The challenges for ESL Educators to teach ESP in the classroom Introduction The purpose of this work is to show

the challenges that English Foreign Language (ESL) teachers confront in the classroom when teaching English for Specific Language (ESP) going through the process of adapting themselves from General English to specific context situations. At some points during their teaching experiences, ESL teachers find themselves in situations where it is necessary to teach ESP but they find it difficult because they are used to focusing on providing their learners a course that satisfies the students ‘urgency to learn about language in general but when it comes to teaching Technical English, more emphasis is placed on the needs analysis of the learners and more effort is required on the part of the educators to the preparation of their classes. Furthermore, this work attempts to recognize the different aspects to be taken into account in ESP teaching contexts and provide some useful applications to be used in the classroom since it is considered that teachers’ effectiveness relies on their abilities to adapt contents and different techniques in order to satisfy the specific professional objectives of their second language learners. Let us consider first what is known as English for Specific Purposes. Dudley-Evans and St John (1998) define ESP on two criteria. 1. Absolute characteristics: a) ESP is designed to meet specific needs of the learner; b) ESP makes use of the underlying methodology and activities of the disciplines it serves; and c) ESP is centred on the language (grammar, lexis, and register), skills, discourse and genres appropriate to these activities.2. Variable characteristics: a) ESP may be related or designed for specific disciplines; b) ESP may use, in specific teaching situations, a different methodology from that of general English; c) ESP is likely to be designed for adult learners, either at a tertiary level institution or in a

professional work situation; it could be used for learners at secondary school level; d) ESP is generally designed for intermediate or advanced learners; and e) Most ESP courses assume basic knowledge of the language system, but it can be used with beginners. English for Specific Purposes and General English Teachers having experiences as a Teacher of English as a foreign language may think how English for Specific courses differ from English as a Foreign Language. “The major difference between ESP and EFL lies not only in the learners and their purposes for learning English (…) but also in the scope of the goals of instruction. Whereas in EFL all four language skills; listening, reading, peaking, and writing, are stressed equally, in ESP a needs assessment determines which language skills are most needed by the students, and the program is focused accordingly. It is a well known fact that most of ESP learners tend to be professional adults since they need to be prepared to perform some communicative English skills related to their specific jobs. However, in the Argentinian Educational System, secondary schools have different disciplines that require ESL teachers the ability to provide students the necessary tools to apply foreign language skills to their knowledge acquired about their main field of study, whether it is related to Humanities, Business, Tourism, Accounting or Computer Sciences. Anthony (1997) states that it is not very clear the end of General English and the beginning of English for Specific Purposes but there exist a thin line between them. Whereas in the former, ESL teachers focus on the language in general, in the latter the focus is placed in the acquisition of grammatical structures, specific contents and lexis for students to reach a certain level of mastery in the fours skills related to language, that is to say, Reading, Writing, Listening and Speaking . Concerning to Technical English it can be affirmed that within the field of ESL, is perceived as “an artificial language that

emphasizes certain language conventions not common to Standard English” (Drobnic) and this artificial language is found in technical texts and settings where not only special jargon is used but also different structures are emphasized. Technical English is

considered to be centered not only on the language, that is to say, Grammar, lexis or register but also on the combination of skills together with the acquisition of specific information. One of the main problems Non- technically oriented teachers have to face has to do with recognizing and keeping in mind the differences that exist when teaching General English and English for Specific Purposes. It is worth mentioning that probably one of the most outstanding differences has to do with technical terminology that involves specific words, fixed phrase structures and everyday words that have their own special meanings. Dealing with vocabulary is a hard task since words may have different meanings and each of them have a unique meaning within the technical field. . Kathleen Bogue,O (1978)affirms that vocabulary differences which are not particularly common in everyday English are the use of noun –compounding such as “calorie-proteinratio” and the consistent use of two word verbs such as “consist of “and “result from”. While conversational English does use some expressions in which fixed order is important (“from head to foot”), technical expressions (“owned and operated by”) and fixed phrases (“conduct/perform an experiment”) are standard means of description. As regards the grammatical aspect, students may have a vague idea about the different meanings of modal verbs in General English situations but they must know the real distinctions between modals when reading or writing technical texts. Another point to take into account is the use of the passive voice. Even though this grammatical structure is used in General English, it is more commonly found in technical texts specially when describing

