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By Tadele Aemiro Advisor Prof. Charlton
Defense Engineering college /production department. Nov. 2013
CONTENTS Certificate Acknowledgment Abstract List of Figures List of Tables
Introduction 1. background of BTR 2. Introduction of BTR 3. working principle of BTR 4. BTR in Ethiopia 5. Important parameter of BTR 6. Importance of of BTR 7. Limitation of Current BTR Found In Ethiopia
Literature Survey 1. Turret control in BTR 2. Effect of the manually turret control 3. control system design 4. PID control 5. objective of the present work
Design Analysis /Method 1. Introduction 2. BTR modeling 3. Turret Design With Gear Design 3.1 model BTR turret 3.2 gear design 4. Motor Selection For The Turret 5. Control System Design In The Turret 5.1 Objective of Control System 5.2 Control Problem 5.3 System Modeling 5.4 System Analysis 5.5 Describe The Controller 5.6 Optimal Control
Result And Discussion Conclusion Appendix References Bibliography
LIST OF FIGURE
LIST OF TABLES
CHAPTER ONE 1.1 Back Ground and BTR 70
The BTR -70 is an eight wheeled armored personnel carrier, Originally developed during the late 1960’s the industrial designator GAZ-4905. On August 21, 1972 it was accepted into service and would late be exported to Warsaw pact and other allies. Introduced as successor to the earlier BTR – 60 it most closely resembles a BTR – 60 PB. Other improvements include heavier as more plating and tires less prone to puncture. In other respects, the vehicle is very similar to the BTR – 60 PB, with a more powerful petrol engine configuration and armament of a primary heavy machine gun and secondary PKT machine gun on roof mounted turret.
1.2 Introduction of BTR 70
The BTR -70 was first seen in 1978.A successor vehicle to the BTR – 60 PB both vehicles have the same turret Armament, while the BTR – 70 has two upgraded 8 cylinder 120 – hp gasoline engine which give improvement in power to – weight ratio. Other modification include improvement to vision for the troops, additional firing ports and improved armor protection. The BTR -70 has a slightly hull, and features a recognizable gap between the front and real sets and road wheels. Triangular- shaped access doors are located in this space on both sides of the vehicle and provide side entrance and exit for troops. Although the BTR 70 offered a number and improvement over BTR – 60 containing short comings included two pair of gasoline engines and poor means of entry and exit. While the BTR – 60 PB had only top hatch as for troop entrance and exit, BTR – 70 incorporates triangular access doors in the on both sides of the vehicle. The troop compartment accommodates six infantry men ,each provided with a firing port and vision block. As with the BTR – 60 PB and BDRM -2, the BTR – 70 has a small conical turret armored with 14.5mm KPT machine gun and a coaxial 7.62mm PKT machine gun. The BTR-70 is fully amphibious propeller by a single water jet at the rear of the hull. Before entering the water a trim vane is erected at the front and bilge pumps switched on.
Like the BTR-60PB,the BTR-70 has good cross country capability, high road speed and large troop-carrying capacity. Its versatility and amphibious capability are also advantages. The primary disadvantage is its relatively light armor protection although its has been reported that the bow section possibly incorporates special layered armor. Weight Length Width Height Crew Armor Main armament Secondary armament Engine Power/weight Suspension Operational range Speed 7.62 mm PKT machine gun Gasoline 120 hp (88.2 kW) (x2) 20 hp/tone wheeled 8×8 400-600 km 80 km/h, swim 9 km/h ZMZ-4905 11.5 tones 7.535 m 2.80 m 2.32 m 3 (+7 passengers) 9 mm (front) 7 mm (side) 14.5 mm KPVT machine gun
1.3 Working Principle And Equipments Of BTR
The vehicles designers moved the troops door. The BTR 70 usually controlled with four people one is for the military guidance, another two for turret control and the rest is the driver. As we know that BTR mainly for transporting and accomplishing the military mission incorporated with double engine, high reliability during the mission it will helps to perform well .The feeding mechanism during the firing is manually controlled. Whereas the turret is coupled with circular gear which is graduated with an angle that will help the turret operator easily handle the projectile angle. by simultaneously controlling the rotational and the trajectory motion.
