ABSTRACT

Although phenomenon of advertising is researched for several decades but intercultural advertising is rather new scope of research. One of the key elements that characterise culture is cultural values. The paper proposes two different points of view towards cultural values and their impact on advertising as one of marketing elements. Therefore, the aim of the paper is to reveal how stability of cultural values can impact strategy of advertising. Cultural values doubtless affect both: customer behaviour and marketing solutions of advertising. Thus cultural values are the crucial element while making decisions concerning with segmentation and positioning. Two different approaches regarding stability of cultural values are represented in scientific literature. Some authors believe that within changing environment mutations of consumption appear, respectively, cultural values undergo changes as well. This means that some values are changed with the other ones. Despite of this, some of scientists highlight that values are basis of culture, so they cannot change. Impact of these two approaches on advertising is revealed in the paper.

INTRODUCTION TO THE TOPIC he advertising business has become such an important factor in the economy in many countries, especially in the United States, that it also changes the economy itself, society, culture, and the political system. The stimulation for the demand of products and services helps the economy grow stronger and stronger. New inventions become known much faster and can establish their spot in the sales figures of the economy. If there are more people buying these products the overall costs will drop and the product will become cheaper for the customer which raises his willingness to buy even more. On the other hand advertisements are very expensive and some economists believe that these costs are put on top of the actual price paid by the customer. Critics argue that advertising can also have a huge influence on society. It tells the consumers that only purchasing products makes you happy and therefore people compare each other on their belongings. Women also compare themselves with the beautiful and very skinny models they see on commercials and ads. This sometimes results in eating disorders and a low self-esteem of women who don’t look like these models. Another bad effect is, that minority groups, especially in the United States are portrait in a subordinate position, which settles in the minds of people. Commercials are also an important part of the income of a TV station which leads to the suspicion that a news channel might not report on an incident about a company they depend on. A lot of TV shows are also based on these commercials, and if the ratings aren’t good enough the show will be stopped. Only those shows which attract a lot of viewers will be shown, which is not very differentiated and put minorities like older people at a disadvantage. Advertising can also have an impact in politics. $ 467 million were spent on advertisements and TV commercials in the elections of 1998. It gives the opponents the chance to respond to charges very quickly reaching a few million viewers. But since this is very expensive only very rich people have to chance to run for a political position or at least depend on the donation of wealthier people who could have a huge impact on

democracy this way. The political issues talked about in an election are also very much simplified because the spots are only about 30 seconds long, and you can’t really discuss a lot in such a short period of time. There is finally the impact advertising can have on the culture of a country. The globalized economy uses the same commercials in a lot of different countries, which leads to a break down in the differences of these societies. Children will grow up not knowing how their culture has been before in their country. It can also lead to a lot of discussion about moral values if we just think about the very controversial ads of Benetton we have discussed \ English-language advertising in India is among the most creative in the world. TV advertising (especially in the Hindi language) has made major headway in the past 10 years, especially with the advent of satellite TV. Hindi TV channels - such as ZEE and Sony TV - have fashioned themselves on lines of Western channels, and most advertising on such channels is glitzy, smart and tailored for the middle classes. Such channels have forced the state-owned channel, Doordarshan, to add spice to their programmes which, earlier, were quite drab. The importance of the Hindi-speaking market (which is also fluent in English) is borne out from the fact that STAR TV, once an all-English channel, is now rich in Hindi programmes. Even the British Broadcasting Corporation is reportedly toying with the idea of airing Hindi programmes. Most major international advertising firms have chosen local Indian partners for their work in this market. Mumbai (formerly Bombay) remains the centre of the advertising business in India. India has a diverse and growing number of daily newspapers. Since 1991, the increase of business and financial news reports in English-language and vernacular dailies has paralleled the economic reform programme and the movements of the stock markets. Most leading publications have their circulation audited by the Audit Bureau of Circulation which has an India-dedicated office in Mumbai (formerly Bombay). Leading business newspapers include Business Standard and Economic Times. Magazines include

Telephone service is poor. and Business World. . The most successful direct marketers in India today are the millions of door-to-door sales representatives who visit neighborhoods and villages across India. India 's residential neighbourhoods are frequently visited by merchants offering a variety of products. until goods can be ordered conveniently and delivered with certainty. the most prominent ones at Pragati Maidan in New Delhi. the likes of which are now done by computer and laser printer). Some soft-drink companies have used beauty queens to make surprise knocks on the doors! Marketing is a discipline within marketing that involves contacting individual customers' (business-to-business or consumer) directly and obtaining their responses and transactions for the purpose of developing and prolonging mutually profitable customer relationships. In addition to advertising. Marketing will be limited to door-to-door sales. Business Today. An inefficient state-owned banking system also prevents prompt transfers of funds from consumers to retailers. other kinds of trade promotion activities are also well-developed in India.India Today. Marketing The mail service in India is slow though generally reliable. While private courier services are growing strongly and the telecommunications sector is opening up for a range of modern services. The term was coined in the 1970s by Lester Wunderman. who pioneered Marketing techniques with brands such as American Express and Columbia Records. A large of exhibitions are held all over India. but rapidly improving. using "addressable" media such as mail and email. Business India . Marketing is a form of marketing that attempts to send its messages directly to consumers. and by Herb Ahrend who introduced mass direct mail advertising techniques as early as the 1940s (employing hundreds of typists in New York City to mass produce offerings. Conferences and seminars are also widespread. From ice cream vendors to carpet sellers. Credit card companies are increasingly targeting India's one million cardholders through directly-mailed offers of goods and services.

