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# PHE-01

ELEMENTARY MECHANICS

2 Credits

Kinematics of Motion: Displacement, Velocity and Acceleration; Uniform Circular Motion, Relative Motion. Dynamics of Motion: Force, Newton's Laws of Motion, Applications of Newton's Laws; Equilibrium of Forces; Linear Momentum, Conservation of Linear Momentum; Impulse; Motion with Variable Mass, Rocket Motion; Work and Energy: Work done by a Constant Force, and a Variable Force; Kinetic Energy and Work-Energy Theorem, Potential Energy and Conservative Forces, Principle of Conservation of Energy, Energy Diagrams; Elastic and Inelastic Collisions; Power; Angular Motion: Kinematics of Angular Motion: Angular Displacement, Angular Velocity and Angular Acceleration, Use of Plane Polar Coordinates for describing Circular Motion and General Angular Motion, Relations between Linear and Angular Kinematical Variables; Dynamics of Angular Motion; Torque, Kinetic Energy of Rotation; Angular Momentum, Conservation of Angular Momentum and its Applications; Gravitation: Law of Gravitation; Moon's Rotation about the Earth; Principle of Superposition; Gravitational Field and Potential Intensity, Gravitational Potential Energy due to Spherical Shell and Solid Sphere; Gravity and its Variation, Velocity of Escape; Fundamental Forces in Nature. Many Particle Systems; Central Conservative Forces: Properties of Motion under Central Conservative Forces; Inverse Square Central Conservative Forces; Motion of Two-Body Systems, Equation of Motion in Centre-of-mass and Relative Coordinates, Linear and Angular Momentum and Kinetic Energy; Dynamics of Many-Particle Systems: Linear Momentum, Angular Momentum and Kinetic Energy of an N-particle System; Scattering: Scattering CrossSections: Differential Cross-Section, Total Cross-Section, Laboratory and Centre-of-Mass Frames of Reference, Relations between Angles and Scattering Cross-Sections in the Laboratory and Centre-of-Mass Frames of Reference; Impact Parameter, Elastic Scattering of Two Hard Spheres, Rutherford Scattering; Rigid Body Dynamics; Translational, Rotational and General Motion of a Rigid Body; Moment of Inertia, Determination of Moment of Inertia of a Rigid Body; Rotational Dynamics of a Rigid Body, Rotational Analogue of Newton's Second Law, Work and Energy in Rotational Motion, Conservation of Angular Momentum and its Applications, Precession; Non-Inertial Frames of Reference: Motion Observed from a NonInertial Frame, Newton's Second Law and Inertial Forces, Weightlessness; Rotating Frame of Reference: Time Derivatives in Inertial and Rotating Frames, Centrifugal Force, Coriolis Force; The Earth as a Rotating Frame of Reference, Variation of g with Latitude, Motion on the Rotating Earth, Foucault's Pendulum. Appendixes on: Conic Sections; Methods of Determination of Moment of Inertia.

Quality Factor. Mathematical Description of Wave Motion: Phase and Phase Difference. Examples of Physical Systems Executing SHM: Simple Pendulum. Differential Equation of an Undamped Oscillator and its Solution. Differential Equation of SHM and its Solution. Phase Velocity. Critical Damping. Waves in a Uniform Rod. Examples of Forced Vibrations and Resonance. Reflection and Transmission Energy Coefficients. Steady State Solution. Heavy Damping. Shock Waves. Harmonics in Stationary Waves. Transverse Waves. Reflection and Refraction of Waves: The Concept of Wavefront and Huygens’ Construction. LC Circuit. Energy Transported by Progressive Waves. Sound Waves. Graphical Representation of Wave Motion. Superposition of Two Collinear Harmonic Oscillations of Same/Different Frequencies. Impedance Offered by Strings. Source Stationary and Observer in Motion. Power Absorbed by a Forced Oscillator. Wave Groups and Group Velocity. Musical Sound and Noise. An LCR Circuit. Longitudinal Waves. . Waves in a Field. Quality Factor. Damped and Forced Oscillations: Differential Equation of a Damped Oscillator and its Solutions. Wave Motion and Impedance. Principle of Superposition of Waves. Waves in Two and Three Dimensions. Superposition of Two Mutually Perpendicular Harmonic Oscillations of the Same/Different Frequencies. Compound Pendulum. One-dimensional Wave Equation: Waves on a Stretched String. Differential Equation of a Weakly Damped Forced Harmonic Oscillator and its Solutions. The Doppler Effect: Source in Motion and Observer Stationary. Reflection and Transmission. Beats. Oscillations in Two Dimensions. Transformation of Energy in Oscillating Systems: Kinetic and Potential Energies. Frequency and Wavelength. Relation between Wave Velocity. Weak Damping. Characterising Weak Damping: Logarithmic Decrement. Resonance. Examples of a Weakly Damped System (LCR circuit). Torsional Pendulum. Impedance Offered by Gases. Amplitude Coefficients: Transverse Waves. Velocity and Acceleration. Source and Observer both in Motion. Stationary Waves: Velocity of a Particle at any Point in a Stationary Wave. Lissajous Figures. Basic Concepts of Wave Motion: Formation of a Wave. Phase of an Oscillator Executing SHM. Principle of Superposition.PHE-02 OSCILLATIONS AND WAVES 2 Credits Basic Characteristics of Simple Harmonic Motion: Oscillations of a Spring-Mass System. Relaxation Time. Properties of Stationary Waves. Intensity and the Inverse Square Law. Calculation of Average Values of Quantities Associated with SHM.

