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SUBMITTED BY:Name- Mohammad Abbas Regd. No- 10906034 Roll. No.- RS1904A24
GUIDED BY: Mr.. Vishwas chakranarayn
SUBMITTED TO Department of management Lovely Professional University Phagwara
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I take this opportunity to present my vote of thanks to all those guidepost who really acted as lightening pillars to enlighten our way throughout this project that has led to successful and satisfactory completion of this study. We are really grateful to our COD Mr.Devdhar shetty for providing us with an opportunity to undertake this project in this university and providing us with all the facilities. We are highly thankful to Mr.vishwas chakranarayan for his active support, valuable time and advice, whole-hearted guidance, sincere cooperation and pains-taking involvement during the study and in completing the assignment of preparing the said project within the time stipulated. Lastly, We are thankful to all those, particularly the various friends , who have been instrumental in creating proper, healthy and conductive environment and including new and fresh innovative ideas for us during the project, their help, it would have been extremely difficult for us to prepare the project in a time bound framework. Name - MOHAMMAD ABBAS Regd.No 10906034 Roll no. RS1904A24
.. MARKET STRUCTURE……………………………………. TECNOLOGICAL FACTOR …………………………... ENGINEERING SERVICES..... PESTLE ANALYSIS OF IT SECTOR ……………….INDEX ABSTRACT ……………………………………………………………… KEYWORDS …………………………………………………………… INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………… ROLE OF IT INDUSTRY…………………………………………...... LEGAL FACTOR ……………………………………………....... ECONOMICAL FACTOR ……………………………… SOCIAL FACTOR …………………………………………. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTOR ………………………… . POLITICAL FACTOR ………………………………...... R&D AND SOFTWARE PRODUCTS………………………………………… IT INDUSTRY IN INDIA …………………………………. IT SERVICES.....
The industry has grown up to US $ 5. the country continued struggling and came up as the world leader in Information Technology Sector. With time and the continuous growth across the world. IT professionals perform a variety of duties that range from installing applications to designing complex computer networks and information databases. A few of the duties that IT professionals perform may include data management. It is because you cannot be present everywhere to monitor the work.7 billion (including over $4 billion worth of software exports) in 1999-2000. Today. but with networking and communications. you can always stay in contact with the other business sites of yours. KEYWORDS:- . engineering computer hardware. and the term has become very recognizable.. database and software design. the term information has ballooned to encompass many aspects of computing and technology. as well as the management and administration of entire systems.CONCLUSION …………………………………………………………… BIBLOGRAPH…………………………………………… ………………. networking. with the annual growth rate not sliding below 50 percent since 1991. ABSTRACT :Information Technology is what constitutes the most important sector in the present day trend of carrying out business.
& Canada) in India’s software exports is about 61 per cent ROLE OF IT INDUSTRY The IT industry can serve as a medium of e-governance. it is noted that the use of computers and information are associated.S. database and software design. as well as the management and administration of entire systems. The share of North America (U. development. and/or disseminate information. when speaking of Information Technology (IT) as a whole. and/or disseminate information. protect process. the result is information technology. IT professionals perform a variety of duties that range from installing applications to designing complex computer networks and information databases. INFOTECH ". The use of information technology in the service sector improves operational efficiency and adds to transparency. Information technology is a general term that describes any technology that helps to produce. transmit. support or management of computer-based information systems. communicate. Today. . networking. The IT sector has emerged as a major global source of both growth and employment. the term information technology has ballooned to encompass many aspects of computing and technology. the demand for IT services has increased substantially over the years. and securely retrieve information. store. communicate. or "infotech". the result is information technology. A few of the duties that IT professionals perform may include data management. It exports software and services to nearly 95 countries around the world. Presumably. engineering computer hardware. implementation. manipulate. It also serves as a medium of skill formation. When computer and communications technologies are combined." IT deals with the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert.Computer-aided engineering (CAE) and Finite element analysis (FEA) Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) including instructions to Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machines Photo realistic rendering Document management and revision control using Product Data Management (PDM). INTRODUCTION INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT). is "The study. as it assures easy accessibility to information. store. as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA). Information Technology (IT) is a general term that describes any technology that helps to produce. store. Owing to its easy accessibility and the wide range of IT products available. particularly software applications and computer hardware. manipulate. When computer and communications technologies are combined. design.