As a matter of fact. teachers are seen as resource people in charge of helping learners identify their language learning weaknesses and helping them to make a progress in their foreign language acquisition. However. Examples of grammatical and vocabulary differences are described in Appendix I. some authors (Dudley-Evans and St John. students have already acquired previous knowledge. teachers are not seen as the main knower of the carrier content of the material since in certain specifically oriented courses. teachers are expected to create a learning environment encouraging students to communicate with each other considering that acquiring a language is a risk-taking subject matter since most students feel uncomfortable when they are unable to apply their native linguistic competences to present themselves as knowledgeable ones in their specific field. Role of the teacher Since ESP teaching covers a wide range of topics. Teachers may take advantage of this and draw on some students’ knowledge in order to answer questions from other classmates and at the same time they learn more . teachers should be aware of their student´s capabilities in order to establish realistic aims and short or long term objectives.processes with the omission of the agent creating confusion among students. 1998) tend to use the term “practitioner” rather than “teacher” to emphasize that ESP work involves much more than teaching. selection and organization of course materials. Moreover. One of the main tasks ESP teachers have to deal with relates to the setting of goals translated into an instructional program and the management. Educators are expected to show themselves as experts when presenting and explaining technical language and this implies having an outgoing personality and showing interest while establishing professionalism and credibility in order to be able to follow a discussion among the learners since this is an effective way to unlock students” motivation. In addition to this. .

it is essential to collaborate together with other teachers to focus on the different aspects that are uncomfortable or difficult to deal with and try to elaborate solutions. teachers will know if their learners have ever written a research and what are the skills they need to focus along the course.about the technological field being taught aiming to provide a communicative environment. they will know if students are used to memorizing information or self-discovery learning. In this way. When selecting materials to work. Sometimes. For teachers to work effectively. This is always a difficult task that can also be carried out by means of a questionnaire where students reflect their educational background. it is important to create a contract with the learners stating that you teach them the language and the different skills needed to study their chosen future professions but at the same time they teach you technology. They are supposed to expand their knowledge by reading journals or magazines related to the field they are interested in and taking specific courses. in some cases. When teaching in a college-bound class. this implies admitting ignorance on the technical field. non –technical oriented teachers meet the challenge of creating their own authentic materials for certain topics for which no suitable published materials are found. For ESL teachers and students to feel more self confident. Once this contract is established then teachers should be able to determine what their students are supposed to learn. it seems advisable for teachers to try to level with their students even if. Not only this but also teachers may ask them about the educational system patterns they are inserted in. In this way. it is necessary to consider the functions and uses of language in the content area and observe students interactions in order to reflect in the materials their specific needs and give them the guide to know what they are supposed to do with the English language they learn. This gives teachers a sense of confidence and .

shows students that they are not only interested in teaching them the language but also they are seeking to become well prepared teachers in the specific field involved.) It is particularly useful in making use of aural- . Role of the students ESP learners have a particular focus on subject –matter knowledge and the acquisition of learning strategies since they are expected to develop foreign language skills to reflect their own native language and professional skills. Kathleen Bogue Caissie (1978) states that “A carefully constructed dialogue will present nothing new except the specific material which is to be studied(. Successful learners pay attention to the learning of the language they hear or read and do not focus primarily on the linguistic input or isolated language structures. In ESP.” Teaching Tools The following are some useful ideas for novice Technical English teachers to be applied in the classroom.. Rather. nor as a mechanical skill or habit to be developed. People learn languages when they have opportunities to understand and work with language in a context that they comprehend and find interesting. Students will acquire English as they work with materials which they find interesting and relevant and which they can use in their professional work or further studies. English should be presented not as a subject or body of facts to be learned in isolation from real use. ESP is a vehicle for such opportunities. English should be presented in authentic contexts to acquaint the learners with the particular ways the language is used in functions that they will need to perform in their specialty fields. a useful idea is to do it by means of dialogues which allow the isolation and reinforcement of technical concepts and terminologies that are likely go together with the new material.. Schleppegrell-Bowman (1986) affirm that “the ESP student has a particular purpose and focus for learning. The ESP student is particularly well disposed to focus on meaning in the subject-matter field. When presenting particular technical concepts.