M. Amplitude and Mass Oscillations of a Spring-Mass System and a Torsional Pendulum A Study of Energy and Momentum Conservation Principles Relation between Wavelength and Frequency of Stationary Waves Determination of Young’s Modulus of a Material by Bending of Beams Measurement of Low Resistance using Carey Foster’s Bridge Variation of Thermo-E. with Temperature Frequency Response of AC Series Circui Experiments using Semiconductor Diodes A Study of Transistor Characteristics Measurements with a Cathode Ray Oscilloscope .BPHL-103 PHYSICS LABORATORY-I 4 Credits Unit I Unit II Experiment 1 Experiment 2 Experiment 3 Experiment 4 Experiment 5 Experiment 6 Experiment 7 Experiment 8 Experiment 9 Experiment 10 Experiment 11 Measurement Error Analysis Dependence of the Period of a Pendulum on Length.F.

Green's Theorem (Statement only and Physical Meaning). Evaluation of Surface Integrals. Scalar and Vector Products in Component Form. Scalar Field: Definition. Divergence. Multiple Product of Vectors. Vector Integral Theorems: Gauss' Divergence Theorem. Correlation Analysis. Product Rules in Involving the ∇ operator and Applications. Differentiating a Vector with respect to a Scalar. Vector Integration: Integration of a Vector with respect to a Scalar: Integrals involving Scalar and Vector Products of Vectors. Vector Field. Curl and ∇ 2 in Different Coordinate Systems. Bayes' Theorem). Applications in Physics. Fundamental Theorems (Theorems of Probability. Unit Vectors. Binomial and Poisson Distributions. Multiple Integrals: Double and Triple Integrals. Polar and Axial Vectors.. Line Integral of a Field: Path of Integration. Expressing a Vector. Random Error Estimation for Indirect Measurements. Covariance and Correlation Coefficient. . Statistical Theory of Errors: Types of Errors. Stoke's Theorem. Scalar and Vector Triple Products. Continuous Probability Distributions in Physics. Types of Surface Integrals. Elementary Combinatorics. Elements of Probability Theory: Basic Terminology. Evaluation of Volume Integral. Expectation and Variance. Conditional Probability and Total Probability Theorem. Analytical Approach to Vector Algebra: Vector Addition and Subtraction. i. Vector Functions. Vector Operator ∇ . Normal Distribution. Geometrical interpretation of the Gradient. Standard Error of Estimate. Non-Cartesian Coordinate Systems: Plane Polar Coordinates.e. Vector Components relative to a Coordinate System. Gradient. Volume Integral of a Field: Types of Volume Integrals. Transformation of Coordinate Systems and Vector Components. Surface Integral of a Field: Surface of Integration. Identities involving the ∇ operator.PHE-04 MATHEMATICAL METHODS IN PHYSICS-I 2 Credits Vector Algebra: Vectors and scalars. its Divergence and Curl with Physical Meanings. Types of Line Integrals. Precise Definition of Threedimensional Vectors. Directional Derivative. Regression Analysis: Method of Least Squares. Successive applications of the ∇ operator. Estimation of Random Errors for a Single Variable. Random Variable. Differentiation of Scalar and Vector Products and Applications. Vector Differential Calculus: Differentiation of Vectors. Differential Elements of Vector Length and Area and Gradient in Polar Coordinates. Evaluation of Line Integrals. Contour Curves and Contour Surfaces. Vector Differential Operators. Gradient. Spherical and Cylindrical Polar Coordinates. Generalised Curvilinear Coordinate System: Orthogonality Condition. Quadruple Products of Vectors.