IT outsourcing/managed services/hosting services. which is necessarily accompanied by a reduction in uncertainty.5-6. Argentina. ENGINEERING SERVICES. Poland and Turkey.•Economies of scale for the information technology industry are high. the worldwide IT market growth will be lower at about 5. and United Arab Emirates. Colombia. •IT-BPO services grew at an above-sector-average rate of nearly 8 per cent and remained the largest category. •Efficient utilization of skilled labor forces in the IT sector can help an economy achieve a rapid pace of economic growth. MARKET STRUCTURE GLOBAL & INDIAN SCENARIO : Global Sourcing Trends •The fundamental contribution of information technology is the expansion of knowledge. Other emerging economies (based on 10%+ growth rates and the greatest net-new IT spending potential in the next four years) include Mexico. Saudi Arabia. followed by Vietnam. and China – is expected to grow by 16 per cent in 2008. 2008 will see the introduction of green products (energy-efficient. Thailand. accounting for an increasing share of the worldwide technology sector revenue aggregate. Russia. IT spending in the BRIC countries . •IDC estimates that in 2008. systems integration. This becomes relevant for market structure in several ways.Brazil. •The IT industry helps many other sectors in the growth process of the economy including the services and manufacturing sectors. almost 80 per cent think the importance of greenness as an IT buying consideration is growing. materials efficient. sustained by gradual shifts in regional spending patterns – with increasing traction in Europe and Asia Pacific offsetting a marginal decline in share of the Americas. over 50 per cent consider suppliers’ greenness when buying IT. mainly due to the economic slowdown in the US and elsewhere. According to the Green IT Survey conducted by IDC. training and support/maintenance. R&D AND SOFTWARE PRODUCTS IT Services involves a full range of engagement types that include consulting. spaceefficient. •Unlike other common industries. •Outsourcing continued to be the primary growth driver. regulatory-compliant) that will create meaningful differentiation and move market share. the IT industry is knowledge-based. India. •Green IT is expected to be an important highlight during 2008.0 per cent. The marginal cost of each unit of additional software or hardware is insignificant compared to the value addition that results from it. and over one-third have policies that favor green vendors. reaching USD 115 billion. . IT SERVICES.
by working closely with the Government and academia to . and WNS Global Services amongst others. account for direct investment of about USD 10-15 billion. technical innovations to develop their own standards for next generation of technologies. by 2010. HCL Technologies. At the aspired levels of growth. Simultaneously. •In order to sustain India’s edge in the global markets and improve revenues.4 per cent.62 billion in 2012. the Indian IT and ITeS market is estimated to grow at the rate of over 16 per cent to become a US$ 132 billion industry.3 billion by 2011. Sufficient demand. innovative and tech savvy firms had listed twenty-nine India based companies amongst the best 100 IT service providers including Tata Consultancy Services. •Finally. a growth of 28 per cent in FY2008. remote infrastructure management is emerging as a key growth driver. foray new customer segments in intellectual asset-intensive service lines like engineering and R&D services. Together.5-3 million Professionals. R&D and Software products). At USD 52 billion (excluding hardware). providers could enhance the role they are already playing in helping improve the quality of education. employ around 2. •However. •A survey carried out to assist business heads of major outsourcers to identify reliable. the scope of the opportunity is significantly larger. They could additionally. significantly. contributing to 57 per cent of the total software and services exports. Genpact. with a CAGR of about 18. India accounts for around 4 per cent of the worldwide spend on IT software and services. According to the global InfoTech analyst International Data Corporation. The global sourcing penetration is estimated to be growing at nearly four times the rate of absolute technology spends. the sector would. strong fundamentals and a favorable environment support a positive outlook for Indian IT-BPO exports as well as the domestic market.•IT services (excluding BPO. the domestic market alone is expected to become over US$ 50 billion. Indian IT-BPO service providers need to shift towards more market-facing breakthroughs. remains the dominant segment and crossed USD 23 billion. creating IP in emerging technology areas. going forward. developing and codifying specific domain expertise to target consulting and system integration services. Future Outlook: •With small and midsized businesses driven by the increased use of technology the country's information and communication technology market is estimated to grow 20. by 2010. directly. the IT and ITeS exports are estimated to more than double to US$ 78. and contribute 7-8 per cent of the national GDP. these two trends signify a huge opportunity for the Indian IT-BPO industry.3 per cent annually to reach US$ 24. Engineering Services. The Indian IT-BPO industry is on track to reach USD 60 billion in exports and USD 73-75 billion in overall software and services revenue. • The segment is witnessing a noticeable shift from projects towards multi-year outsourcing-based relationships.