Marketing uses non-addressable media as well as addressable ones. e. Marketing differs from regular advertising in that it does not place its messages on a third party medium. a fundamental element in successful Marketing. Instead. Measurement of results. is explored in greater detail elsewhere in this article. directly. measurement of other media must often be indirect. if a marketer sends out one million solicitations by mail. vibrant. The strength of direct selling lies in its tradition of independence. telemarketing. Direct Marketing is attractive to many marketers. These salespeople are commonly referred to as direct sellers. email. rapidly expanding channel of distribution that has proven to be a highly successful and effective method of compensating direct sellers (independent contractors) for the marketing and distribution of products and services directly to consumers. the marketer can say with some confidence that the campaign led directly to the responses. because in many cases its effectiveness can be measured . Direct selling is a dynamic. and ten thousand customers can be tracked as having responded to the promotion. on. SMS. usually a marketer. or contact strategy. such as a billboard or a radio commercial would. or in the public market. bases their future actions. it's just that many.Therefore. it is sometimes criticized for generating unwanted solicitations.g. The important thing is that it seeks a response and it is this which the recipient. It usually is not taken to include face-to-face contact. the marketing of the service or commodity is addressed directly to the target customer. and commitment to entrepreneurial growth in the free market system. In fact all Marketing is done through media. at their workplace or other places away from permanent retail locations. are "addressable". generally in their homes or the homes of others. Direct selling can best be described as the marketing of products and services directly to consumers in a face to face manner. By contrast. service to consumers. While many marketers like this form of marketing. which are sometimes referred to as junk mail and e-mail spam. For example. Direct sales typically occur through explanation or personal demonstration by an independent direct salesperson. since there is no direct response from a consumer.

food and nutrition products. A very small percentage of direct sellers are employees of the companies whose products they sell. toys. Direct selling offers an alternative to traditional employment for those who desire a flexible income earning opportunity to supplement their household income.selling provides accessible business opportunities to people looking for alternative sources of income. education. and also accept the responsibility for the risks associated with operating a business. These independent direct sellers have an opportunity to earn profits from their business. direct selling opportunities develop into a fulfilling career for those who achieve success and choose to pursue their independent direct selling business on a full time basis. It should be noted that around the world a substantial majority of direct sellers are women. or previous experience. nutritional products. and are commonly referred to in some jurisdictions as independent contractors. . Essentially. household specialties. this means that the company whose products they distribute does not employ these independent salespeople with each individual operating their own businesses. age. department stores and to the consumer products market. and clothing. vacuum cleaners and home appliances. The products sold by direct sellers are as diverse as the people themselves and include: cosmetics and skin care products. telecommunication and technology oriented products. jewelry and fashion accessories. household cleaning products. or on behalf of a direct selling company. Direct selling provides important benefits to individuals who desire an opportunity to earn an income and build a business of their own and to consumers who enjoy an alternative to shopping centers. laundry and personal care items. selling products and services through personal sales contacts. In many cases. books and educational products. and whose entry is generally not restricted by gender. Independent direct sellers are those individuals engaged on their own behalf. or whose responsibilities or circumstances do not allow for regular part-time or full time employment. and most work in their direct selling businesses on a part-time basis.

the next salary increase or hoping for circumstances to change. or personal presentation that is always an aspect of the direct selling relationship. including personal demonstration and explanation of products. and generous satisfaction guarantees. the primary difference between the two methods of marketing is the face to face. home delivery. . Consumers benefit from direct selling because of the convenience and service it provides. Direct selling is the direct to home service of consumer goods cutting the middlemen in the manufacturer-distributor-wholesalerretailer channel. direct mail. Direct selling should not be confused with terms such as Marketing or distance selling such as telemarketing.Direct selling allows individuals to become proactive and positive about their lives instead of waiting for the economy to improve. direct selling provides a channel of distribution for companies with innovative or distinctive products not readily available in traditional retail stores. or who cannot afford to compete with the enormous advertising and promotion costs associated with gaining space on retail shelves. Although direct selling organizations occasionally use some Marketing or distance selling techniques and technology to enhance their businesses. and direct response. Moreover.

SYSTEM OF DIRECT SELLING Direct Selling encompasses:- .

These new independent contractors also recruit. The main difference between a Multi-Level Marketing company and a Network Marketing company is the structure and benefits of the Compensation plan. . etc. Classical direct selling Independent Contractors sell products directly to a wide customer base and earn financial rebates on all products sold. many products are required on a regular basis bringing repeat sales and further income. New customers are sought to add to their client base. individual to each company.. the basic concept is that any individuals sales performance can be multiplied by using the efforts of others. thereby earning rebates on all products they sell. In many cases. train and develop their own team. which offer a variety of compensation plans (financial reward) and administrative systems. Although there can be variations between companies. depending on the nature of products. Multi-Level and Network Marketing These terms refer to a marketing system in which individual independent contractors recruit. train and develop their own team of product users. train and develop a team of product users. The emphasis in classical direct selling is for the independent operator to sell products to a wide base of their own customers.• • • Classical Direct Selling Multi-Level Marketing (MLM) Referral Marketing These are selling systems. who also recruit.

and so on. Such referrals usually take place . train and develop many other product users who will also sell products to a small base of their own customers and recruit. "A" contacts "B" who contacts "C" who contacts "D". train and develop other product users. business skills and life skills.. Referral Marketing This term refers to a marketing system in which individual independent contractors refer other independent contractors to a network marketing or multilevel organization for the purpose of selling or providing products and services.e. This lineage of people is (typically) called a "downline". use multi-level/network marketing as a means to promote their business. and to recruit. and almost all new direct selling companies. The emphasis in Multi-Level and Network Marketing is for the independent operator to be a product user.The multi-level/network marketer creates a "network" of people who work directly for themselves and indirectly for the person who introduced them into the network i. and rebates paid on his/her down line product sales. More and more classical direct selling companies now use elements of multilevel/network marketing as they recognize its potential for exponential growth. Financial reward is gained through rebates paid on the individuals product sales. to sell products to a small base of their own customers. etc.should personally be using the products and should receive and give regular training regarding products. Over half of the direct selling companies worldwide. However. the success of any business depends upon how well individuals "duplicate" their efforts – all independent contractors – whatever level .