Partial Differential Equations in Physics: Method of Separation of Variables. Fourier Sine and Cosine Series.range Expansions. Linear Independence. Planetary Orbits. The Convergence of Fourier Series. Simple Electrical Circuits. Steady State Heat Flow. the Potential Problem. Second Order Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant and Variable Coefficients: Basic Terminology. Exact Equations. Torsional Vibrations. First Order Linear Differential Equations. Complementary Functions and Particular Integral. Coupled Electrical Circuits. First Order Ordinary Differential Equations: Equations Reducible to Separable Form: Method of Separation of Variables. Even and Odd Functions. Existence and Uniqueness of a Particular Solution. Determination of Fourier Coefficients. Partial Differential Equations: Functions of More than One Variable. Limits and Continuity. Fourier Series: The Need for Fourier Series. The Method of Undetermined Multipliers. Wronskian. Differentiability. Laplace's Equation.PHE-05 MATHEMATICAL METHODS IN PHYSICS-II 2 Credits Ordinary Differential Equations: Classification. Solution of Initial and Boundary Value Problems. Classification of Partial Differential Equations. Applications of Fourier Series to Partial Differential Equations: Diffusion Equation: Heat conduction and Diffusion of Particles. Partial Differentiation. Coupled Differential Equations: Coupled Oscillators. Frobenius Method. . First Order ODEs in Physics: Applications in Newtonian Mechanics. Second Order ODEs in Physics: Rotational Mechanical Systems. General Properties of the Solutions of Linear ODEs. Half. Homogeneous First Order ODEs. Charged Particle Motion in Electric and Magnetic Fields. The Plucked String Problem. Power Series Solution. General and Particular Solution. Wave Equation. Applications of ODEs in Physics: Mathematical Modelling. Method of Variation of Parameters. Equations Reducible to First Order. Use of Fourier Series: as an Approximation. General and Particular Solution. Homogenous and Inhomogenous Linear Equations with Constant Coefficients.

Deviations from Perfect Gas Behaviour. Thermistors. Principle of Measurement of Temperature. Representation of a Thermodynamic Process. Avogadro Number. Phase space. The Third Law of Thermodynamics. Einstein's Theory. Path Dependence of Work and Heat. Hess's Law (statement only). Phase Equilibrium. Cooling by Adiabatic Demagnetization. Sekur-Tetrode Equation. Different Methods of Cooling. Liquid Helium. Critical Constants. The Condition for Equilibrium between Phases. The Second Law of Thermodynamics: Entropy Change in Natural Processes. Thermodynamic State of a System and Thermodynamic Variables. The Enthalpy. Joule-Thomson Effect. Equation of State for Adiabatic Processes. Distribution of Free Paths. The Thermodynamic Temperature Scale. Fermi Energy. Work done in Different Systems. General Conditions for Thermodynamic Equilibrium. Law of Corresponding States. Regnault's. Physical Properties and Scale of Temperature. Classical Distribution Function. Internal and External Work. Random Walk. Gibbs' Phase Rule. Claussius and Van Der Waals Equation of State. Experimental Determination. Elementary Deductions. The Thermodynamic Potential Functions. The International Temperature Scale. Internal Energy. Mean Free Path. Liquefaction of Gases. Heat Capacities of a Gas. Microscopic and Macroscopic States. The Adiabatic Lapse Rate: Convective Equilibrium. Examples of Brownian Motion. Maxwell's Relations in Thermodynamics. Viscosity. Types of Thermometers: Constant Volume Gas Thermometer. Andrews'and Amagat's Experiments.PHE-06 THERMODYNAMICS AND STATISTICAL MECHANICS 4 Credits Thermodynamic Systems and Classification of their Boundaries. Heat Capacity Equations. Equation of State. Brownian Motion. Langevin's Theory. Energy Equations. First Order Phase Transitions. Entropy. TdSEquations. Fermi-Dirac Distribution Function. Heat Capacity of Hydrogen. Law of Equipartition. Partition Function for a Monatomic Gas. Thermodynamic Probability. its Differential Form and Significance. Standard Enthalpy Changes. Thermodynamics Processes: Reversible and Irreversible and Quasistatic Processes. Nature of Heat and Work. Planck's law. . Calculation of Thermodynamic Parameters. Enthalpy of Reaction. Law of Equi-partition of Energy. Radiation Pyrometers. Radiation Pressure. Kinetic Theory of Gases. Thermal Conductivity. Thermocouples. Deductions from Maxwell's Equations. EntropyThermodynamic Probability Relation. Deduction from Equation of State. Onnes' Equation of State. Gibbs Paradox. Need for Quantum Statistics. Partition Function. BoseEinstein Distribution Function. The First Law of Thermodynamics. Adiabatic and Isothermal Elasticities. Self Diffusion. The Carnot Cycle: Heat Engines and Refrigerators. Rotational and Vibrational Partition Functions. Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics. Higher Order Phase Transitions. Enthalpy and Chemical Processes. Classical Theory of Specific Heats. Kinetic Interpretation of Temperature. Heat Capacity of Metals. Bose-Einstein Condensation. Platinum Resistance Thermometer.