THE BTR-70 is powered by two gasoline engines. Early production vehicles had Gaz69B 6-cylinder engines of 115hp each installed but most vehicles have the stronger ZMZ-49-05 V-8 engines. The vehicle is fully amphibious, propelled when a float a single water jet mounted at the rear of the hull. The standard equipment includes a central tire-pressure regulation system that allows the driver to adjust the tire-pressure to suit the terrain being crossed. Also fitted is an R-123M radio set and R-124intercom.the drivers optical equipments of three vision blocks TNPO-115 and a day vision device TVNO-2B.the commander also has three TNPO-115's and TPKU-2B day or TKN-15night sight that works together with infrared search light QU3GA-2.the turret is fitted with a PP-61AM periscope sight for the gunner and the infantry with TNP-B devices. The armament consist of a heavy machine gun KPVT with 500 rounds and a coaxial 7.62 mm machine gun PKT with 2.00 rounds. Also on board are two "lgla" or "strela-3" MANPADS and optionally two AGS-17 grenade launchers at the expense of two infantry men.
1.4 BTR in Ethiopia
As we know that Ethiopia had been in the a number of war within and with foreign countries. In those military mission BTR military vehicles had greatly involved both in urban and rural transportation and military mission. Now those BTR are found here and there thoughtout the country,These BTR are being collected in the Bishoftu Automotive and Locomotive Industry for upgrading their efficiency and returning back to work. in this Industry,APC(BTR) will be manufacture under armored vehicle factory in the future. The current BTR found in Ethiopia two benzene engine which is not economical with fuel consumption what had been doing is that replacing the engine with single diesel engine.
fig. BTR-70 in Ethiopia
1.5 Important Parameters in BTR
The Important parameter have we focus is mainly projectile motion parameters, the firing principle is based on the projectile motion .
fig. projectile motion
Here is the important parameter we are going to control is the projectile angle. The firing velocity will always remain constant. The variation of the projectile angle will help us to
control the range,where the enemy is located. The range can be estimated using range finder camera system or involving those highly experienced military person for range estimation.
1.5 Importance of BTR-70
BTR is an 8x8 wheeled amphibious armored personnel carrier(APC) designed in the soviet union. It is a twin benzenes installed rear 8 to 10 people holding capacity The armored personnel carrier (APC) is more suitable to the Ethiopian side in all aspects, as its features are easily transformable, interchangeable and adaptable in to versatile shapes hence the new vehicle is feasible enough to resemble Ethiopian APC. The design and production of APC here in our country largely reduces the economic and political burdens of the country. Not only its political and economic value but the overall structure of the vehicle is designed taking in to consideration geographical conditions including the neighboring countries.. The high angle of fire is useful in engaging targets on slopes in urban fighting and for engaging low flying air target. besides direct involvement to the military mission used for transporting military troops and accessories to military site. So important for supporting our military.
The main limitation here is lack of flexibility during the mission due to manually the turret controlled. This thesis mainly focus on enhancing this limitation on the existing resource BTR-70.in addition there is limitation on the engine ,the current BTR found here in Ethiopia double two benzene engine which is not economical with fuel consumption. The document(manual) assessments related to the BTR-70 was the main problem.
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Turret Control in BTR-70 model.
Now a day's BTR has been designed in different shapes like hexagonal, octagonal based on different design environmental perspective. Our BTR 70is a metal hemispherical in shape has rotational motion at the centre of BTR military vehicle. The turret has been working with circular rack and pinion principle .the BTR body equipped with the rack where as the pinion is with the turret. As we rotate the pinion, the rack and pinion principle totally moves the turret in the circular motion. the rack is graduated 360 ith an angle of
fig. rack and pinion working principle
The material selected to construct the vehicle`s body should withstand against penetration of the fires targeted at armoured vehicles. Penetration can be reduced by selecting appropriate thickness and angle of inclination of the plate. Anti- armour reactor can also be used on the body when necessary. In our design, the gun type specifically designed to attack armoured tanks with its full specifications such as maximum velocity of bullet, mass of bullet and calibre radius head (diameter of shot) are taken in to consideration.
Front upper plate
Direction of shot
cos2Ө = C ( ) 1.43 Where, M= mass of projectile in Kgs. V= striking velocity (m/s) D= diameter of shot (mm) T= thickness of armour plate (mm) C=6.1-6.4 The turret is designed considering the following factors: Material availability penetration Ease of mounting armaments Ability to rotate 3600
The turret is hemispherical at the top and octagonal in design perspective of less tuuret penetration during the firing .