there are other exercises which the teacher/facilitator could design from the film experience. Another useful and valuable tool has to do with the selection of films considering the teacher´s objectives and the nature of the film. reinforcing structures and emphasizing oral skills. lends itself to explicating a theory. dictionary definitions should not be needed. there are certain features that dialogues must have. there should be no question in the students” minds of what concept or linguistic feature is being dealt with. it is two people speaking with one another” Focusing on all these features. The students could look up the definition of the words. how it was done.e camera angle. Or they could be given the assignment of drawing a diagram of the specific experimental apparatus and labeling it. film processing. The students could be asked to write a brief essay contrasting the benefits of technology and traditional methods of investigation using specific structures and terminology. discussing their own feelings about what they saw. Its meaning must be clear and explicit. building vocabulary. for instance.oral skills which often seem to have a hard time finding their use in Technical English”. students could compare their observations and findings. lighting or projection. use them in sentences and finally fill in the blanks in a close exercise” (Kathleen Bogue Caissie 1978:19) . They could write something about the film process itself i. Once these exercises were done. The language should be natural. The vocabulary can be new but should be decipherable in context. While these are exercises in which the teacher could participate as a learner. Moreover. A word study guide could be made up as a homework assignment. an example of a dialogue to be used in a technical English class can be found in Appendix II. A film of this sort can be discussed in terms of what was done.”A film about an experiment and its conclusive results. it should be short and address the material to be presented. why.

Word study exercises such as matching synonyms and building word families are always valuable activities. vocabulary definitions in contexts are reinforced . They are also good for word study and are simple to devise vocabulary exercises from. to let them know what purposes are expected to be accomplished due to the fact that most ESL learners tend to view film watching activities as confusing or boring ones. to prepare an outline from their notes to reflect their comprehension and conceptual understanding. Learners can be expected to do note. “They permit to create exercises going from the explicit to the implicit. As with films and dialogues. which might include vocabulary definition. examining grammatical structures and different types of paragraphs which occur frequently in Technical English. they feel more self confident and know what specific aspects they have to focus on. that is to say. are all valid methods of examining and analyzing a text(…)While articles are generally used to reinforce reading and writing skills . An analysis of the text can be the basis for class discussion. there is always room for| stressing speaking skills as well. Students are supposed to watch the film twice but after the first presentation teachers should clarify some technical concepts and difficult grammatical structures until they realize that working with this film is not a frustration for their students. articles can cover a spectrum of exercises. Sentence combining and/or compression.( Kathleen Bogue Caissie 1978:21) . Other useful and rich resources available are newspapers and journals which make it easier for teachers to control the different structures.In addition to this. technical concepts they want to work with. summarizing and outlining. films are considered to be functional since one film may be used for different kind of activities. parallel paragraphs. In this way. understand cause and effect relationships and at the same time.taking activities to notice key phrases.In addition to this. It is essential to make the objectives clear.

teachers should let students know from the very beginning that they are expected to act as lecturers during the course. then it means that they cannot comprehend them. If students are not able to complete the passages. “By modeling a short lecture or presentation.Another important aspect to pay attention refers to encouraging students to prepare lectures or presentations for the class in order to train them to be comfortable when standing up in front of others in future professional contexts. Listening comprehension. Since this aspect has to be dealt in a gradual way. it is important to notice which skill should be emphasized and given priority. (Kathleen Bogue Caissie 1978:21). Working in this task implies a lot of effort on both parts the teachers and the learners since the latter often refuse to expose themselves feeling embarrassed when speaking a foreign and technical language. So. is often the rejected skill so it is advisable to take into consideration some useful points. for instance. Contextualized Mini-lectures are also considered effective to develop listening skills since while reading the lecture. the instructor gives the shyer student a format to follow with confidence. First of all. In an ESP course. Reading. Speaking and Writing. then it can be useful to assign one student a certain article as homework and can be asked to summarize it for the whole class who are supposed to have already read the articles. It is known that the four skills required in the acquisition of a language are Listening. teachers are supposed to analyze the level of their students and try to adjust their speech and reflect if they are being understood. but allows the more secure (or perhaps the more experienced) student to be as creative as his linguistic competency and technological knowledge will allow. students can be given a cloze activity to fill in the blanks while . This may give some confidence for the student who has to stand in front of their classmates to clarify technical concepts. Cloze exercises are a good way to check students listening comprehension so they can be given a passage with deleted words such as verbs or articles depending on the structures that need to be focused on.