Uniqueness Theorem. Claussius-Mossotti Formula. Coulomb's Law. Potential for Charge Distributions: Equipotential Surfaces. Electric Field for Spherical. Gyromagnetic ratio. Energy Associated with Electric Field. Dia. Solenoid and Toroid. Wave Equation. Capacitors. Self and Mutual Inductance. Lenz's Law. Ohm's Law . Magnetic Dipole Moment. Microscopic View of Electrical Conductivity.M. Mutual Inductance of Coupled Solenoids. Parallel Plate and Cylindrical Capacitors. Nature and Propagation of Plane Electromagnetic Waves in Vacuum and Dielectric Media. Line Integral of the Electric Field.. Electromagnetic Induction: Faraday's Laws of Electromagnetic Induction. Motional E. Magnetic Field: Definition. . Equation of Continuity. Magnetic Susceptibility and Permeability.Breakdown of Ohm's law. Electron Spin and Magnetic Moment. Energy Stored in the Magnetic Field.Para and Ferro Magnetic Materials. Reflection and Refraction of Plane Electromagnetic Waves at a Surface of a Dielectric (Normal Incidence). Atomic and Molecular Polarizability. Maxwell's Equations and Electromagnetic Waves: Displacement Current. Plane and Cylindrical Distribution of Charges. Microscopic Properties of Dielectrics. Radiation from an Oscillatory Electric Dipole (Qualitative). Magnetic Circuit. Ampere's Law for Magnetic Materials. Displacement Vector. Electric Flux. Poynting's Theorem.PHE-07 ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC PHENOMENA 4 Credits Electric Charge. Gauss's law. Magnetic Materials: Response of Substances to Magnetic Field. Working Principles of an Oscilloscope. Polarisation. Boundary Conditions on D and E. Magnetisation Vector. Self Inductance for Solenoid.F. Conservative Nature of Electric Force. Dielectric Material in an Electric Field. Electric Field. Potential due to Charged Wire and Charged Disc. Gauss's Law in Dielectric Medium. Differential form of Gauss's Law. Electric Current in an Atom. Electric Field and Potential of Dipole and Quadrupole. Electric Field from the Potential. Transformer. Electric Currents: Charge Transport and Current Density. Divergence. Antennas. Capacitors in Series and Parallel. Principle of Superposition. Cyclotron and Velocity Selector. Dielectric Material between Capacitor Plates. Force on a Charged Particle Moving in Electric and Magnetic Fields. Volume and Surface Distribution of Magnetization. Electrical Images. Maxwell's Equations. Review of Alternating Current. B-H Curve and Hysteresis. Equivalence with Coulomb's law. Nuclear Magnetism. Ampere's Law and its Applications to Straight Wire. Electric Lines of Force. Electric Potential. Divergence of Magnetic Field. Electromagnet. Potential Difference and Potential Function. Generalisation of Ampere's Law. Current Loop and Magnetic Dipoles. Quantization and Conservation of Electric Charge.

Detection and Reflection of Polarised Light Study of Interference of Polarised Light Measurement of Cp/Cv by an Acoustic Method Measurement and Interpretation of Cooling Curves-Phase Changes .PHE-08(L) Experiment 1 Experiment 2 Experiment 3 Experiment 4 Experiment 5 Experiment 6 Experiment 7 Experiment 8 Experiment 9 Experiment 10 Experiment 11 Experiment 12 Experiment 13 Experiment 14 PHYSICS LABORATORY-II A Study of Network Theorems 4 Credits Calibration of a Thermistor and Determination of its Energy Gap Construction and Characterisation of Power Supplies and Filters Study of OPAMP as Summing and Inverting Amplifier Study of OPAMP as Differentiator and Integrator Detection and Measurement of Charge using an OPAMP Study of Lens Properties and Optical instruments Spectral Analysis using a Prism Spectrometer Interference of Light – Young’s Experiment Spectral Analysis using a Grating Spectrometer Production.

Colour Receptors. Nicol Prism. White Light Fringes. Optical Communication Through Fibres.PHE-09 OPTICS 4 Credits Electromagnetic Nature of light. The Poynting Vector. Intensity of Light. Interference by Division of Amplitude. Population Inversion. Malus Law. Medicine. Three and Four Level Pumping Schemes. Fresnel's Diffraction: Fresnel's construction. Interference with White Light. Coherence and Observable Interference of Waves. Human Vision. Liquid and Helium-Neon Lasers. Temporal Coherence. Principle of Superposition of Waves. Diffraction Patterns of Simple Obstacles. Feedback Mechanism: Optical Resonant Cavity. Michelson Interferometer: Circular and Localised Fringes. Fringes of Equal Thickness and Equal Inclination. Width of a Spectral Line. Diffraction limited systems. Michelson Stellar Interferometer. Recording and Reconstruction of Hologram. Non-reflecting Films and Colour of Thin films. Fermat's Principle. Optical Fibre. Normal and Oblique Incidence. Polarisation of Light. Material Dispersion. Einstein's Relations. Propagation of Light Through Optical Fibre. Fresnel’s Relations. Diffraction by N-Parallel and Identical Slits: Principal and Secondary Maxima. Production of Linearly Polarised Light. Diffraction by a Circular Aperture and Double Slit. Power Loss. and Pattern Recognition. Fringe Width. Colour Vision. Critical Angle. Phase Change on Reflection. Defects of Vision. Formation of Spectra. Newton's Rings. Step-Index Fibre. Information Storage. Emission and Absorption of Light. Dichroism.. Fabry-Perot Interferometer. Different Pumping Mechanisms. Refractive Index Profiles. . Position of Maxima. Applications of Holography: Microscopy. Coherence Time and Coherence Length. Birefringence and Production of Polarized Light. Applications of Lasers in Communication. Optical Pumping. Fraunhofer’s Single Slit Diffraction Pattern. Lateral Coherence Width. Common Laser Systems. Image Formation and Processing. Resolution. Diffraction Grating. Intensity Distribution. Fresnel’s Half Period Zones. Diffraction and Image Formation. Fresnel's Biprism and Lloyd's Single Mirror. Industry. Reconstruction of an Image. and Photography. Missing Orders. Reflection and Refraction of Electromagnetic waves. Wave Plates. Gradient-Index Fibre. Stimulated Emission. Interference with Multiple Reflection. In-Line and Off-Axis Hologram. Intensity Distribution. Pulse Dispersion and its Reduction. Idealization of Waves as Light Rays. Visibility of Fringes. Brewster's Angle. Intensity Distribution. Wave Equation. Polarization by Reflection. Core and Cladding Materials and Their Refractive Indices. Solid State. Applications of Optical Fibres. Young's Experiment. Angular Diameter of Stars. Zone Plate. Recording of a Hologram. Basic Principle of Holography. Resolving Power of Optical Instruments. Spatial Coherence.

