia

Aplastic Anemia

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Published by neil0522

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Published by: neil0522 on Nov 24, 2008
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02/17/2013

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I.INTRODUCTION
Aplastic anemia is a rare, non-contagious and often life-threatening disorder that results from the unexplained failure of the bone marrow to produce red bloodcells, white blood cells and platelets. A decrease in the production of blood cellsmeans that patients are more susceptible to bleeding, fatigue and infections. (Bareand Smeltzer, 2004)Internationally, the annual incidence of aplastic anemia in Europe, asdetailed in large, formal epidemiologic studies, is similar to that in the United States,with 2 cases per million populations. Aplastic anemia is thought to be more common inAsia than in the West. The incidence was accurately determined to be 4 cases per million populations in Bangkok, but may be closer to 6 cases per million populations inthe rural areas of Thailand and as high as 14 cases per million populations in Japan,based on prospective studies. This increased incidence may be related toenvironmental factors, such as increased exposure to toxic chemicals, rather than togenetic factors because this increase is not observed in people of Asian ancestry whoare presently living in the United States. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aplastic_anemia)In the Philippines, a descriptive study of 47 male and 23 female patientswith aplastic anemia referred during the period January 1979 - December 1981 wasundertaken at the Philippine General Hospital. Insecticides, which were eitheorganophosphates or organochlorines, were implicated in 21 patients. The probablecauses of the onset of this disease are due to intoxication of harmful chemicals.(http://www.aamds.org)Here in Tagum City, there are no documents and data showing thepercentage of people suffering from aplastic anemia yearly, because it is rarely foundcondition in this place.Aplastic anemia is caused by a failure of the bone marrow, leading toinsufficient production of peripheral blood element. The marrow failure is due toprimary defects in, or damage to, the stem cell or marrow microenvironment. Thedisorder is characterized by a severely hypoplastic (underdeveloped) fatty marrow thatis devoid of all three hematopoietic cell lines (erythroid, myeloid, and megakaryocytic).As such, this has a very strong relationship to our concept fluids and electrolytes.Hypovolemia, as one of the complications of aplastic anemia, is a fluid volumedisturbance when the loss of extracellular fluid volume exceed the fluid intake. Occurswhen water and electrolytes are lost in the same proportions as they exist in normalbody fluids, so that the ratio of serum electrolyte to water remains the same.
 
OBJECTIVES
General:1.To fully understand the underlying disease process of aplastic anemia.Specific:1.To identify the epidemiological data of aplastic anemia globally,nationally and locally.2.To learn about the major etiologies of aplastic anemia.3.To determine the previous and present clinical history of the patient.4.To perform physical assessment with special attention on the systemsfocus.5.To show the laboratory examination results with the correspondingnormal values, actual result from the patient, and it interpretation.6.To understand the anatomy and physiology of the blood and bloodformation and its pathology during aplastic anemia.7.To trace and understand the pathophysiology of aplastic anemia.8.To learn the basic principle of medical management of aplastic anemia.9.To use the nursing process to identify nursing problems from the clientand provide the appropriate nursing care plan.10.To understand the pharmacological management set on the client andprovide nursing interventions.11.To identify the discharge plan for the patient’s rehabilitation to conductan evaluation of the client’s condition from admission to present.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 
 
A. ANATOMY 
Blood is the “river of life” that surges within us. It transport every blood thatmust be carried from one place to another within the body --- nutrient, waste(headed for elimination from the body) and body heat through blood vessels.It is our body’s major fluid, pumped by the heart. It continuously circulatesthrough the blood vessels carrying the vital elements to every part of thebody. Blood is made of:
A liquid component – plasma
Cellular components – erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytessuspended in the plasma.Plasma

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