feedback received from several MNCs having multi-country operations as well as syndicated analyses comparing the various sourcing locations has revealed that India continues to offer and deliver the best ‘bundle’ of benefits sought from global sourcing. Moreover. scale and geographic coverage. clients outsource work to get access to more specialized engineering talent. India will remain the leading destination and will continue to play an important role in most global sourcing strategies. the rest opt for employment in the IT industry. India also has one of the largest pools of English-speaking professionals. With significant potential still untapped. approximately 19 million students are enrolled in high schools and 10 million students in pre-graduate degree courses across India. Indian Education System The Indian education system places strong emphasis on mathematics and science. will grow in size. As global delivery matures. However. Even at current rates. If the flow from high schools to graduate courses increases even marginally. particularly in the area of telecommunications. it is expected that the global sourcing phenomenon will continue to expand in scope. Why India? Inspired by the Indian IT-ITES success story. Building on its existing strengths.1 million graduates and 0. multi-location strategies will become the norm and most sourcing destinations. 2.facilitate changes in the curriculum and pedagogy. several other locations have been presented as alternate options for offshore outsourcing. Quality Manpower Indian programmers are known for their strong technical skills and their eagerness to accommodate clients. While 2. Strengths Large Human Resource:Every year. which directly influence the quality of graduate output.5-3 percent of them find jobs in other fields or pursue further studies abroad. In some cases. there will approximately be 17 million people available to the IT industry by 2008. there will be a massive increase in the number of skilled workers available to the industry. Mastery over quantitative concepts coupled with English proficiency has resulted in a skill set that has enabled the country to take advantage of the current international demand for IT. including emerging locations. resulting in a large number of science and engineering graduates. Strengths at a Glance •Great history in software development •English Language proficiency •Government Support and policies Cost advantage •Strong tertiary education •Process quality focus .3 million post-graduates pass out of India's non-engineering colleges.
S government has declared that U. as per a study by Springboard Research. Software testing.S firm that outsource IT works outside the U.6 per cent. In software development different countries is configuration rules and regulation are considered since client demand differs because of different system requirement. the IT/ITES industry's contribution to the country's GDP has increased to a share of 5. but there are fears of hung parliament due to a lack of clear majority in parliament creating fear of wrong investing in the minds of investor thereby reducing capital. According to the Nasscom-Deloitte study.S in the last fiscal year thereby reducing revenue from the U. For IT industry the Indian political structure is stable.2 per cent in 1998. this has caused reduction in U. registering a growth of 33 per cent with exports expected to cross US$ 40 billion and the domestic market estimated to clock over US$ 23 billion. Simultaneously. Service-oriented architecture and Web services.S will not get tax benefits. the Indian IT services market is estimated to remain the fastest growing in the Asia Pacific region with a CAGR of 18. growing at an annual rate of 30 per cent per annum. Infrastructure Management Services.S. Indian government has decided to contract IT job to Indian IT companies creating more opportunities for the company and the industry at large. 2000 to provide a sound legal environment . A report by the Electronics and Software Export Promotion Council (ESC) estimates software exports to register a 33 per cent growth in the current financial year with export figures during FY 2008 expected to reach US$ 45 billion. Application Management. POLITICAL FACTORS:This is political factors which affect a business which can be government rules and regulation toward that particular business environment. U. the IT and BPO industries are poised to clock revenues worth US$ 64 billion by the end of fiscal year 2008. The Government expects the exports turnover to touch US$ 80 billion by 2011.S BPO contract from the U.•Skilled workforce •Expertise in new technologies •Entrepreneurship •Reasonable technical innovations •Reverse brain drain •Existing long term relationships •Creation of global brands •BPO & Call center offerings •Expansion of existing relationships •Chinese domestic & export market •Leverage relationships in West to access overseas markets •Indian domestic-market growth IT INDUSTRY IN INDIA The Indian information technology sector has been instrumental in driving the nation's economy onto the rapid growth curve.2 per cent in 2007. The country's IT exports have. India's IT growth in the world is primarily dominated by IT software and services such as Custom Application Development and Maintenance (CADM). states that Indian government has strengthened the IT act. come quite far. IT Consulting. as against 1. in fact. NASSCOM and DELIOTTE study (impacting economy and society 2007/2008). System Integration. starting from a few million dollars in the early 1990s. Further. according to a study.
changes there is little effect on the industry of that political step. yet overall economic policy remains unchanged. competition. political stability has returned since the previous general elections in 1999. posed no risk to foreign direct investors because no policy framed by a past government has been reversed by any successive government so far. in practical terms. POLITICAL STABILITY: _ India suffered political instability for a few years due to the failure of any party to win an absolute majority in Parliament. Hence. political risk in India is practically non-existent. chances of a reversal in economic policy are next to nil. Recession cause low attribute rate due to job layouts and job cuts. Except for Kashmir in the north and parts of the north-east. global recession. Economic liberalisation (which is what foreign investors are interested in) has been accepted as a necessity by all parties including the Communist Party of India (Marxist). The political divide in India is not one of policy. Likewise the IT sector does not have any influence of political stability on industry. Infosys has to put Indian relationship with different countries of business into consideration before investing. terrorist activity is either nonexistent or too weak to be of any significance. Domestic IT spending grew by 20% and reached $20 billion in 2009. Thus. but essentially of personalities. Even if political instability is to return in the future. And if the govt.for companies to operate related to security of data in transmission and storage etc this has served as a positive factor. and terrorist attacks. political instability did not change India's economic course though it delayed certain decisions relating to the economy. However. political instability in India. Real estate prices decline resulted in rental expenditure forcing customer to leave luxuries goods such as electronic and computers that need software to work. ECONOMICAL FACTORS These includes factors affecting IT industry ranging from rising working pay. competitive regulations. However. Other factors to be considered are customer protection law. With India’s global IT spending yet to decline due to entry of new IS companies and the cause of the recession. As for terrorism. It would take an extreme stretching of the imagination to visualize a Bangladesh-type state-disrupting revolution in India or a Kuwait-type annexation of India by a foreign power. but make optimum use of existing facilities to make . Currency fluctuations caused by the devaluation of the dollar has affected the industry during the last global recession. With clients industry faced with reduction of work force due to job layoffs and unsuitable balance sheet most companies have decided not to make much expenditure in purchase. India economic attraction has helped in convincing investors due to low cost advantage. contract availability and fee. You can find a comparison in Italy which has had some 45 governments in 50 years. no terrorist outfit is strong enough to disturb the state.