RC Oscillators: Phase-Shift Oscillator. Small Signal Low Frequency Amplifiers (Gain Bandwidth). Op-Amp as an Inverting Adder. Signal Generators. Integrated Circuits: Power Amplifier ICs. Hartley and Colpitts Oscillators. JK). LC Oscillators: Tuned Collector. ROM). Input-Output Impedances. Registers. Electronic Voltmeter. (Class A. Wein Bridge Oscillator. Load Line Regulation. Rectifiers and Filters. Negative Feedback. Maximum Power Transfer Theorem. Feedback in Op-Amp. AB). Ripple Factor. Band Pass). Radio Frequency Amplifiers (Single-Tuned and Double Tuned). Digital Electronics: Binary Arithmetic. Operational Amplifiers and their Characteristics. Zener Diodes. DC and AC Circuits. Operating Point and Bias Stability. Logic Gates. Norton's Theorem. D. Basic Differentiator and Integrator. Inverting and Non-Inverting Amplifier. Voltage Regulator ICs. Push-Pull Amplifier. Network Theorems: Superposition Theorem. Decimal. Semiconductor Devices: Diodes (Detector. Transistors (Junction Transistor. . Counters. Feedback. Large Signal Amplifiers: Power Amplifiers. Nodal Equations. Power Meter. Rectifier. Thevenin Theorem. BCD and ASCII Codes. its Effect on Amplifier Performance. Kirchoff's Laws. Magnetic Field Meter. Semiconducting Memories (RAM. T-and π-Networks. Equivalent Circuits of Transistors. MOSFET). FET. Positive Feedback and Oscillators.PHE-10 ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS AND ELECTRONICS 4 Credits Network Analysis: Circuit Elements. Transformers. Filters (High Pass. Boolean Algebra. Classification of Oscillators. Voltage Reference). Series and Parallel Resonant Circuits. Attenuators. Adder Flip Flops (RS. A/D and D/A Converters (only Functional Description). Cathode Ray Oscilloscope. Octal and Hexadecimal Number Systems and Interconversions. Low Pass. Unregulated Power Supplies. Regulated Power Supply. C. Devices and Instruments: Vacuum Tubes. B. Impedance Matching. Op-Amp as a Comparator.