The "hostess' receives merchandise/products as compensation for the use of her home and her help in getting their friends together. The business opportunity is also often presented during this meeting. TYPES OF DIRECT SELLING • Person-to-person selling This is a method of direct selling where independent contractors sell services and products directly to people on a one-to-one basis in the home. away from a retail outlet. . The party plan is a method of marketing products by hosting a social event. In the course of this "party". and then to take orders for the products before the gathering ends.down to four or six levels with all referring Independent contractors earning a referral income for the products or services introduced to the marketing organization. orders are received for products. office or workplace. using the event to display and demonstrate the product or products to those gathered. the direct seller or retailer arranges with a friend who shall act as "hostess" to invite a group of friends for demonstrations of a product or products. • Party-Plan or Group Selling Under this type of plan.

home decor items. an US multinational dealing with beauty products crossed Rs 1 Crore sales in quick time. In a Party Plan approach. Tupperware India which is growing on a fast track year after year follows a single level method of compensation. the system of taking orders for later delivery of products has in some instances been replaced by the direct sale of items out of an inventory. In a state where limited avenues of employment forced them to take menial jobs. the direct salesperson demonstrates products to a group of guests. . The party plan is largely regarded as primarily the invention of Brownie Wise. but numerous organizations are still using it and have no plans to discontinue it. It also offers a business opportunity with a little or no investment. it was group selling that contributed to a great deal to improving their working condition. other direct sellers will often explain and demonstrate the products they offer to consumers in the comfort of the consumers' homes. There is no upper limit to what you can earn in group selling. or on a person-toperson basis. It has one of the few sectors that have “women on top”. They have the flexibility of choosing their working hours.By contrast.commissions on sales generated. these products are sold in group presentations (Party Plan).This plan has been used primarily to sell items whose main appeal is to women. invited by a host in whose home or other location the direct selling demonstration takes place. Much has been made of the decline of the number of women with no employment outside of the home and its implications for the future of this form of marketing. fewer work hours and no boss. The direct sales cosmetics market has grown 11 per cent in 2004-2005. such as Tupperware itself (a food-storage system). the sales of AVON. at a time. which is convenient for them. kitchen utensils. who developed it for the Tupperware company in the early 1950s. Especially in the case of these items. Thanks to group selling and Marketing. Generally. and similar products.

K S Oils today enjoys 11% market share in the overall mustard oil segment with a dominant 25% market leadership in branded mustard oil. approach other women about hosting a social event in their homes during which a product will be demonstrated. Double Sher. REVIEW AND RESEARCH K S Oils is a leading integrated edible oil company and is the trusted name behind renowned brands like Kalash. relying on corporate advertising and the spending of the middle class. full-time commissioned representatives of the sales organization. But it is hard to claim it is a public good that reaches most citizens. The media is big business in India. There are 2 types of direct selling1. K S Gold. soybean oil and palm oil are a household name with Indian consumers who use our oils regularly as a healthy cooking medium. . among others. In this system. \ Single level Marketing and Multi Level marketing. almost invariably women. A leader in mustard oil in India. Our consumer brands and products in mustard oil. 2.The success of Tupperware was widely emulated.

Economic growth has led to greater inequalities. The Indian Express and Hindi papers like Dainik Jagran and Amar Ujala provide a better balance of the serious and the frivolous. while democratic growth has given a stronger voice to those who suffer from those inequalities. Competitors such as The Hindustan Times. The emergence of small-town and rural India has similarly encouraged Hindi and otherlanguage ventures. India's rapid economic growth has encouraged a sixth national contender. The fact the media is primarily a profit-driven industry limits the scope of what it is likely to report and at times promotes trashy sensationalism in the name of news. this often leads to inferior coverage of more important issues. Lindsay Lohan’s alcohol rehab. Paris Hilton’s jail term. The media may do a good job of providing news to the estimated 300 million members of the Indian middle class — in fact. and Beyonce’s public statements fill the international news pages in some papers. More people want to find out about the new iPod than Indian foreign policy. The media often abdicates its role as an educator in favor of being an entertainer. there is an inherent tension between India’s muchhyped economic growth and its deepening democracy. coverage of political issues tends to be quite good — but as long as more than 700 million Indians are sidelined from its gaze by their inability to conspicuously consume. Indian media today must cater to the interests of readers to stay in business. Economic success has enabled a middle class to emerge.Contrary to what we might think. Democracy has enabled historically marginalised sections of society to become politically powerful through sheer numbers and effective grassroots mobilisation. . And what is happening in newspapers is being repeated in magazines. A business daily is apparently good business in India. Those who read papers and watch TV are often more interested in interviews with Bollywood stars than rural poverty. Though The Economic Times is the clear leader. the media’s role as public service is severely limited. Yet. while the elite have tended to retreat from the political sphere. but middle class culture remains irrelevant to the many Indians left behind economically. The Times of India has become a notorious example of this phenomenon.

too." says Ravi Bapna. The Economic Times probably has 90% market share. and lower production costs than elsewhere in the world. which could be on the stands in its Indian edition as early as January." says Pheroza Bilimoria.of the Dainik Bhaskar group) is available as a stand-alone product in some markets. joined the contest. DNA Money (a part of Daily News & Analysis -.In April.378 and The Hindu Business Line was third at 146. the Financial Chronicle. And waiting in the wings is the Financial Times (FT) of London.did not participate in the ABC audits. Business Standard was a distant second with 170. The Economic Times had average net paid sales of 750. a professor and executive director of the Centre for Information Technology and the Networked Economy at the Hyderabad-based Indian School of Business. That is less than a tenth of the circulation of The Economic Times. from the Hyderabad-based Deccan Chronicle group. The Financial Express and Mint -. But the other players still feel that the economics work out for them and that they don't need that particular kind of scale. That is the case in India. according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC). "This is like the gold rush of the mid-nineteenth century. there is room for smaller players here.000. Two others. In most mature markets there is a single leader. Whether they will sustain their . But India's changing demographics. The challenge abroad is the cost of production.621 in the July-December 2007 period.DNA -. Mint started in February 2007 with an initial print order of around 80. which is much higher than the cost of production here. "In terms of actual readership. "All these new entrants hope to emerge among the winners. Given the low production cost. publisher of Business India magazine." India's publishing environment suggests there is room for many winners.925. make the economics of even a small business daily promising. it is pretty much the same story in India as elsewhere of having only one dominant player.000.the product of a Hindustan Times-Wall Street Journal tie-up -. starting with editions in Hyderabad and Chennai with a print run of 70. whether it's the Financial Times in the United Kingdom or The Wall Street Journal in the United States. "In the business space. managing director of the Business India Group of Publications.