Consumer segment is rapidly gaining importance. Hence.5 per cent to $132.34bn is the projected spend on hardware. ATTRITION:-\ Almost every sector in India is facing high rates of attrition these days. an 18 per cent increase from 2004.4 per cent of total markets spend of $124 billion in 2004) to $24 billion (15 per cent of the total markets spend of $161 billion in 2007). senior research analyst at Gartner. hurting the bottom line of IT majors DOMESTIC IT SPENDING:India's domestic IT market will grow around 14% this year. an increase of 21. the report said.profits. of the $22.88bn spend in 2005 on enterprise ICT. India will remain the highest growth market for telecommunications with around 35 million new subscribers in 2005.4 per cent increase) on software. showing a minor decline as compared to last year's growth of 16-18%. $16.7bn (15. GLOBAL IT SPENDING:Indian enterprises spending on information communications and technology (ICT) in 2005 is expected to grow at more than twice the rate in the Asia Pacific region. driven by adoption of mobile services. with the growth occurring in selected technologies mainly mobile. while it warned global IT vendors to take emerging competition from China seriously with at least three Chinese IT companies becoming significant global competitors by 2010. Most debtors with financial crisis have been granted more time to pay up causing large debt deficit. With the decline of banking and financial sectors. Its domestic market is expected to grow around 14% this year.6bn while telecom will grow 7. Enterprise spending in the Asia Pacific (APAC) on hardware next year will rise 6.6bn. This accounts for almost one fourth of the new subscribers forecasted in Asia Pacific.4 per cent to $33. the revenue from there is expected to decline. We also expect that IT spend in India will see a minor decline as compared to last year. India is in a better position.52bn (16.1 per cent over 2004. $0. Gartner also said that open source and offshore IT services will continue to grow.5bn and IT services will gain 8. "Compared to other countries." commented Arup Roy.5 per cent increase) on telecom and $2. By 2008 the consumer segment will account for more than half of telecommunications spending. Offshore component of global BPO services spend is expected to grow from $3 billion (2. REAL STATES PRICES :Decline in real estate prices has resulted reducing the rental expenditure thus the industry will grow if the real estate price goes down. There could be some 2-3% decline as compared to last year's budget. A recent . The growth in offshore BPO services outpaces the growth in global sourcing of IT services.4 per cent to $5. This is reflected in their increased contribution towards spending for telecommunication services.9bn. it is expected that the country will see a minor decline in IT budget coming from its domestic market.3 per cent increase) on IT services.3 per cent to $36. In India. from 35 per cent in 2002 to 43 per cent in 2005.32bn (18. $3. with software increasing 12.
