ANALOG & DIGITAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM AMPLITUDE MODULATION Part IV Part IV

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2 . Heterodyne means to mix two frequencies together in a nonlinear device or to translate one frequency to another using nonlinear mixing. at which a single set of amplifiers is used to provide a fixed level of selectivity and used to provide a fixed level of selectivity and sensitivity.Superhetrodyne Receiver Superhetrodyn receivers convert all incoming signals to a lower frequency. The key circuit is the mixer – act as a simple amplitude modulator to produce sum and difference frequencies. known as the intermediate frequency (IF).

Superhetrodyne Receiver AM Non-Coherent Superhetrodyne Receiver Block Diagram 3 .

. fc 4 .Superhetrodyne Receiver fLO should always be at a freq 455kHz above the incoming carrier freq.

Main purpose of the pre-selector is by selectivity. RF Amplifier – to amplify the signal before entering the mixer 5 . it accepts only the purpose of the pre-selector is by selectivity.Superhetrodyne Receiver RF Section Consist of pre-selector and RF amplifier Pre-selector is a broad-tuned BPF with an adjustable centre frequency that is tuned to the desired carrier frequency. it accepts only the desired frequency or prevent unwanted radio frequency (Image Frequency) from entering the receiver and all others are rejected.

IF signal in commercial AM broadcast are between 450kHz and 460kHz. the original info contained in the envelope remain unchanged. 6 . -RF signal are down converted to IF. Reason to translate RF ->IF is to obtain adequate selectivity. -Shape of the envelope remains the same. The most common IF used is 455kHz. although the carrier and SBs freq are translated from RF->IF. Reason to translate RF ->IF is to obtain adequate selectivity.Superhetrodyne Receiver Mixer/Converter Section This section includes a radio frequency oscillator stage (LO) and a mixer/converter stage (the first detector) which is a nonlinear device used to convert RF’s to IF’s (RF to IF frequency translation).

The mixer in the receiver combines the signal from the RF amplifier and the frequency input from the local oscillator to produce three frequencies: A ‘difference’ frequency of local oscillator frequency . than the incoming RF signals. Mixing two signals to produce such components is called a ‘heterodyne’ process. A ‘sum’ frequency equal to local oscillator frequency + RF signal frequency.Superhetrodyne Receiver Mixer/Converter Section LO is always maintained at a frequency which is higher.RF signal frequency. A component at the local oscillator frequency. 7 . by a fixed amount.RF A ‘difference’ frequency of local oscillator frequency .

Frequency Conversion Concept of a mixer. .

1001)kHz All original inputs Sum component: 1455+(999.1000. thus producing side freqs at 999 kHz and 1001 kHz.Frequency Conversion Process Difference component: 1455-(999.1001)kHz Consider a situation shown above. The AM signal into the mixer is a 1000kHz carrier that has been modulated by a 1kHz sinewave. 9 .1000.

10 . the signal now passing through the IF amplifiers is a replica of the original AM signal. 1000kHz and 1001kHz.Frequency Conversion Process The IF amplifier has a tuned circuit that accepts components only near 455kHz. in this case 454kHz. 455kHz and 456kHz. Since the mixer maintains the same amplitude proportion that existed with the original AM signal input at 999kHz. A frequency conversion has occurred that has translated the carrier from 1000kHz to 455kHz – a frequency intermediate to the original carrier and intelligence frequencies. 1000kHz and 1001kHz. The only difference is that now its carrier freq is 455kHz. the signal now passing at 999kHz.

The LO will be running at 1255khz. The difference frequency is 1255kHz – 800kHz = 455kHz.Superhetrodyne Receiver How LO tracks the RF amplifier so that the difference between the two frequencies is maintained at a constant value? Example – the radio is tuned to received a broadcast station which transmit at 800kHz. A Superhetrodyne Receiver Tuned to 800kHz 11 .

fIF 12 . When the freq of LO is tuned above RF : High side injection When the freq of LO is tuned below RF : Low side injection fLO = fRF + fIF fLO = fRF . This frequency difference therefore remain constant regardless of the frequency to which the radio is actually tuned and is called the intermediate frequency (IF).Superhetrodyne Receiver Similarly if the radio is tuned to received a station transmitted at 700kHz The LO will be running at 1155kHz and the difference is still maintained at the required 455kHz.

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for a 700kHz broadcast station. IF = 455kHz An Image Frequency is an unwanted frequency that can also combine with the LO output to create the IF frequency. Station 1: Frequency 700kHz. LO 1155kHz. i.e this station also received the same time as one at 700kHz. the LO of 1155kHz giving the difference (IF) frequency of the required 455kHz. LO 1155kHz.Image Frequency Previously. What happen if we were to receive another station broadcasting on a frequency of 1610kHz? This would also mix the LO freq of 1155kHz to produce the IF freq of This would also mix the LO freq of 1155kHz to produce the IF freq of 455kHz. IF = 455kHz Station 2: Frequency 1610kHz. 14 .

it cannot be filtered out or suppressed. An image freq is equivalent to a second RF that will produce an IF that will interfere with the IF from the desired RF. For RF to produce a cross product equal to the IF. Once an image freq has been mixed down to IF. will produce a cross-product freq that is equal to the IF. For RF to produce a cross product equal filtered out or suppressed.Image Frequency (fim) An image freq is any freq other than the selected radio freq carrier that if allowed to enter a receiver and mix with the LO. it must be displaced from the LO freq by a value equal to the IF: f im f LO f IF For high-side injection: Giving: f RF f IF f LO f im f RF 2 f IF 15 .

Image Frequency (fim) Figure : Relative Frequency Spectrum for the RF. LO and Image Frequencies for a superhetrodyne receiver using High-side Injection Example 2. 16 . IF.Determine the image frequency for a standard broadcast AM receiver tuned to a station at 1320kHz.

section. Audio Amplifier Section Comprises several cascaded audio amplifiers and one of more speakers. 17 . Detector Section Convert the IF signals back to the original source information. Most of the receiver gain and selectivity is achieved in the IF section.Superhetrodyne Receiver IF Section Consists of a series of IF amplifiers and BPFs These stages contain most of the amplification in the receiver as well as the filtering that enables signals on one frequency to be separated from those on the next. The number of amplifiers used depends on the audio signal power desired.

a voltage is applied to the RF and IF amplifiers in such a way as to decrease their gain to prevent overload. increase. If the mean DC voltage level exceeds a predetermined threshold value. the mean DC voltage level is reduced below the threshold. the RF and IF amplifiers return to their normal operation. The AGC circuit makes use of the mean DC voltage level present at the output of the diode detector.Automatic Gain Control Circuit (AGC) The AGC circuit is used to prevent very strong signals from overloading the receiver. If the signal strength increase. As soon as the incoming signal strength decreases. the mean DC voltage level also increase. 18 . It can also reduce the effect of fluctuations in the received signal strength.

Automatic Gain Control Circuit (AGC) 19 .