the U. McGraw-Hill has explored publishing an Indian edition of BusinessWeek with Delhi-based Cyber Media." says ABP chief executive officer Dipankar Das Purkayastha. in addition to the 33year-old English one. Three magazines -Business India.." Other-language business publications also have been active. editor T. But one can expect some kind of M&A activity in the next two to three years. which publishes Bengali daily Anandabazar Patrika. Ninan explained: "Business Standard has launched itself today as a Hindi business newspaper . According to the latest Indian Readership Survey. and foreign publications are attracting the most attention. And we know that we will have company. Business Standard and The Economic Times have launched Hindi editions in several cities. is in the grip of a recession. had readership of 226. We have started with the New Delhi and Mumbai editions. And there is hardly any growth in Europe. Outlook Business. Calcutta-based ABP. Business Today had readership of 416. Writing in Business Standard on the occasion of the recent launch. Local media house Network18 is working on an Indian edition of Forbes. "The rush to launch business newspapers and magazines in India can be explained by the economic growth India is experiencing now. "On the other hand.S. Businessworld and Business Today -. has tied up with Fortune to bring out a local edition. Business India followed with 291.operations in the long run depends on how differentiated they can be. English morning newspaper The Telegraph and Businessworld. too.." A Raft of Magazines What's happening in newspapers is being repeated in magazines.000 and Businessworld had 224." . will enter the market in the coming weeks and months.000.N.000. More magazines are in the works.have been around for a few decades. A newcomer.000. Rival Hindi business newspapers. The Economist has been looking for a partner. launched in April 2006. because every market in emerging India is going to be competitive. other editions will roll out in the coming days.

which . "Look at the total population. will launch a Hindi business daily soon. Meanwhile." says group director Girish Agarwaal. but they are rising. In the U. Newspaper publishing. rival Dainik Jagran is also planning a Hindi business daily in a joint venture with media conglomerate Network18. Rising Literacy Levels Newspapers are recording handsome growth in India and also in China. In India. "There are the people who can read newspapers and those who cannot. which constitutes 87% of the segment. Among the people who can read newspapers. China has only recently opened up and has developed a huge appetite for newspapers and magazines.." T. literacy levels are low. newspaper marketers are aiming to fill that gap. Spending power is moving to smaller cities. there are those who do not. "Financial Chronicle has been crafted as a pure-play business daily to build on the aspirations of a young and prosperous India. which publishes Hindi daily Dainik Bhaskar. The Hindi and other-language ventures are springing up because small-town and rural India is coming into its own. whereas magazine publishing. The initial print order is likely to be 200. chairman of the Deccan Chronicle group.000." he said. Business newspapers and magazines also appeal to publishers because they are seen as serious products in an age where content is being "dumbed down. is not on their agenda. But English business newspapers and magazines don't think their market is saturated. the Indian print media industry recorded a growth of 16% over the previous year. but other reasons exist. This has a lot to with the growth of their economies. Venkattram Reddy.Ninan is correct about rivals. In India. we also have the gap of those who cannot read newspapers. English. the language of the metro elites. "We have done our research. The Dainik Bhaskar group. similarly implied while launching his new paper that rising literacy levels provided new opportunities. "In 2007." According to a PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) report.S. the Gujarati Divya Bhaskar as well as DNA and DNA Money." says Agarwaal of Dainik Bhaskar. grew at 17%.

800 crore] in 2006." Adds Business India Group's Bilimoria: "India is the flavor of the next few decades in other business areas. the growing interest in India. "The overall globalization. What all the global publications are probably looking for is to get an increasing mind share of the large Indian middle class." PwC estimated the compound annual growth rate (CAGR) for 2008 through 2012 at 13% for newspapers and 15% for magazines. the print media industry stood at Rs. Subscription schemes have not only accelerated penetration of dailies. Such factors have made a lot of people gung-ho about the business. Among the reasons for the PwC report's bullishness about India's newspapers and magazines: • Low print media penetration. • Rising literacy rates." says Bapna. but also have helped push multiple dailies into homes. substantially higher than in rural areas. which leaves further scope for improvement in penetration levels. at 30%. 359 million literate people in the country do not read any publication. 149 billion [14. The reach of print media in India is 38%. So why should publishing be left out?" Prohibitions on Foreign Ownership . The comparative estimated CAGR internationally (for 2007 through 2011) is 2. Additionally.1% for magazines.900 crore] in 2007. up from Rs. Penetration of print media is improving owing to growing income levels and aggressive marketing. and the sheer size of the India market is driving the foreign media interest in India.1% for newspapers and 3.contributes the remaining 13%. of the Indian School of Business. On an overall basis. which is becoming [more and more] global. readership is growing. The number of potential readers is growing. grew at a marginally lower rate of 15%. 128 billion [12. Unlike in most parts of the world. "This is no different from players from any other industry. Its reach in urban areas is 58%. • Increasing spending on circulation.