PHE-11 MODERN PHYSICS 4 Credits Special Theory of Relativity. Group Velocity. Quantum Mechanics: Birth of Quantum Physics. the Uncertainty Principle and its Consequences. Lorentz Invariance. Commutation Relations. Wave-Particle Duality. Stern-Gerlach Experiment. Simple Harmonic Oscillator (Energy Eigenvalues only). Free Particle. Optical Spectra of Hydrogenic Atoms. Examples. Naturally Radioactive Series. . Discovery of Constancy of Speed of Light. One Dimensional Potential Well. Nuclear Reactors. X-ray Terms and Selection Rules. Pauli's Exclusion Principle and Electronic Configurations. Applications of Nuclear Radiation in Science and Industry. Spin. Magic Numbers. Time Dependent and Time Independent Schrodinger Equation in One Dimension. Elementary Particles. Energy Levels. Time Dilation. Biological Effects of Nuclear Radiation. Postulates of Quantum Mechanics. Particle Accelerators and Detectors. Lorentz Transformation. Quantum Numbers and Constants of Motion. Size etc. Nuclear Physics. Nuclear Power Generation (Indian Programme. the Solution of Radial Equations (Qualitative). Length Contraction. Allowed and Forbidden Transitions. Nature of α. Semi-empirical Mass Formula. Selection Rules. Space Quantization. Parity Operator and its Eigenvalues. Spherically Symmetric Systems: Hydrogen Atom. Applications of X-rays. Energy-Mass Equivalence. Spherical Harmonics (mention only). Tunneling. Statistical Interpretation of Wave Function. Stationary State Wave Function. Separation of Schrodinger Equation in Spherical Polar Coordinates. Quarks. Half Life of Excited States. Spectral Notation. Relativistic Energy and Momentum and their Transforms. Radioactive Decay Law. Orbital Angular Momentum. Magnetic Moment. Discussion of Bound and Continuum States. Applications of Quantum Mechanics: One Dimensional Rectangular Potential Barrier. Complementarity. Postulates of Special Theory of Relativity. Velocity Addition Theorem. Radiation Dosimetry (mention only).. Liquid Drop Model. Variation of Mass with Velocity. Wave Function in Momentum Space. Existing Facilities). Stability of Nuclei: Binding Energy Curve. Nuclear Fission. Ehrenfest's Theorem. General Properties of Nuclei: Mass. Modern Notion of Constituents of Matter. Newton's Laws of Motion in Relativistically Covariant Form. de-Broglie Hypothesis. Expectation Values. Finite Width of Spectral Lines. Normalization of Wave Functions. β and γ Spectra and Qualitative Explanation Thereof. X-ray Spectra. Nuclear Fusion. Radioactive Equilibria. the Total Angular Momentum Vector. Thought Experiments. Linear Momentum. Wave Packet. Observables and Operators. Eigenvalues of L2. Radio-Tracer Studies. Spin Angular Momentum: the Magnetic Moment of Electron. Characteristic X-ray Spectra. Particle in a Box. Moseley's Law. Doppler Effect. Probability Current Density and Continuity Equation. Neutron Number.

PHE-12 (L) Experiment 1 Experiment 2 Experiment 3 Experiment 4 Experiment 5 Experiment 6 Experiment 7 Experiment 8 Experiment 9 Experiment 10 Experiment 11 PHYSICS LABORATORY-III Some Investigations on the Rotation of Plane of Polarisation Some Investigations on Interference of Light To Study the Diffraction Pattern of a Thin Wire Resolving Power of a Telescope 4 Credits To Investigate the Temperature Dependence of Radiation from a Hot Filament Study of Magnetisation Intensity in a Magnetic Material Measurement of Inductance: Anderson’s Bridge To study an Off-balance Wheatstone Bridge and to Investigate its use in the Measurement of Strain Study of an Audio Frequency Amplifier using Bipolar Junction Transistor Some Experiments with Logic Gates Study of Hall Effect in a Metal Table Top Experiment 1 Fourier Analysis of Periodic Waveforms Table Top Experiment 2 Kepler’s Third Law of Planetary Motion .

Elastic Stress and Strain and their Analysis for Cubic Crystals. Fermi Energy. Crystal Systems and Elements of Symmetry. Classical Theory of Specific Heat. Commonly Observed Symmetries. Different Types of Crystal Bonding: Ionic. Elastic Constants for a Cubic Crystal. Laue Treatment of X-ray Diffraction. Geometrical Arrangement of Atoms and Molecules. Ferrites. Concept and Properties of Lattice Types. Symmetries in Atoms and Molecules. Critical Temperature and Critical Field Characteristic Parameters of Superconductors. X-ray diffraction. Wave Velocity along Typical Crystal Directions. Origin of Energy Bands in Solids. Determination of Different Parameters. Cohesive Energy for Ionic and van der Waals Crystals. Perfect Conductor and Superconductor. Atomic and Structural Scattering Factors. Glasses. Classification of Solids into Metals. Hydrogen Bonding and van der Waals Bonding. Fermi-Dirac Statistics. Lorentz Number. Quantisation of Lattice Vibrations. Elastic Properties of Non-Cubic Crystals. Sommerfeld Theory. . Bragg’s Conditions. Electrical Conductivity. Ferroelectrics. Principles of Operation and Fabrication of Transducers. Drude–Lorentz Theory. Translational Symmetry and Periodicity. Relaxation Time. Bloch Model and Motion of Electrons in Periodic Potential. Alloying. Crystal Growth and Purification. Brillouin Zone and Effective Mass. Electronic Specific Heat and Electronic Thermal Conductivity. Ceramics. Inanimate and Animate World. Bravais Lattices. Energy Levels. Curie-Weiss Law. Covalent. Quantum Theories of Einstein and Debye. Limitations of the Classical Theory. Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Expansion. Energy States. Solid Materials: Types of Semiconductors. Crystal Directions and Crystal Planes. Temperature Dependence of Resistivity. Polycrystalline and Amorphous Semiconductors. Quasi Crystals. Different Types of Magnetic Materials. Pauli's Theory of Paramagentism. Distribution of Free Electrons. Polycrystalline and Amorphous Solids. Strength of Materials. Atoms in Solids as a Microscopic Spring-Mass System. Pyroelectrics. Elastic Energy Density. Reciprocal Lattice. Properties and Some Important Applications of Piezoelectrics. Type–I and Type–II Superconductors. Insulators and Semiconductors. Symmetry Operations. Optical and Thermal Properties. Neutron Diffraction and Electron Microscopy. High Tc Superconductors (a brief outline). Miller Indices. Solar Cells. Dynamics of a Chain of One and Two Types of Atoms. Limitation of Sommerfeld Model. Cubic Crystals. Concept of Normal Modes. PN Junction. Kronig–Penney Model. Classical Free Electron Theory of Metals. Polymers. Thin Film Devices. Propagation of Elastic Waves in a Cubic Crystal. Two and Three Dimensional Crystals. Crystal Defects. Metallic. and Brillouin zone. Liquid Crystals. Hall Effect. Meisner Effect. Acoustic and Optical Phonons.PHE-13 PHYSICS OF SOLIDS 4 Credits Symmetries Observed in Nature. Physics of Semiconductors – Electronic.