Wipro.6 billion in revenues in 2006-07.study revealed that employees leave either because of compensation reasons or due to better growth opportunities. The IT industry's contribution to GDP was 4. GE. Sierra Atlantic recorded highest attrition rate (29%) followed by Kanbay with 25% and Accel Frontline with 20 per cent. and several Indian multi national firms like Infosys Technologies. a global IT major. English language being widely spoken in India has help in fostering the industry’s relationship and interaction in India and on the global stage. Sun Microsystems. India is one of the few countries to have an increasing share of working population. This can be judged on the basis of the high growth statistics of India and the changing outlook of the companies towards India. especially engineers. Below are the details of attrition rates of various players in IT sector. in the US gave India an easy entry into the US software market. For example. announced in Bangalore to double the present workforce of the company's Sun India Engineering Center (IEC) from the present 1000 to 2000 in the next two years time. Hewlett Packard. Also. India. Indian IT-ITES industry recorded US$ 39. race nationality of company or other issues. it is constantly facing high attrition rates of 25% . with its low cost advantage and emergence of several private players. Great number of institute and universities offer IT . It is because of this growth many popular brands that have not yet build up there rigid offices in the country are making it fast to have a destination in India too. SOCIAL FACTORS These are social factors affecting IT industry which ranges from employee right. and Microland who have set up their offices in the city. India’s development and contribution in world’s information technology sector is of highest reputation. with large floor space and great telecom facilities. The revenue of US$ 49-50 billion has been projected in 2007-08 at a growth rate of 24-27 per cent. Further the geographical location of India serves it the advantage of being exactly halfway round the world from the US west coast. ECONOMIC ATTRACTION:There is a lot of economic attraction towards IT sector due to low cost advantage and other factors.8 per cent in 2005-06 Though the IT/ITES sector is booming. Dell. which would be benchmarked globally. since there is great availability of both skilled and unskilled labour force. the presence of a large number of Indians.30%. which is the largest R&D center for Sun outside the US. According to the survey conducted by BES and Data Quest. Microsoft. IEC. According to NASSCOM. would also focus on developing products in India to suit the needs of the Indian market. Cities like Bangalore have become the favorite(most preferred) destinations of all the big banners like HSBC. represents the fastest growing market. Even the big brands are also facing the same problem. language barriers. It is because the city offers good infrastructure. which is another reason why India is preferred destination of many big brands.
000 Some of the areas of specialization in the IT Industry areDesigning Research and Development in Peripheral Integration Product Quality Control and Reliability Testing Computer Manufacturing Maintenance Service System Developing /Programming /Software Engineering Networking Application Programming EDP/ E. India continue to produce IT professionals each year. carbon emission and partnering with other companies in troubleshooting this global dilemma.000 Satyam-20. CAREER PROSPECTS In the year 2006-07.000 people and the rest were taken by IT sector.Should Industry be concern with the issue of global warming? Yes it is affected by many government laws regarding it like in china. The Indian labor is not only cheap but is technically skilled too to the world class level. And there are large numbers of students which everyear passed these courses and join the IT industry. the industry hired approximately 3. It should be noted that there will always be difference in client behaviours which is supported by the fact that different customers have different taste. EDUCATION:There are large number of universities and institutes in India offering IT education.000 people.35. where company with great amount of carbon emission are charge great amount of tax. The recruitment trends of some IT giants are given below: TCS. Likewise being a major player in the global IT market Infosys has introduces measure to help in the reduction of carbon emission by trying to reduce its water consumption.000 Wipro-28. 00. age difference of users. India has to produces great numbers of IT professional each year to meet its demand. this has help industry for IT professionals inwards. electricity utilization.Commerce Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Database Warehousing and Management . life style of the different countries of supply. Industries have to consider the type of services the software is meant for. SOCIAL ISSUES. Out of these. the ITeS sector hired 2.. It is due to the Indian Education System that includes in its course curriculum the practical knowledge of the latest technology that is developed in world along with the fluency in English Language that imparts compatibility in an Indian technician to communicate and work throughout the world. 80.000 Infosys30.course creating room for availability of IT professional at lower cost since there is job competition.
Roaming charges have been cut by 70% down from Rs. WI-MAX AND VPN ARE POISED TO GROW. According to the TRAI.3 in early 2002 and now to as low as Rs. A comparison of Indian cellular tariffs vis-à-vis the tariffs prevailing in comparative emerging economies in South America & Asia-Pacific region.19. they promise to restore the richness. • APRU FOR GSM IS USD 6. • TELEDENSITY . interactivity and usability lacking in many web applications. Prepaid services have been introduced by all operators at an extremely affordable tariff of Rs. • INDIA HAS THE SECOND LARGEST TELEPHONE NETWORK AFTER CHINA.86 % • ENTERPRISE TELEPHONE SERVICES.O represents the next transition in the evolution of web applications. Computer operators. for an enterprise this implies that . Data Entry WORKING AGE POPULATION:Working age population also affects the industry a lot because every person has different value. INTERNET India had as on September 2008 45. 300 per month. attitude. Urban users continue to dominate internet use contributing to 42 million of the 45 million odd users. 202 and Rs. clearly brings out the affordability of Indian cellular mobile telephone services. lifestyle.50 by several service providers. As with any technological transition.99 per minute respectively. the average monthly rental and airtime being realized for cellular services stands at Rs. • EXPECTED TO HAVE TOTAL SUBSCRIBER BASE OF ABOUT 500 MILLION BY 2010.Operating jobs. Web2. This is an internationally accepted benchmark for enumerating internet users. TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS. 1. enterprise solution heeds to the limitations of conventional enterprise systems by providing data convergence and concept reutilization with intelligence. the number of active internet users in urban India was 32 million showing a year on year growth of a little more than 30 per cent. In September last 2007. 1. The airtime tariffs have plunged by over 75% in the last three years alone. and also the satisfaction level. 3G.6 MONTH. NEW IT TECHNOLOGY:With the evolution of SOA and semantic web services.10 to Rs.3 million active internet users.TELEPHONY Cellular mobile telephony tariffs in India are the lowest in the world.