The leading Indian business magazines are priced between Rs." Bapna says. however.1 crore for the stake. Pearson paid Rs. An Indian edition of Fortune would not be so pricey. 180. The cover price of Fortune.85% stake in Business Standard Ltd. Not all deals will work out. that deal has fallen apart. 15. Indian law prohibits foreign ownership of more than 26% in a newspaper or newsmagazine. "profitability is not a primary concern right now." he says. too. But it has its challenges. Purkayastha of ABP estimates that a business newspaper could need a break-even period of around five years. The stricture applies to "news". Overseas publishers will need to come to terms with this reality. among other titles) took a 13. Many are in tie-ups with Indian partners. But they also need to make money. is pretty large and underserved in India currently. is Rs. The Pearson Group of the United Kingdom (which owns the Financial Times. it is not clear how much it got back. The first such deal dates to September 2003. The Fortunes and FTs would have to operate in niche markets. But the niches could be large. In March." And they may not be too bothered about the bottom line initially. incidentally. But it could hardly come down to local levels. Foreign media houses may have deep pockets. "Magazines would need less investment with a similar break-even time. currently distributed in India by the Living Media group.." . I expect them to come in aggressively and compete for readership and grab market share." The first challenge for a foreign business magazine or newspaper would be determining a cover price. information and broadcasting minister Priya Ranjan Dasmunshi told Parliament that 172 foreign magazines in the specialty. Business Standard is now going it alone. 10 and Rs. "For the major players. Now. however. scientific and technical sectors had been given permission to launch Indian editions. it has freedom to pursue new plans with Network18. foreign stakes could be higher in nonnews products.India is relatively virgin territory whereas the rest of the world is saturated. Says Bapna: "The global players will certainly focus on the higher end of the segment which. 14. Adds Bilimoria: "The economics of publishing in India are quite different from that in the West where markets are not so price-sensitive.

1 under annual schemes. particularly in the area of newspapers' resisting advertiser pressure to encroach upon editorial. respectively. 1. the numbers are further skewed.000 crore. PwC projects growth in magazine advertising revenues over the next five years at 16%. Indian newspapers will be in crisis because their circulations are rising. For newspapers." Bilimoria says. are in crisis because their circulations are dropping. It will be a while before circulation sales will contribute in any significant numbers to overall revenues. publisher of The Hindu Business Line. as the figures show. while circulation revenues are Rs. Newspapers in India are facing a threat from an unexpected quarter: the price of newsprint. This has its own problems. sponsorships and associations are contributing a larger chunk of the revenue stream. it does. 500 crore. The Economic Times (or the morning tabloid Mumbai Mirror) is available free with flagship The Times of India in some markets. advertising is the principal revenue stream. 1.The Importance of Advertising Given the low cover prices. which adds to the financial challenges. compared with 10% growth for circulation revenues.50.S. Every extra copy sold is an additional loss. But it does not pay for itself. Some newspapers have taken to offering annual subscriptions. for instance. "The primary source of revenue in the print media in India has always been advertising. which must be made up by charging more for advertisements. notes: "If newspapers in the U. 2. The Financial Chronicle.) . Magazine advertising revenues are Rs. which has climbed more than 30% to $850 a ton in less than a year. The peculiar economics also make newspapers vulnerable to changes in input costs. The Hindustan Times has a cover price of Rs.000 crore and Rs." The point is not that circulation does not bring in money. at 16% and 8%. (They are also sold independently. the corresponding figures are Rs. 8. "But slowly.50." The newer breed of papers uses pricing as a marketing strategy. 5. but it is available at Rs. which makes it the cheapest business daily. has been launched with a cover price of Rs. For newspapers.400 crore. An article in The Hindu.

The Times of India has shown that it pays to offer advertisers package deals across various publications. Eventually. "India is definitely underserved by way of quality. The alternative is to offer a quality product with a high cover price. a clear choice.entering this bruising battle? For many it is a question of adding to their range of offerings. "Multi-publication advertising packages are very important. new titles are coming thick and fast in one of the few markets in the world where . So a Hindi and Gujarati general newspaper group like Dainik Bhaskar wants an English presence (DNA). an English business daily (DNA Money). radio. therefore. So why are so many Indian publications -. web-based or even mobile and entertainment will have a clear differentiation because that is something that the Indian players have not been able to do from the ground up. Consolidation is inevitable." It will also mean casualties in coming years. TV and the Internet. increase journalists' wages.For foreign media houses it is. From specialist magazines on whiskey." says Bapna. a Hindi business daily (to be launched soon)." says Purkayastha of ABP. Now. "In the long term. Bapna thinks foreign media houses have an edge here. it carried a whopping 168 pages of advertisements of a total 400 pages. golf and parenting.as distinct from foreign majors -. Bapna says. They will put in more resources. They can pursue mass markets and lose money for some years. That potential is waiting to be tapped. the publisher is preparing to launch its luxury men's magazine GQ and expects a similar rush of advertisers in Asia's third-largest economy. and get more people into the profession. "The coming of global players in a big way will improve the overall quality of journalism in India and also open our minds to what is happening in the rest of the world. those players who are able to integrate their print with other channels like digital." he says When Conde Nast launched its premium lifestyle magazine Vogue in India last year. all the different media will need to be integrated. strategies will go beyond advertising packages. In that sense. to regional-language newspapers and financial dailies. where rising incomes and growing literacy are boosting readership and revenues of magazines and newspapers. it is a good development. But more so they may lose their image as prestige publications.