Rodrigue’s Formula. Orthogonality Relations. Orthogonality Relations. Determination of Eigenvectors. Symmetry and Conservation Laws in Quantum Mechanics. Recurrence Relations. Concept of Residue. Symmetry and Antisymmetry. Tensors: Coordinate Transformations and Effect on Physical Quantities. Some Crystallographic Point Groups. Fourier Transform of Derivatives and Integrals. Laplace Transforms of Derivatives and Integrals. Applications to Reduction of Quadratic Forms etc. Class. Order of Poles. Fourier Integral Theorem. Fourier Sine and Cosine Transforms. Characteristic Equation. Laguerre Equation. Minimal Equation and its Uses. Solving Differential Equations through Fourier Transforms. Generating Functions. Complex Analysis: Complex Variables. Time Translations and Conservation of Energy. Analyticity and the Cauchy-Riemann Conditions. Complex Integration: Line Integrals. Generating Function. Usefulness of Symmetry (Selection Rules etc. Cayley – Hamilton Theorem. Fourier Transforms: Definition. Conjugate Elements. Legendre Polynomials as Solutions of Physical Importance. Higher Rank Tensors (Definition and Examples). Continuity and Analytic Continuation. Examples (Square or Equilateral Triangle with Centre Fixed) and Counter Examples. Legendre Polynomials. Similarity Transformations. Different Complex Functions (Exponential. Diagonalisable Matrices. Evaluation of Residues. Generating Functions. Properties of Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of Hermitian and Unitary Matrices. Diagonalization of Matrices. Integral Representation of Jn(x). Logarithmic. Symmetry under Spatial Translations and Conservation of Linear Momentum. Applications to Physical Systems. Application to Evaluation of Definite Integrals involving Rational Functions and Trigonometric Functions. Bessel Functions in Physical Problems with Cylindrical Symmetry. Translation Group. Evaluation of Fourier Transform of Simple Functions. Special Functions: Legendre Equation. Crystals and Symmetry (Two-dimensions). Bessel Function Jn (x) for Integral n. Orthogonality Relations. Scalars. Residue Theorem. . Applications of Group Theory: Symmetry in Molecules. Recurrence Relations.). Limit. Recurrence Relations. Hermitian and Unitary Matrices and their Relevance in Physics. Covariant and Contravariant Vectors. Cauchy’s Integral Theorem and Integral Formulae. Generating Function for Legendre Polynomials. Laplace Transforms: Definition. Removable). Definition of a Group. Hyperbolic).PHE-14 MATHEMATICAL METHODS IN PHYSICS-III 4 Credits The Eigenvalue Problem for Matrices: Definitions. Trigonometric. Inverse Laplace Transforms (only Simple Methods). Sub-Groups. Properties. Recurrence Relations. Examples. Abstract Group and Realisations. Function of a Complex Variable. Bessel Equation. Space Groups. Taylor and Laurent Series. Application to Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients. Evaluation of Laplace Transforms of Various Functions. Singularities (Essential. Symmetric and Orthogonal Matrices. Derivative in the Complex Plane. Basic Notions of Group Theory: Symmetry in Physical Problems. Real. Heat Conduction Equation in One-Dimension and Other Examples. General Results Regarding Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors. Hermite Equation.