2.2 Effect of Manually Turret Control
Besides involving the BTR involving in the transportation the soldier and different facilities to the mission site greatly also participate in direct fight in both in the rural and urban military missions. In the military missions of these BTR highly depends on the gun equipped and the flexibility or control of the BTR has great impact on the efficiency on the performance during mission accomplishment. So these BTR currently on hand found Ethiopia is manually controlled with single/two turret operator with trial and error projectile angle adjustment. Hence the impact of this currently manually controlled is that definitely lower the
performance and less flexibility and time taking process during a single shot as a result of these deficiencies make the BTR out of use for the current military mission.
2.3 Control System Design
Engineering is concerned with understanding and controlling the materials and forces of nature controlling the materials and forces of nature from the benefit of humankind. Control system engineers are concerned with understanding and controlling segments of their environment of ten called system to provide useful economic for society. modern control engineering practice includes the use of control design strategies for improving manufacturing processes, the efficiency of energy use, advanced automotive control and also for advanced military control applications. A System can be defined as an arrangement of parts within some boundary which work together to provide some form of output from a specified input .the boundary devides the system from the environment and the system interacts with the environment by means of signals crossing the boundary from the environment to the system. In our case is turret is our system that are going to design its control system specifically we are going to focus on.
A control system is an interconnection of components forming a system configurations that will a provide a desired system response. The basis for analysis of a system is the foundation provided by linear system theory which assumes a cause -effect relationship for the components of a system. Therefore a component or process to be controlled can be represented by a block. The input-output relationship represents the processing of the inputs signal to provide an output signal variable often with a power amplification.
An open-loop control system utilizes an actuating devices to control the process directly without feedback.
2.2.1 Task Of System Control
objective of the control system
modification of control system
2.4 PID CONTROLLER DESIGN
In the control of dynamic systems, no controller has enjoyed both the success and the failure of the PID control. Of all control design techniques, the PID controller is the most widely used. Over 85% of all dynamic controllers are of the PID variety. There is actually a great variety of types and design methods for the PID controller. What is a PID controller? The acronym PID stands for Proportional-IntegralDifferential control. Each of these, the P ,the I and the D are terms in a control algorithm, and each has a special purpose. Sometimes certain of the terms are left out because they arenot needed in the control design. This is possible to have a PI, PD or just a P control. It is very rare to have a ID control.
Plant: system to be controlled Controller: provides the excitation for the plant. Designed to control the overall system behavior The Three Term Controller The transfer function of the PID controller looks like following.
where KP = proportional gain, KP = integral gain, Kd = derivative gain
The Characteristics' of P,I And D Controllers
A proportional controller (KP) will have the effect of reducing the rise time and reduce but never eliminate the steady state error. An integral control(Ki) will have the effect of eliminating the steady-state error, but it may make the transient response worse. a derivative control (Kd)will have the effect of increasing the stability of the system, reducing the overshot, and improving the transient response. Effects of each of controllers' KP, Kd and Ki on a closed-loop systems are summarized in the table .
2.4.2 The Problem Setup
The standard PID control configuration is as sho n It is also sometimes called the “PID parameter form.
In this configuration, the control signal u (t) is the sum of three terms. Each of these terms is a function of the tracking error e (t) . The term Kp indicates that this term is proportional to the error. The term Ki /s is an integral term, and the term Kds is a derivative term. Each of the terms works “independently” of the other.
2.4.3 The PID Action
The Typical Structure of a PID control system as shown in the fig. Where it can be seen that in a PID controller, the error signal e(t) is used to generate the proportional,integral,and derivative action with the resulting signals weighted and summed to form the control signal u(t) applied to the plant model. a mathematical description of the PID controller is
where u(t) is the input signal to plant model e(t) error signal , e(t) = r(t) - y(t) and r(t) is the reference input signal.