K S Oils’ relentless focus on quality and hygiene has ensured that “purity” and “freshness” of mustard and other oils are preserved till it reaches the home of the consumers in every nook and corner of the country. K S Oils is creating market and brand leadership.000 crores during the financial year 2008-09. marketing offices and plantations in India. 3. With secured raw material supply source. with its deep understanding of the mustard oil sector. shareholders & investors. The company believes in its vision of “Delivering Health & Prosperity”. it has generated a turnover of over Rs. Malaysia. it's a fertile ground for the print media. The company has in the recent past successfully undertaken the growth strategy of capacity expansion. A strong leadership team comprising of the founders and senior industry professionals have laid a robust strategy and execution deliverables for the company. Indonesia and Singapore. . executive director of Hong Kong-based research firm Media Partners Asia. opportunity for fresh and experienced talent is immense with Indian and overseas opportunities. thus creating an unchallenged competitive advantage." K S Oils is an Indian company with international footprint and global ambitions. "There is also a buoyancy in print advertising that is encouraging new launches and niche publications in particular. vendors & partners and society as a whole. "It's a fast growing economy and with consumption so robust and with incomes rising. It is delivering healthy cooking medium to Indian homes .advertising and readership for print media are expanding." says Vivek Couto. With the company registering explosive growth. a leader in the edible oil market in India. K S Oils is a strong family of near to 3000 employees spread over its 6 manufacturing plants. thus “Delivering Health & Prosperity” not only to consumers but every other stakeholder – employees. ‘near to customer’ sales points and a robust distribution and dealer network. green field projects and acquisitions.ensuring good health and mental & physical prosperity for the whole family. the company today reaches out to millions of Indian consumers.

nurtured and continually improved upon its various brands of edible oils. Over the years we have invested significantly in nurturing these brands in terms of quality. K S Oils has deep understanding of agri-commodity and farmer community issues. All our brands have been developed on the basis of consumer feedback and preferences derived from in-depth market research. packaging and market penetration. K S brands are trusted by millions of consumers and are delighting their palate. Our emphasis on 'convenience' packaging of our brands ensures that they meet the needs of consumers at every price point. thus catering to the tastes and preferences of different categories of consumers. a very significant achievement as 75% of mustard oil in India is sold loose. Today. health. The company’s strict adherence to quality. K S brands dominate the market especially in East and North East India. K S brands comprise a range of healthy cooking oil brands in mustard.As one of India’s leading companies in the edible oil sector. Creating an Indian MNC with international footprint of knowledge. K S Oils is part of the Indian growth story – using the country’s inherent strength in agricultural resources and best managerial talent to serve millions of consumers in India and abroad. leadership and value for its stakeholders across the globe! Over the past two decades. Recently the Company has forayed into Central and North India and the consumer response has been encouraging. purity and delivering unadulterated oil to consumers has won it . Today. K S has been able to create two very powerful brands in the mustard oil segment. As a leading FMCG player in India and a leader in the mustard oil segment. refined oil and vanaspati. K S Oils has built.

from TV commercials to health camps to promotions informing consumers of the health benefits of its products. making it the largest integrated mustard oil Manufacturing Plant in the country. The mother plant is situated in Morena and is one of the best state-of-the-art integrated manufacturing facilities in the country.475 metric tonnes of mustard seed per day. refineries to refine the crude oil. De-oiled cake . Under further processing the remaining oil-cake is passed through solvent extractors to draw solvent oils. The uniqueness of the packaging department is that apart from packing the products. These seeds are then crushed in Kohllus and expellers to obtain crude oil. which is directly sold as crude/virgin mustard oil to suit the taste of the conventional consumers. The refined oil finds its place directly to the market or is further hydrogenated to generate vanaspati. the Company has created strong brand recall and loyalty among every Indian household. The Company invests significantly in creating brand awareness and consumer education. Each brand in the K S basket has a distinctive positioning catered to address a specific consumer need. Manufacturing Process K S Oils has all its manufacturing plants located in the rich mustard growing belt of Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan in India. This unit situated in the midst of the Mustard growing region of Madhya Pradesh is a state-of-theart plant that houses all facilities under one roof. which is further refined and blended to produce the best quality edible oil. The solvent oil is either sold for industrial use or sent to refinery to make refined oil. In the extraction of Soybean Oil dehulled yellow soybeans of high quality are selected. it also produces the packing materials in-house. Equipped with Kohllus and expellers to crush the oil seeds. what makes it an integrated plant is its packaging department. Superior quality mustard seeds are selected for the process of manufacturing to produce the best quality edible oil.unstinted loyalty from millions of homemakers who trust K S Oils products as their cooking oil partner for the whole family. solvent extractor. With the help of commercial hexanes the solvent is extracted. These seeds are cracked and adjusted for moisture content and then subsequently rolled into flakes. The Plant has a capacity of crushing 1. vanaspati plant and storage tanks.

De-oiled cakes formed during the process is exported to cattle feed manufacturers. Kachi Ghani or Crude Oil: The seeds are cleaned and loaded through conveyors into the crushers under controlled temperature to maintain pungency. Vanaspati: Hydrogenation of the refined oil produces Vanaspati. The integrated process (flow chart) from raw material to finished products enables K S Oils to cater to a range of consumers depending upon the taste and budget of the customer. • Refined Oil: The solvent oil is passed through refineries to obtain crystal clear. This state-of-the-art packing system at K S Oils not only • • . The residue obtained from crushers is processed further in the expellers to obtain oil with less pungency. solvent and refined forms and the Vanaspati are sent to separate storage tanks. The pungent oil from the crushers and the less pungent one from the expellers are blended in a pre-defined proportion to obtain the edible oil of right pungency. bottles and pouches mechanically. Storage and Packing: The oil produced in the crude. where it is directly filled into tins.obtained from the extraction procedure is either sold locally or exported to cattle/ aqua feed manufacturing companies abroad. de-odorized oil or refined oil. From the storage tanks it is routed to the packing department. • • Solvent Oil: The filtrate from the extractor is sprayed with Hexane and distilled to produce Solvent Oil. The entire process • Selection of Seed: Seeds are selected meticulously for the production of best quality edible oil. Imported and local crude oils like soyabean and palm are refined in the refinery and sold as refined soyabean oil and refined palm oil.