new words should not be learnt as word lists to be memorized with their definitions from dictionaries. Furthermore. and. The vocabulary taught should be contextualized. Sq3R means Survey. when they have finished reading .2) to formulate questions from text headings. using their own words and trying to give an example 5)to take notes. and identifying the core ideas of the passage. Schleppegrell-Bowman 1986: 18) In addition to this. synthesizing. reading introductory and concluding paragraphs. “Two types of skills are needed in reading: simple identification skills. fluent reading depends on the knowledge and grammatical structures students have. Extensive reading is faster reading of longer passages to develop under-standing of writers' organizational strategies. Read. Question. Recite and Review. that is to say. Listening activities may also be reinforced by the use of visual aids such as graphics whenever possible.teachers re read the lecture. to review their notes. (decoding) and higher level cognitive skills such as analyzing. and comprehension. Students are asked to complete these five activities.3) to make a conscious effort to find the answers in the text as they read 4) having read the first section to look away from the book and try to recite the answers to their questions. Other useful techniques are related to reading activities. students should be trained to take notes while listening or writing notes by means of dictation exercises. grammar skills.1) to survey: looking over headings. to improve reading speed. and to focus on main ideas”. There is a technique called the SQ3R that helps learners to read accurately and comprehensively. and predicting (…) Intensive reading is close analysis of a short passage and can be used to develop vocabulary.( Kathleen Bogue Caissie 1978:19) Examples can be found in Appendix III .

Teachers often tend to feel frustrated when do not reach their goals but according to some studies listening comprehension activities contribute to the increase of the ability to speak. those that lead to major breakdowns in communication. However. teachers should tell students that grammar is not the most important aspect of language learning since most students. This would provide you with a focus when you are noting errors. but actually. either with you or in another class. functions and grammar points in their role play. Kathleen Bogue Caissie (1978) provides the step to follow role playing exercises. language functions and grammar. but otherwise ignore errors.1) Choose a situation. One group of students can be asked to explain the procedures until the whole class understands. of course. it is well known fact that in a classroom of more than twenty students and two or one hour class time it is difficult to provide each student with the practice of speaking. students of hotel management may be studying public relations and you could devise a flowchart which requires students to exercise their public relation skills in English. As regards Writing. They may feel they are making progress in the acquisition of the language. there are some useful ways to improve speaking skills and are related to the practice of dialogues including memorization and repetition and the practice of Role playing to stimulate conversation. Flow charts can be used to act as a base for the communicative act.As regards Speaking. tend to place great emphasis on grammar. Concentrate on correct use of the selected items. For example. they are learning about the language but not acquiring the . especially adults. Different flowcharts can be given to different groups and then they can act out their situations for the rest of the class. and demand various classes devoted to the explanations about different grammatical points. You could then ask students to use these same vocabulary items. This could be based on a text your students are studying. except.2) Teach the required vocabulary.

ESP teachers are not considered experts in the specific technical field but in the teaching of English and are expected to act as facilitators in that they guide and help their learners who manage a good knowledge of the specific fields they are immersed in. Moreover. grammar can be best practiced in conjunction with writing. structured exercises allowing students to develop confidence as writers before working with longer free writing tasks. knowledge and flexibility to deal with their own students’ specializations. Conclusion As it can be appreciated.ability to use the language in the specific contexts they are inserted so teachers should encourage learners to communicate in English even if they make mistakes. the skill in which it can be best practiced. . ESL teachers meet different tough challenges when teaching Technical English due to the fact that they are required not only to develop awareness of students´ needs but also to be equipped with all the necessary tools. The most useful grammatical forms are question forms. visual aids can be added in order to guide learners in the writing process in the classroom where the teacher can monitor the progresses and make suggestions. It is worth mentioning that there is no “best” methodology to teach ESP but it is a fact that teachers´ main implies their abilities to recognize their students’ weaknesses and specific aims trying to apply all the teaching techniques acquired. Development of writing abilities involve lots of practice and it is advisable to start with simple. negative forms. However. relative clause formation and other structures involved in coordination and subordination.

be in effect. bolt. 1-Examples of Technical Terms-Specific terms unique to a field “Truss”-engineering fibrillation-medicine 2. 3.Specific meaning given to a word “The same conditions obtained for the second experiment”. luminous vs illuminated. screw. tube. line. “Obtained”= hold.Terms with various meanings depending upon the field “Joint” –engineering-medicine-drugs “Skid”-helicopters.Preferences in technical usage: . 4-Preciseness of meanings: Pin. automobiles. electric vs electrical 5: Fixed word order of words in phrases a) Everyday expressions “from head to foot”-“inside out” b) Technical expressions “supply and demand”.Appendix I These examples of linguistic varieties in Technical English are taken from Kathleen Bogue Caissie (1978). be operative.“ profit and loss” 6-Fixed phrases “Alimentary canal/ operating room surgery” 7.

study “Parts. bore. constituents. pierce. component parts. pieces”=components. research. drill. “Cut holes in”= perforate.Shorthand Devices Examples of compounds a) Noun-Adjectives separated by a hyphen Disease-resistant Light-sensitive Growth-retarding Tone-deaf b) Noun+ Noun (two words) Salt content Crop damage Feed crops c) Noun + verb ( two words) Leaf fall Leaf kill d) Adjective + Verb or Verb + verb Dry rot Freeze dry . B.“Look into”= investigate.