To maximize the benefits of Web2. an enterprise should assess. from small residential types (houses) to the largest commercial and industrial structures (hospitals and factories). easy integration etc. Current packages range from 2D vector based drafting systems to 3D solid and surface modellers. CAD was originally the three letter acronym for "Computer Aided drafting" as in the early days CAD was really a replacement for the traditional drafting board. Web 2. which stands for "computer-aided design and drafting". They involve frequent communication among large consumers dispersed all around the world over the Internet. architects and other design professionals in their design activities. It is the main geometry authoring tool within the Product Lifecycle Management process and involves both software and sometimes special-purpose hardware. "computer-aided drafting". It can also be used to design objects. in which case it may be marketed as CADD — computer-aided design and drafting. but there are a few subtle differences in meaning and application. All these terms are essentially synonymous. through strength and dynamic analysis of assemblies to definition of manufacturing methods of components. On the other hand. Some CAD software is capable of dynamic mathematic modeling. CAD is mainly used for detailed engineering of 3D models and/or 2D drawings of physical components. This brings the interesting idea of bringing enterprise products i.O. CAD:Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of a wide range of computer-based tools that assist engineers. CAD is used in the design of tools and machinery and in the drafting and design of all types of buildings. Almost all industry domains have benefited from SOA strategy in order to build more flexible and malleable IT architecture involving re-usable services. centralized governance. but it is also used throughout the engineering process from conceptual design and layout of products. SOA has benefited enterprises with benefits such as standardized patterns. They have become extremely popular among internet users.there are new opportunities to be explored and new challenges to be negotiated. interoperability. or a similar phrase. services and consumer-savvy applications from Web 2. Modern CAD packages can also frequently allow rotations in three dimensions.e. allowing viewing of a designed object from any desired angle.0 practices like communities and folksonomy are much centered around end-users. CAID for Computer-aided Industrial Design and CAAD.0 together. . even from the inside looking out. Current Computer-Aided Design software packages range from 2D vector-based drafting systems to 3D solid and [[Freeform surface mo |surface]] modellers. But now is the term is often interchanged with "Computer Aided Design" to reflect the fact that modern CAD tools do much more than just drafting. CAD is sometimes translated as "computer-assisted". for "computer-aided architectural design". Related acronyms are CADD.
for example. A CAD system can be seen as built up from the interaction of a graphical user interface (GUI) with NURBS geometry and/or boundary representation (B-rep) data via a geometric modeling kernel. but not on Linux. CAD enables designers to lay out and develop work on screen. UNIX and Mac OS X. Some systems also support stereoscopic glasses for viewing the 3D model. AutoCAD works on Windows only. Unexpected capabilities of these associative relationships have led to a new form of prototyping called digital prototyping.CAD has become an especially important technology within the scope of computeraided technologies. ArchiCAD and Vectorworks work on both Windows and Mac OS X. For more information on OS compatibility. The people that work in this field are called: Designers. The human-machine interface is generally via a computer mouse but can also be via a pen and digitizing graphics tablet. but with the advancement of object-oriented programming methods this has radically changed. Linux. Catia V5 is supported on Sparc Solaris but not x86 Solaris. It has been announced that Catia V6 will only be supported on one proprietary operating system. saving time on their drawings. some CAD systems can do graphically and computationally expensive tasks. so good graphics card. and AIX. which entail manufacturing time and in the design Hardware and OS technologies Today. with benefits such as lower product development costs and a greatly shortened design cycle. NX provide multiplatform support including Windows. print it out and save it for future editing. but not Linux. high speed (and possibly multiple) CPUs and large amounts of RAM are recommended. The Effects of CAD . such as wireframe geometry in a sketch or components in an assembly. A geometry constraint engine may also be employed to manage the associative relationships between geometry. CAD systems exist for all the major platforms . and. Typical modern parametric feature based modeler and freeform surface systems are built around a number of key C (programming language) modules with their own APIs. Automotive Design Engineers and Digital Innovation Engineers. no special hardware is required for most CAD software. Right now. HPUX. Computer-aided design is also a common work activity for the traditional engineering professions Software technologies A CAD model of a mouse originally software for Computer-Aided Design systems was developed with computer languages such as Fortran. In contrast to physical prototypes. Comparison of CAD editors for CAM and Comparison of CAD editors for CAE. CAD Monkeys.CAD systems like QCad. see Comparison of CAD editors for AEC. Manipulation of the view of the model on the screen is also sometimes done with the use of a spacemouse/SpaceBall. However.