K S Oils has set up to an effective R&D team with an indispensable R&D lab within the Company that envisions innovation. To operate a manufacturing unit of its magnitude. The R&D team in close association with the farmers also conducts study and research to produce the best seeds. Research and Development: As a leading agri-commodity and edible oil player in India. Also these plants would provide job opportunities to the people in the region. This green energy saves power consumption in addition to reducing cost of production. K S Oils has a highly efficient and skilled workforce and believes that their human resource is the key to their success. Also K S Oils have bought palm plantations in Malaysia and Indonesia to keep pace with the requirement of raw materials that would arise upon the plants being operational. It has therefore adopted the Green Power Technology and has set up 34 wind mills of total 32 Mega Watt capacity to generate green energy. but also gives a profound thought to the purity of the product and health consciousness of the Indian customers. K S Oils have given them the liberty to experiment with the manufacturing process resulting in high quality products. This initiative taken by the R&D team of K S Oils would help in . The team ensures the quality of the seeds and crude oil that find its way to the factory and the purity and edibility of the oil is ascertained of QC before it leaves the Company premises. These key steps taken by K S Oils to increase production would help the country at large to meet its growing demand and attain self-sufficiency. To augment the skills of its employees.makes the packing attractive and durable. K S Oils is also concerned about the environmental safety. K S Oils has focused R&D initiatives on two fronts • • Current production. K S Oils expansion plan has 4 plants coming up in the mustard producing belts of Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. quality and best practices Collaborating with farmers to create a bottom up R&D approach With the aspiration to provide the best to its precious customers.

This growing awareness has widened the markets for K S Oils across India.increasing the supply of raw material to increase productivity. quality and healthy cooking oil. Railways being the faster mode of transport. K S Oils prefers rail to road for reaching its finished products. K S Oils regularly communicates with the consumer on various platforms to increase awareness of health and healthy cooking oil medium. Today approximately 1. RECOMMENDATIONS . For the rest of the market in the country.193 distributors and 1.85. sales and marketing play a key role in ensuring that the corporate and products brands communicate and reach out to the customers in proper way. which in turn would help in keeping pace with the growing demand. K S Oils has set up a network of C&F agents and Central Distribution Points. Sales and Marketing: K S Oils believes in creating a strong consumer facing front end and invests heavily in creating a well oiled sales and marketing machinery. An aggressive nationwide growth is being rolled out by almost doubling the number of distributors from the current size. helping the Company in selling its strong value proposition of purity.000 retailers market K S Oils products across Eastern and Central India. K S Oils has developed a deep distribution network to reach out to its customers across the country. health camps are conducted to educate the consumer and also ensure first time trials and word of the mouth publicity. It also has its own depots at the major railway arrival points. This distribution network services the urban and rural market alike. As a leading edible oil player in the FMCG segment. As part of its sales and marketing efforts.

Getting the right exposure is the trick. don't neglect the ezine advertising opportunities. as related content. radio and television commercials were the heavy hitters. You need to determine. specializing in fine art prints. your prospects are out there." will do just fine.com site. another may not. If you're selling art posters. When you consider there are billions of users out there. but once you get used to the jargon and learn the ropes.If you're selling products online. you may well succeed or fail based on the soundness of your advertising campaign. Look for good circulation numbers. At the end of the article. where magazine ads. advertising on the internet for free. Next you'll want to look for ezines geared to readers who would be interested in art posters. but the prices aren't steep compared to the exposure and traffic you gain. If the site owner likes the article. This form of advertising on the internet can bring good and swift results. Advertising on the internet requires different methods than conventional advertising campaigns of the past. Something like "Jane Sweetheart owns the Postershop. You know your product better than anyone. you've lightened his load in producing his newsletter and gained some good exposure. Here's how it works. When developing your advertising campaign. . of course. Include a link to your site. Approach the website owner. This may be a good strategy if your advertising budget is small. While one advertising effort works for you. through testing. Some people feel that "pay-per-click" advertising on the internet is the best way to reach targeted traffic. Advertising on the internet is. offering the article for free in exchange for your byline. write an article on a famous and interesting artist. include your byline. Advertising as a sponsor for electronic newsletters will cost you some money. you'll find advertising on the internet a successful venture indeed. all about exposure of your product and the public. The electronic advertising campaign may seem a bit confusing to a novice. Write different ads. botanical prints and antique posters. right? Dust off your keyboard and write an article that showcases your knowledge of your subject product. There are lots of avenues to explore to get your product before your target audience. Have you heard of Google "AdWords"? These are big impact text ads that appear on the right hand side of the Google Search page and may also be displayed on other sites. which should generally be about 25 words. which advertising on the internet avenues bring customers to your site.

pull the ads from publications that don't bring a good response.focused on different customer perspectives and run them in different newsletters. keep advertising in the ones that do and search out new ezines to test your ads. We are an India based online advertising company dealing with . Once the ad is "perfect". Track your response rates and fine tune your ads. CONCLUSION Internet marketing is the fastest growing marketing and advertising method for all companies recently.

internet marketing solutions. A few methods have been outlined in the field of internet marketing for the companies who are willing for advertising their business online. Choose the company who want a small deposit before you launch your internet marketing campaign but are willing to do more work for your company website that makes the small deposit a good long term investment. Some companies want a small deposit upfront and still their work do not offer any benefit for your company website in return. You should not use all the forms of website marketing when starting your internet marketing promotions. Your advertising budget also needs to last throughout the year so you want an internet marketing company that offers little initial investment for your online advertising campaign so you can use the reward of the promotion to pay for more of internet marketing activities. search engine marketing is quite a complex activity due to a lot of options available. We have kept the layout as simple as possible so new businesses advertising their business online can grasp the ultimate solution. The process of Email marketing is not about a large number of email addresses that you can get from different sources. This will not only prove extremely costly on your . If the online advertising company you chose believes that their internet marketing strategy is a good one this should not be a problem for you to arrange. This will make you get the best price possible for your company's strategy from the agency and will help your advertising budget last the full year. The Companies which have been involved in internet marketing promotions. There are a lot of companies advertising for carrying out online marketing solutions that it is difficult to choose which web marketing company to trust to do your search engine advertizing. Before you start to advertise your business website on the search engines you need to put your advertising budget to one side and stick to it. Companies have to keep themselves updated daily to keep up with the competition and the pace set by new products being introduced. have seen the rewards of successful strategies and the profits gained by the work once the campaign has been finalized and launched.

