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B Bypass Controller

F Type AV6+
30 years experience with Sulzer-Bypass-Systems,
including controls and safety functions, show that the
bypass-controller is neither a integrated part of the boiler
controls nor the turbine controls. The Sulzer-Bypass-System
is an independent system which serves to coordinate the
boiler and turbine operation during startup, shutdown and
load disturbances. The necessary signal exchange
between the bypass-controller and other systems is small.
Much more important is a bypass-controller which fulfils
exactly the requirements of the bypass operation in the
plant and allows the easy implementation of required safety
functions. The life conserving operation of the heavily
stressed valves and pipework, especially by accurate
steam desuperheating in all operating modes and
transients, poses a special challenge for the bypass-

· Proven solutions from more than 30 years of
experience with HP & LP-bypass automation
· System responsibility in one hand
· State Controller with Observer (SCO) reduces
temperature transients for valves and pipes
· For any type of boiler plant
· With or without safety function The Operating modes are mainly determined by
· Degree of automation selectable process signals, namely the superheater pressure and
the valve position. Therefore The bypass controller
Open does not depend on many signals from the boiler or
· Clear and simple interface to boiler and turbine turbine controller.
· Hundreds of bypass controllers installed Start up
The functions of the pressure setpoint generator are
· Satisfies highest automation requirements
shown at the example of a plant cold start.

HP Bypass Controller
The HP-bypass controller consists of a pressure
controller, controlling superheater pressure through the
position of the steam valve, a temperature controller,
controlling downstream temperature through the position
of the spray control valve and a Op/Cl-Controller for the
spraywater isolation valve.

The key part of the pressure controller is the setpoint

generator. It has to produce the correct setpoint for all the
different operating modes during start-up, load operation,
load rejection and shutdown. The heart of the setpoint
generator is a rate limiter, which limits the gradient of any
pressure increase during all operating modes, therefore
protecting components from pressure/temperature transients. Fig.1 HP Bypass with Controller
automatically select on basis of the superheater pressure
the type of startup.

Temperature control
The HP-spraywater controller, has to deal with large
variations of process conditions as gain, time delay, and
disturbances. CCI/Sulzer state controllers with observer
(SCO) are using a dynamic model of the process to
reduce temperature deviations and especially
temperature gradients during transient plant operating
conditions. Possible reductions are by a factor of 2- 4
over conventional PI(D)-controllers. This a important life
conserving factor for the heavily stressed walls of valves
and piping.

Safety Function
Regulations in various countries allow the use of the HP-
bypass valves as safety valves against overpressure in
the superheater. CCI/Sulzer HP-Bypass valves can be
equipped with additional safe opening devices. The
necessary safety control cabinet is completely
independent of the HP-Bypass control, but for smooth
Fig. 2 Cold Start-up with HP-Bypass transfer between safe opening and control the two
functions are coordinated by a number of signals.
First the Bypass valve is opened to minimum position
(Ymin). This ensures steam flow through the superheater
LP Bypass Controller
and reheater immediately after ignition.
Although independent in operation from the HP-bypass
When there is enough steam production to reach a controller the LP-bypass controller must operate well
minimum pressure (pmin) the controller begins to control coordinated with the HP-Bypass system.
the live steam pressure by opening the bypass valves.
Pressure Control
When the Bypass valve reaches the position Ym (defined The LP-bypass pressure controller controls during start-
by the desired steam flow during boiler start up) the up and load rejections the reheat pressure. Similar to the
setpoint generator begins to increase the pressure HP-pressure controller, it contains a setpoint generator
setpoint in accordance with the steam production of the producing the correct pressure setpoint during all
boiler, but limited by the maximum gradient. operating modes.

Once the target pressure for starting the turbine (psynch) is

reached, the setpoint generator switches to (fixed)
pressure control.

As the turbine starts to accept steam the bypass will start

to close until the turbine takes over all the steam
produced by the boiler and the bypass is fully closed.

Load operation
As soon as the bypass is closed the pressure setpoint
tracks the actual pressure plus a threshold dp which
keeps the bypass closed (follow mode). The maximum
gradient of the pressure setpoint is still limited. If the life
steam pressure exceeds this gradient, e.g. due to a load
rejection, the bypass will start to open and the controller
returns to pressure control mode. The pressure is
controlled by the bypass until normal operation has been
restored and the bypass is closed again.

For the case of large load rejections or turbine trips the

bypass controller contains the necessary functions to
initiate a quick opening, in order to keep the pressure
excursion as small and short as possible.

For a hot start, where the boiler is already under

pressure, the functions min. position and minimum
pressure are not active. The pressure controller will Fig. 3 LP-Bypass with Controller
Boiler start-up
The controller has to control the steam pressure in the
reheater system. The bypass is either closed until the
desired reheat pressure is reached and starts then to
open and control the pressure, or the pressure is
increased in a controlled manner similar to the HP-
bypass. Both operating modes are available in the LP-
bypass controller.