. Supernovae. Unified Model. Large-Scale Structure and the Expanding Universe. Extra-solar Planets. Black-Body Radiation. Cosmic Abundances. Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium. Friedmann Equations and Solutions. End stages. Measurement of Time (mean solar time. Detectability Limits of Telescopes. Structure and Properties. Mass and Time Scales. Central Engine (accretion disks and jets). Ellipticals and Irregulars. (Radio Galaxies and quasars. resolving power. Brightness. Basic Concepts of Positional Astronomy: Celestial Sphere. Nucleosynthesis and Stellar Evolution. Introduction to Magneto-hydrodynamics. The Solar Family. Galactic Center. Corona. Boltzmann & Saha Equations. The Milky Way. Solar Activity (solar wind. Maxwellian Velocity Distribution. Solar Atmosphere. Radiative Transfer Equation and Optical Depth. Active Galaxies: Nature. Optical Telescopes. Gas and Dust. Measurement of Astronomical Quantities (distance. Seismology of the Sun (brief mention only). Luminosity Classification. Stellar Spectra and Classification. Rotation (Differential Rotation and Oort’s constants). Astronomical Techniques: Basic Optical Definitions (magnification. Sources of Stellar Energy. Hubble’s Law. Atomic Spectra. Hydrostatic Equilibrium. Early Universe and Nucleosynthesis. Classification. Behaviour. Spirals. stellar radii and temperatures). Detectors. Compact Stars. Virial Theorem. H-R Diagram. White Dwarfs (Chandrasekhar limit). Radiant Flux and Luminosity. Cluster of Galaxies (Virial Theorem and Dark Matter). Inter-stellar Matter (21 cm line). Spectral Types and Temperature Dependence. Galaxies: Morphology. light gathering power. Newtonian Theory vs. Equation of State and Degenerate Gas of Fermions. Chromosphere. Seyferts and star burst galaxies). Solar Parameters. Star Clusters. Calendar. sidereal time. Polytropic Stellar Models. Physical Principles: Virial Theorem. Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. Photosphere. Models of Energy Transport. Evolution towards Main Sequence. Stellar Nucleosynthesis. Neutron Stars (pulsars). equation of time). Hubble Classification. Main Sequence and Post-main Sequence Evolution of Stars. Origin of the Solar System (Nebular model). Facts and Figures. solar flares. Steady State Universe. Stellar Structure. Astronomical Coordinate Systems (horizon and equatorial). Limiting Mass. sun spots). Star Formation: Composition of Interstellar Medium. diffraction limit). Collapse and Fragmentation of Molecular Clouds (mass function). Black Holes. Atmospheric Windows. mass. Cosmic Distance Ladder. Systems in Thermodynamic Equilibrium. Rotation Curve.PHE–15 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS 4 Credits Astronomical Distance. Evolving vs. General Relativity. Jean’s Instability Criterion. The Sun. Stellar Spectra. Tidal Forces and Planetary Rings.

Large Distance Communication Systems (Block Diagram). Channel Bandwidth and Capacity. TV Transmission and Reception. Quantization. Transmission and Reception. Parallel Communication Modes etc. Striplines. Elements of Antenna. Serial. Modulation Techniques: Modulation Theorem. Ionosphere. Plane Wave Solution in Dielectrics and Conductors. Review of Antennae (No Derivation). Signal to Noise Ratio. Types of Transmission Lines . e-mail. Optical Fibre Communication: Fibre Optics Principles. AM. Computer Based Communication: Computer as Tool of Communication. Audio and Video Communication: AM. PPM. Central Switching. Colour and Monochrome Signal. TV Standards. Spectrum and Density Function. Communication System Model: Source . Futuristic Look of Communication Systems: Wireless Technology. Microwave. PDM. WAP and any other new emerging topics. Microwaves: Waveguide Components. Telephony and Switching: Point to Point. Radiation Pattern (Interference in Multielement Antennae). Co-axial. INTERNET. Pulse Modulation Systems .). 2-wire Line. Signal Representation: Energy and Power Limited Signals.Microstriplines. Vestigial Band Transmission. LAN. PCM. Transmission Line Equation (Recap). Optical Sources and Detectors. Blue Tooth. Linear Modulation Systems. Classification of Signals (Periodic. Desktop. Personal. Basic Tools for Handling Deterministic Signals. Channel Capacity. Satellite Communication. Sampling Theorem. Multiplexing in Time. Camera and Display Tubes. Wireless and Cellular Communication.Media Sink. Hardware Architecture and Software Aspects. Space). Types of Media and Characteristics (Wires. Point to Multipoint Communication. Multi-media Systems. Space. Routing and Call Processing. Modulation Techniques. Distributed Components versus Lumped Components.PAM. Full Duplex Communication. Characteristic Impedance of Transmission Line and Impedance Matching (Reflection Coefficient. WWW. Half Duplex. FM. Frequency Spectrum of Source and Response of Detector. Simplex. Pulses. Attenuation and Losses. FM Broadcasting. Frequency and Wavelength. . Microwave Generators and Detectors. Wide and Narrow Band Noise. Dielectric Transmission Line. Concepts of Telephone System. RADAR. Resonance. Signal Propagation: Review of Maxwell’s Equation and Concept of Boundary Conditions. Total Internal Reflection. Surface Waves.PHE–16 COMMUNICATION PHYSICS 4 Credits Elements of Communication: Everyday Communication System. Scattering). PM and Their Modulation and Demodulation Techniques. Discrete Modulation Techniques. Line of Sight. WAN Computer Network. Poynting Theorem.