a typical PID Control Structure
2.5 Objective Of Present Work
The majority of Ethiopian history is focus on war like Adawa,Ethio Eritrea and different foreign countries took place. so far on Ethiopian military great problem was that hardly updating the total military force.i.e modernizing the existing military accessaries.most of them are outdated and depreciated .hence, modernizing the existing system military system is vital to compete with rest of African countries. Now we are not in the position that winning different wars with less number of military manpower just like most developed counties do supported with modern military system. Unless getting on the right truck on modernizing our military the number of soldiers get suffered material ,human and financial loss raises as a result out defense force loss confidence, easily get defeated, even if we win the war great number of soldiers will be sacrificed during the mission. As the number of soldiers get raise, the government military budget will be much. Instead with minimum numbers of people restructured the military by supporting them with modernizing the whole military weapons. So that number of productive young people. Based on this problem, am trying to solve or try to modernize the existing manually controlled BTR Turret ,before at least four people will be engaged on to operate a single BTR on the mission but now only a single person will enough with the driver besides empower our soldier with a better military system .indirectly will raise (upgrade) the whole military performance, and also it will become a setting stone in our military technology specially in the electro mechanical(mechatronics) side .
CHAPTER-THREE ENHANCING with DESIGN of BTR-70 MANUALLY CONTROLLED TURRET CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN
Here mainly focuses on the enhancement with design of the turret control. That is control system design is the primary issue in this chapter our system to be controlled ,the turret of BTR-70.
3.1 The Objective of Control System
The main objective this control in our case is the possibility of controlling this manually BTR-70 turret controlled in the current condition to modern (digitalized)control that would help us upgrading whole BTR performance during the mission. Besides this control system design will be a good initiation (stepping stone) for different industrial and military control application mainly enhancing those old manually controlled systems currently a lot in our industry[METE].
3.2 Turret load with Gear Design
Here is the data being collected from the current BTR found in bishoftu automotive and locomotive Industry, The interior gear already integrated in the body of the hull.so am going to design the gears that coupled with the motor. Data Collected mass of the turret = 62kg mass of weapon = 22kg
Interior Gear aleady found on the hull of BTR-70
module = 4.0 pressure angle 20 total load = 84kg interior diametrical pitch =920mm no. teeth = 230 width = 25mm base diameter d dcosα 920(cos 20) 865 mm addendum = m = 4.0 dedendum = hd = 1.25m = 1.25*4.0 = 5.0mm outside diameter = Dd = d+2m = 230+8=238 mm root diameter = df =d-2.5m = 230 - 2.5*4 = 220mm
I. To find out the stress developed in the two gear mesh during operation, we use the Lewis equation for spur gear design.
p- Diametrical pitch Y- form factor
= total load *9.8 = 84 kg *9.8 =832.2kg
b =25mm p π m 12 56 mm
y - form factor, data taken from the table, for the no of teeth and pressure angle which is Y = 0.465 20
Hence The Stress Developed on The Tooth
When a pair of gears is driven at the moderate or high speed and noise is generated ,inducing the velocity factor
velocity factor which is less than 1
hence then we can take the stress developed,
then we are going to design the Gear with the motor shaft .the required here is the form factor which is 'y'
from the Lewis equation
y = 0.309 Now referring to the table ith form factor y ith pressure angle α 20 and D = Nm = 0 0187 e can find out the no of teeth
Hence no teeth on the pinion = 18,and from the relation , m = (18)(4.0) = 72 mm Hence, the pinion that drives the circular interior gear
module = 4.0 pitch diameter = N*m = 18*4 = 70 mm addendum = D + 2m = 72 mm +2(4) = 80 mm dedendum = D - 2.25m = 72mm - 2.25(4) = 63mm pitch = 12.56 width = 25mm
II. Another gear that coupled with the motor is that for the motor that drives the projectile angle Ѳ the rack /data collected pitch diameter = 2000mm module =5.0 width = 25mm No. teeth =400 pressure angle 20
Here The Load Transmitted is Only The Weight Due To The Weapon. Which Is 22 Kg Hence W = 22kg*9.8 = 215.6 N
p πm = 5*3.14 = 15.70 and y = 0.475
substituting in the equation ,
= 2.1564 N/mm2
having taking this into consideration ,we are going to design the pinion now proceed he next step for ,similarly using the lewis equation
y = 0.277
Now for y = 0.277 referring to the table No. teeth, N= 14
Hence, the pinion that drives the projectile trajectory module = 5.0 pitch diameter = N*m = 14*5 = 70 mm addendum = D + 2m = 70 mm +2(5) = 80 mm dedendum = D - 2.25m = 70mm - 2.25(5) = 58.75mm pitch = 15.70 width = 25mm
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