Load operation
The bypass is closed but the controller monitors the
reheat steam pressure in order to open and control the
pressure whenever an unacceptable pressure increase
is recognised. The first stage pressure of the turbine is
used to generate the sliding pressure setpoint.

Condenser protection
Fig. 4 Bypass Controller Interfaces
Whenever the condenser is not able to accept steam
or the injection water system is unavailable, the
As standard connection to the plant DCS the bypass
bypass is closed through a separate safe channel in
controller provides a serial MODBUS-interface. The
order to protect the condenser. This emergency closing
MODBUS carries all input and output signals of the
function can close either through a separate safe
Man-Machine Interface (MMI). It allows manual control
closing device the LP-Bypass steam control valve or a
of all valves as well as setpoints as defined in the
separate LP-bypass steam isolation valve
detailed controller configuration. MODBUS is the de
facto world standard for datalinks between different
With large bypass valves, their flow capacity at high
control systems and available on most DCS.
reheater pressure can exceed the absorption capacity
of the condenser. For such cases the steam flow to the
A detailed interface signal list is usually worked out
condenser is limited by the bypass controller.
during engineering of the individual bypass controller.
If power operated reheater safety valves are used (e.g.
If a redundant manual control is required, a touch
CCI/Sulzer MSV-valves), coordinated operation of the
screen panel can be provided. The touch screen panel
reheater safety valves with the LP-bypass can further
provides all process visualisation and complete
improve plant operation for the case of turbine trip or
manual control. Additionally through the touch screen
load rejection at high load. The Sulzer-LP-bypass
panel all control parameters can be adjusted. The
controller can provide the necessary signals for
change of control parameters is protected by a
operation of the reheater safety valves.
password. If no touch screen panel is used the
parameters can be changed through the programming
Spray water control
interface of the controller with the help of a PC.
Because the steam conditions after the LP-bypass
desuperheater are usually very near or at The programming language for the bypass controller
saturation condition, the temperature after the corresponds to the international IEC 1131 standard. The
desuperheater cannot be used as control signal. subset “Function Block Diagram” (FDB) is used which
The necessary injection water flow and related has the advantage that it provides directly an easy
valve position of the injection valve is therefore readable documentation of the controller functions.
calculated from the steam flow and the steam
conditions. The steam flow is in turn calculated as
a function of the steam conditions and the valve
position of the bypass valve.

The field signals are usually connected as 4-20 mA
signals to the bypass controller. The transmitter have
individual circuit breakers.
the positioners for hydraulic actuators are usually
directly installed in the cabinet, so that output signals
are directly driving proportional valves and solenoid
valves The output signals to the positioners are 4-20
mA signals. Emergency and trip input signals as well
as alarm output signals are usually hardwired binary
signals. Outputs are dry switchover contacts (SPDT),
Input signals usually contacts from other systems. Fig. 5 Touch Panel with Process Picture of
Technical Data
Cabinet 2200mm x 1000mm x 600mm Standard functions – Startup type selection
Hx W x D HP-bypass (Cold start, Hot Start,
270 kg Hot Restart)
Double front and back doors (Not all functions – Min Position
Ambient Conditions 0 – 32 ºC, max. 90 % R. H. might be used in – Min Pressure
Electromagnetic – RFI IEC 801-3 specific application) – Pressure increase
compatibility (EMC) 27-500 MHz: 10 V/m
– Fixed Pressure
– Ground Cont. IEC 801-5
– Follow operation
2 kV shield to ground
– Shutdown
– ESD IEC 801-2
8 kV air / 4 kV contact – External Pressure Setpoint
Power Supply 110 – 230 VAC redundant – Max gradient can be variable,
or 24 VDC redundant depending on any other
signal value
Power Dissipation max. 360 W
– Temperature Control
Transmitter Inputs 4– 20 mA
– Spraywater Isolation Valve
Transmitter supply with
individual circuit breakers
– State Controller with
Binary Inputs 24 VDC
Observer (SCO) used for
Interrogation voltage for dry
pressure and temperature
Standard functions – Pressure Increase
Binary Inputs 24 VDC
interrogation voltage for dry contacts LP-bypass – Fixed pressure
Binary Signal Dry contact SPDT – Load operation
Outputs 250 V / 1 A AC, 30 V / 1 A DC (Not all functions – Emergency closing of
DCS-Interface MODBUS or MODBUS Plus might be used in steam isolation valve
(for other Datalinks consult specific application) – Spraywater control
CCI) (Calculated)
Analog Outputs 4-20mA isolated 500V Optional – Control of third stage
(Optional) desuperheater spray valves
Terminals Compression type Options – Functions can be adapted
Signals AWG 12 to satisfy specific plant
Power AWG 10 – 8 requirements
Hydraulic PVR10-10 mounted in the – Signal connections to
Positioners cabinet hardwired M/A-stations

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