Website Marketing with Banners across major search engines is mainly for branding purposes for your company.advertising budget but also a waste of your valuable time in carrying out your internet marketing strategy. the banner is exclusive to you and you are on every page throughout the search. Pay per click is one of the most common forms of online search engine marketing service available. Cost per acquisition is the best way to do your internet marketing with emails. You need to look for a SEM company which does your web marketing and has good experience within the SEO field. Your most effective form of internet marketing with banners is to get a deal where you are the only banner on the page. You will get traffic through to your company website. Advertising with Adwords on Google is highly recommended for your web marketing campaigns. This is great branding for your company website and will be a more effective strategy. One has to bid for the top position for the desired keyword phrases when carrying out pay per click solutions. Email marketing has been proven to be successful if quality of leads is good. By doing so you will be on the most popular in search engine on the internet and can get campaigns out on a monthly basis until you close on the most suitable keywords that will bring the best result for your business website. Email web marketing is all about quality of the data the provides you with because that is important in making your strategy successful. The use of proper website design & search engine optimization can result in huge savings on your advertising budget in medium to long term. When you use pay per click for your internet marketing you will surely get quality traffic to your website by spending a small amount for getting the traffic. You also have to ensure that the company is permitted to providing these email addresses for you to contact as you do want to be accused of spamming. The most common types of pay per click used are Overture and Google pay per click campaigns. Promote an email marketing campaign where you only pay on acquisition (for leads with name and contact details). . Search engine marketing with sponsored links will bring around decent traffic.

As an responsible internet marketing firm we only employ most ethical and successful optimization techniques to optimize required pages of your website. You will have full web marketing account management all round the year. 266. 2008). Robert W. Internet marketing with New Delhi Digital Works is a unique experience. ISBN-13: 978158367161-0 . Therefore you have to find an internet marketing agency that can provide you with a successful search engine marketing campaign and it will be of great benefit for your company website to get high search engine positioning on the search engines such as Google. BIBLIOGRAPHY McChesney. (May 1. New Delhi Digital works SEO is done strictly as per guidelines provided by Google from time to time. This is of huge benefit to you as the organic listings on a search engine such as Google receive at least 80% of the traffic the search engines receive.company website design search engine optimization campaigns. Your SEO consultant will be in regular touch with you advising on progress of your campaign. New Delhi Digital Works wants you to win and ride the competition within internet marketing. New York. Emerging Dilemmas”. p. You will have your website pages worked on to gain those positions you want for your company website. We offer customized payment terms and possess the ultimate internet marketing strategy for you to advertise your business with our website marketing promotion . Search engine optimization is a process which places your company business website on top in the natural search engine listings. “The Political Economy of Media: Enduring Issues. Monthly Review Press. We clearly stay away from any spamming. unethical or undesirable techniques as we want all our search engine optimization campaigns to work for our clients.Website optimization and promotion is the premier solution to your internet marketing requirements. We as a internet marketing company place our focus solely on our clients.

Kalle in: Culture Jam: The Uncooling of America.ISBN-10: 0688156568. 272.): Theorie und Praxis der Werbung in den Massenmedien. Edition. New York. Emerging Dilemmas”. Emerging Dilemmas”.de/2008/47/Vermuellung ^ McChesney. ISBN 978-0393307382 ^ http://www. Jean: Can't Buy My Love: How Advertising Changes the Way We Think and Feel. 2008).zeit. William Morrow & Company.csupomona. New York. Emerging Dilemmas”. Jörg (Hrsg. “The Political Economy of Media: Enduring Issues. 2008). 132.pdf ^ McChesney. Christopher. Monthly Review Press. 1st edition (November 1999). 265. “The Political Economy of Media: Enduring Issues. 249. Robert W.^ McChesney. Manfred (2005): Werbung . Georg: Ökonomie der Aufmerksamkeit. in: Seufert. ISBN-13: 978-158367161-0 ^ McChesney. Robert W. ISBN-13: 978-0688156565 ^ Kilbourne. ISBN-13: 978158367161-0 ^ http://www. Emerging Dilemmas”. (May 1. (Economy of Attention). ISBN-13: 978158367161-0 ^ http://joeg. Monthly Review Press. New York. 239-255. Wolfgang/Müller-Lietzkow. 2008). Ein Entwurf. 252. p.org/cgi/content/full/8/3/421 ^ Knoche. 2008).oxfordjournals.ein notwendiges "Lebenselixier" für den Kapitalismus: Zur Kritik der politischen Ökonomie der Werbung. 2008). (May 1. Robert W. New York. (May 1. 249. ISBN-13: 978158367161-0 ^ Lasn. p. Monthly Review Press. p. New York. The Culture of Narcissism: American Life in an Age of Diminishing Expectations. Robert W. Monthly Review Press. ISBN-13: 978-0684866000 ^ McChesney. “The Political Economy of Media: Enduring Issues. p. “The Political Economy of Media: Enduring Issues. 254. Touchstone. Monthly Review Press. Robert W. New York. March 1998. 256. ISBN 978-3-446-19348-2. ISBN 3-446-19348-0. ISBN-13: 978-158367161-0 ^ Franck. (May 1. Baden-Baden: Nomos. (May 1. Carl Hanser. 2000. “The Political Economy of Media: Enduring Issues. 1. Emerging Dilemmas”. ^ Lasch. pp. Norton. .edu/~jkirkpatrick/Papers/EthicsAdvtTaxation.

1. 36-60. S. (The Culture of Narcissism). Vienna: Zsolnay. Philosophicum Lech Vol. Herrschaft und Freiheit im Medienzeitalter. January 2003. published in Konrad Paul Liessmann (Hrg. p. 6.^ Lecture held at Philosophicum Lech (Austria) 2002. Die Kanäle der Macht. Hamburg 1995. Christopher: Das Zeitalter des Narzissmus. 645.). preprint in Merkur No. Hoffmann und Campe. 1-15 ^ Lasch. Edition. . 2003.

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