not. and so on) have solid volumes added or subtracted from them. Today. The costs associated with CAD implementation now are more heavily weighted to the costs of training in the use of these high level tools. since these can be adjusted as required during the creation of the final draft. although many 3D systems allow using the wireframe model to make the final engineering drawing views. One must think of this as being a "perfect world" representation of the component. As a general rule. small and even mid-size firms often could not compete against large firms who could use their computational edge for competitive purposes. difficult. Another consequence had been that since the latest advances were often quite expensive. Basic 3D solids don't usually include tools to easily allow motion of components. Any future modifications will be simple. These provide an approach to the drawing process without all the fuss over scale and placement on the drawing sheet that accompanied hand drafting. or identify interference between components. however. as he could when using "dumb" solids. spheres. Parametric solids require the operator to consider the consequences of his actions carefully. 3D "dumb" solids (programs incorporating this technology include AutoCAD and Cadkey 19) are created in a way analogous to manipulations of real world objects. one CAD operator could readily replace at least three to five drafters using traditional methods. 3D wireframe is basically an extension of 2D drafting. became standard software packages that "everyone" was expected to learn. This trend mirrored that of the elimination of many office jobs traditionally performed by a secretary as word processors. etc. Even highend packages work on less expensive platforms and some even support multiple platforms. or nearly impossible. spreadsheets. hardware and software costs have come down. Basic three-dimensional geometric forms (prisms. databases. The final product has no mass properties associated with it and cannot have features directly added to it. the operator needs to locate it from the center of the model.Starting in the late 1980s. set limits to their motion. including a number of free and open source programs. Additionally. Two-dimensional projected views can easily be generated from the models. . such as holes. Each line has to be manually inserted into the drawing. many engineers began to do their own drafting work. from a more convenient edge or an arbitrary point. If a feature was intended to be located from the center of the part. 3D parametric solid modeling require the operator to use what is referred to as "design intent". The operator approaches these in a similar fashion to the 2D systems. as if assembling or cutting realworld objects. perhaps. depending on how the original part was created. cylinders. The objects and features created are adjustable. the development of readily affordable Computer-Aided Design programs that could be run on personal computers began a trend of massive downsizing in drafting departments in many small to mid-size companies. the cost of integrating a CAD/CAM/CAE PLM using enterprise across multi-CAD and multiplatform environments and the costs of modifying design work flows to exploit the full advantage of CAD tools There are many producers of the lower-end 2D systems. further eliminating the need for traditional drafting departments.
• Digital signatures have been given legal validity and sanction in the Act. . IT Act 2000: The arrival of the Internet and the World Wide Web made it possible for people to communicate and transact over cyber space. • The Act enables the companies to file any form. not exceeding Rs. a requirement that lead to the creation and implementation of cyber laws across the globe. • Companies shall now be able to carry out electronic commerce using the legal infrastructure provided by the Act. • The IT Act also addresses the important issues of security. as stipulated by the Government at a later date. It was a revolutionary step for humanity. • The Act now allows Government to issue notification on the web thus heralding egovernance. • Under the IT Act. India became the 12th nation in the world to adopt a cyber law during 2000. but it also created a significant need for the regulation and governance of these activities. The remedy provided by the Act is in the form of monetary damages. body or agency owned or controlled by the appropriate Government in electronic form by means of such electronic form as may be prescribed by the appropriate Government. application or any other document with any office. authority. which are so critical to the success of electronic transactions. Firstly. • From the perspective of e-commerce in India. • The Act throws open the doors for the entry of corporate companies in the business of being Certifying Authorities for issuing Digital Signatures Certificates. it shall now be possible for corporate to have a statutory remedy in case if anyone breaks into their computer systems or network and causes damages or copies data.LEGAL ASPECTS AND POLICIES This speedy growth of IT Sector is undoubtedly due to the efforts of Indian government and the other developments that took in the other parts of the globe. the implications of these provisions for the ebusinesses would be that email would now be a valid and legal form of communication in our country that can be duly produced and approved in a court of law. The Act has given a legal definition to the concept of secure digital signatures that would be required to have been passed through a system of a security procedure. the IT Act 2000 and its provisions Contain many positive aspects. 1 crore. 2000.