2) Examples of Acronyms LOX= Liquid oxygen BP= British Petroleum SOP= Standard Operating Procedure RPM= Revolution per minute CC= Cubic Cycle C-Nature of Sentences in Technical Writing 1) Passive Constructions “The conference was slated for March 30. 1976” “Water was added to the mixture” 2) Use of the Verb to Be a) Stipulation of a condition (as modifier) “Catalytic action is rapid” b) Definition= “Clay is both Compressible and Impermeable” “The Pneumatic casing is pre –cast” c) Establishment of Equivalency “Lift is induced drug” 3) Use of Stative constructions .

“The bulkhead is secured” “The glass rod is snapped and the pieced fired individually” 4) Absence of emotive terms 5) Minimal use of variable or unspecific terms .

why? A= Oxygen has only ne kind of Atom-oxygen atom.Hydrogen is an element 2. You can ask me anything.Appendix II The following is an example of a dialogue to be used when introducing a new topic. It has two hydrogen atoms combined with one oxygen atom. Word Study Nouns Element= A substance with only one kind of atom 1. water´s a compound. Is water an element? A=No. B=Oh. Are you ready for today´s lesson? A=Sure. B= The atoms together form a molecule and that makes a compound. English through Chemistry= Pre Academic or Simplified Science Dialogue 1 A=Dr.Some elements are radioactive Word family= elemental (adj) and elementary (adj) . Ahmed. Einstein B=Hello Ahmed. B= That´s good. B=Okay. Can you tell me what an element is? A= For example. oxygen is an element.

it is/No.Compound material made up of two or more elements 1) Water is a compound 2) Some compounds are liquid Atom= the smallest particle of a compound 1) Different atoms joined together make a molecule 2) Molecules are combination of atoms Word family= Molecular (adj) Word Study Verbs To combine= to unite 1.The chemist combined several elements Word Family=Combination (n) To form=to make 1) Hydrogen and oxygen form water 2) The chemist formed several compounds Word Family=form (n) Substitution Drill Is hydrogen an element? Oxygen Salt Yes. 2.Hydrogen. it isn´t . Oxygen and sulfur combine to make sulfuric acid.

he did/ No. he didn´t . they can´t Could the chemist form water? Salt? Sulpheric acid? Matter from energy? Yes. they aren´t Can compounds be liquids? Gases Solids? Elements? Yes. he couldn´t Did the chemist combine several elements? Hydrogen and oxygen? Sodium and chloride? Yes. they are/ No.Water Are atoms small? Parts of elements? Easy to see? Usually radioactive? Yes. they can/No. he could/ No.

Possibility -----------------------------------1) I can´t find my Chemistry notebook -----------------------------------2) Can atoms combine? -----------------------------------3) Can compounds be solid? -----------------------------------4) Can I use your microscope? .Solid When a Chemist------------------------------------two parts hydrogen with one part oxygen. the water -------------------------------------is one of the most plentiful compounds known to man. This combination--------------------------------------the substance that covers most of the earth´s surface.To form.Atom. To combine-Radioactive. Then.Study the Vocabulary list below.Energy. H2O. It refers to the Present and future time and used to indicate 1) Ability= You can heat this with a burner 2) Permission= You can use my book 3) Possibility= This experiment can be dangerous Practice= Indicate the meaning of the underlined word in terms of ability-permission.Compound.Vocabulary and Writing Directions.Modal Auxiliary.Two --------------------------------------Of the element hydrogen combine with one atom of the -------------------------------------------Oxygen.Can Can is a modal auxiliary followed by the infinitive form of the verb. Structure.Molecule. on a separate piece of paper write each sentence and fill in each blank space with a word from the list.Element. Water is a --------------------------------------. he makes water.

Structure_ Modal Auxiliary Could Could indicates 1) Past tense of Can= The Chemist said he could make compounds 2) Present Future Conditional=You could learn the formula if you tried .-----------------------------------5) Chemists can form compounds.

