Deﬂection fatigue of Ti-6Al-7Nb, Co-Cr, and gold alloy cast clasps
Ahmad Mahmoud, BDS,
Noriyuki Wakabayashi, DDS, PhD,
Hidekazu Takahashi, DDS, PhD,
and Takashi Ohyama, DDS, PhD
Division of Oral Health Sciences, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical andDental University, Tokyo, Japan
Statement of problem.
There is little information about the deﬂection fatigue of clasps in relation to stressdistribution.
The aim of this study was to investigate the fatigue resistance and permanent deformation of castclasps made of titanium and other dental alloys and to relate the fatigue resistance with the calculated stress values.
Material and methods.
Twenty-ﬁve Ti-6Al-7Nb, 25 Co-Cr, and 15 Type IV gold alloy clasps were subjectedto cyclic deﬂection of preset values of 0.25 mm, 0.50 mm, or 0.75 mm, for 10
cycles (n = 14). Finite elementmodels were created to calculate principal stresses within the specimens. Fatigue life, retentive force, andpermanent deformation were recorded, and the fracture locations were determined microscopically. The results were characterized in relation to the stress within the clasps. One-way analysis of variance and Tamhane’s post-hoc tests were used to compare the results of the 9 material-deﬂection groups (
Ti-6Al-7Nb clasps exhibited signiﬁcantly less permanent deformation than the other clasps underrelatively greater deﬂections, indicating better adaptation to the tooth surface. However, the fatigue life of theTi-6Al-7Nb clasps under 0.75-mm deﬂection, with the stress above the alloy’s 0.2% yield strength, wassigniﬁcantly shorter than those under smaller deﬂections. The gold clasps showed signiﬁcantly longer fatigue lifethan the other clasps under the 0.50-mm deﬂection. High-stress areas within the fatigue clasp specimenscoincided with the fracture locations. The probabilities of fatigue fracture and permanent deformation wereclosely related to the material strengths and the preset deﬂections.
To minimize fatigue failures, the cast clasp should be designed with consideration of the stressesdistributions within the clasps. (J Prosthet Dent 2005;93:183-8.)
The Ti-6Al-7Nb and gold clasps demonstrated fatigue resistance that allows placement in undercut greater than 0.25 mm, which is suitable for Co-Cr alloy clasps. These clasps may be indicated when esthetics or periodontal health is a primary concern.
i-6Al-7Nb alloy has been developed as an alterna-tive to Co-Cr and other existing removable partial den-ture alloys because it offers excellent biocompatibility,good resistance toabrasion, and other advantages forrelatively low cost.
Like other titanium alloys, theTi-6Al-7Nb alloy has an elastic modulus that is approx-imately half of Co-Cr alloy, which increases its ﬂexibil-ity.
The increased ﬂexibility allows the retentive clasparms to be placed into larger undercuts on abutmentsthan Co-Cr alloy clasps, and this may be important when esthetics or periodontal health is a primary con-cern.Clasps undergo permanent deformation and fatiguefracture under repeated ﬂexures causedb y denture in-sertion and removal and mastication.
The fatiguelife of cast clasps made of commercially-pure titanium was reported tobe shorter than that of Co-Cr andgold alloy clasps.
However, the fatigue fracture andpermanent deformation of cast clasps made of titaniumalloy has not been sufﬁciently assessed in relation tostress distribution, and little is known about how these
This study was supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientiﬁc Research,12771170 (N.W.) and 14571840 (N.W.), from The Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture of Japan. Presented at the 110thScientiﬁc Meeting of the Japan Prosthodontic Society, Nagano, Japan, October 2003.Presented at the 82nd General Session and Exhibition of theInternational Association for Dental Research; an Arthur R.Frechette Research Award Finalist, Hawaii, March, 2004.
Resident, PhD student, Removable Prosthodontics, Department of Masticatory Function Rehabilitation.
Research associate, Removable Prosthodontics, Department of Masticatory Function Rehabilitation.
Associate Professor, Advanced Biomaterials, Department of Re-storative Sciences, Division of Oral Health Sciences.
Professor and Chair, Removable Prosthodontics, Department of Masticatory Function Rehabilitation.
FEBRUARY 2005 THE JOURNAL OF PROSTHETIC DENTISTRY 183