IT SEZ REQUIREMENTS :IT companies can set up SEZ with minimum area of 10 hectares and enjoy a host of tax benefits and fiscal benefits. Deduction would continue to be available in case of corporate re-organisations by way of amalgamation or demerger. promoting and boosting the Software Exports from India. STPI maintains internal engineering resources to provide consulting.Indian Copyright Act: The copyright of computer software is protected under the provisions of Indian Copyright Act 1957. System . 2000 and claimed deduction under the provisions of erstwhile sections 10A/ 10B. annual depreciation on computers and computer software can be claimed at the rate of 60 percent of written down value at the beginning of the relevant financial year for income tax purposes. Major changes to Indian Copyright Law were introduced in 1994 and came into effect from 10 May 1995. • Companies operating in software technology park (STPI ) Scheme will continue to get tax benefit till 2010. Therefore. is a society set up by the Department of Communication & Information Technology. with the objective of encouraging. 84 percent of cost of computers and software can be depreciated in first 2 years. training and implementation services. Services cover Network Design. Following undertakings are eligible to claim deduction in respect of profits derived from export of computer software under the provisions of sections 10A/ 10B of the IT Act: • Existing units which commenced operations prior to April 1. under the written down value method. • Software Technology Parks of India (STPI). Copyright Act clearly explained: • The rights of a copyright holder • Position on rentals of software • The rights of the user to make backup copies • Most importantly the amendments imposed heavy punishment and fines for infringement of copyright of software. Depreciation on computers and computer software at 60 percent As per the provisions of the IT Act. can continue to claim such deduction under the provisions of newly substituted sections 10A/ 10B for the unexpired period of ten consecutive assessment years. 1961 (“IT Act”) in respect of profits derived from export of computer software. Government Of India in 1991. Income Tax Deduction under sections 10A/ 10B of Income tax Act.
IBM had a virtual monopoly of computers in India. built near International Technology Park . with the primary object of maintaining IBM computers. the IT corridor Project was initiated by the Department of IT and the Bangalore Development Authority in order to develop state of the art facilities for the development of knowledge based industries. by the Ministry of Information Technology. However in 1978. ANTI MONOPOLY LAWS: _ From the 1950s. was set up in 1991 takes more than a hundred electronic industries including Motorola. IBM puts India on cloud computing map Global computing giant IBM on September 24. Government of India and the International Technology Park in a joint project by the State Government. The other promotional activities that brought up India to this position include the IT Corridor project. ITI. known as Electronic City . when George Fernandes. ministry of industries at that time. Similarly an industrial park. GE has its India Technology Center located at this park and employs hundreds of multi disciplinary technology development activities. the company refused strictly and went back after winding up its all operations in India. The Export Promotion Industrial Park . Siemens. gives an exclusive 288 acres of area for export oriented business. 2008 launched a "cloud computing" centre in Bangalore. and Wipro. Infosys. cyber laws are there to monitor and safeguard everyone's interest related to IT sector. The 360 series release in 1960s was the major workhouse of the large organizations. Conceptualized by Singapore’s Jurong Town Corporation Private Ltd. Its exemployees then set up Computer Maintenance Corporation. Thus India is a perfect solution for all those companies which seek for cheap. putting the country on the world map in an emerging area that takes information technology one step closer to being a utility service like electricity . All these reasons contribute for India to be as the most adored destination to many companies. For rest. The ample of facilities provide in a perfect working conditions. Operations and maintenance of application networks and facilities in varied areas ranging from VSATs to ATM based networks. They even maintained a chain of programmers who could write down software's for their machines. Setting up of the Software Technology Parks of India (STPI). the TATA Group and the Singapore Consortium to promote and facilitate the software exports is another major step towards the growth of Indian Information Technology Sector.Integration. Installation. yet technically skilled labor who have innovative minds and state of art to work over a project. commanded IBM to take local shareholders into its subsidiary. in an area of around 330 acres.
Ltd is scheduled to take place around mid 2005. and retrieve information. In the latest in Indian IT Sector. especially in large organizations. . business is also held responsible for such situations as emissions from industries polluting the air. What add more to the dominance of India in Information Technology Sector is the government policies like the enactment of cyber laws to protect and safeguard the interest of software companies in India. its prevalence has dramatically increased so that it is now a part of nearly every aspect of daily life. excessive chemical affluents drained out in water making it poisonous and unfit for use. The basic motivation behind it will be to help them to systematize and standardize a comprehensive security framework that is essential for the protection of their IT investments. It will concentrate on representatives from the IT professional. Particularly. usage of bio nondegradable resources affecting the bio-chain adversely and exposure of employees to hazardous radiations bring their life in danger. These have far reaching implications for business ranging from the kind of business. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS:Environmental conservation and protection is an issue which has gained prominence because of deteriorating environmental balance which is threatening the sustainability of life and nature. the product being manufactured. Largely. academic and the system integrator and ISV community. a five-city security seminar hosted by Microsoft Corporation India Pvt. energy utilization. protect process. CONCLUSION:Information technology (IT) or information and communication technology (ICT) is a broad subject which deals with technology and other aspects of managing and processing information. how it is manufactured and how friendly it is for mankind and nature. store. transmit. water consumption etc. IT deals with the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert.or water with users sharing a common set of hardware and software and paying only what they use. developer. All these have been taken very seriously by different stakeholders in the society including the government and legislations and movements are creating pressure for an environment friendly business. government. Over the past 20 years. ENERGY EFFICIENT PROCESS AND EQUIPMENTS:Companies are focusing on reducing the carbon footprints.
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