1-Which are the smallest? Atoms b) Molecules c) Compounds d) Reactions 2-Compounds are formed from the -------------------------------------------of different atoms a) Combine b) combined c) combining d) combines 3-It is probable that some compounds are still unknown? a)Yes b) No c) Possibly d) unlikely 4-Which pair of atoms can combine to form a compound a) Hydrogen and oxygen b) oxygen and oxygen c) hydrogen and hydrogen d) none of the above. in fact. there are many different types of compounds in the universe. . 5-Are there many different kinds of Compound in this universe? a) No b) Possibly c) Probably d) Yes. It is possible and probable that some of these Compounds are still unknown. the combining of atoms that form molecules.Appendix III Examples of Reading and Listening Comprehension activities Reading Practice Molecules are very small but atoms are smaller. Because atoms of different types can combine. It is.

from j3. Why is it difficult to find commercial software that is easily modified by the user? (Because there are difficulties in protecting the authorship of such programs. What considerations does the author mention regarding software quality?(Interactions between the scientific software and word processors or database managers. December 1985.STUDENT WORKSHEETS (Note: Answers are given in parentheses for the convenienceof the teacher. Comprehension Questions: 1. or to educate users. Assignment: Read the article and answer these questions before coming to class.) 5. and the suitability of the program's packaging and documentation. What are some purposes for which scientific software has been developed?(To perform particular computational tasks. the style in which it’s presented. what are three major considerations in choosing scientific applications software? (The purpose of the package. According to the author. as a general tool for data analysis. be included in the student copies of the worksheets.) Student Worksheet 1: Reading Comprehension Questions Reading: Scientific Applications Software by John C. the level of satisfaction or frustration you experience while using it. of course. reasonable results on approximations and iterative processes such as floating point decimal .) 2.) 4. Nash.xtg.) 3. What are the three aspects of program style that the author considers important?(The way in which the program must be used.These answers would not. and its overall quality.

operations. and Diagnostic information that allows troublesome situations to be understood and corrected) 6.Topic: Scientific Applications Software Vocabulary Practice Choose the word from the list below which best completes each sentence: Operating language system convenient equipped package categories program programming style 1. ----------------------------------------------------------3.) Student Worksheet 2: Listening Comprehension Exercises . the history of the software. Most programs are written for a particular and------------------------------------------------------ . methods of program development. How can the buyer assess the quality of software? (By reading reviews by professionals in the field and checking authorship. Software usually requires that your computer be with particular features. and the reputation of software producer and vendor. If several programs can perform the same function. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4. Software provides useful tools for scientific----------------------------------------------------------2. ------------------5. This catalog lists four of scientific software. may become the most important feature.

1---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- .MINI-LECTURE: SCIENTIFIC SOFTWARE PRODUCTS Directions: Listen to the mini-1ecture and answer the questions on the spaces below.

Appendix II .

Appendix III .

References ..

A.School for International Training.A. (Ph.PDF.Phil. Helping students to read more effectively PDF. Prepared for the Peace Corps by the Center for Applied Linguistics .). Retrieved on http://www... Michael. on October  Milevica Bojovid. Retrieved in Individual Thesis/SMAT IPP Collection http://www..digitalcollections. Serbia. 23rd 2012. M.www. Harris.PearsonELT. M. and Gunasekaran S..languageinindia. 2012. lecturer Faculty of Agronomy Čačak.  Sridevi A.Phil.pdf. Retrieved October 31st 2012. 24th. How to teach Speaking 2012.  Iggulden Fleur and Allen Julia. 2012  Kathleen Bogue Caissie (1978) A Handbook for Teaching Technical English . Retrieved on August. M. September.sit.  Schleppegrell Mary and Bowman Brenda ESP: TEACHING ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC MA.www. Technical English and General English –Are They Really Different? LANGUAGE IN INDIA Strength for Today and Bright Hope for Tomorrow Volume 12: 5 May 2012 http://www.PearsonELT. Paranthaman D. Teaching Foreign Language for Specific Purposes: Teacher Development.

S.ed.Washington.eric. Volume 1-Number Retrieved 2. . Heidi Shetzer.upt. http://www. U. and Christine Meloni (2000) Teachers of English to speakers of other Language 178ISBN0-939791-88-9(paper) http://teslej.cls. EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES INFORMATIONCENTER (ERIC). D. on http://journal.C.  Popescu Alexandra Valeria (2010) A General view on the relationship between ESP andEGP. DEPARTMENT OF Education Office of Educational Research and 18th October31st 2012.  Warschauer 0.http://www. Retrieved on October.  Wenzhong Zhu and Fang Liao (2008) On Differences between General English Teaching and Business English Teaching.html. Retrieved on September. Retrieved on November 7th 30th 2012.

(English on line .ebook.

e .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful