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Understanding Advaita

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Understanding Advaita

Indiaspirituality Blog (Amrut)
Offline version of website Understanding Advaita
Version 14.0.0 beta, dt. 20.10.2015
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Understanding Advaita -

Free Culture Works License – Public Domain
(Skip Index and read chapter I Understanding Advaita, jump to page – 34 )

Index
About Version Numbers...................................................................................................3
Changes Since Last Version.............................................................................................3
Disclaimer........................................................................................................................6
Nature of Project and Publishing Strategy.......................................................................6
Credits.............................................................................................................................8
TOC – with subtitles.........................................................................................................9
Introduction..................................................................................................................26
Understanding Advaita..................................................................................................34
adhyAropa apavAda (अध्ययाररोप अपवयाद)- A Consistent Traditional Teaching.........................94
Meditative Journey of an Advaita Vedantin..................................................................135
Advaita, Creation and it's Practicability.......................................................................147
Q & A...........................................................................................................................159
Clearing Accusations & Doubts....................................................................................170
Musings - Other side of coin........................................................................................243
viShNu and caturbhuja viShNu....................................................................................249
Advaita in Shastras......................................................................................................293
Random Quotes and Thoughts.....................................................................................376
Brahman in Upanishads...............................................................................................387
Concepts of Advaita in Shastras...................................................................................396
Conspiracies by East India Co, Max Muller, Wilson, Jones and others..........................411
Adi Sankara - A Jagadguru...........................................................................................417
Questioning Authenticity of works attributed to Adi Shankara....................................423
References cited by Adi Shankara in his Bhashya on Vishnu Sahasranama..................464
Adi Shankara Preached Smarta Dharma......................................................................470
Authentic Upanishads and Gitas..................................................................................536
Authenticity of Puranas, Up-puranas and Sthala Puranas............................................565
References and Sources...............................................................................................617

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Understanding Advaita - About Version Numbers

About Version Numbers
Version numbers or Revision numbers are designated as following

Major Update e.g. 4.0 to 5.0 - indicates addition new quotes from new shastras or creation
of new page.

Minor Update e.g. 4.0 to 4.1 - indicates new write-up without addition of new minor
upanishads and other shastras

Big Fix Update e.g. 4.1.1 to 4.1.2 - indicates correcting of typos and addition of sanskrit
verses in devnagari script.

Please note that the version number in downloads link on website does not match with actual
version number. This is because Google Sites does not support minor version number and bugfixes.

Changes Since Last Version
Changes since Version 13.1.4 beta up to v14.0.0 beta
|| Hari OM ||

praNAm-s
Dear Divine Souls,
This is a major update. Following articles were updated.
Questioning Authenticity of works attributed to Adi Sankara - Article Entirely Rewritten
Adi Shankara Preached Smarta Dharma - Article Extensively Modified - Many more proofs
form Vishnu Sahasranama Sankara bhashyas added, Summary in Brief Added.
1 Contents in Brief
1. 12 Adi Sankara didn't translate 'ISA' as 'rudra' in his gItA bhASya on verse BG 11.15
2. 13 Adi Shankara's Interpretation of Shiva (Rudra), Surya, Laxmi and OM in Vishnu
Sahasranama

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Understanding Advaita - Changes since Version 13.1.4 beta up to v14.0.0 beta

1. 13.1 Siva-viShNu abheda
1. 13.1.1 Introductory verses of Vishnu Sahasranama
2. 13.1.2 Siva-viShNu abheda in intro verses of viShNu samhasranAma
3. 13.1.3 05 भभतककतत bhUtakrut
4. 13.1.4 06 भभतभकतत bhUtabhrut
5. 13.1.5 23 ककशव keSava
6. 13.1.6 25 सवर sarva
7. 13.1.7 26 शवर Sarva
8. 13.1.8 27 शशव Siva
9. 13.1.9 38 शशभभ Sambhu
10.13.1.10 64 ईशयान ESAna
11.13.1.11 114 रद rudra
12.13.1.12 231 समपमदर नन sampramardanaH - New
13.13.1.13 234 अशनलन anilaH - New
14.13.1.14 239 शवशवभभकत vishvabhuk - New
15.13.1.15 335 पभरनदर purandara
16.13.1.16 491 महयादकवन mahadevah
17.13.1.17 505 सरोमन somaH - New
18.13.1.18 582 शयानतन SAntah
19.13.1.19 584 शयाननतन SAntih
20.13.1.20 600 शशव Siva
21.13.1.21 651 कयामदकव kAmadeva (kāmadeva) - New
22.13.1.22 653 कयामम kAmI (kāmī) - New
23.13.1.23 877 जयरोशतन jyotih
ḥ - (Vis
ḥ hn
ḥ u is pure consciousness, Siva as skambha
is also pillar of light) New
2. 13.2 sUrya-viShNu abheda in viShNu sahasranAma
1. 13.2.1 232 अहनसशवतर कन ahaHsaMvartakaH (About sUrya bhagavAn) - New
2. 13.2.2 553 वरणन varuNaH - (sUrya bhagavAn is varuNA) - New
3. 13.2.3 648 ककशवन keshava - (trinity are rays or powers of brahman - Mapping
with sūryadeva) - New
4. 13.2.4 881 रशवन ravi - (Sūrya Bhagavān is ravi) New
5. 13.2.5 883 सभयर Sūrya - (Sūryadeva) - New
6. 13.2.6 941 अनयाशदन anādih
ḥ - (No Pointing of specific Deity as Bhagavān) New
3. 13.3 laxmI-viShNu abheda in viShNu sahasranAma
1. 13.3.1 942 भभभर व
भ न Bhūrbhuvah
ḥ - (Appears in Gāyatrī mantra, linked with next
name #943 Laxmī) - New
2. 13.3.2 943 लकमम Laxmī - (Laxmīdevī is ātma-svarūpa) - New
4. 13.4 praNava-viShNu abheda in viShNu sahasranAma
1. 13.4.1 957 पणव (ॐ) pran
ḥ ava - (Formless, Attributeless Brahman OM) - New

adhyAropa apavAda (अध्ययाररोप अपवयाद) - A Consistent Traditional Teaching
4. 1.4 adhyAropa apavAda in viShNu sahasranAma bhASya

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Understanding Advaita - Changes Since Last Version
2. 2 adhyAropa apavAda in yoga texts
1. 2.1 adhyAropa apavAda in Siva samhitA

Advaita, Creation and it's Practicability

1. 1.1 Some Typical Objections
2. 1.2 Questions and Doubts
3. 1.3 Why theory of creation is not true from absolute standpoint?

Musings - Other side of coin
1.4 211 धयाम DhAma and 212 सतय satya
Adi Sankara - A Jagadguru
1. 1 Adi Sankara - A Jagadguru
2. 2 Life of Sringeri AcArya SrI Abhinava vidyAtirthA mahAsvAmI

Authenticity of Puranas, Up-puranas and Sthala Puranas
Summary in Brief is added.
1. 1 Summary in Brief
1. 1.1 Refutation of controversial verses of padma purANa by use of Logic
2. 1.2 Verses from sAttvika purANa-s, mahAbhArata and veda-s glorifing Siva
2. 4.2 Greatness of Siva in bhAgavat purANa
2. 8 sattva, rajasa and tamasa - alternate meanings
3. 9 purANa-s cannot contradict mahAbhArata which says brahmA and viShNu are born from
Siva
4. 10 purANa-s cannot contradict vedA-s which glorify rudra
In addition to above, minor corrections were made to many other articles.
|| Hari OM ||

For old update logs, please visit Recent Updates

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Understanding Advaita - Disclaimer

Disclaimer
|| Hari OM ||
The authors are not an authority in Spirituality but are sAdhaka-s (seekers of truth). This work is
an attempt to collect information related to Advaita Vedanta in one place. Quotes used in this
work are taken from information available on internet in public domain mostly by third party or
from books written by saints following advaita vedAnta. The intention to use their work is not to
make any commercial benefit, but to present Advaita Vedanta positively. Though care is been
taken to give correct information, authors are not responsible for any misinformation given in this
work, which is unintentional. However, pointing out mistakes and giving corrections are welcome.

Nature of Project and Publishing Strategy
Namaste,
This project aims to give pointers. This work is not aimed to be an authentic guide. Publishing
strategy is to push frequent minor updates on the fly i.e. as and when we find info, website is
directly updated.

This project is done on volunteer basis, in free time, with no intention of gaining commercial
benefit. The idea is to constantly update the work as and when time permits.

We push frequent minor updates. This approach is against conventional publishing where an
article is composed offline and only after thorough editing and proof reading it is considered ready
to be uploaded to website. We have reason for pushing minor updates. The idea is to give as
much information as possible and act as a rough reference, with a hope to encourage readers to
undertake study of Shastra-s. This is also the reason for pushing unfinished updates with
uncorrected typos or not providing sanskrit verses. We just want to point out direction so that
interested reader can check out shastra-s with translations from respected and authentic authors
and sources. We are not working on this project as a professional nor we intend to publish this
work in print media. Our aim is to give maximum info, which makes easier to search, thereby
saving a lot of time searching in books. Since the intention is to save time spend in searching,
even a few quotes are a good reason to push for another update.

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Understanding Advaita - Nature of Project and Publishing Strategy
We believe in openness and transparency. Hence we put Recent Site Activity public, which is
generally kept confined to authors and webmasters.
Updating and Uploading .odt and pdf is time consuming and hence current version available for
download may not be updated to latest version. Hence in home page we have mentioned version
number of website and version number of odt and pdf files.
Pdfs on Scribd and Slideshare are not as frequently updated as available in download section of
website.
Pranam-s
Hari OM

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Understanding Advaita - Nature of Project and Publishing Strategy

Credits
I surrender and pray to Parabrahman and my Guru for his infinite grace and teachings on Advaita.
I would also like to thank Shri Vidyashankara Sunderasan ji, maintainer of Advaita-vedanta.org for
providing useful information and giving us advaita-vedanta mailing list. I would also like to extend
my thanks, but not limited to, the creators of websites dedicated to Advaita by
http://www.kamakoti.org/
http://www.kamakotimandali.com/advaita/advaita_index.html
http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/index.htm
http://www.astrojyoti.com/
http://202.3.77.102/acquia/?q=node/20 - Gita Super Site Beta 2.0
http://spokensanskrit.de - Sanskrit – English Disctionary
Advaita Ashrama and Ramakrishna mission
I am also thankful to websites like and other similar sites that have upload spiritual content from
Sri Ramakrishna mission, works of Shri S.N Shastri, Shri P. M. Ramchandar and other authors.
I would like to thank all those who have contributed to advaita and have uploaded articles,
website, forums, discussion groups, blogs, etc.
I would like to thank Shri Gaurav Tiwari for taking interest in this project and helping me in typing
words in sanskrit and in correcting typos.

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Understanding Advaita - Credits

TOC – with subtitles
Table of Contents

About Version Numbers...................................................................................................2
Changes Since Last Version.............................................................................................3
Changes since Version 13.1.2 beta up to v13.1.4 beta.....................................................3
Changes since Version 12.4.1 beta up to v13.1.2 beta.....................................................4
Disclaimer........................................................................................................................7
Nature of Project and Publishing Strategy.......................................................................7
Credits.............................................................................................................................8
TOC – with subtitles.........................................................................................................9
Introduction..................................................................................................................25

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Understanding Advaita - TOC – with subtitles

O Thou, The Knower Of All The Milk-Ocean Of Scriptures! The Expounder Of The Topics
Of Great Upanisadic Treasure-Trove! On Thy Faultless Feet I Meditate In My Heart. Be
Thou My Refuge O preceptor, Sankara. I meditate on Your pure lotus feet in my heart |
O Preceptor Shankara, be my refuge. - toTakAShTaka.m - 1..........................................25
PART I: Advaita Vedanta................................................................................................25
a. Understanding Advaita..............................................................................................26
b. adhyAropa apavAda - A Consistent Traditional Teaching...........................................26
c. Meditative Journey of an Advaita Vedantin................................................................26
d. Advaita, Creation and it's practicability.....................................................................26
e. Q and A......................................................................................................................27
f. Musings - Other Side of Coin......................................................................................27
g. viShNu and caturbhuja viShNu..................................................................................27
h. Siva-viShNu abheda...................................................................................................27
i. Clearing Accusations & Doubts...................................................................................28
PART II: Advaita in shastras..........................................................................................29
a. Advaita in Shastras....................................................................................................29
b. Brahman in Upanishads.............................................................................................30
c. Concepts of Advaita in Shastras.................................................................................30
d. Random Quotes and Thoughts...................................................................................30
PART III: Conspiracies against Bhartiyas......................................................................30
a. Conspiracies against Bhartiyas..................................................................................30
PART IV: Adi Shankara - A Jagadguru............................................................................30
a. Adi Sankara - A Jagadguru........................................................................................31
PART V: Works of Adi Shankara.....................................................................................31
a. Questioning Authenticity of works attributed to Adi Shankara..................................31
b. References cited by Adi Shankara in his Bhashya on Vishnu Sahasranama...............31
c. Adi Shankara Preached Smarta Dharma.....................................................................31
PART VI: Authentic Shastras..........................................................................................32
a. Authentic Upanishads and Gitas................................................................................32
b. Authenticity Puranas, Up-Puranas and Shala Puranas...............................................32
Understanding Advaita..................................................................................................34
Salutations to Param Guru - Guru Gita...........................................................................34
What is Advaita Vedanta................................................................................................34
Brahman........................................................................................................................40
NirguNa brahman

(शनरभरण ब्रह)..........................................40

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Understanding Advaita - TOC – with subtitles
bheda shruti (भकद शभशत):.............................................43
a-bheda shruti (अभकद शभशत):..........................................44
ghaTaka shruti (घटक शभशत):..........................................44
Position of Ishvara in Advaita.......................................................................................44
Maya and Mithya (मयायया,शमथ्यया)...........................................................................................45
Applying mithyA (शमथ्यया)..................................................................................................46
nitya and anitya (शनतय-अशनतय)..........................................................................................47
VairAgya and doSa-darshan (ववै र याग्य - दरोष दशरन, Dispassion and fault finding).....................49
1. mUDha adhikAri (मभढ अधधकयारम )......................................................................................50
2. madhyama adhikAri (मध्यम अधधकयारम ).............................................................................52
3. uttam adhikAri (उत्तम अधधकयारम )......................................................................................52
Jiva (जमव).......................................................................................................................52
Why I am not Jiva?........................................................................................................53
Aham 'I' and AhamkAra 'I-ness', 'I am Doer', 'Ego'.......................................................54
Atman............................................................................................................................55
Relation between Jiva, Ishvara and Brahman...............................................................55
Ishvara SrUShTI and jIva SrUShTI (ईशवर सकश ष, जमव सकश ष).....................................................56
JIva SrUShTI (जमव सकश ष) is the cause of bondage..............................................................56
What is the root cause of suffering?..............................................................................57
moksha (मरोक, moxa).......................................................................................................58
Three Types of vAsanA-s (वयासनया, Desires) and their renunciation...................................58
Is Brahman really deluded?...........................................................................................59
Three Levels of Truths...................................................................................................59
VyavahArika satya.........................................................................................................60
PrAtibhAsika satya........................................................................................................60
PAramArthika satya.......................................................................................................60
Explanation for Brahman getting deluded.....................................................................60
Jivanmukti and Videha Mukti.........................................................................................62
Whom to Surrender?.....................................................................................................62
Why Theory of Advaita is right.......................................................................................62
Acceptance of Six Pramanas..........................................................................................63
Mimamsa...........................................................64

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Understanding Advaita - TOC – with subtitles

Advaita Vedanta - A Pure Vedantic path........................................................................65
Uniqueness of Advaita...................................................................................................66
vAda-s - Theories of Creation........................................................................................67
Arambha vAda...............................................................................................................67
pariNAma vAda..............................................................................................................67
Vivarta vAda..................................................................................................................67
ajAta vAda.....................................................................................................................68
Is Advaita for everybody?..............................................................................................70
Advaitins never compare capacity of Jnani with avatAra...............................................73
Advaita asks one to rise above dvaita...........................................................................73
sAdhana CatuShTa varNana (four qualities to practice advaita)....................................74
Snake- Rope Analogy - A perfect example to explain Advaita........................................75
TruNa-Jantu NyAya and Keet-Bramar NyAya.................................................................78
1. Truna-Jantu Nyaya (Caterpillar law).........................................................................78
2. Keet-Bramar Nyaya...................................................................................................78
Subtle Points.................................................................................................................78
Ishwara does not depend upon anything 'Else' for creation of universe........................80
Three Paths...................................................................................................................80
ajAta vAda: Moksha - a mahabranti (great illusion).......................................................81
Vachyartha and Laxyartha.............................................................................................82
But we have heard so much about mAyA (maayaa). Why is mAyA talked too much?. . . .83
Subtle points for sincere advaita meditators.................................................................83
Upadeshas are given from AdhikAra bheda...................................................................85
adhyAropa apavAda - Only Consistent Traditional Teaching of Adi Shankara
BhagavadpAda...............................................................................................................87
Ishwara is Neutral says Gita..........................................................................................87
Krishna taught both dvaita and advaita.........................................................................89
Both sides of coin has to be understood........................................................................91
Reason behind Shrutis, Smritis and Puranas praising one Personal deity......................92
adhyAropa apavAda (अध्ययाररोप अपवयाद)- A Consistent Traditional Teaching.........................93

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........................................................................................103 How is this method Traditional?..........................................................................129 adhyAropa apavAda in paingala Upanishad.........104 adhyAropa apavAda in BrihadAraNya Upanishad.....................................................134 Page 13 of 619 .................................................................................114 adhyAropa apavAda in Chandogya Upanishad.93 Brahman can be described only in a negative way.........................................................................................................124 adhyAropa apavAda in tejo-bindu Upanishad...................................................................94 How was this traditional Method discovered?.............................................................119 adhyAropa apavAda in Amrit Bindu Upanishad..........128 adhyAropa apavAda in atharvaSikhA Upanishad...................123 adhyAropa apavAda in subAla Upanishad......................................125 adhyAropa apavAda in bAhvrica (Bahvricha) Upanishad............................................................................................Understanding Advaita ........................................TOC – with subtitles adhyAropa apavAda (अध्ययाररोप अपवयाद)...................................................110 adhyAropa apavAda in Aitareya Upanishad.............................................................................................................................................................................................................130 adhyAropa apavAda in Srimad BhAgavatam........................................................115 adhyAropa apavAda in Svetasvatara Upanishad..............................133 1.......127 adhyAropa apavAda in atharvaSirasa Upanishad..........................................................................................................................................................................................106 adhyAropa apavAda in Kena Upanishad..... OM......................................................................................................103 adhyAropa apavAda by post Sankara advaitins.............................................................Only Consistent Traditional Teaching as taught by Adi Shankara BhagavadpAda.131 Meditative Journey of an Advaita Vedantin......................................................................................................110 adhyAropa apavAda in Taittiriya Upanishad..........................................................104 adhyAropa apavAda in all 10 (ten) Upanishads................112 adhyAropa apavAda in Mandukya Upanishad.....................................................116 adhyAropa apavAda in Maha Narayana Upanishad......................................................................133 The Journey..........................................................122 adhyAropa apavAda in Kaushitaki Brahmana Upanishad.......105 adhyAropa apavAda in BrihadAraNya Upanishad................................133 Two types of sAdhanA can be practiced by Advaita Vedantin................111 adhyAropa apavAda in Mundaka Upanishad...............................................................................108 adhyAropa apavAda in PraSNa Upanishad (Prashna Upanishad)...121 adhyAropa apavAda in Brahma Upanishad..........................................................................................................107 adhyAropa apavAda in Katha Upanishad.94 adhyAropa apavAda in Bhagavad Gita........................................98 adhyAropa apavAda in viShNu sahasranAma bhASya...................................126 adhyAropa apavAda in maitrayAni Upanishad..................................................................................................105 adhyAropa apavAda in Isa Upanishad..................................................

....................151 Few words on 'Illusion'........................................................................................154 Advaita is not for everybody...........149 Shruti Hinting non-duality while explaining Creation.........Understanding Advaita .................................................. Neti-neti......................................................................................................................................152 PART II .........147 Why do SAstra-s explain the theory of creation?..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Explaining Advaita.......................135 Is Sri Ramana Maharshi's Teaching Traditional?...............................153 Adi Shankara ..................................152 Neo Philosophy....151 Why the knowledge of Self Realization is supreme?..................................................................................................................155 Clearing Accusations & Doubts............... Devotional Songs...................................146 Why theory of creation is not true from absolute standpoint?...............................................................................................................................................151 Then why Teach Theory of Creation if it is illusion?..........................................................................142 What is 'Negation'?.................................143 Advantage of Singing or Listening to Bhajans.................................. Hymms and Stotras 144 Advaita..................................................................165 Page 14 of 619 .......................................154 Lets return to practical world and start our journey with Prayers.The Jagad Guru..............................................................................................................154 Q & A............136 Why is renunciation important from beginning?.........................................................................Positive Approach...........................143 Reason behind saying everything is mithyA............................................................................................ Theory of Creation and Duality............................................................153 Practical Advaita................TOC – with subtitles 2.....................................................142 'Negation' and not 'Rejection'.........150 The dual statements also point to non-duality......................... Creation and it's Practicability........145 PART I .................149 Veiling (covering) of Self by Ignorance..................................140 'Direct Experience' v/s 'Intellectual Understanding'................145 Questions and Doubts........

Understanding Advaita - TOC – with subtitles
A Note to Readers........................................................................................................165
Quoting Padma Purana to accuse Adi Shankara - Refutation of mAyAvAdam asatSAstraM
Praccanam baudham uchyate......................................................................................166
Lets explore related verses from Padma Purana for better understanding..................169
Is Advaita Non-Vedic?.................................................................................................174
Acceptance of all six pramanas of Mimamsa................................................................175
We need all types of Knowledge..................................................................................175
Last message of Adi Shankara BhagavadpAda.............................................................176
Adi Shankara - A Jagadguru.......................................................................................177
Another Accusation on our acharya is that - Adi Shankara became Vaishnava during his
last years.....................................................................................................................177
BrihadAraNyaka upanishad says jIva is destroyed......................................................179
Shiva Gita, a part of Padma Purana teaches advaita, says jIva is destroyed...............179
Pre Shankara Advaitins...............................................................................................182
Shankaracharya is accused as hidden-Buddhist..........................................................183
GauDapAda is accused as hidden-Buddhist.................................................................184
Two types of Granths and Commentaries are created.................................................186
Adi Shankara's teachings are not consistent...............................................................187
Shankara was dogmatic..............................................................................................188
Devotional Works by Adi Shankara.................................188
Advaita parampara starts with Narayana as first guru.............188
Not Afraid to write about praises to VAsudeva....................189
Humility of Adi Shankara.........................................189
Harmonizing all paths - Smartism.................................189
Ved Vyas extending life of Shankara for 16 more years............190
Adi Shankara Never Rejected Dvaita..............................190
Establishing 4 maths in the four quadrants of our country........192
Adi Shankara's message in a nutshell.............................193
Why Temples are needed if God is omnipresent?....................194
1. Arambha vAda:.................................................195
2. pariNAma vAda.................................................195
3. Vivarta vAda..................................................195
4. ajAta vAda....................................................196

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Understanding Advaita - TOC – with subtitles

Shankaracharya only wanted us to rise above dvaita..................................................200
If you walk of Advaita path you will loose all your rasa and Ananda...........................201
Finally followers of Adi Shankara are accused as "Tyrannical people who burned down
monastries, destroyed cattle and killed women and children" ....................................202
Advaita Jnana needs no Bhakti....................................................................................202
Difference between Buddhism and Advaita..................................................................206
mAyAvAda and brahmavAda........................................................................................207
Brahman / Atman is not Shunya says Ribhu Gita, Anu Gita and Yog Vasistha.............208
mAhAvAkya - Sarvam khalu-idam brahma is bramavAda and not mAyAvAda..............210
Brahma Bhaava...........................................................................................................211
Importance of Guru Tatva (Atma Tatva, Brahman).....................................................211
Refuting authority of scripture on basis of dating and classification............................215
All 108 Upanishads are authentic................................................................................218
No purAnA is superior or inferior.................................................................................222
Classifications of Puranas in Padma Purana and Matsya Purana. . . . .222
Interpolations in Padma PurANa...................................222
Shiva is none other than Brahman.................................222
Anya-devata worship, Vaikuntha and param pada in Gita...........................................223
Shiva and adoption of Nahi Ninda Nyaya by acharyas ................................................228
Each form of God has distinctive Personality...............................................................232
Veda or Agama, which is supreme authority?.............................................................232
All schools during Adi Shankara's time were advaitic..................................................234
Dvaita, Visistadvaita and Advaita are steps leading to ultimate truth..........................235
Their logical fallacy is a strawman...............................................................................236
Musings - Other side of coin........................................................................................237
anya-devatA worship, vaikunTha, param-pada, param-dhAma in gItA........................237
Anya-devata Worship..................................................................................................237
Pada............................................................................................................................239
DeSa............................................................................................................................241
viShNu and caturbhuja viShNu....................................................................................243

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Understanding Advaita - TOC – with subtitles
Meaning of the word 'bhagavAn' as given in bhAgavat purANa 3.32.31-33.................244
Brahman is both saguNa and nirguNa explains kapila munI in bhAgavat purANa
3.32.34-36...................................................................................................................244
GYAna is param Brahma, it is one without a second and it is nirguNa says bhAgavat
purANa........................................................................................................................245
viShNu bhagavAn is the most nearest svarUpa of brahman.........................................246
viShNu is not always caturbhUja viShNu.....................................................................247
Atma bodha upanishad describes caturbhuja viShNu..................................................255
yoga vAsisTha in arjunopAkhyAna explains who should meditate on viShNu as
AtmasvarUpa and caturbhuja viShNu..........................................................................257
viShNu is sometimes feminine aspect of brahman.......................................................259
In rudra-hridaya Upanishad, viShNu is said to be umA................................................261
puruSa is not always a person.....................................................................................262
bhagavAn as 'AtmasvarUpa' and GYAnasvarUpa is non-other than nirAkAra brahma. .263
Adi Sankara in viShNu sahasranAma bhASya says one should worship viShNu as
Atmarupa.....................................................................................................................265
Siva as supreme brahman says bhAgavat purANa.......................................................266
Siva naTarAja form and five actions............................................................................270
Conclusion...................................................................................................................270
'I' or 'Me' in Gita can be taken as 'Brahman'................................................................271
Advaita bhakti preached by Adi Sankara bhagavapAda................................................279
Krishna, a person, is symbolic representation of nirguNa brahman says aNu gItA......281
Conclusion...................................................................................................................282
Advaita in Shastras......................................................................................................283

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Understanding Advaita - TOC – with subtitles

Four mahAvAkyAs - Jiva Brahma aikya........................................................................283
OM...............................................................................................................................285
Advaita in Bhagavad Gita.............................................................................................286
Brahman in Bhagavad Gita...........................................................................................287
Neutrality of Ishwara / Brahman in Gita.....................................................................287
Bhagavan talks of this world as Mechanical.................................................................288
Bhagavan Krishna explains OM in Bhagavad Gita and Uttara Gita................................288
Krishna talks about Advaita and Maya in Srimad Bhagavatam.....................................289
Advaita in Bhagavat Purana - Kapila Gita.....................................................................292
Advaita in Guru Gita.....................................................................................................295
Guru Tatva and Brahman in Guru Gita.........................................................................296
Glories of Param Guru.................................................................................................298
Guru is above Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva....................................................................299
Fruitlessness of sadhana done without the knowledge of Self.....................................300
Shiva, Shakti and Guru are one and same says Guru Gita ...........................................300
Advaita in Ribhu Gita...................................................................................................301
Advaita in Other Gitas..................................................................................................301
Advaita in Avadhuta (Avadhoot) Gita..........................................................................302
Advaita in Sri Rama Gita also called as sruti-sara-sangraha........................................302
Advaita in Hanumad Gita.............................................................................................302
Advaita in Shiva Gita from Padma Purana...................................................................303
Advaita in Uttara Gita..................................................................................................306
Advaita in Anu Gita......................................................................................................310
Advaita in Uddhava Gita..............................................................................................312
Advaita in AdhyAtma rAmAyaNa and tArA gItA...........................................................313

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Understanding Advaita - TOC – with subtitles
Advaita and Ajaata Vaad in Ashtavakra Gita................................................................314
Advaita in Yoga Vasistha.............................................................................................316
Advaita in 10 (ten) mukhya (major) Upanishads........................................................319
Advaita Vedanta IshAvAsya Upanishad.......................................................................320
Advaita Vedanta in Kena Upanishad - I may not deny Brahman and Brahman do not
deny me......................................................................................................................322
Advaita Vedanta in Katha Upanishad (kathopanishad)................................................323
Advaita Vedanta in Prashna Upanishad.......................................................................326
Advaita Vedanta in Mundaka Upanishad......................................................................327
Advaita Vedanta in Mandukya Upanishad....................................................................328
Advaita Vedanta in Taittiriya Upanishad......................................................................328
Advaita Vedanta in Aitareya Upanishad.......................................................................329

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Understanding Advaita - TOC – with subtitles

Advaita Vedanta Chandogya Upanishad.......................................................................330
Advaita Vedanta BrihadAraNya Upanishad..................................................................334
Advaita in other Upanishads........................................................................................336
Svetashvatara Upanishad on Brahman as Ishwara......................................................336
Advaita in Muktika Upanishad (Muktikopanishad).......................................................338
Advaita Vedanta in subAla Upanishad.........................................................................339
Advaita in nirAlambopaniShad....................................................................................340
Advaita and Ajaata vAda in tejobindu Upanishad........................................................340
Advaita in Amrit Bindu Upanishad...............................................................................340
Advaita Vedanta in Kaushitaki Brahmana Upanishad...................................................341
Advaita Vedanta in Brahma Upanishad.......................................................................343
Advaita Vedanta in Maha Upanishad...........................................................................346
Advaita Vedanta in MahAnArAyaNa Upanishad............................................................346
Advaita Vedanta in jAbAla Upanishad..........................................................................347
Advaita Vedanta in Mudgala Upanishad.......................................................................348
Advaita Vedanta in Aruni (Aruneyi) Upanishad...........................................................349
Advaita Vedanta in Atma Upanishad............................................................................349
Advaita Vedanta in Sarvasara (Sarva-sara) Upanishad...............................................352
Advaita Vedanta in Paramhansa Upanishad.................................................................354
Advaita Vedanta in Kaivalya Upanishad.......................................................................355
Advaita Vedanta in AdhyAtma Upanishad....................................................................356
Advaita Vedanta in Atma Bodh Upanishad...................................................................357
Advaita Vedanta in SarasvatI hradaya Upanishad.......................................................358
Advaita Vedanta in Yog Tatva Upanishad....................................................................358
Advaita Vedanta in NirvANa Upanishad.......................................................................358
External Links..............................................................................................................359
Conclusion...................................................................................................................359
A request to respected readers....................................................................................360
A request to Indians....................................................................................................361
A Humble Request: Adopt Nahi Ninda Nyaya...............................................................362
Random Quotes and Thoughts.....................................................................................365

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Understanding Advaita - TOC – with subtitles
Quotes from SAstra-s...................................................................................................365
Amrit Bindu Upanishad................................................................................................365
Tejo Bindu Upanishad..................................................................................................365
AdhyAtma Upanishad..................................................................................................365
Chandogya Upanishad.................................................................................................366
Yoga Chudamani Upanishad explains OM / AUM and Brahman....................................366
Random thoughts........................................................................................................369
Another way to understand Adi Shankara...................................................................369
Notes on karma...........................................................................................................370
Accept all, accept none................................................................................................373
Brahman in Upanishads...............................................................................................376
Brahman and Creation.................................................................................................376
Brahman as substratum of all......................................................................................377
Different Levels of Truths............................................................................................378
Brahman as All.............................................................................................................379
Definition of Purusha...................................................................................................381
NirguNa Brahman as Ishvara.......................................................................................381
Self is Brahman............................................................................................................383
2 Brahmans | Two Brahmans | Two levels of the unmanifested..................................383
Concepts of Advaita in Shastras...................................................................................385
Brahman......................................................................................................................385
Brahman is nirAkAra....................................................................................................386
nirguNa Brahman is higher than saguNa Brahman......................................................386
nirguNa Brahman peaceful..........................................................................................387
Snake-rope example in Minor upanishads....................................................................387
MAyA and Unreality of the world.................................................................................388
Two Levels of Truth.....................................................................................................389
Jivan Mukta and Videha Mukta in Tejo Bindu Upanishad..............................................392
adhyAropa apavAda in tejo bindu upanishad...............................................................396
Jiva is destroyed.........................................................................................................397
Concepts on puruSa.....................................................................................................397
nirvikalp samAdhi in bhAgavat purANa........................................................................398
Conspiracies by East India Co, Max Muller, Wilson, Jones and others..........................400
Conspiracies by East India Company, Asiatic Society and Max Muller..........................401
Disappearance of Pt. Taranath Shastry's 20 Years of research and collection of authentic
manuscripts.................................................................................................................402
Max Muller, H.H. Wilson, William Jones, F. E. Partiger et al and Britannica Encyclopedia
....................................................................................................................................404
Adi Sankara - A Jagadguru...........................................................................................406
Adi Sankara - A Jagadguru...........................................................................................406
Birth date of Adi Sankara.............................................................................................410
Current SankarAcArya-s (Shankaracharyas)................................................................410
Questioning Authenticity of works attributed to Adi Shankara....................................411

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Understanding Advaita - TOC – with subtitles

Are all the works attributed to Adi Shankara Bhagavadpad actually his compositions?
....................................................................................................................................411
Conspiracies by East India Company, Asiatic Society and Max Muller..........................411
Unusual capacity of intense mental concentration of Realized Saints and Intuitive
Knowledge...................................................................................................................412
annamAcArya......................................................412
Mahavatar Babaji.................................................413
GYAnadeva........................................................413
Swami Vivekananda................................................413
Sriram Sharma Acharya............................................414
Sri Aurobindo....................................................415
Valmiki..........................................................415
Sri Ramakrishna..................................................416
Sri Ramana Maharshi..............................................416
Adi Shankara.....................................................416
Poet and Preacher.......................................................................................................417
Methods of evaluation for determining authenticity....................................................418
Brahma Sutra BhASya as de-facto Standard for comparing works...............................419
Brief list of works attributed to Adi Shankara..............................................................419
Explanation for different writing style than Brahma Sutra BhASya..............................423
As a laymen, what should I do?...................................................................................424
References cited by Adi Shankara in his Bhashya on Vishnu Sahasranama..................426
References (Combined)...............................................................................................426
Puranas.......................................................................................................................427
Puranas: Detailed with verse nos................................................................................428
Upanishads..................................................................................................................430
Ramanaya....................................................................................................................430
Mahabharata................................................................................................................431
Miscellaneous..............................................................................................................431
Adi Shankara Preached Smarta Dharma......................................................................432

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Understanding Advaita - TOC – with subtitles
Contents in Brief..........................................................................................................432
Adi Shankara Preached Smarta Dharma......................................................................439
Smarta and Shanmata.................................................................................................439
Some Personal Thoughts............................................................................................440
Adi Shankara Bhagavadpada was not a Shaiva, nor a Vaishnava, nor a Shakta...........441
smArta - a PUrNa vaidika dharma................................................................................441
Did smArta dharma exist prior to Adi Sankara?...........................................................443
Adi Shankara's Parents were Shiva bhakta-s...............................................................443
Each Form of God has Distinctive Characteristics........................................................444
One-pointedness is necessary.....................................................................................445
But how can attributes which are generally related to Shiva be considered as that of
Vishnu, one may ask....................................................................................................445
Wrong interpretation of Adi Shankara Bhagavadpada's commentary leads to erroneous
conclusion...................................................................................................................448
Lord Shiva and Maa Parvati is Ishvara says Adi Shankara in Kena Upanishad.............449
Lord Shiva is Atman, Brahman and Paramatma, the supreme Self says Adi Shankara in
Gita..............................................................................................................................450
Adi Sankara didn't translate 'ISA' as 'rudra' in his gItA bhASya on verse BG 11.15.....451
Adi Shankara's Interpretation of Shiva and Rudra in Vishnu Sahasranama.................452
Introductory verses of Vishnu Sahasranama...............................................................452
Siva-viShNu abheda in intro verses of viShNu samhasranAma....................................453
06 भभत भकत त bhUtabhrut.....................................................................................................457
23 कक शव keSava.............................................................................................................457
25 सवर sarva..................................................................................................................458
26 शवर Sarva..................................................................................................................458
27 शशव Siva...................................................................................................................459
38 शश भ भ Sambhu.............................................................................................................460
64 ईशयान ESAna..............................................................................................................460
114 रद Rudra...............................................................................................................461
335 पभर नदर purandara.....................................................................................................462
491 महयादक व न mahadevah..................................................................................................462
582 शयानतन SAntah..........................................................................................................462

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Understanding Advaita - TOC – with subtitles

584 शयाननतन SAntih..........................................................................................................462
600 शशव Siva.................................................................................................................463
Common names and some selected names in Shiva Sahasranama..............................463
Shiva and Vishnu.........................................................................................................465
Shiva and Brahma.......................................................................................................466
Shiva and Krishna........................................................................................................466
Shiva and Kurukshetra...............................................................................................466
Shiva's Macrocosmic form (VirATa SvarUpa)...............................................................467
Some Qualities of Shiva...............................................................................................467
Shiva and deluge.........................................................................................................467
Shiva is everything......................................................................................................468
Shiva as Brahman........................................................................................................468
Shiva as ParamAtmAn.................................................................................................469
Shiva and Linga...........................................................................................................469
Adi Shankara Praises Lord Shiva as Para Brahman in Dakshinamuirty Stotram...........470
Adi Shankara Bhagavadpada on OM, Shiva and Paramatma in Mandukya Upanishad. .472
Adi Shankara Bhagavadpada Praises Shiva (Shambho) as Ishvara and confirms nonduality with the Lord...................................................................................................474
Adi Shankara Bhagavadpada Praises explains Namah Shivaya in Shiva PanchAkshara
Mantra.........................................................................................................................474
Adi Shankara Bhagavadpada in Veda Sara Shiva Stavan praises Shiva as supreme.....475
Adi Shankara equates Atman with both Vishnu and Shiva in Vivek Chudamani...........476
Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva appear to be different due to mAyA says Adi Shankara in
mAyA panchakam........................................................................................................477
praSnottara ratna mAlikA defines who is the supreme God.........................................478
Adopting of Double Standards by Rival Schools..........................................................479
Non-Duality of Shiva-Vishnu stated by Madhusudan Sarasvati....................................480
Non-Duality of Shiva-Vishnu in Suta SamhitA of Skanda PurANa.................................481
Ganesha is Self Born says Shiva in Linga PurANa........................................................483
VinAyaka in Shankara BhASya 9.25.............................................................................484
Maa Bhavani is supreme in Soundarya Lahiri...............................................................484
Shiva-Vishnu (Narasimha) abheda in Narasimha Purva Tapaniya Upanishad..............485
Shiva-Vishnu (Narasimha) abheda in Narasimha Uttara Tapaniya Upanishad.............485
Conclusion...................................................................................................................487
Authentic Upanishads and Gitas..................................................................................488

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Understanding Advaita - TOC – with subtitles
Preface........................................................................................................................488
A word about muktikA upanishad................................................................................489
A word about SrI VidyAraNya svAmI...........................................................................491
SrI VidyAraNya svAmI cites Muktika Upanishad (MuktikopaniSat) in PanchdaSI 4.68 493
All 108 upanishads commented by upanishad brahma yOgI........................................494
Upanishads
commented
by
SankarAnanda,
bhArtItirtha,
appayya
dikshita,
bhAskararAya and nArAyaNa tIrth...............................................................................494
Some more details about upanishads..........................................................................494
Ten Principle Upanishads.............................................................................................496
Other Authentic Upanishads - Part of 108 Upanishads of MuktikopaniSat...................497
Other Authentic Upanishads - Not a Part of 108 Upanishads of MuktikopaniSat..........500
Authentic Upanishads Commented by SrI NArAyaNa tIrtha.........................................501
Upanishads Commented by lahirI mahASaya...............................................................503
Upanishads of Doubtful Authenticity............................................................................504
Fake Upanishads..........................................................................................................504
Upanishads with known SAkhA-s (shakhas)................................................................505
References made by Adi Shankara in Brahma Sutras...................................................508
Conclusion - A personal opinion...................................................................................509
Authentic Gitas............................................................................................................510
Authenticity of Puranas, Up-puranas and Sthala Puranas............................................517
Controversial verses in padma purANa........................................................................517
Another Classification in padma purANa - a better one................................................519
Opinion of pUrvAcArya-s..............................................................................................521
Greatness of Siva in padma purANa.............................................................................525
Greatness of Siva in bhAgavat purANa........................................................................527
Verses in Siva gItA similar to anya-devatA verses in bhagavad gItA (9.25)...............527
Interpolations in padma purANa..................................................................................529
Interpreting 'tamas'....................................................................................................530
purANa-s cannot contradict vedA-s which glorify rudra...............................................532
Few thoughts about creation, trinity, and words bhagavAn and deva (devatA)...........536
nArAyaNa and the 'Na' factor.......................................................................................537
vaiSnava objections.....................................................................................................539
Moral of story is more important than story and adopting nAhI nindA nyAya..............543
Literal meaning should not be taken............................................................................544
No purANa is superior or inferior.................................................................................545
upa-purANa-s and sthala purANa-s are authentic too - in words of kAnchi paramAcArya
....................................................................................................................................547
References and Sources...............................................................................................549
Sources for reading.....................................................................................................549

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Understanding Advaita - Introduction

Introduction
शवशदतयाधखिलशयास्त्रसभधयाजलधक मशहतरोपशनषतत कधथितयाथिर शनधक |
हृदयक कलयक शवमलश चरणश भव शशकर दकशशक मक शरणमत || - तरोटकयाषकश -1

O Thou, The Knower Of All The Milk-Ocean Of Scriptures! The Expounder Of The Topics Of Great
Upanisadic Treasure-Trove! On Thy Faultless Feet I Meditate In My Heart. Be Thou My
Refuge O preceptor, Sankara. I meditate on Your pure lotus feet in my heart | O
Preceptor Shankara, be my refuge. - toTakAShTaka.m - 1

Namaste Fellow Advaitins,

This site is dedicated to fellow Advaitins and aims at giving clear picture of Advaita, Meditative
Journey of an Advaita Vedantin, Dispelling Doubts, accusations by other Vedantic schools, Giving
References of Shastras that Support Advaita, as taught by GauDapadAchArya, Adi Shankara, his
successors and other modern saints following Traditional Advaita.

A special page has been dedicated to understand a unique traditional teaching passed on to and
by Shri Gaudapadacharya and Adi Shanakracharya ji. This method was re-discovered by Sri
Sacchidanandendra Saraswati Swami of Holenarsipur. It is called adhyAropa apavAda.

Site is divided into 3 main categories:

PART I: Advaita Vedanta
This part is theoretical in nature. It is written in simple and easy to understand language without
much use of quoting shastra-s except the last part which clears accusations on advaita. This part

Page 26 of 619

• It also goes into subtler details. It explains meditation on OM and method of negation i. Meditative Journey of an Advaita Vedantin This part deals with Meditative journey of an Advaita Vedantin. in brief.t advaita vedanta and practical application of advaita vedanta.Introduction is not of polemical nature. According to Swami Sacchidanandendra Saraswati. beyond attributes and be free from concepts of duality and non-duality.r.e. Advaita also teaches that everything else that you see is Brahman. Advaita. as defined by Adi Shankara in his PrakaraNa grantha-s. Page 27 of 619 . which can be useful for sincere advaitins who regularly meditate for attaining moksha.Neti along with other subtle points.A Consistent Traditional Teaching This part deals with unique Traditional way of teaching as passed on to and by by Shri Gaudapadacharya and Adi Shanakracharya ji. beyond (worldly and scriptural) knowledge and ignorance.Understanding Advaita . • Explains basic concept of Advaita along with common terminology and definition of basic terms used in advaita. c. Creation and it's practicability This part explains questions related to theories of creation w. adhyAropa apavAda . Understanding Advaita • This section attempts to correctly project Advaita. it is the only consistent method of teaching. d. a. b. • Some FAQs are also included Advaita teaches to go beyond maayaa. Neti .

pure consciousness and not caturbhuja viShNu i. but bhagavAn himself g. antaryAmin. Siva-viShNu abheda As the name suggests. Q and A e. Musings . param dhAma is param jyoti. this page is dedicated to explaining Siva-viShNu abheda in SAStra-s.Other Side of Coin In this page.Understanding Advaita . we have presented musings which represent 'other side of coin' of certain concepts which are generally taken to [obviously] mean a specific thing. ISvara. param pada. mace and lotus. it is always nirguNa brahman.e. which is GYAnasvarUpa or AtmasvarUpa or cidAtmA. paramAtmA all point to one thing . or consciousness which is GYana param dhAma is not vaikuntha.brahman. viShNu and caturbhuja viShNu This page explains that it is not necessary that whenever the word 'viShNu' is used. conch. bhagavAn. When instructions are given to meditate on viShNu as AtmasvarUpa or sUtrAtmA. as deity of preservation is different from paramAtmAn viShNu.e. deva. Page 28 of 619 . Words like param dhAma. viShNu bhagavAn as a person. h. it always means caturbhuja holding with discuss. cidAtmA or GYAnasvarUpa. viShNu bhagavAn. Q and A Simple explanation of basic concepts given in Q and A format • Siva-viShNu-abheda f. param gati.

as we are taught to feel compassion and not hatred. as taught by Adi Shankaracharya and his preceptors and vedic Rishis will be doomed. destroyed cattle and killed women and children" . Puranas and Bhagavad Gita. Clearing Accusations & Doubts This part attempts to clear doubts. Every sincere seeker practices his / her path with full faith and devotion.Understanding Advaita . but what if it someone attacks the very faith you are practicing? For new comers this will be quite a shock. I just want to convey the correct understanding to fellow advaitins so that when anyone tries to defame or accuse Advaita or Adi Shankara. upanishads. they know it’s a strawman. Personal attack can be ignored. refer to Dvaita --> search for 'kill' and you will find the above statement The purpose of writing this article is that I tried to find the truth and had to spend much time to collect facts that conclude: Advaita. Page 29 of 619 .source Wikipedia article on Advaita Vedanta. • They accuse of Advaita being non-vedic. in fact.Introduction i. he will be freed from the miserable cycle of birth and death and will sit on the pinnacle of truth. as taught by Adi Shankara is authentic and is consistent with Vedas. accusations and correct misunderstandings. • Vaishnavas wrongly accuse Adi Shankaracharya being a mayavadi and a hidden Buddhist. Hitting back at accusers is avoided. though it is brahmavaad (niraakaara and vivarta and ajaata vaad) • Some of them even go on to say that Adi Shankara was a demon who walked on earth and anyone following his teachings will be doomed. Advaitins are taught to remain calm and neutral when someone verbally attacks them. One cannot have lower animal emotions if one wants to progress in spirituality. No one correctly practising Advaita. • Some even go further that followers of Shankara as "tyrannical people who burned down monasteries. • They incorrectly say that Avaita is maayaavaad.

a. any path has to be consistent with them. I feel it is an insult to the entire system and the great beloved acharya Shri Adi Shankara. my humble attempt will be fulfilled. After going through this website. It's an attempt to give correct picture and leave it's discretion to the reader. consistent with Vedas and Adi Shankara was one of the greatest proponent of traditional advaita' Even if one person would speak the above statement from heart. we can say.Understanding Advaita . questioning and acknowledgment should be replaced by Faith and one should say. nor one should try to. Vedas. 'Advaita is authentic. Page 30 of 619 . This site is my silent response. but it has put me in a fix. I have created this site as I do not want others to waste time collecting references from shastras.PART II: Advaita in shastras PART II: Advaita in shastras This part contains quotes from shastras supporting the theory of advaita vedanta. After collecting references from shastras that teach Advaita. acknowledge that Advaita is authentic and Adi Shankaracharya is genuine. References from various smritis (bhagavad Gita. Guru Gita. This part has been the most difficult. I am trying to prove. not because it is tough to get details. as a ajnani cannot judge a jnani. consistent with Vedas and Adi Shankara was one of the greatest proponent of traditional advaita' This word Yes. Shiva Gita and other lesser known Gitas) and shrutis (major and minor upanishads) are given. More than a response. Upanishads and Bhagavad Gita are the pillars of Sanatana Dharma. It show the acknowledgement. Hence Reference to advaita teachings in shastras has to be pointed out. gives me pain. Uttara Gita. Advaita in Shastras Shastras are an authority. References from Srimad Bhagavatam are also quoted. 'Yes Advaita is authentic.

H. Wilson. Page 31 of 619 . Indologists and Linguists having hidden agenda to destroy our culture and our shastras. It may also have some other useful information other than quotes from shastras. like H. Atman. etc from shastras. PART III: Conspiracies against Bhartiyas a. Random Quotes and Thoughts This page is a collection of random but useful quotes from Shastras. Jones and others to interpret our shasras in a demeaning way. PART IV: Adi Shankara . Concepts of Advaita in Shastras This page attempts to find advaitic concepts like Brahman. Conspiracies against Bhartiyas British East India Company wanted to rule India.Introduction b. These men also corrupted our dharma sAstra-s and grihya sUtra-s and bhavishya purANa. In this quest they setup Asiatic Society with 24 + members. c.Understanding Advaita . Unfortunately their line of thinking are still followed today. Brahman in Upanishads This page is a collection of words connected to Brahman in shastras. This page is a must read for all Hindus. They fabricated a myth called Aryan Invasion theory. Adi Sankara . they also made attampts to demean our deva bhASa sanskrit and tried to create Pro-Indo-Euro Language as the mother of all languages including Sanskrit. They also hired Max Muller to interpret shastras in a wicked way.A Jagadguru a. d. Dharm Chakravarty Swami Prakashananda Saraswati had decoded their ways and have presented scientific proofs to support his claims in exposing so-called western scholar.A Jagadguru Logical reasoning given as to why Adi Sankara is called as Jagadguru.

References cited by Adi Shankara in his Bhashya on Vishnu Sahasranama This part lists references cited by Sri Adi Shankara Bhagavadpada in his Vishnu Sahasranama bhashya. Adi Shankara Preached Smarta Dharma This part attempts to support the common belief that Adi Shankara preached smArta dharma.A Jagadguru PART V: Works of Adi Shankara This page attempts to support works attributed to Adi Shankara and his preaching of smArta dharma. a. PART VI: Authentic Shastras a. c. b.Understanding Advaita .a. Authentic Upanishads and Gitas Page 32 of 619 . Questioning Authenticity of works attributed to Adi Shankara This part attempts to show the reason why some scholars do not consider the works attributed to Adi Shankara are genuinely acharya's creation and finding limitations in their adopted process for critical examination of works. Adi Sankara .

Other reasons like comparing purANa-s with mAhAbhArata and vedA-s and vedAnta are given in support of claim. tAmasika are refuted by quoting another classification given in padma purANa. Lastly. whatever good you find is my Guru's Grace and whatever negative you find is my own.Introduction Traditionally there are 108 upanishads. Up-Puranas and Shala Puranas Logical reasoning is provided from advaita POV in support of claim that all purANa-s are authentic. || ॐ तम नमयाशम रभरमत परम || Aum Indiaspirituality Amrut Lets begin our journey by Understanding Advaita Om Shri Ganeshaya Namah || Om Shri Guru Sharanam || Om Shri Ramakrishna Sharanam || Om Shri Ramana Maharshi Sharanam || Om Shri Adi Shankara Sharanam || Om Shri Paramatmane Namah Page 33 of 619 . Authenticity Puranas. Verses in padma purANa-s classifying purANa-s into sAttvika. May this humble attempt bring inner peace to Fellow Advaitins and other sincere spiritual seekers.Understanding Advaita . This part tries to under the reason behind their claim and the method adopted by them for critical study of any shastra before accepting it as a genuine shruti. Some scholars do not accept all 108 upanishads listed in Muktika Upanishad. b. rAjasika. May we all move beyond the realm of vaad-vivaad is my humble prayer.

(216) Refer Glories of Param Guru What is Advaita Vedanta The word 'Advaita' ( अदवैत ) means non-duality. whose eyes are covered by the cataracts of ignorance. wealth. everything is superimposed in me.Guru Gita Let us begin with salutations to our Guru who is none other than Sat-Chit-Anand Atma / Brahman यस्य पसयादयादहमकव सवर मय्यकव सवर पररकनलपतश च | इतथिश शवजयानयाशम सदयातमरपश तस्ययाशशघ्रिपदश पणतरोतोऽनस्म शनतयमत || By whose grace that one realizes “I am everything. and whose mind is captured by sense pleasure.Understanding Advaita . brothers. (215) कभलश धनश बलश शयास्त्रश बयानधवयास्सरोदरया इमक | मरणक नरोपयभजयनतक रभररककरो शह तयारकन || Family traditions. may Thy blessings be bestowed on me. strength.none of these are useful to you at the time of death. .Understanding Advaita Understanding Advaita Salutations to Param Guru . I offer my salutations and worship to my self-realised Satguru’s lotus feet. by the gift of the light of knowledge. It is a philosophy which describes that there is only Page 34 of 619 . (188) अजयानशतशमरयानधस्य शवषययाकयानतचकतसन | जयानपभयापदयानकन पसयादश कभर मक पभरो || O Lord. shastras. relatives. Satguru is the only saviour.

which contains the essence of Vedas. unchanging.20 Brahman (ब्रह. Hence.NirguNa Brahman (शनरभरण ब्रह).२० Brahma Satyam Jagan Mithya Jivo Brahmaiva Na Aparah" . Jiva (जमव) and Shiva (शशव..ब्रह जयानयावलममयालया . All else is not real.२० Page 35 of 619 .e. mind and beyond the realms of mAyA (मयायया). the Jiva (जमव) or the individual soul is non-different from Brahman (ब्रह).Understanding Advaita . brahman. formless. Brahman. Advaita Vedanta can be defined as a marg (path) which teaches the essence of vedas that there is one supreme reality (non-dual) . A + Dvaita (अ + दवैत)= Advaita Dvaita (दवैत) = Duality. Advaita asks one to raise from Sharira bhava (शरमर भयाव) to Jiva bhava (जमव भयाव) to Atma Bhava (आतम भयाव). the Absolute) is alone real.duality = non-duality Vedanta means the end parts of Vedas. Entire advaita can be summed up in half verse as ब्रह सतयश जरननमथ्यया जमवरो ब्रहवैव नयापरन . and mithya (शमथ्यया). Here the end part is to be taken as essence and not literally 'end' part. temporary. Brahman alone is reality. It is due to the power of God's Maya (illusion) that this world looks different than Brahman. Advaita Vedanta teaches that this world is transient. Brahman is changeless. ब्रह ) are not different.ब्रह जयानयावलममयालया . The full verse is ब्रह सतयश जरननमथ्यया जमवरो ब्रहवैव नयापरन अनकन वकदश सच्छयास्त्रशमशत वकदयानतशडत नणडमन . indivisible.Understanding Advaita one reality and one truth i. this world is unreal. not eternal and is of transient nature. A-Dvaita = not. beyond guna-s (attributes). adobe of sorrows. immutable. beyond the reach of 5 senses.Brahma Jnanavali mala. According to Advaita.

it cannot be categorized as either real or unreal. he went on the say that Jagat satyam. This half verse is also found in nirAlambopanishad: ब्रह सतयश जरननमथ्यया जमवरो ब्रहवैव नयापरन (शनरयालमबरोपशनषद .Understanding Advaita . Everything else is also Brahman 6. This should be understood as the correct SAstra (शयास्त्र).28 (Niraalamba Upanishad . the Absolute) is alone real. Important concepts of Advaita Vedanta that one frequently comes across are 1. Adi Shankaracharya was one of the greatest proponent of Advaita Vedanta. jagat mithyA. 5. the universe is mithya (शमथ्यया).What is Advaita Vedanta brahma satyam jaganmithyA jIvo brahmaiva nAparah anena vedyam sacchAstram iti vedAntaDiNDimah–Brahma Jnanavali mala. this world is unreal.२८) "Brahma Satyam Jagan Mithya Jivo Brahmaiva Na Aparah" . This is proclaimed by Vedanta. Atman is Sat-Chit-Ananda and not different from Brahman. Jagat MithyA 3. This Jagat satyam is not from dual point.e. It is conveyed by another mahAvAkya (महयावयाक्य). but from atma sthiti (आतमनस्थिशत). Though most people stick to Brahma satya. Brahman Satyam 2. Jiva and Brahman are not Different 4. Page 36 of 619 .20 20. The jiva (जमव) is Brahman (ब्रह) itself and not different.nirAlambopaniShada . Brahman due to it's mAyA appears as this world. Adi Shankara did not stop at jagat mithya. everything else is (also) brahman. sarvam khalu-idam brahma (सवर खिलभ इदश ब्रह) i.28) Brahman (ब्रह. Brahman (ब्रह) is real. the Jiva or the individual soul is non-different from Brahman.

Brahman is indescribable. It depends upon and rest upon Brahman (ब्रह) 15. 6. here are some basic concepts of advaita: 1. Brahman is one without a second. Brahman when working through mAyA (मयायया). सरभण ब्रह) is not different than Brahman (ब्रह) and is not under the spell of mAyA (मयायया) i. it appears to be real.Understanding Advaita Basic Concepts of Advaita in Points Talking in more detail. (ekam Sat . 17. space.e.e. Brahman is jnana Svarupa (जयान स्वरप). mAyA (मयायया) is mithyA (शमथ्यया) i. it's illusionary power. Brahman has independent existence and does not depend upon anything else 10. infinite.164. it is neither real nor completely unreal. indivisible. Truth is one. what is left is NirguNa Brahman (शनरभरण ब्रह) or simply Brahman (ब्रह). time. 16. Ishwara has 6 upAdhi-s (उपयाधध). Though it is unreal. mAyA (मयायया) does not have independent existence. panchamahAbhuta (पञ्चमहयाभभत). mAyA (मयायया). peaceful. Brahman is nirAkAra (शनरयाकयार). but is not bound by it. subtlest and omnipresent. Brahman is the only reality i.e. Both Ishwara and Jiva have upAdhi-s (उपयाधध) 13. is called as saguNa brahman (सरभण ब्रह) or Ishwara (ईशवर) 11. Brahman is beyond 3 guna-s (शत्रिरभणयातमत). Page 37 of 619 .46) 2. and 5 senses. bound by mAyA (मयायया) whom Ishwara controls. 12. undivided. 14. Jiva is the same Brahman which associates itself with avidhA mAyA (अशवधया मयायया) i. There is no duality in Brahman (ब्रह) 4. Ishwara (SaguNa Brahman.Rig Veda 1. Brahman is Sat-Chit-Ananda Svarupa (सनच्चदयाननद स्वरप) 8. 5. immutable. 7. 3.Understanding Advaita . When upAdhi-s (उपयाधध) of both jiva (जमव) and Ishwara (ईशवर) are removed. Brahman is without beginning and end. 9.e.

e.e. Atman (आतमया) is Brahman (ब्रह). it's existence is negated in nirvikalpa samAdhi (शनशवर कलप समयाधध). 21. existence of mAyA (मयायया). not-this'. PrakaraNa grantha-s are introductory texts that give definitions of key concepts of Advaita (अदवैत).नया-इशत) meaning 'not-this. ब्रह) 19. In other words. Though mAyA (मयायया) is beginning-less (अनयाशद) it's ends in Jnana (जयान) i. Technically Jiva (जमव) is not different than Shiva (Brahman. Sub commentary is called as laghu dipikA (लघभ शदशपकया). nA-iti . 26. Page 38 of 619 . jiva (जमव) and jagat (जरत) are negated in nirvikalpa samAdhi (शनशवर कलप समयाधध) 24. Perceiving duality (दवैत) is due to error in perception. his disciples and successors have also created some prakaraNa grantha-s and written commentaries (bhashya-s. 25. when it associates itself with Brahman (ब्रह) it merges into brahman (ब्रह) loosing it's individual identity.Understanding Advaita . some call it as bhava prakAsha (भयाव पकयाश). After negation of what is 'not this' Neti-Neti (नकशत-नकशत) i.What is Advaita Vedanta 18. भयाष्य) and annotations (vArttika. To explain these concepts. Atman (आतमया) is Sat-Chit-Ananda (सनच्चदयाननद) and not different from Brahman (ब्रह). 23. शशव. Other than Adi Shankara. Adi Shankara out of compassion created prakaraNa grantha-s (पकरण ग्रनथित). Only ajnana (अजयान. Jiva was never separated from Brahman as Brahman is indivisible. Others have named commentary as dipikA (शदशपकया) or chandrikA (चननदकया). only pure consciousness remains. ignorance) can be removed. as used by some recent commentators. mAyA (मयायया) or jiva (जमव) or jagat (जरत) does cease to exist in nirvikalpa samAdhi (शनशवर कलप समयाधध). Jnana (जयान) cannot be given as one is already Brahman (ब्रह).nA-iti (नया-इशत . prAtibhAsika satya (पयाशतभयाधसक सतय) and pArmArthIk satya (पयारमयाधथिर क सतय) 22. There are three levels of truths . 'I' atma when associates with jiva gets trapped into this samsAra (सशसयार). 20.vyavahArika satya (व्यवहयाररक सतय). वयाधत्तरक). Existence of Jiva is not eternal 27. that which is not atman (आतमया) or is different than 'I' (अहमत).

( अ+anya = अ+अनय = अननय. Atma Bodh (आतम बरोधत). it contains indepth knowledge and is considered as capable of giving moksha if studied thoroughly. mana (मन). a +anya = ananya. though a prakaraNa grantha (पकरण ग्रनथि) is very long comprising of 582 sloka-s (verses). aparokshAnubhuti (अपररोकयानभभभशत) is also very useful. Some of them call it meditation on the absolute Brahman.creation of this world. not+different = notdifferent). Vivek Chudamani. A vedantin does not consider himself different from the God / Atman / Brahman.gross (sthUla. antakaraNa (अनतनकरण) etc are explained.e. Followers of advaita practice meditation on Aum / Om or practice Self Enquiry as prescribed by Sri Ramana Maharshi. स्थिभल शरमर) and subtle (sUkshma. one meditates on the SELF and establishes himself in the true nature. Later Vivek Chudamani (शववकक चभणयामशण) should be referred. Hence he meditates with ananya bhAva (अननय भयाव). Other prakaraNa grantha-s are NAishkarmya Siddhi (नवैष्कमयर धसशद) by SureshvarAchArya (सभरशक वरयाचयायर ) and vAkya vritti (वयाक्य वकधत्त) by Adi Shankara.Understanding Advaita Tatva Bodh (ततव बरोध) is the first text that should be referred. Even though it is a prakaraNa granth (पयाकरण ग्रनथि) . सभकम शरमर). Page 39 of 619 . In advaita Vedanta. i. bodies . It answers questions like What is Jiva (जमव) What is Atman (आतमया) What is Brahman (ब्रह) What is Mithya (शमथ्यया) What is Nitya (शनतय) and a-nitya (अशनतय) What is satya (सतय) and a-satya (असतय) PanjikaraNa prakriyA (पञ्चमकरण पशकयया) .Understanding Advaita . Tatva Bodh (ततव बरोध) defines basic concepts and terms used in advaita (अदवैत). PanchAdashi (पशचयादशम) by vidyAraNya Swami (शवदयारणय स्वयाशम ) is considered as manual of advaita. I am not different from Brahman.

Understanding Advaita . NirguNa brahman (शनरभर ण ब्रह) Page 40 of 619 . Brahman Advaita defines two Brahmans. सरभण ब्रह) • mAyA and mithyA (मयायया. detailed explanation is not intended here. References from Shastras may be given in future if time permits. prAtibhAsika satya and pArmArthika satya. saguNa (सरभण) and nirguNa (शनरभरण). Since you will find the explanation of basic terminology and concepts from these books.What is Advaita Vedanta sAdhaka-s are requested to study these prakaraNa granth-s before taking up Bhagavad Gita. शनरभरण ब्रह) • Ishwara or saguNa Brahman (ईशवर. Lets take understand one by one. This is necessary to understand Gita from Advaita standpoint.अशनतय) • moksha (मरोक) • Three types of vAsanA-s (वयासनया) and their renunciations • Three types of truth: vyavahArika satya. Some key words in Advaita are: • Brahman or nirguNa Brahman (ब्रह. शमथ्यया) • jagat (जरत) • jIva (जमव) • Atma or Atman (आतमया) • nitya-anitya (शनतय . Lets understand these terms in brief. When simply written 'brahman' it means nirguNa brahman.

rishis have made attempts to describe brahman in a dual tone so that disciple can finally rise above duality and abide in Brahman.नकशत). If one says that 'I am experiencing peace' then one is defining Brahman which is beyond 5 senses.'Neti . it is supreme. peaceful and Sat-Chit-Anand (सतत-शचतत-आननद). as our consciousness is strongly associated with physical body. one has to be aware of 'object of observation'. witness. Brahman is one without second. It is not different from you. नयाइशत) means 'not this. your consciousness has to be in the physical body.g. else if you are day dreaming. which is said as 'idam' in sanskrit. attributeless.this is a rose flower.e. The concept of qualitatively same but quantitatively different will violate shruti and hence cannot be accepted. If you say that . Brahman is not a negative state. nA-iti. Here nirguNa brahman is not to be considered as negative. you use to word 'I' and not 'this'. e. indivisible. Hence you are different than rose flower. mind and mAyA to experience oneness with Brahman.Understanding Advaita NirguNa brahman is a considered as formless. a false perception due to illusion of mAyA (मयायया). So one has to go beyond the realm of senses. not this'.Understanding Advaita . beyond mAyA and peaceful. but you are not different to experience it. Idea is to separate or dis-associate or detach 'I' from that Page 41 of 619 . Hence we do not say that 'This is Amrut' (even though recently we do say . one sees Brahman everywhere. It is true that Brahman cannot be defined. The knower of Brahman is none other than Brahman itself. After the object of observation has merged into observer only pure consciousness remains. unchanging.whatever else you see is also Brahman or everything (else) is Brahman. Hence there is duality. In the same way when you say that 'Hi I am Amrut'. is is grammatically incorrect) Anything that is not you is pointed as 'This'. it can be understood that brahman is beyond guNa-s (रभणयातमत). witness) and object of observation (दृशय). nA-iti (नया-इशत. A better word is Brahman is peace. When one knows the art of discriminating real and unreal and see the source. But how can the object merge.Neti' (नकशत . you cannot see it. Hence it is said that the knower of Brahman is not different that Brahman itself. The path of advaita is self enquiry. To observe.this is Amrut. It means that you are not rose flower. it is not separate from you. Hence it is said that sarvam khalu-idam Brahman (सवर खिलभ इदश ब्रह) . Hence the word non-dual is used to indicate that there is no duality of observer (दृषया. but for the sake of explanation. experience or see anything one has to be conscious of it. Brahman is Sat-Chit-Anand Here people wrongly interpret the word nirguNa (attributeless) as sunya (zero) or void or blank. meaning that words cannot describe it. It is called as path of negation . If it is made of same material as you are but yet you are different. then it would falsify the definition of Brahman being indivisible and immutable. to see a car. In the same way to experience or be a witness. 5 senses cannot experience it. Please note the difference. Because it is just a mental projection. consciousness has to be present i. Brahman is said to be inexpressible. even if car is in front if you. Here 'I' is associated with physical body. Hence you cannot say that 'I am the part and Brahman is full'. Upon careful study of Gita and Upanishads. It is ananda svarupa (आनशद स्वरप).

Kindly note that the observer himself is not negated. After negating which is 'not you'. like peeling off layers of onion. It should be noted that Atman is not light.NirguNa brahman (शनरभरण ब्रह) is not 'I'. One cannot deny one's own existence as any time. In other words. 'This is a mango tree'. Now nothing that can be seen is left. but of nature of light in a sense that both light and Atman has nature of giving. Brahman is called so only for understanding and explanatory purpose. 'Aham brahmAsmi' (अहश ब्रहयानस्म) meaning 'I am Brahman' . Kindly note that in this process. Light also has nature of giving knowledge. Now remove. Hence Atman is also called as Prakash-svarupa (of nature of light). Hence one reaches to a conclusion.Understanding Advaita . Hence Atman is pure consciousness. 'I' merges with Brahman. mango tree appears in front of you. a shape appears in front of you. But one can only be aware of anything if one is conscious of it. Now remove shape. but cannot find it as the room is dark. in state of Atma. the object of observation 'Mango Tree' is absent. observer is not negated. There is no second. The moment we here name of object. In other words. Let us understand this with the help of another example. After negating what is not 'I' . Only the knowledge that this was mango tree remains. Consciousness is the one which is responsible for any knowledge. Hence it is called as path of negation (of non self). only that is different from 'I' can be negated. Light has nature of giving knowledge. Only the observer remains. Name and form are interconnected. Since this 'I' is nothing but pure consciousness. Hence Guru instructs you into a mahAvAkya 'tat tvam asi' (ततत तवमत अधस) meaning 'That though art' meaning 'you are that Brahman'. As soon as I speak the word 'Tree'. We want to find our wrist watch. you can locate your wrist watch. we visualize it's shape. just you. It is said that in Jnana driSTi ( जयान दृशष ) i. The thing that remains is just knowledge. it reflects another mahAakya PrajnAnam Brahma (पजयानश ब्रह) meaning 'consciousness is brahman'. what is left is emptyness. only object of observation is negated. Atman is responsible for any kind of knowledge. Please note that one cannot negate oneself.e. Please note that the word used is 'negated' and not 'destroyed'. Empty means nothing more remains to be negated. In other words consciousness has the quality or nature of giving knowledge. which does not have a name and there is no name which does not have a form. hence only the observer remains.'Tree'. You began this journey by being in duality and you thought that 'I' is different from Brahman.Jnana. Nothing is in front of you. samsAra (सश स यार ) is negated. In other words. There is no form. there is no 'drashya pdArtha' (visible object or object of observation). When you switch on light. When is say. Hence Atman is called as Jnana-svarupa (of nature of giving knowledge). For example . A small demonstration will help understand better. 'I' cannot be negated. the name which is 'mango tree'. What remains is just a shape.a mahavakya. Individual ego merges in Page 42 of 619 .

mind is finally destroyed. it experiences itself as brahman) After entering into nirvikalp samAdhi (शनशवर कलप समयाधध). linga sarira (धलशर शरमर). sthuLa sharira (स्थिभल शरमर).another mahAvAkya. one wakes up from meditation and sees this world as Brahman (ब्रहनत). When this 'I' associates with Brahman. ब्रहनत). Atman or Self associates with 5 bodies and identifies itself as body due to ego. While Jiva stands for Individual Soul. मन). energy body). मयायया) is separated from Brahman (ब्रह). mental body . When the meditation is complete.Understanding Advaita Brahman looses it's individual identity. शनशवर कलप समयाधध) one clearly sees this world and does not see Brahman.e. precisely 5 kosha-s (पञ्च करोश. When 'I' i. Before entering into meditation (and finally into nirvikalpa samAdhi. mAyA (water. namely anna-maya kosha (अन्नमयकरोश. (Sri Ramana Maharshi says that after Ego dissolves. ego. and Brahman (आतमनत. antakaraNa (अनतनकरण) and ananda-maya kosha (आननदमयकरोश. 'ayamAtmA brahma' (अयमयातमया ब्रह) . completeness). Note that here JIva and Atman are used interchangeably. physical body). But it again arises and pulls consciousness back into dual world. Self i. Dormant desires of this life and later of the past lives are destroyed. This process continues. But this is not ego.) These 4 mahavakyas talk about the unity and oneness of Atman. This 'I' is associated with Body.e. The Atman (आतमनत) is beyond these 5 kosha-s (पञ्चकरोशयान). One is said to have separated milk from water. mano-maya kosha (मनरोमयकरोश. Atman simply means 'I' or 'Self'. Brahman. karaNa sarira (कयारण शरमर). Now one sees this world as it actually is i.e. mind becomes dormant and goes to sleep. One concludes that 'I' i.Understanding Advaita .e. जमव. vigyAna-maya kosha (शवजयानमयकरोश. 5 bodies). Hence this 'I' is called as Atman (which is none other than Brahman. Jiva. linga deha (धलशर दकह). the world is not different from Brahman. buddhi body or body of bliss). Once again it has to merge in Brahman.mana. In other words. it is called as jiva (जमव). 'Atman is Brahman' i. jivAtmA (जमवयातमया) . causal body. After repeatedly entering into nirvikalpa samadhi (शनशवर कलप समयाधध). it becomes Brahman (in dual tone we can say. another 'I-I' springs up spontaneously. prANa-maya kosha (पयाणमयकरोश. Page 43 of 619 This reflects .e. it is pUrNa vastu (पभणर वस्तभ.

bheda shruti (भक द शभश त): Bheda means difference. They are so-called as they synthesize superficially contradictory passages in vedas and upanishads. without ego.Understanding Advaita . sAdhaka (सयाधक. there is no mind. there is no ego. ghaTaka shruti घटक शभशत) and a-bheda shruti (अभकद शभशत). They explain the link between jivAtma (जमवयातमया) and paramAtmA (परमयातमया) or antaryAmin (अनतययारमम). ghaTaka shruti (घटक शभश त): The link joining bheda and abheda is called as ghaTaka shruti. disciple. seeker) begins with duality. bheda shruti. as one is in duality. Page 44 of 619 . Shrutis or sloka-s falling under this category declare one-ness of Atman and brahman. Hence there are three type of Shrutis (upanishads) . At times Atman is interchangeably used with jiva by non-advaita acharyas.Bheda shruti (भकद शभशत).NirguNa brahman (शनरभरण ब्रह) another mahAvAkya . One ceases to exist is absence of another. not+different = non-different or non-dual. later on finds relation with Supreme Brahman and finally ends up being Supreme Brahman. as the name suggests talks of jiva and Brahman or ishwara as different.'sarvam khalu-idam brahma' (सवर खिलभ इदश ब्रह) meaning 'Everything else is (also) Brahman' Without mind. a-bheda shruti (अभक द शभश त): a+bheda = abheda (अ + भकद = अभकद).

To do anything. as they represent one and same Brahman.e. NirguNa. us.शमथ्यया) Satya (सतय)= one that is present at all times. Lets understand what is mAyA Maya and Mithya (मयायया. It is relative. Ishwara or Bhagavan as equal. his glories and works attributed to him (creation. For e. he is called so as he is connected with mAyA. is the final goal. Here lies the duality i. Ishvara without attributes is called as attributesless i. virtues) . present and future. Without mAyA. krishNa. he is to be explained or to be understood in relation to something.g. power. Maya as mithyA is unique to Advaita. one of the attribute is lordship. Ishvara has 6 upAdhi-s (उपयाधध. This is the final destination. there is no second. Though Ishvara is eternal.e.e. riches. which exists independently without mAyA that is the final goal of an advaitin. Shiva. Similar can be said about other five attributes. Brahman (ब्रह) is called as saguNa brahman (सरभण ब्रह). preservation and destruction with the help of his mAyA (मयायया). fame. Brahma. sa-guNa means with guna-s (रभण). rAma.e. As Nirvikalp samadhi.Understanding Advaita saguNa brahman (सरभण ब्रह) . Possessing guNa-s (रभण) does not mean Ishwara is bound by them. Though Ishvara is eternal. everywhere. without any attributes is called as NirguNa brahman (शनशवर कलप समयाधध). So for an advaitin. Hence Ishara (SaguNa Brahman. human. which is to transcend mAyA and it's three guNa-s. Advaita considers all forms of saguNa Brahman i. and everthing. It is eternal Page 45 of 619 .overlordship.Understanding Advaita . i. It is not an absolute term. Without mAyA. one has to possess guNa-s (रभण). Ishvara is the Lord of all creatures and the entire creation. Ishvara. Ishvara is pure consciousness. skanda. It is ishvara's NirguNa aspect. preservation and destruction) have to be explained with the help of mAyA.Ishvara (ईशवर) When Brahman does the work of creation. Adi Shakti are all same. The word Ishvara is connected with upAdhi-s. to act. Ishvara is not the final destination for advaitains. gaNesha. in past. When there is no creation.. Hence there is also no lordship. he is NirguNa Brahman. Position of Ishvara in Advaita Ishvara is not the final destionation. Lordship over what and whom? So we say Ishvara has lordship over the creation. knowledge and freedom from being wanting (dispassion). सरभण ब्रह) as pure consciousness. Ishvara is attributesless. nArAyaNa.

शमथ्यया) truth A-satya (असतय)= one that is not present at any time (past. by being a witness. Hence Page 46 of 619 . dis-associate with what comes within mAyA i. With Respect to Ishvara. They find it difficult to accept the fact that this world. Relative reality is to be considered for the sake of new disciple. shakti). Naishkarmya Siddhi. Maya does not have absolute reality. mAyA is it's illusionary power (शशक.Maya and Mithya (मयायया. meaning one which is not there. but is dependent upon Brahman. mAyA is only experienced in waking and dream state. i. waking state is absent in dream state. dream (स्वप्न).this is generally translated as unreal or false. Advaitins are taught to withdraw senses and detach. is unreal or false. Tatva Bodh. Hence concept of mithyA is created by Adi Shankara. but it is experienced.waking (जयाग्रत). Since maya has no independent existence. Vivek Chudamani and some upanishads. as they see. but a relative existence. Hence the word used is mithya by Adi Shankara.Understanding Advaita . Ishwara (Saguna Brahman) or this world. Brahman. one which is created by mAyA. Maya is not independent. which is beyond three states. since beginners are always in dvaita bhAva (duality) and consider this world as real. mAyA is real. hence it is not eternal. With Respect to Jagat. mAyA is non-existent. Note that non-advaita schools consider mAyA and it's creation as an expression of Ishvara.g. hence it has to be defined in relation with something else. There are 4 states of consciousness . If one carefully observes Gita.e. which helps one to satisfactorily answer doubts of new disciples. but not is deep sleep and turiyA.e. It is also defined as something which is not present at all times. With Respect to Brahman. and Nirvikalp Samadhi. present or future) . Mithya (शमथ्यया)= the one which is not there. relative reality. hence mithyA. Many people ask to define mAyA.e. I do not find an exact English word for 'Maya'. be it Brahman. For e. deep sleep (सभषभशप) and the fourth is turiyA (तभरमय). Maya is defined as ma (not) and ya (this). mithyA (and so MAyA) is often translated as illusion or appearance or unreal. Maya is defined as the one which is not real and not unreal (false). One has to rise above mAyA and go beyond it to realize true nature of Self i.

It is time to move ahead. Still since it is experienced in waking and dream state. given prime importance. one finds it very difficult to accept this phenomenal world as mithyA (illusion). it is not present in all states and hence cannot be real. Brahman is unborn supreme reality.e. karma-s like eating sleeping. do karma necessary for survival. but to minimize activities of sustaining our body i. Accepting this world as mithyA is very helpful. Page 47 of 619 . In other words vedAta asks one to renounce external activities and kAmya karma (action with expectation of fruits). a-jAta (अजयात) means a-janma (अजनमया).Understanding Advaita mAyA is not eternal i. As one progresses. etc are daily routine actions. Hence ajAta (अजयात) means one which is not born. vedAnta asks one to renounce the very karma whose fruits gave one inner purity. Brahman is valued i. vedAnta is for those who after performance of many vedika rites and rituals for many years or lives and by doing pUNya karma have become inwardly pure. Applying mithyA (शमथ्यया) In the beginning of our vedantic sAdhanA. atleast from POV of waking and dream state.Understanding Advaita . To add to it importance of Brahman is also given. one has to adopt the meaning of mithyA as 'illusion' as it is necessary to eliminate duality. But mithyA is in-between. The best way to do is to de-value all that is valued by mind. it is not altogether false. So on one end this world and everything related to it is de-valued and on the other hand. Hence it is called as mithyA. Some are more comfortable with mithyA being translated as 'appearance' rather than 'illusion' It helps them to give more logical meaning to their experience of this world. in braAhmi sthiti.e. Such karma does not hinder our spiritual progress. Adi Sankara says this world is relatively real (vyavahArika satya). From meditation POV. Neglecting is not the same as rejecting or destruction of world. This world is of destructive nature it is not real or say truth in the language of vedAnta. So what is the solution? mAyA and this world is experienced in day-2-day life. janma (जनम) means birth. bath. Hence the only way to apply mithyA in day-2-day life is to neglect the world. That which is not true need not be thought of. We give much importance to external world. nirvikalpa samAdhi. That which is false need not be thought of. objects and person and of course to our own body. mithyAtva of this world helps us a lot. Only pure consciousness exists. It is to stay indifferent. diverting our attention from external world and realize our true nature. vedAnta asks one to stop paying attention to all of these and turn our mind inwards.e. How exactly should one apply mithyA? mithyA is that which is neither true nor false. From standpoint of supreme reality and from ajAta vAda (अजयात वयाद) i.e. vedAnta asks one to dive deep within. Applying mithyA does not mean not doing any activity. mAyA is non-existent. deep within ourselves.

In Tatva Bodh we find Question and answer in the beginning. as technically snake was not actually present. anitya means of destructive nature. So what's the difference between anitya and mithyA? anitya means the one which is destroyed or transformed into something else. else the traces of snakes should be left after the snake vanishes. In other sense. It can also mean temporary existence. cloth when burned transforms into ash.Understanding Advaita . Introvert mind contemplates on Brahman. when snake. In this case. No trace of snake is left. This is the difference between nitya and anitya. Many people mix between the definitions of anitya and mithyA nitya and anitya (शनतय-अशनतय) nitya means SASvat (शयाशवत) meaning eternal. the transformation is visible. In other words snake was not real.Applying mithyA (शमथ्यया) To sum up. applying mithyA is a process of making extrovert mind introvert. Page 48 of 619 . which was superimposed upon rope gets destroyed due to the throwing of light (Jnana). Brahman establishes introvert mind into heart. In illusion. meaning one which is not eternal or permanent. permanent anitya (अशनतय)means one which is not SASvat (शयाशवत).g. irreversible and permanent. the residue after destruction of an object (cloth) remains. e. In my opinion. the word 'illusion' better defines mithyA then 'appearance'. anything else is anitya. Q: What is the difference between nitya and anitya? OR how to discriminate between nitya and anitya? A: nitya vastu atman is non dual brahman only.

the worldly objects are not permanent unlike eternal Atman / Brahman and hence wise one should discriminate between nitya vastu Atman and anitya vastu an-atman (not atman). But detachment does not happen in a day. It takes Page 49 of 619 . This process is called as making the mind introvert. But. The culprit is the expectation of a desired result from karma (कमर फल आसशक). Another way is to work with a bhAva that 'I am an instrument of Ishvara'.e. One of them is by dis-associating 'I' with body and karma and hence it's results. If you get failure in your actions. greed. Surrendering to any form of God is also helpful in the beginning.Understanding Advaita From nitya . It is the association of 'I' with this worldly objects that creates bondage. develop dispassion for the an-atman and should withdraw senses from these objects.दकषत. which results into rAga-dveSa (रयार . anger). which results into sakAma karma (सकयाम कमर ). how to detach oneself from results? One can detach in various ways. This can be done by not giving them importance. Later on.Understanding Advaita . krodha (करोध. lobha (लरोभ. you will be motivated to repeat the action. Advaita teaches one to be a witness of karma. avarice) and moha (मरोह. The viveka of nitya -anitya is given by Shri Adi Shankaracharya out of compassion for sAdhaka-s who cannot digest the truth that this world is an illusion. since lot of effort is put in to accomplish the task. attachment) thereby making is certain for rebirth and getting trapped in the cycle of birth and death. one can neglect this world as it is not permanent and subject to constant change. Withdrawing senses means to neglect or be unconcerned about the presence of objects. wish or desire). likes and dislikes). you will be motivated not to repeat the action and find another solution. Hence the first step is to make the mind pure by freeing it of attachments from this worldly objects and surrendering to Brahman. the introvert mind is focused on chanting mantra OM and is asked to surrender to Brahman. covetousness.anitya viveka i.e. Which produces likes and dislikes (रयार-दकषत). result of karma to God. which is responsible for kAma (कयाम. In other words. If you get success in your actions. Advaita way is to dis-associate with discriminative knowledge and by generating dispassion in the worldly activities. Another simpler way is to dedicate the fruit of karma i. Shri Nithin Sridhar has explained two karma-s here But how can likes and dislikes (रयार-दकषत) give rise to kAma and krodhA (कयाम-करोध)? It is natural to expect a result of any activity. by discrimination between eternal and temporary.

One also needs to MEditate on Brahman via OM. fascination. Kindly note that only dispassion is not enough for progress. attachment.e. unconsciousness.Understanding Advaita . VairAgya (ववैरयाग्य) is not just outward renunciation. infatuation. There are three types of adhikAri-s (अधधकयारम) i. पदयाथिर means any object. It also means to do chintan (शचशतन)). It also means to meditate (ध्ययान. Here consumed can be taken as fulfilled. Bhagavan in Gita says. adhikAra (अधधकयार) means to qualify. while rest are implied or resulting meaning. etc). three type of students. illusion.e. as desires are not outside us.VairAgya (ववैरयाग्य) and abhyAsa (अभ्ययास). manan (मनन) and nidhidhyAsana (शनधधध्ययासन). Hence bhogya padArtha (भरोग्य पदयाथिर ) means objects that can be fulfilled. sarvAn pArtho manogatAm). absence of worldly objects in mind. Here some like attachment. spiritual instructions) are given on adhikAra bheda (अधधकयार भकद). delusion of mind. mUDha adhikAri (मभढ अधधकयारम) 2. To fly one needs 2 wings . infatuation and to some extend love are direct meaning.) Upadesha-s (उपदकश. VairAgya is dispassion and abhyAsa means to study.दरोष दशर न. fascination. swoon. Qualifications is based on purity of mind. Here. Hence vairAgya can also be defined as absence of bhogya padArtha (भरोग्य पदयाथिर ) in mind i. जप a. Note: There are many meanings of word 'moha': ignorance. it is inward. VairAgya and doSa-darshan (ववैरयाग्य . madhyAma adhikAri (मध्यम अधधकयारम) 3.nitya and anitya (शनतय-अशनतय) time and so one has to regularly meditate upon supreme brahman. uttama adhikAri (उत्तम अधधकयारम) Page 50 of 619 . 'all vAsanA-s (वयासनया) are in our mind (सवयारनत पयाथिर्थो मनरोरतयामत . Dispassion and fault finding) VairAgya (ववैरयाग्य) is defined as having dispassion in worldly activities. भरोग्य means one which can be consumed and padArtha. love. but in our mind. worldly objects and in person. 1. (bhogya. or on OM and learn to withdraw the senses back from worldly objects like tortoise withdraws it's limbs. सयाधनया.

This world is nothing but adobe of sorrows 3. the definition of anitya (अशनतय) does not include the word 'illusion'. Relations with persons are very subjective and subject to change from time to time and hence Page 51 of 619 . Doing dosha darshan (दरोष दशर न) in world. As explained. In advaita. Everything in this world will be destroyed one day 6. logical reasoning) that 1. sAdhaka falling in this category will find it difficult to accept that this world is mithyA. To have dispassion one needs to decrease the importance of world. having dispassion in society. mUDha adhikAri (मभढ अधधकयारम) mUDha adhikAri is the one who does find it difficult to grasp subtle concepts of Advaita but is eager to learn them and has made moksha as the only goal. Brahma-bhAvanA (ब्रह भयावनया).e. Only dispassion or only meditation will not help one to progress in spirituality. Earlier it was explained that one needs wings to fly. Destruction is the nature of time 5. Making mind introvert (अनतमभरखिम) and developing dispassion is done in two ways 1. it's objects and person. Both should go hand in hand. Nothing is permanent 2. Adi Shankara has also given nitya-anitya vastu viveka (शनतय-अशनतय वस्तभ शववकक). is pre-requisite.Keep mind occupied with thoughts of Brahman 1.Understanding Advaita . Dosha Darshan (दरोष दशरन) Dosha darshan or fault finding means to compare them with Brahman.Understanding Advaita 1. This world is ever changing 4. it's objects and person (fault finding in worldly objects) 2. vairAgya (ववैरयाग्य. Hence out of compassion. renunciation) i. It is concluded from tarka (तकर. The qualities of both are compared.

vigAtiya tiraskruti (सजयातमय वकधत्त पवयाह. day-to-day issues. It is easier to meditate on OM than to practice netineti. It is called as sajAtiya vritti pravAha. as they are temporary. is nothing but an illusion. Hence vairAgya is vivekayukta vairAgya (शववकक यभक ववैरयाग्य. dispassion resulting from power of discrimination) Page 52 of 619 . शवजयातमय शतरस्ककशत). meaning having thoughts of similar nature and renouncing thoughts of opposite nature. Later as sAdhaka (सयाधक) progresses. etc In this way. but it helps block entering of worldly thoughts and hence less time is needed to enter into deep meditation. Dive deep within to gather pearls of wisdom. In other words. One does not get Jnana (जयान) or realize Brahman from this type of thinking. Dispassion should be accompanied by power of discrimination (viveka). while other thoughts of opposite nature i. The intention is to keep the mind occupied with thoughts similar to Brahman and thereby not letting worldly thoughts to enter into it. 2. etc are to be renounced and not given importance. Please note that here. world is not considered as illusion. but this is not just mental repetition. the word mithYa (शमथ्यया) is not used. Attachment is the bondage 8.Understanding Advaita . This path is called neti-neti.e.e. Even Brahman bhAvanA may be omited in meditation and one can focus on chanting OM.1. i. तकण जनतभ नययाय. time consumed in the beginning of meditation to tune mind and make it introvert is saved. it's objects. an inner exploration. It is also said that by contemplating on Brahman one becomes Brahman (truNa jantu nyAya. which is explained later). Here thoughts related and describing Brahman (ब्रह) are similar and encouraged. of this world. mUDha adhikAri (मभढ अधधकयारम) not stable 7. but yet extrovert (बशहमभरखिम) mind is transformed into introvert (अनतमभरखिम) mind. which is created from mAyA (मयायया). he/she finds it easier to accept that this world. Running behind worldly objects is not wise. Brahma-bhAvanA (ब्रह भयावनया) Brahma-bhAvanA (ब्रह भयावनया) means substitute worldly thoughts with thoughts about Brahman. it is khoj (खिरोज). one does dosha darshan.

but one is the witness of body.Understanding Advaita . He does not wish to fight yet he leaves everything on bhagavan.9) and Shiva Gita (chapter 10). intellect and ego. He would repeatedly argue Bhagavan over same points like is tyagi (तययारम) better or karma yogi (कमर यरोरम) or is sanyAsi (सनययासम) better or karma yogi (कमर यरोरम). while when one meditates and does neti neti (नकशत-नकशत).g. Up (5.Understanding Advaita 2. and smritis. one also detaches from jiva bhAva (जमव भयाव). uttam adhikAri (उत्तम अधधकयारम) rAjA Janak (रयाजया जनक) was uttam adhikAri. 3. madhyama adhikAri (मध्यम अधधकयारम) Arjuna (अजभरन) is an e. Jiva (जमव) It can be concluded that the attachment of body and the feeling that 'I' am body is the one that produces bondage. of madhyAma adhikAri. he listened and digested Guru's teachings without any doubt and with full faith. In ashtTavakra Gita (अषयावक रमतया). body. etc. the size of jiva is given as 100th part of hair as in Sv. unlike Arjuna. One does not feel that one is a small point of light or energy. he only asked question once. mind and thoughts. Jiva travels from one body to another and is trapped in the cycle of birth and death. Finally after questioning bhagavan for 18 adhAya-s (18 chapters) he realizes his true nature and becomes neutral without any likes and dislikes. This witness is nothing but consciousness and it is experienced to be infinite and not as a point of light within a Page 53 of 619 . experiences pleasure and pain by associating with mind. One cannot be a jiva also as according to shrutis. In the second chapter rAjA Janak becomes enlightened. Guru AshTavakra muni (अषयावक मभशन) answered his questions in first chapter. These type of adhikAri-s are very rare. He instantly became enlightened as. Such a bound soul is called Jiva-atman (जमवयातमया) or simply Jiva (जमव). Jiva is defined by Adi Shankara in Tatva Bodh and other prakaraNa granths as the one who associates itself with karma and fruits of karma.

viveki (शववककक. sorrow by associating with mind.g.e. one 'IS" contemplating and it has to be done with the help of mind. intellect. Hence in Gita it is advised to do karma with the spirit of detachment. even when one contemplates on brahman. 5 bodies (करोश. In the same way if I am the one who is experiencing myself as Jiva. Detachment is to be done with fruits of karma i.Jiva (जमव) specific physical location e. discriminative) and a-viveki (अशववककक. within heart. intellect and ego. But mind when tries to detach needs something to attach to for it's existence. sheaths or kosha-s). and ego it assumes that it is 'I' who is experiencing. one becomes one with brahman.g. mind. ahamkAra) and experience pain by associating with physical body. then the witness of Jiva- Page 54 of 619 . kosha-s). Finally one even drops being a witness and what is left is pure consciousness. Who is the one who describes Jiva? The observer cannot be the observed. Hence Jiva bhAva (जमव भयाव) is only for intermediate seekers. Similarly one should detach oneself from all that is not atman. nondiscriminative). If I say that 'this is rose flower'. Hence brahma-bhAvanA (ब्रह भयावनया) is prescribed. experiencing individuality by associating with ego (अहशकयार.Understanding Advaita . Mind is divided into 2 parts . then I am the knower of 'Rose Flower' I am different from 'Rose Flower' Hence I am not 'Rose Flower'. one has to be a witness of a-viveki mana (mind). One is free from jiva bhAva (जमवभयाव) when one dis-associates itself or 'I' from 5 senses. etc. Why I am not Jiva? The description of Jiva is given found in Shastras along with it's size. Hence when it is said to be a witness. As one progresses. Jiva is defined as the one who enjoys / suffers fruits of karma (कमर फल) and experiences joy. and it is taught that by contemplating on brahman. Still one is in duality. The real art is to rise above the mind by taking the help of (viveki) mind. By associating with the attributes or in other words dharma of 5 sheaths (करोश. e. results of action. mind. one becomes aware of one-ness of Atman and Brahman.

Hence they understand that I. Only Brahman is the real 'I'. To describe something. 'I am Doer'.e. While Advaita does not think in the same way. For there there is an a priori (presumption) that I ma Jiva. The word 'am' seems to create confusion. When we say. Only wrong notion is removed. The mahAvAkya becomes 'I' is Brahman 'I am Brahman' may seem to look like upadeshaka vAkya. I m not Jiva. We do not experience sat or chit or ananda or infiniteness separately. the complete 'I' . Lets substitute 'am' in the above mahAvAkya with 'is'. in which milk turns into curd. Hence ask 'Who am I'. That is none other than Brahman (ब्रह). it is not Ego or Ego associated with Jiva-bhava. 'Ego' The word Aham 'I' is often confused. Hence the word ahamkAra verily means. becomes Brahman.aham brahma-asmi). but in reality it is a state of Self Realization. aham means 'I' and kara means 'doer'.Understanding Advaita . Then a question arises. it denotes transformation. One realizes that 'I am Brahman'. It is our svarupa. While Advaita says. This difference is not understood by most non-advaitins and hence they wrongly understand the Advaitic interpretation of mahAvAkya-s. the answer is 'I' am Brahman. to explain non-advaitins. Aham. Aham 'I' and AhamkAra 'I-ness'. suddenly the 'I' melts into the source of question 'Who am I' and another 'I-I' spontaneously reveals itself. Hence no one ever has been able to describe it. For sake of understanding. our own nature. Hence there is no transformation.Understanding Advaita bhava (जमवभयाव) is the one who is 'I' and not the Jiva itself. meaning it is completeness. one needs to experience it separately. IT is a pUrNa-vastu (पभणर वस्तभ). It is said to be indescribable (अशनवर चनमय). When I say. Rishis made a valiant attempt to describe the indescribable in dual tone for the sake of sAdhaka-s. It makes us think that the word 'am' indicates 'to become' i. So. Hence Advaita asks us to find this 'I'. we can say 'I is Brahman' as this will remove a priori and the wrong Page 55 of 619 . I ≠ Jiva I = Brahman Advaita begins with dvaita and assumes or say presumes that 'I' is wrongly taken for granted as 'body' or 'Jiva'. I am Brahman (aham BrahmAsmi . Even though it is 'I'. it is just 'I' and not Ego. AhamkAra can be split into two words 'aham' and 'kara'. the Jiva. 'Who Am I'. This would resemble to pariNAma vAda. then some wrongly take it 'I' as Ego or 'I' as Jiva. Advaita adopts vivarta vAda. 'I am doer'. Put in other words. Upon enquiring and diving deep within.

जमव सकशष) Ishvara has created this world and different padArtha-s (objects). In the same way. If we remove Suddha mAyA from Ishvara. Brahman after creating this world. and 'I' is considered as infinite. Ishvara and Brahman In simple words. in other words is Brahman with names and forms. Relation between Jiva. Thus he became jIva. often translated as Self. who is the creator of Universe. jiva and Brahman are one.Aham 'I' and AhamkAra 'I-ness'. Hence mAyA is called as eka deSiya (confined to only one region). only a fragment. Since advaita proclaims Jiva-Brahman aikya i. associated with them and forgot his true nature.e. if we remove avidyA mAyA. and not different from Brahman. Atman. but himself is not deluded by his own mAyA and his creation. Creation of Ishvara is called as Ishvara SrUShTI i. 'I am Doer'. but is said to be not different from Brahman. Brahman + Suddha mAyA = Ishvara Brahman + avidyA mAyA = jIva Brahman when associates with his power mAyA becomes Ishvara.Understanding Advaita . God's creation. Ishvara. what remains is Brahman. Page 56 of 619 . Both Suddha mAyA and avidyA mAyA are called as upAdhi-s. entered into panch mahAbhUta-s. Rest all is always Brahman. Ishvara SrUShTI and jIva SrUShTI (ईशवर सकशष.e. 'Ego' understanding of transformation. It is not defined as jiva.e. Atman Atman is defined in Tatva Bodh as Sat-Chit-Ananda. Sri VidyAraNya SvamI in his master piece PanchdaSI says that Brahman created this world form his ansh (part) i. what remains is Brahman.

Hence. Another example given is that of a women. but the attributes of daughter. Hence jIva lives in his own world. It is the association of jIva with a sense of belonging. It is like adding fuel to fire. we can say that. acquire it or do not care about it.Understanding Advaita Jiva added his own interpretation. jIva tries to avoid dukha (दनभ खि. The bhAva of possession is jIva-s creation. sorrow. One lady can be a daughter. values it and develops liking for it. wife.. Ishvara created Jewel say a diamond. sister. etc to it and associated with it. we are taught to neutralize likes and dislikes. This is called as jIva SrUShTI. wife. Ishvara created a padArtha. To do this we need to have viveka (power of discrimination). or may remain neutral. third one is prefers to remain neutral. Advaita requires 4 qualities. wife and mother to different person. jIva acquires desires and keeps thinking about them. etc arise in the buddhi and mind of jIva and hence the relations are called as jIva SrUShTI. It is jIva that added bhAva like daughter. sister. We create bank balance to be ready to face adverse situation. since vedanta belongs to the 4th ashram. who is a bhoktA. added it's own valuation to a non-living object. Hence in advaita. 'I' and 'mine' which creates rAga ( रयार. jIva also tries to avoid that gives discomfort. liking) and dveSa (दकष. Ishvara SrUShTI does not cause bondage. i. In this process.e. The chain reaction begins which is the cause of bondage and entering into the never ending vicious cycle of birth and death. Women is creation of Ishvara. likes some objects or person and dislikes other object or person.' is the cause of bondage. rejection) and desire to acquire them or to avoid them. jIva will either try to protect it..Understanding Advaita .e. What Ishvara created is a human being made up of flesh and bones. another one is not happy as he is not able to possess one. Advaita heavily depends upon these pre-requisites and asks one to develop them. On the other hand. In this way. What mind attaches to and what Intellect gives a meaning and what Ego says 'this is mine' or 'she is my . attachment (bhAva) and gave importance to some objects. These qualities are explained later. sister. which are considered pre-requisites. Fulfilling of desires makes us craves more. we safe guard ourselves and our loved ones so that we do not have to face sorrow. One person likes it's possession i. While failing to acquire what one wants gives rise to krOdha (करोध. The valuation of 'diamond being a pricey possession' and adding a bhAva of acquiring it is the creation of jIva and not Ishvara. It is not Ishvara's creation. Sri VidyAraNya SvAmI in his panchdaSI gives few examples to give us more clarity. trouble) and searches for Page 57 of 619 . which further creates negative emotions in us. anger). JIva SrUShTI (जमव सकशष) is the cause of bondage jIva SrUShTI (जमव सकशष) is the cause of bondage. In other words. while a jIva.

the body does not fall and a person returns to this world to experience that all Else i verily Brahman. Advaita asks us to find out the root cause of all the suffering. Such a person is called as Jivan-mukta which roughly means to be free while residing in body. What is the root cause of suffering? Sages and wise men say that the whole activity began since the Brahman got deluded. Brahman became ignorant. Knowledge is called as 'vidyA (शवदया)'. Brahman entered into body and forgot his nature. Hence advaita asks us to detach ourselves from external sense objects. cut down relationships as advaita considers it as a poison and asks one to dive deep within to search for peace and bliss. In this process. There is nothing wrong to desire for happiness. Realizing our true nature will result in freedom from cycle of birth and death.JIva SrUShTI (जमव सकशष) is the cause of bondage everlasting happiness. ignorance). After entering into body and forgetting one's true nature. This is called as moksha. Hence avidyA is called as root cause of bondage. Happiness is our real nature. Brahman got deluded and forgot his own true nature. while it is inside us. Brahman. After mukti or moksha. tried to associate itself with Sense objects. Page 58 of 619 . Advaita asks one to make efforts to remove avidyA (ignorance) and gain moksha. Forgetting one's true nature was due to avidyA (अशवदया. Since we all are in dvaita (the world of duality) and we experience it in our daily life. searched for it and in this process. By abiding in SELF (Atman) effortlessly one becomes free from cycle of birth and death. as jIva. jIva got attached to them and the whole unending cycle began. What is wrong is to search outside in objects and persons. moxa) Moksha is generally defined as freedom from the cycle of birth and death. moksha (मरोक.Understanding Advaita . hence advaita starts with duality and ends in non-duality. Knowledge of one's true nature is called as 'vidyA (शवदया)' or 'Jnana (जयान)'.

without knowledge of SELF. .learning shastras is only done for getting clarity and direction. renunciation of vAsanA (desires) is liberation. 272 and 273 say: deha vAsanA .m tat muktim meaning.to follow what others (ajnanis) do. Giving undue importance to body other than satisfying it's basic needs does more harm than help. vAsanAtAnava. lokAnuvartana-tyaktvA .desire to learn more and more SaStra (scriptures) dehAnuvartana-tyaktvA . SaStrAnuvartana-tyaktvA .Understanding Advaita . True nature has to be realized. loka vAsanA . verse 273 concludes that destruction of desires is nothing but liberation Vivek Chudamani (224 . To much attachment with body creates hurdle to rise above body consciousness and hence does not allow one to detach. Desires) and their renunciation Vivek Chudamani says that there there re three types of desires (vAsanA-s) verses 271. Life is full of reactions.e. Three Types of vAsanA-s (ववसनव.Renounce the desire of learning many shastras.Understanding Advaita Vivek Chudamani gives another definition of moksha. We know how to react but do not know how to act. Shastras have their own limitation.226) says that without atma-jnana i. This behaviour has to be dropped. Generally people tend to run behind worldly objects. They cannot imprat brahma-jnana.desire follow what others (a-jnani) do SAStra vAsanA .Renounce the habit of copy cat behaviour . Another icchA or wish is Page 59 of 619 .Renounce attachment with body.refer v268-272 and 273-276 verse 268 says It says. Too much thinking of body is harmful. Our mood depends upon behaviour and reaction of others.attachment with body. liberation is impossible.

Is Brahman really deluded? Earlier we had seen that Brahman got deluded. putrecchA 2. vittecchA: desire to earn money or attachment with money i.Understanding Advaita . This third icchA (wish) is very difficult to deal with. VyavahArika satya means that which is true or appears to be true in day-to-day life. PrAtibhAsika satya Page 60 of 619 . Three Levels of Truths Three Levels of truths are . important and reverse you..how is it possible that Brahman can get deluded? In other words. prAtibhAsika satya and pAramArthika satya. In other words. lokeShNA 1.vyavahArika satya.Three Types of vAsanA-s (वयासनया. A mumukshu. How? for this we will have to understand three levels of truths. Desires) and their renunciation 1. if we ask question . VyavahArika satya VyavahAra means day-to-day affairs. This would give rise to the obvious question .'Is Brahman deluded?'. living only for money 3. but still everybody likes when someone gives you respect. the one who wants mukti (liberation) must renounce all these desires and wishes and only think of brahman. This icchA is very difficult to uproot. The answer is both Yes and No. vittecchA 3. lokeShNA: expectation from people to give you respect. it is practical reality. putrecchA: desire to have a child or attachment with children 2. One can free oneself from women. children and money by being vairAgi (renunciate).

PAramArthika satya ParamArtha means absolute truth or highest truth. one realizes that Brahman was always Brahman and was never deluded. when Guru advises Svetketu. Hence it is called as absolute truth. from Standpoint of duality. Svetketu'. Page 61 of 619 . it is explained to us that Brahman got deluded. Up. But upon realization. Explanation for Brahman getting deluded Our AcArya Sri Adi Shankara BhagavadpAda says.Thou Art that Brahman. It may be confusing. However.Understanding Advaita PrAtibhAsa means illusion or appearence. we say that Brahman is never deluded. It is not true from absolute reality (pArmArthika satya). There is no contradiction in both explanation. it will break basic tenets of Advaita which says Brahman is the only Truth and is unchanging. To further understand and gian clarity. this world disappears without leaving any trace. mind creates another world. Both these levels are structurally supported and so is forgetfulness. a disciple. PrAtibhAsika satya is the truth which is only true in the dream state. without beginning or end. Jiva making efforts for Self Realization and attaining moksha. immutable. PAramArthika satya means that which remains truth in all states at all times. formless ultimate reality. In generally. As earlier said. from pArmArthika standpoint. undivided.Understanding Advaita . let us take a famous example of clouds veiling (covering) Sun. Brhaman is never deluded. we have to give this explanation. Upon realizing the absolute truth. Dream world is true for dreamer.Theories of Creation. Brahman getting deluded. we can say that . Since we experience bondage and have forgotten out true nature. hence our AcArya has said that our shastra-s explain us two levels of truth. Up 6:15:1-3 explains us forgetfulness. but when one is awake. II-iii-1 and II-iii-6 explains two levels of truth and Ch. not once. but nine times. since all sAdhaka-s are in duality and see and experience this world. Perhaps if Brahman really got deluded. . This truth is within mind. During sleep. To simplify things. That which is present everywhere. There is no abhAva or absence of pAramArthika satya. Br. not twice. Shruti says Brahman is absolute truth. all are true from the standpoint of empirical truth (vyavahArika satya) only. we take 2 levels of truth as we are more concerned with waking consciousness. Shri Nithin Sridhar has explain two Levels of truth here in simple way.

How can mithyA ignorance i. After the clouds move on or are removed from our vision. meaning 'everything else is Brahman'. Sun appears again and we can say that Sun (brahman) is found again. After the body is permanently dropped. Advaita does not end with Brahma satya.e. But is not the reality either. The answer is that just like the pouncing dream-tiger results in our waking up. i. who has already removed ignorance and entered into non-dual state. unreal removal of ignorance can give real knowledge and take us beyond the realms of ignorance. The experience of Sun getting veiled was only true from one standpoint. but the world and jiva bhava is negated. sarvam khalu-idam Brahma. jiva bhava. mind. or this world. Hence Vi-deha mukti means liberation without body i. Such a person is called Jivan Mukta. We use the word negation and not destruction. jagat mithyA.e. i. Never was the time when Sun never stopped shining.Explanation for Brahman getting deluded Lets say that some layers of clouds veil Sun. It is true from empirical standpoint only. this world is no different than Brahman. One can be eternally free while living in this body. illusionary ignorance can result into real knowledge. there is no experience of body. in the state of Jnana. But in reality. one attains Videha mukti. Similarly. The only difference is dropping of body.e. Advaita says that it the association with the body that is the cause of bondage. The question can arise .e. Hence this falls in the category of mithyA. There is another mahA vAkya. when one is under ignorance. theories of creation. Yet we experienced Sun getting veiled. the world is not destroyed. A Jnani already knows that he is not a body and has permanently dropped Page 62 of 619 . be as pure consciousness without attaching to anything. we know that Sun can never be veiled by Clouds. So when Jnana comes down from state of Nirvikalpa samadhi. Suppose if we travel upwards and move beyond clouds.Understanding Advaita . To a Jnani. This experience also cannot be false. one realizes that everything 'else' si also Brahman. etc are valid only from empirical POV. Brahman getting deluded. Hence we can say that. Such a State is called as Jivan Mukti. They are not applicable to Self Realized saint. Vi-deha means without body. There is no difference in the state of Jivan Mukti and Videha Mukti. Deha means body. then sun will always shine. Sun (Brahman) is veiled by ignorance (clouds). A person can realize the Self and still be in the body. intellect. Jivanmukti and Videha Mukti Advaita has a concept of Jivan Mukti. Hence disassociation is advised. Upon Self Realization.

Hence Jiva. We have to surrender to the words of Guru and to the Guru himself. We will see how basic concepts of Advaita comply the description or definition of Brahman as given in Shruti-s •Brahman is Unchanging . When mind is destroyed. Hence Brahman cannot be divided into countless Jiva-s •Brahman is beyond 3 guna-s. Liberation does not come after one leaves physical body. when utmost importance is given to Guru. hence they cannot be real. Hence there cannot be any other truth or satya. Guru is considered as the living power of Ishvara Gurur Brahma Gurur Vishnu Gurur devo Maheshvara. Hence it is said that in Jnana Dristhi or in nirvikalp Samadhi. Hence anything other than Brahman cannot be eternal. who represents Ishvara. Meaning it cannot be perceived by mind •Brahman is the only reality (Satya). Only a Jivan Mukta can explain the state which is actually inexpressible. Whom to Surrender? When it is said that 'I am Brahman'. one is eternally liberated. Hence Brahman cannot change or transform into something else i. •Brahman is nirAkAra. One does not need to drop his body to become liberated. Gurur Sakshat ParaBrahma tasmayshri Guruve Namah. Brahman is (SASvata) eternal. jiva. Advaita says that one can be Liberated here and now. A concrete form or a definite shape cannot fill each and every gap Page 63 of 619 . Ishvara and Brahman. He does not come back to tell us his experience of Mukti. Brahman is one without second. One one knows what happens after one dies. as to whom should I surrender. Jagat and mAyA cannot be the truth & eternal. Hence it is all pervasive. In this way. Hence it has to be attributeless.Understanding Advaita .Understanding Advaita association with all 5 bodies. there is no separate need to surrender to any form of Ishvara. Why Theory of Advaita is right Shruti-s describe Brahman in number of verses.e. Any name and form has it's limitations no matter how big it is. jiva and jagat. So they have to end or cease to exist in the pure state of nirguNa Brahman. then a question naturally comes. One only needs to disassociated with body and everything that is non-self. •Brahman is indivisible. in this physical body. Technically there is no difference between Guru. Truth is the one which exists in all three states at all times and is without beginning and without end. jagat and mAyA cease to exist.

pratyaksa. Ramanuja's qualified non-dualism. "upamana" and "sabda" 2. Specifically Chapter #1 and #3 explain six pramanas. 3. "anumana". qualified non-dualism accepts only three. "anumana"."arthapatti". While non-dualism accepts all the six pramanas of Mimamsa. Acceptance of Six Pramanas Unlike other non-advaita schools. Sankara's non-dualism. and Madhva's dualism are all Vedantic doctrines and all three are not against Vedic rituals. KumArila Bhatta of pUrva mimAmsA has added 6th ."anupalabdhi". Page 64 of 619 . "upamana". It accepts Vedic karma as well as the six pramanas (perceptions or sources of knowledge) defined by Kumarilabhatta. First 3 chapters explain us Pramanas.Understanding Advaita . Four PramANa-s of NyAya are Pratyaksha = Direct Perception AnumAna = Inference --> important pramANa of NyAya Upamana = knowing what is not known by means of comparison with the known (comparison) Sabda = Verbal testimony. The six pramANa-s are "pratyaksa". Nyaya has accepted four pramanas . anumana and the Veda Source: Vedanta and Mimamsa Six PramANa-s are explained in DharmarAja AdhvarIndra's Vedanta ParibhAshA Note: 1. "sabda" "arthapatti" and "anupalabdhi". the pronouncements of the Vedas and the words of great men arthapatti = presumption or indirect assumption anupalabdhi = by which we come to know a non-existent object (non-apprehension) For more details about Pramanas. Advaita or non-dualism is in agreement with Mimamsa up to a point. Nyaya of the book Hindu Dhaarma. Advaita accepts all 6 pramANa-s as prescribed by mimAmsA of KumArila Bhatta. please read Part 13."pratyaksa". All six pramANa-s are accepted by Advaita Vedanta.Why Theory of Advaita is right and hence cannot fill the entire space. PrabhAkara of pUrva mimAmsA has added the 5th .

Gita and Brahma Sutra. Jiva is called as shariri i.Understanding Advaita Mimamsa The Vedas. which Nyaya and VaiSheshikA accepts. the intent. It can be present only at one places at one time. Even Jiva is considered as formless. their message? The rules according to which the Vedas are to be interpreted are contained in the Mimamsa sastra. Any shape cannot be all-pervasive i.Understanding Advaita . Source: Determining the Meaning of Vedic Texts Note: Methods of Interpreting Veda-s are different from PramANas. their meaning? What must we do to find out their purpose. it appears to be divided and appear in multiple forms. upapatti. the only theory possible is that of vivarta vAda. of the Vedic Mantras may be understood by applying these methods. when the government enacts a great number of laws doubts arise as to their intention and application. indweller of sharira (body). If the Vedas are the law.A Pure Vedantic path Among all the philosophies which claim to be vedantic. which are Page 65 of 619 . As I said before. atharvada. abhyasa. Jiva is not the body. Air which is formless can penetrate and spread over to entire area. Brahman though undivided. Why Brahman is nirAkAra? Any name has shape and is are bound by time and space. apurvata. mAyA is also formless. Hence Brahman can only be nirAkAra. together called as PrasthAntrayi. phala. Other philosophies like Vaishnava mata and Shaiva mata have blended Agama-s. According to Mimamsa the meaning. contain "vakyas" and "adhyayas". So to interpret these the government enacts another law. Due to false perception.g. Without violating the above facts. Nyaya and Vaisheshika are Astika or Thiest philosophies. Jiva does not have any shape. Advaita Vedanta .e. Only formless can take any shape e. Mimamsa is the law of interpretation. as we know. How are we to know their content. it cannot occupy any all of the space. Advaita vedanta is purely based on Vedanta (upanishads). Hence it cannot be sAkAra. water takes the shape of container. a solid object like stone cannot take the shape of a container. Brahman and jiva cannot be separate than Brahman or better said that Brahman in disguise of avidya (ignorance) appears as jiva. The creation has to be explained as as error in perception.e.g. e. which are qualities attributed to Brahman. Then Atman is subtler than air and space. Six methods are mentioned: upakarma-upasamhara. Mimamsa is such a law with reference to the Vedas. It formulates certain methods to discover the meaning of the Vedic texts.

It belongs to the forth Ashrama . Kashmir Shaivism believes that Women can achieve para-bhairava state more quickly and easily then men. which is called as para-Bhairava state. a beautiful philosophy. Advaita on the other hand is purely based in vedanta. is said to blend all Shaiva Mata into one. Those who practice purely vedic patha (path). Tantra-s are said to remove these restrictions so that all can practice. as taught by Swami Laxmanjoo is opwn to all irrespective of caste and gender. but are not veda-s themselves. They are step by step instructions depending upon the level of consciousness and purity of a sAdhaka (meditator).sanyAsa Ashram. which later on are mixed with internal process and finally one focuses only on internal purification process. For vAnaprastha there is AraNyaka. It ends in nondual experience. For example VisisTAdvaita and Dvaita claim to follow PanchrAtra Agama. they do not need to practice or follow any Agama-s says SUta samhitA of Skanda PUrANa. Advaita does not reject veda-s. Hence Advaita is purely vedantic mata. we at once are reminded of black magic.A Pure Vedantic path associated with Temple worship. Unlike other mata-s advaita does not depend upon any non-vedic texts. etc.Understanding Advaita . Kashmir Shaiva. By the word TAntrika.Advaita Vedanta . but considers it as an important step for inner purification. Hence Upanishads (vedanta) are a part of veda-s. Hence Advaita is said to be pUrNa vedic dharma or pUrNa vedic sampradAya. Shiddhanta Shaiva have accepted 28 non-vAmachara Shaiva Agama-s and blended them with vedanta along with other independent holy texts like Thirumandiram. which is first step to make our mind introvert. Uniqueness of Advaita Common thing about all vedantic schools is that there is one supreme reality. For the other three Ashrama-s there are samhitA and BrAhmaNa portion of veda-s. Some Shaiva Agama-s like Rudra Yamala Tantra are Tantric in nature. sex. Page 66 of 619 . Veda-s have imposed certain restrictions on who can read them and who cannot. Though there may be some texts that can be interpreted in a lowly manner like progressing spiritually through sexual union. What you interpret is according to your own perception and not necessarily what a text say. In this sense the term non-dual is applicable to all schools of vedanta. Advaita too has pre-requisites and certain restriction as it is a part of veda-s. Tantra-s in general are external rites and rituals. etc. Agama-s are extension of veda-s and are said to compliment veda-s. This is not true. voodoo. Kashmir Shaivism.

5. 4. mAyA is dependent upon Ishwara and is eternal. jiva is real adn ternal.e. The uniqueness about advaita is except Brahman. mAyA is God's eternal power and is real 3. jiva is the creation of Ishwara through mAya. 'Truth is one'. 3. There is more than one thing that is Real and Eternal . In this sense. jiva retains it's jiva-hood even after Self Realization. Now lets see advaita concepts 1. indivisible and unchanging 2. Brahman is real. mAyA is unreal from POV of supreme reality and is dependent upon Brahman. divides itself through Yog-mAyA or simply mAyA and that division is real. Non-theist or athiest schools believe: 1. eternal and independent. The supreme reality. everything else is not real. jiva is unreal and dependent upon Brahman 4. who is real and indivisible. Jiva is eternal 4. prakruti is independent. Page 67 of 619 by Sri Swami . According to atheist school. Excellent explanation of read Significance of the name Advaita is given Chandrashekhar Bharati. 6. This world was created from prakruti 2.both jiva and mAyA 2. advaita and truely the only school which supports the truth proclaimed by vedas i.Understanding Advaita Other non-dual thiest schools of Vedanta say that 1. independent and real 2. (Their form of) Ishawara is supreme. it can be noted that 1. 3. Prakruti is eternal. Ishwara divides itself into countless jiva-s and plays lIlA (leela / lila). late ShankarAcharya of Sringeri Sharada Peetha. Ishwara in this case.Understanding Advaita . This world and hence jiva is real and a part of prakruti In all these claims / theories / assumptions / beliefs.

Uniqueness of Advaita There are different vAda which different philosophical schools have adopted to support their theory of 'creation of world' vAda-s . etc. e. e.Understanding Advaita .Theories of Creation There are 4 different vAda-s . real and inconvertible back into cloth. It is for subtle intellect. Arambha vAda God is the kartA and he created this universe. is milk turning into curd. pariNAma vAda In this something changes into something else. thereby uprooting all other desires Page 68 of 619 . Nyaya-vaisheshikA adopt this vAda. more closer to reality. vivartha vAda and ajAta vAda. pariNAma vAda. The change is visible and real.g. plants growing. VisisTadvaita and dvaita adopted this vAda. They believe that without karma nothing is possible. This vAda is for the ones who believe in karma and cannot believe that God does not do any karma. As one sees rope. which is permanent. As the mind is purified.g. sAdhaka keeps moksha as the only goal in life and meditate on supreme brahman. cloth burned in fire reduces to ash. Like potter creating pot.Arambha vAda. snake vanishes without any trace. sAnkhya Adopt this vAda. Snake does not exist but is super imposed on rope. Without rope there is no snake. one is taken a step further. snake-rope.g. the transformation would have left traces e. They say that Sun which does not do any work but under it's influence we find transformations like water vapourizing into steam. If it was real. Vivarta vAda This vAda is adopted by Adi Shankara to explain the concept of mAyA as mithyA.

Pure Non-duality experience. liberation is here and now (as there is no time lag after one realizes . that is why it is said that Jnana cannot be obtained by karma. If bandhan (bondage) is brahti (illusion). Please note that he is called as buddha . This path is for the ones who are eligible for Self Realization i. as one is still observing. sAdhaka enters into samadhi without making any effort spontaneously (sahaj). Now the effort drops and one becomes free from last desire of moksha. Who is the one who meditates? 3. mahAvAkya-s Mahavakyas describe Advaita sthiti i. He got enlightened when he dropped everything.I want moksha.I want moksha. one enters into non-dual state and seeking ends here and now . without Jnana there is no mukti (liberation). then moksha is mahA-brAnti (great illusion). Now this desire also has to be dropped. jiva-brahma aikya meaning jiva (Atman) and brahman are Page 69 of 619 . Only Sat-Chit-Ananda Atman exists . AshTAvakra Gita talks about this vAda.g. The great e. To make him quit this last desire questions are asked to sAdhAka: 1.after the enquiry.e. ajAta vAda Non existence of MAyA and so this world. One cannot negate existence of oneself. Who am I? If I am Sat-Chit-Ananda then I do not need to sit in meditation and then establish myself in samadhi. Bodh means Jnana and not void or zero state.immediately and not after some seconds.Understanding Advaita . One can become detached with this world and withdraw senses and become and observer.Who Am I .the enlightened.Understanding Advaita except one . but not enter into samadhi. is Lord Buddha. GauDapadAcharya adopted this vAda.e. hence it is said to drop the process of observation. they have all desires up-rooted except the one . Who wants moksha? 2. minutes or years).

one upanishad from one veda is selected. Four Mahavakyas are: 1.8. which describes jiva-brahma-aikya.Sama Veda.10 3. Out these 4 upanishads belonging to 4 different veda-s are selected i.ajAta vAda one.Atharva Veda. Out of 1180. पजयानमत ब्रह Prajñānam brahma Consciousness is Brahman . There are many mahAvAkya-s. Mandukya Upanishad 2) After understanding 'What is Advaita' lets see who can live the life according to Advaita. Each shAkhA-s have their own upanishads.meaning That (Brahman) is you) . Out of 220.3 2. अयमयातमया ब्रह Ayamātmā brahma This Atman is Brahman .e. There are 1180 shAkhA-s of vedas. Is Advaita for everybody? Advaita is not for everybody.1. Chandogya Upanishad . 108 are supposed are mentioned in MuktikA upanishad. Bhagavan in Gita says that Page 70 of 619 .Tat Tvam Asi That thou art . अहश ब्रहयानस्म Aham brahmāsmi I am Brahman .7 4. Aitreya Upanishad 3. only 220 are said to be extant.Understanding Advaita .4. ततवमधस Tattvamasi .6. From these upanishads.Yajur Veda. bruhadAraNyaka (Brihad-araNyaka) Upanishad . Hence technically there are 1180 upanishads. 1 sloka or half sloka is selected as mahAvAkyA.Rig Veda.

The imperishable Brahman is very hard to reach for those who are attached to their bodies. Svetasvatara Upanishad says that same thing (6.Understanding Advaita . These truths.5।। 12.Understanding Advaita क्लकशरोतोऽधधकतरस्तकषयामव्यकयासकचकतसयामत। अव्यकया शह रशतदर नभ खिश दकहवशद्भिरवयाप्यतक।।12. the unmanifested. and an equal degree of devotion the Spiritual Master. shine forth only in that high-souled one / pure mind who has Supreme Devotion to God. when taught. He further says that one who does not give much importance to his body and senses and has no interest in the worldly affairs instead of being surrounded by worldly issues are considered as eligible for Self Enquiry.23) - यस्य दकवक परया भशकन यथिया दकवक तथिया रभररौ । तस्यवैतक कधथितया ह्यथियारन पकयाशनतक महयातमनन ॥ पकयाशनतक महयातमन इशत ।6:23। यस्य For whom दकवक to God परया भशकन Supreme devotion यथिया दकवक as to God तथिया So रभररौ To the Master । तस्यवैतक To that [high souled / pure mind] one कधथितया expounded ह्यथियारन these truths पकयाशनतक shine महयातमनन to that high souled॥ पकयाशनतक महयातमन इशत shine as High Soul indeed. is very hard for the embodied to reach. Identification with the body is Dehabhimana. Bhagavan in Gita says Page 71 of 619 .The embodied: Those who identify themselves with their bodies. it is extremely difficult to fix the resltess mind on the formless and attributeless Brahman. for the goal.5 Greater is their trouble whose minds are set on the unmanifested. The path is difficult because the aspirant has to give up attachment to the body from the very beginning of his spiritual practice. They shine forth in that High-Souled one only. Further. Sri Ramana Maharshi in Sri Ramana Gita Chapter 7 says: Ones who have purified their mind through sadhana (meditation) or by Sattvik Karma in past lives can practice advaita Vedanta.

renunciation is hard to attain without (Karma-) yoga.. then perform all actions without caring for the results. Hence Bhagavan has given us two paths. They are described by Shri Nithin Sridhar here Page 72 of 619 .3 Among thousands of men. According to Shastras. which is explained in the section " 'I' or 'Me' can be taken as 'Brahman' " सशनययासस्तभ महयाबयाहरो दनभ खिमयापभमयरोरतन। यरोरयभकरो मभशनब्ररह नशचरकणयाधधरच्छशत।।5. 7. Also note that knows 'Me' in essence (tatva). yōgayuktō munirbrahma nacirēn ḥ ādhigacchati. Verses 1 to 22of Chapter 6 talk about Jnana.Is Advaita for everybody? मनभष्ययाणयाश सहसकषभ यततयामशप धसध्दयानयाश manus ḥ yān ḥ āṅ yatatāmapi sahasrēs ḥ u sidhdānāṅ कनशचदतशत कनशचनमयाश kaścinmāṅ धसध्दयक। वकधत्त तत्त्वतन।।7.22 If thou art unable to hold the mind steady on the Brahman..6. Next verses are for bhakti. This verse is connected with 7:19. even among those successful strivers. 5. tattvatah ḥ ..22) यदनमशरो धयारशयतभश नमरो ब्रहशण शनशचलमत । मशय सवयारशण कमर शण शनरपककन समयाचर ॥ २२ ॥ 6.6 But. The meditative man equipped with yoga attains Brahman without delay. Note: Here. one perchance strives for perfection.5. Uddhava Gita says the same (6.6।। saṅnyāsastu mahābāhō duh ḥ khamāptumayōgatah ḥ .Understanding Advaita . giving them up unto me.7. Brahma Vidya cannot be given to the one who is not a pure mind or does not have subtle intellect. Bhagavan says 'knows' and not 'sees'. only one perchance knows Me in essence (tatva).. O mighty-armed one.3.3।। kaścidyatati vētti sidhdayē.

we can use word. It is of easy comprehension only when instructed by another. Also note that this 'I' is not Ego or representing Body Page 73 of 619 .I am Lord Krishna. mind and intellect 2. Some verses are quoted below. This is the wrong notion that many people think. i. Brahman is beyond speech and arguments i.e. To better understand. 2.Understanding Advaita . Advaita talks about NirGuna Brahman which does not do anything and is at peace.8 This principle (Brahman) is not understood by pondering in different ways or being taught by one of low ability. 'consciousness or awareness.7 It is not possible for many to hear about it (Brahman) and even having heard many do not understand. Advaitins never compare capacity of Jnani with avatAra Advaita does not say 'I Am God' in the sense that . which is a discourse between Nachiketas and Yamadev. There is no other way than being taught by one of unparalleled ability and it transcends all arguments and is subtlest of subtle.Understanding Advaita Is Brahma-Vidya.e. more can be found here. Blind Leading Blind 2. Lord Shiva and I can do whatever they can do and can reproduce their supernatural powers and abilities. Brahma Jnana is difficult to grasp and teach 2. The knower is a wonderful person instructed by the adept. The teacher must be a skilful one and the pupil should be sharp in grasp. This can be found in Katha Upanishad. O! Dearest one! O! Nachiketa! let there be seekers like you! You are truly resolved in your desire. who thoroughly tests Nachiketas before imparting Brahma-Vidya. Lord Rama. Consciousness Am I. Awareness Am I.9 This knowledge is not attainable by argumentation.5 The deluded staying in illusion thinking themselves to be enlightened go in circles faltering and floundering like sightless-men led by a sightless one. which teaches about Brahma Jnana or Atman Jnana suitable to all and who can teach it? Brahman or (Sat-Chit-Ananda) Atman can alone impart knowledge about itself.

prApya varAn nibodhata Kshurasya dhArA nishitA duratyatA durgam pathastat kavayo vadanti. If the prakruti is emotional. so the experienced (who have travelled the path). one can shift to Advaita.3. then is is not worth comparing. as emotional characters can progress faster in sAkAra upAsanA then in nirAkAra upAsanA no matter how much intelligent they are. It is not concerned with by-hearting and photographic memory. Arise. OR Arise. An avatAra can give moksha to many more people as compared to a Jnani. Sri Ramakrishna says a Jnani is like a wooden log upon which 2-3 people can hold on to an cross ocean of samsAra.like the sharp edge of a razor Page 74 of 619 .Advaitins never compare capacity of Jnani with avatAra (sarira bhAva / deha bhAva). It is pure consciousness. difficult to tread. jAgrata. a person lives by mind and not by intellect. They are not free from bias and have attachment with someone or something. Realize that Atman having approached the exalted teachers. beset with obstacles. sAkAra upAsanA is always a better option. Even highly intelligent people have problems with co-workers and even their life partners. But a person who does not consider himself as nirakAra find it difficult to consider Brahman / God as nirAkAra. But from POV of tatva Jnana.Understanding Advaita . awake from the slumber of Avidya. 'Intelligent' from spiritual POV means subtle intellect that understands and grasps non-dual concepts or ultimate truth. Advaita asks one to rise above dvaita Katho Upanishad (l. They divorce their wives. but an avatAra is like a big raft upon which many many people can sit and cross ocean of samsAra. For them whose consciousness is strongly clinged to body. the path is indeed difficult to cross and hard to tread. and God gives them experience of detachment and orders them to learn Advaita. say. then better continue sAkAra upasanA. ignorance. both are same. awake. though they can be an asset for the one who is destined to be an AchArya. After mind is purified.dark. receive guidance from the best preceptors For the path is like a razor’s edge . Pure mind is better word to avoid this confusion. If you compare the capacity of any avatAra.14) says UtthishThatha.

For the ones whose mind is still impure. Titiskha – To stay neutral in favourable and unfavourable circumstances 5. This includes karma kand for those who have zeel and spirit of doing work and bhakti yog for stabilizing mind and developing faith (bhava) in God. mind is purified.dispassion in society (worldly matters) 3. Once you have Vivek and Vairagya along with firm determination for liberation. Sham – Control over mind 2. mental purification is advised. He/she is in dvaita. their glories are sung. else it is disaster waiting to happen. Vivek . This is the reason why one should qualify for receiving Jnana. mumukshu (seeker) is not in advaita sthiti. God and Shastras. To encourage a disciple or devotee in any one of the marg . and Guru thinks he will not be able to absorb tatva Jnana. are asked to rise above dvaita. Vairagya . (sAdhana chatusta varNana). all other qualities gradually develop within. Shraddha – Faith in Yourself (I am doing nothing wrong in practicing this path). Page 75 of 619 . Shatsampatti (6 values) 1. Khandan is done from positive standpoint. Regular prayers and surrender to God also help a lot. Uprati – Saturation point (control over mins and saturation brings the saturation of slinging or attachment in any worldly attachment) 4. so that mind accepts it easily and devotee practices it wholeheartedly. So advait does not reject Dvaita.karma or bhakti. Dam – Control over 5 senses 3. This is done by doing khandan (negation) of dvaita.discrimination between Real and Unreal. only Atman. so that sadhaka can rise above dvaita. but considers it important step for mental purification. 1. Mumukshatva – Burning desire for liberation. 4. please visit: Journey of Advaita Vedantin sAdhana CatuShTa varNana (four qualities to practice advaita) Vivek Chudamani (choodamani) says that four sadhans (qualities) are necessary / required for one to progress in advaita. 6. i. Guru. There is no hatred. More more details. For the ones whose time has come to practice advaita i. everything else is unreal 2.e.e. Samadhan – To stay focused on the practice (one-pointedness like that of tiger). Being prepared to leave everything for SELF realization is an asset.Understanding Advaita Even though we talk about Advaita Sthiti as final. Brahman is real.Understanding Advaita .

Page 76 of 619 . So there are 2 things 1. It was not permanent. There is peace. your natural or spontaneous reaction will be to either run away or to grab it for food or for earning.Rope Analogy . So Rope is it's AdhAra (support). Snake is dependent upon rope for it's existence Snake cannot exist without rope.A perfect example to explain Advaita Suppose you enter into a dark room and suddenly see a snake. This means mind has 2 dimensions. the substratum. Snake seemed truth but was never a truth. Rope can exist without snake. Advaita teaches to go beyond mind into the third dimension of stillness. base upon which snake rested. to accept or select and to reject. To give or take.sAdhana CatuShTa varNana (four qualities to practice advaita) Advaita is for Purified minds and with subtle intellects. To go beyond duality. To run towards snake You switch on the light and immediately (without any delay). Snake cannot exist with rope. please visit What is Advaita Vedanta? Can it be applied in today’s Practical Life? (External Link to Indiaspirituality Blog) You can also visit Advaita FAQs (External Link) and Advaita . you see that it is just a Rope. It was an illusion. Snake vanished without any trace and without any delay. Snake did not exist beyond rope. Snake did not last for ever. For More details. Now the the 'running' is over.Understanding Advaita . To run away from snake or 2. Snake was super imposed upon Rope by false perception.Kamkoti Mandali (External Link) Snake.

In the same way verses in Gita and other shastras can be explained by Snake-Rope Analogy Snake was where ever there was rope.e. Maya did not exist beyond Brahman. Maya did not last for ever. one can say that. Brahman can exist without Maya. Maya seemed truth but was never a truth. It was an illusion. base upon which snake rested. the substratum. --> In reality. Snake rested on Rope. From the standpoint of reality i.Understanding Advaita Now. but rope was not inside snake Rope was never inside snake and snake was not inside rope.Understanding Advaita . Maya is dependent upon Brahman for it's existence Maya cannot exist without Brahman. It was not permanent. Maya vanished without any trace and without any delay. replace 'Snake' by 'Maya' and 'Rope' by 'Brahman' in above para. So. This statement is being said from Atma-Sthiti (state of Jnana) and not from Practical Standpoint. Snake never existed --> ajaata or ajaati vAda. after realizing true nature of Self. Snake never existed. Brahman is it's AdhAra (support). Rope is the substratum upon which snake rested. Now reflect on the following slokas (verses) from Bhagavad Gita मयया ततशमदश सवर जरदव्यकमभशतर नया। Page 77 of 619 . Snake was inside rope and rope was inside snake --> Rope was never inside snake ans snake was not inside rope. but not beyond it. Maya was super imposed upon Brahman by false perception. rope never existed. meaning mAyA never existed (in reality). Snake was inside rope and rope was inside snake Snake was inside rope. Maya cannot exist with Brahman. Snake is not inside rope and rope is not inside snake.

9.5 Nor do beings exist in Me (in reality). but rope was not inside snake न च मतस्थियाशन भभतयाशन पशय मक यरोरमवैशवरमत। भभतभकन्न च भभतस्थिरो ममयातमया भभतभयावनन।।9.6. --> Snake was inside rope.6 As the mighty wind. rests always in the ether.. 9. 9. यथियातोऽतोऽकयाशनस्थितरो शनतयश वयायभन सवर त्रिररो महयानत। तथिया सवयारशण भभतयाशन मतस्थियानमतयभपधयारय।।9. tathā sarvān ḥ i bhūtāni matsthānītyupadhāraya.5.6।। yathā.. all beings exist in Me.5।। na ca matsthāni bhūtāni paśya mē yōgamaiśvaram. moving everywhere. matsthāni sarvabhūtāni na cāhaṅ tēs ḥ vavasthitah ḥ .. --> Snake rested on Rope. bhūtabhrḥnna ca bhūtasthō mamātmā bhūtabhāvanah ḥ . but not beyond it. TruNa-Jantu NyAya and Keet-Bramar NyAya Page 78 of 619 . --> Snake was where ever there was rope. is My Self. 9. --> Rope was never inside snake and snake was not inside rope. but I do not dwell in them.Understanding Advaita .4।। mayā tatamidaṅ sarvaṅ jagadavyaktamūrtinā.. even so. know thou that all beings rest in Me. but not dwelling in them. Rope is the substratum upon which snake rested.4 All this world is pervaded by Me in My unmanifest aspect (nirgina Brahman)..Snake. supporting all beings.9.9.kāśasthitō nityaṅ vāyuh ḥ sarvatragō mahān. behold My divine Yoga.4.A perfect example to explain Advaita मतस्थियाशन सवर भभतयाशन न चयाहश तकष्ववनस्थितन।।9.Rope Analogy . the efficient cause of beings...

mind. Subtle Points Whether you accept it or not. So you will have to do a Atma-Khoj . Ego keeps which I alive and wants to sustain individuality. In.I am That That is Already Brahman The Statement . If you replace 'AM' by 'AM NOT' then the whole meaning changes. AM is the one that holds the key. keet is an insect which Bhamari catches and cages inside mud with holes to breath and feed and to bite. This can be interpreted like. After being trapped. Page 79 of 619 . So by thinking of brahman. predominant desires decide our future birth and only when the decision is made new body is given to soul. you are under the influence of maya. sukshma sharita. one becomes brahman. Keet-Bramar Nyaya. I can be = ego. it leave older branch so shift to new branch. Truna-Jantu Nyaya (Caterpillar law) Caterpillar is some 16 legs. jiva. that insect (sorry I do not know english name) constantly thinks of bhamri that it will come and bite it. It shows the process and also makes the statement as Non-Dual.Who Am I? In the statement .Understanding Advaita . will only become true if I = THAT I represents individuality. at the time of death. I AM That. it will branch fetch hold of another branch and grab it with it's front legs and only after fetching it.I AM That. body.Understanding Advaita 1. So when it wants to move from one branch to another. Finally it becomes bhamri. 2.

making it universal. Entire Ocean is Maya. Only Jnani can give Jnana-Updesha. Rajas and Tamas. If you have noticed. Also note that Gita does not teach from Only one standpoint. he does not take credit. Thoughts and doubts ceases. Instead of Being Bhagavan. You will have to be defocused by being aware. He humbly says I am taking everything from Upanishads. swami or controller of Maya. Bhagavan in Gita gives Jnana to Arjun. that's all technical. Ishwara takes AdhAra of 'Vidha Maya'. It is a khoj and after asking the questioning. Remember that one rises above Maya by being aware or by knowing 'who am I' i.e. The difference between Jiva and Ishwara is that while Ishwara can take any form anywhere at will and can also again merge into Brahman at will.e. Ishwara is always aware that he is 'Brahman'. what is left is pure Page 80 of 619 . But just a repetition 'Who Am I' will not help. Since Gita is essence of Upanishads. It is basically Antar-Khoj (diving deep within). So Bhagavan is also SELF Realized. bound by Maya. Coming back. Anyways. no 'I' in Bhagavan. Nidhidhyasana. Brahman. in Gita it's Just Bhagavan. That happens by awareness. so Bhagavan Krushna also gives Brahma-Jnana to Arjun. Being Brahman. Imagine a vast endless milky ocean (divine ocean of energy). So even bhagavan Krushna considers Shastras as authentic and there is not even a trace of Ego. breath.Subtle Points So I = THAT only when you know the Real 'I' or your true nature. Keet-Bramar Nyaya says that you will have to do chintan and manan (thinking and contemplation) and not repetition. Ishwara takes Adhara of Vidha Maya and Jiva takes Adhara of Panch-Mahabhuta. not be being involving in thoughts. But you are in duality. Consider an Ocean (inverted on top and form which two branches come out – just for visualization . Brahman is upon which this Maya rests and is insuperable. the entire cosmos and is always aware of it's true nature i. Just assuming does not help. Both Ishwara and Jiva have 'UpAdhis'. Ishwara is sarve-buddhiman and Jiva is alpa-buddhiman. Jiva is bound and influenced by Maya. But it is the feeling of separateness due to avidya (ignorance) and Ahamkara (Ego) that we say that 'I am Part of the whole' Again. Since Jiva and everything is inside Maya and is created from Maya. they dissolve into source. which are created by Rishis. even though everything origins or emerges and dies (udbhava and laya) in God. That is why he is called Maya-Pati. Be also knows that Maya is the shakti of Brahman and cannot be separated from it like fire and it's warmth. It is not separate from Maya and so not separate from Ishwara. or simply I am quoting from Shastras.e. or mantra. By being Aware you are separated from Thoughts. which talks of Brahma-Jnana.Understanding Advaita . You have to find the source of thoughts. the substratum of entire universe. i. and having a feeling of seperateness of and so 'I'.Jiva and God) So the thing that separates Ishwara and Jiva is knowledge that 'I Am Brahman' If you remove Vidha Maya from Ishwara and you remove Panch-Mahabhuta from Jiva. So you have to ask 'Who AM I'. it also contains all tree Gunas – Satva. Only a realized soul can give Brahma-Jnani.

There is no need to mediate. I recall an example of spider. Three Paths Sri Ramana Maharshi. Similarly. just sleeping.e. as it is not dead. mind again rises. Ishwara does not need anything outside him. one says. Nor knowledge or material. MaargaNa: Vichar Marg. mind is emptied and destroyed.Understanding Advaita . control and slow down the breath. SELF can be realized by 3 paths 1. having siddhis (supernatural powers) entirely depends upon Grace of God and devas (demi-Gods). To merge. Yog (Raja Yog) Source: Ramana Gita. By repeatedly entering into samadhi.e. Self Enquiry.Understanding Advaita Brahman. Majjan: To dive within (dictionary meaning). Article: Three paths Laya and Nasha are different. That is why when in Jnana. i. Ishwara is both material cause and efficient cause. This does not mean that he can do same miracles that Krushna or other gods do. in Sri Ramana Gita says. dissolve yourself in the source of Mantra. Spider knows how to make 'Jala' (Web) and also has tools (saliva) to make it. Spider does not need anything extra from outside to create web i. 'I am Brahman'. Laya means to be one with god or merging with God. Ishwara does not depend upon anything 'Else' for creation of universe It is said that this world or universe was created from the mind of Lord Brahman by his kalpanA (thought or imagination) To make anything who will require 2 things – Material needed for creation and knowledge (to make or create that particular thing).e. and with it rises the samsara. Breath Control. PraaNa Rodh: To stop breath (dictionary meaning). Again one enters into samadhi and mind sleeps. A person stays in nirvikalp samadhi for 21 days. i. again it rises and so is duality. Bhakti Marg 3. Ishwara knows what to make (knowledge) and also has tools and materials to make things (Maya). After that the Page 81 of 619 . To observe. Jnana Marg 2. Now the mind does not rise again. But after spending some time in samadhi.

That is why Shankaracharya has called Maya as 'Mithya' It is illusion. Questions like. Only after you realize Brahman. Now the questions are bombarded which will ocmpletely shatter anything that is holding in the way. Mithya means that one that does not exist but still you feel it. but ajaata vaada says that there is nothing like maya. As Bhagavan in Gita says . Such persons are very rare. Atman of Krushna itself. Sri Ramakrishna says only avatar can comes back again into body after 21 days. All I can say is Page 82 of 619 .Three Paths contact with body is permenetaly dropped. So till you are in Maya give-n-take continues. You are entirely surrendered to God. Practically all sadhakas. not that person. Remember Snake and Rope analogy. all your wishes are up-rooted as you have reached your destination. My prostrations to Jivan Muktas who are Jnani Bhaktas. In Jnana marg. who is the meditator?. though you have separate existence. if you take his name (Krushna or meditate on Brahman). you either tried to run away or towards it. but a select few.Understanding Advaita . I will not elaborate much. It is a statement said from the state of SELF Realization. one does feel separateness The approach is different in all paths. at the time of death. When God has up-rooted all the desires except one . even this desires . It rejects maya. This is where ajAta vAd comes into play. CAUTION: This is only for very advanced sadhakas.a mahabranti (great illusion) a-jaata not-born ajAta means 'not born' Advaita accepts maayaa.I want Moksha.I want Moksha. It is time to even renounce this desire. It will depends upon God to give you what is best for you. not before. He is Jivan Mukta. then there is no second birth. In Dvaita after you have divine vision of God. Most people do not return. IF bandha (bondage) is brAnti (illusion). chosen by God returns from samadhi to do work of God. Upon seeing snake. as it may do more harm that help if wrongly understood. After that it's all God. ajaata vaada talks from the graveyard of karma and duality. ajAta vAda: Moksha . then moksha (liberation) is mahAbrAntI (great illusion). you do not think of anything else than Brahman. produces mental agitation. you can say (in Atma Sthiti)) that 'I am Brahman' and that Maya is illusion. from beginning.

which one has to drop. Now. But since we were not able to find krishna or to make it easier to find krishna.Understanding Advaita . This is because. Another e.Understanding Advaita that finally even this desire moksha has to be renounced. boat is maya. But after reaching boat. is that of Lord Buddha. So it is easy to talk from POV (Point Of View) of sadhaka. He meditated till the extreme. a sadhaka is always living in duality. which is just a pointer and not destination. It is used for just giving in the direction.g. Pointed finger is not the destination. can you look at Krishna? no. In between there is a river and you do not know to swim. Shastras teach us in a language which looks like dual. but when he left everything. The destination (lakshya) is the idol of Krishna.g given by Swami Sukhbodhananda in one of his discourses: He (Swamiji) pointed to Krishna idol and said ‘This is Krishna’. do you keep sitting in boat or move ahead? definitely move ahead. After one moves attention to Krishna.g. It was never the destination. the finger is pointed. If you look at shadow. Krushna is the only center of focus or attention.g. please visit ajAti vAda (external link) Vachyartha and Laxyartha Every statement has Vaachyartha (apparent / literal meaning) and lakshyaartha (destination) I will give an e. it is a tool and not a destination. even the desire for moksha. Here. If you keep looking at pointed finger. the finger is dropped. can you look at Sun? No. he was enlightened. So you take aadharaa (support) of boat. . I can extend that: Finger is maya and idol of krushna is brahman. It is the only thing that one should care. Perfect e. the pointed finger is vaachyaartha. From this Swamiji's e. Finger has to be dropped. No more attention is given to finger. Page 83 of 619 . Boat has advantage that it will not sink itself and you. Will take things more clear: Imagine that you are going from place A to place B. For more details.

but very few can grasp it. You will have to feel it. Subtle points for sincere advaita meditators. one is constantly reminded of maayaa. So let them go.Vachyartha and Laxyartha Earlier we had concluded that Advaita does not give importance to maaya. as in the case of Bhagavan DakshaNaamurty. This produces vivek yukta vairagya. family members. But we have heard so much about mAyA (maayaa). In such a case. Not different i. So initially to withdraw the senses. but actually nothing happens. turn opposite 180 degrees and you will see the sun. since there is no more dumping in mind. It also requires presence of a Realized Guru. past thoughts. If you keep looking at thoughts even for hours. Guru makes extrovert mind introvert. thoughts and this world). mantra. it's time to think of brahman and nothing else. If you ar chanting OM. The point is not ot keeping looking at thoughts and images. Such a matured sadhaka will only go to source of mantra OM. and Ishwara establishes introvert mind into heart (Atman. Mature sadhaka has no interest in this world and can neglect the influence of maya (I do not say he is above maya). thoughts are not coming. Why is mAyA talked too much? Since matured sadhakas are very rare and are generally in isolation and maun cannot be taught. Brahman. He becomes a Jnani when he merges into Brahman / source.Understanding Advaita . they are going. It's the newer ones that makes noise and so we find more talks about maayaa. Infact one can develop a habit of observing thoughts and Page 84 of 619 . where it is given importance. No more bombarding of withdrawing of senses et al is done. Now the paatra (vessel) is free from hole and there is no further dumping of thoughts of day-2-day life. but still you keep seeing them. I am not different from Brahman. vasanas and even vasanas from past life / lives may come out during meditation and are up-rooted. / Atman / Brahman by a-anya bhava (ananya bhava) bhakti. Once the mind becomes 100 % introvert. you can say that you are detached from them. Most of the sadhakas are beginners and for them maayaa is taught. then you will have to neglect thoughts AND shift your attention to OM and then move to it's source to be one with Brahman. etc. worldly thoughts do not enter into his mind. avoid objects of senses as poison. but to move beyond into their source. Do not stop them from going :) One has to change the direction of sight. you can say that you are detached. progress stops. mentally disconnect from friends. isolation is highly recommended. one should stay away from worldly objects.e. Teaching via maun is very supreme. avoid them as poisons. source of everything – breath. If you keep looking at thoughts. and enter into samadhi. Remember. So a person after neglecting maya is not a Jnani. i.e. Mind melts into source heart. Now. it is not much focused.

Not by observing thoughts or considering this world as illusion. one can be in non-dual state. meditate on this in thy mind.'I am brahman') 3. (Constantly think of brahman. mind and so maya.sankaracharya.keet-brahar nyaaya Jaati neeti kula gotra dooragam naama roopa guna dosha varjitam! Desha kaala vishayaativarti yad Brahma tatwamasi bhaavayaatmani!! (254) 254. Adi Shankara in Vivekchudamani has sung many verses on Brahmatatvamasi bhavayaatmani meaning. transcending space. Jivan mukta → after meditation is over. 4. 2. but by moving on to the source of thoughts or mantra (OM). 5. It is not good.ananyachetA us translated as single-pointed devotion. Mano naasha → ajaata vaada → Destruction of mind. no dvaita darshan. One has to dive deep within to gather the pearls of wisdom.Understanding Advaita . merit and demerit. (10 Slokas sloka no 254 263 talk about contemplating on brahman and not maayaa) . have brahman bhaavanaa i. Nirvikalp samadhi.Understanding Advaita waiting for next to come.org/vivekachudamani3. anya = different) BG 12:6 (for sAkAr upAsanA. It can also be interpreted as continuously thinking .e. Sahaj samadhi. Extrovert mind → introvert mind → development of vairagya with the help of maayaa. Page 85 of 619 . devoid of name and form.php#1 Same is said in Atma shatakam / nirvANa shatak The gist is 1. From viverta-vaada to ajaata vaad? This is the style of traditional teaching. http://www. refer 8:14 .e. Establish oneself on Atman sthiti (Brahma sthiti) and try to remain in it. That which is beyond caste and creed. family and lineage. Mano laya. One has to move beyond thoughts. Jagat is Brahman itself (sarvam khalu-idam brahman) But why is maayaa first talked about and then at other place it's existence is negated i. No need to think on maayaa. Introvert mind to contemplate on brahman with a-anya bhakti (a = not. time and sense-object – that Brahman art thou.

similarly. AgAmi and sanchit. 452).C. if such an opinion arises in buddhi that it is gau (cow) and not Lion. He goes on explaining logically that: Suppose you are hunting a lion. Page 86 of 619 . After releasing arrow. For all are made to work under compulsion by the gunas born of Nature. O Arjuna. यथिवैधयाशधस सशमदरोतोऽशग्निभर स्मसयातकभरतकतोऽजभरन। जयानयाशग्निन सवर कमयारशण भस्मसयातकभरतक तथिया।।4.37 Just as burning fire turns fuel to ashes. bhasmasAt krute tathA. How can there be any diversity in the Changeless.5 Because.5।। 3. Arrow has already left the bow. Later on it is said that: In the One Reality. the Formless. Initially. So even prArabhdha is destroyed. Upadeshas are said from adhikAra bheda. beginners). Shankaracharya says that Prarabhdha is the reason. the Absolute? (400) For more Refer Vivek Chudamani (Choodamani) verses 441 – 464 and verses 398-406 Shankaracharya also explains similar to jnAnAgni sarva karmANii. one has practical approach and sees even Jnani is suffering for body pains. the concept of the universe is a mere fancy.37।। 4. Prarabhdha is like this arrow already on travel and will hit the target with fullforce (V. So to explain it (to un-ripe. shastras say that all karmas are destroyed. no one ever remains even for a moment without doing work. so does the fire of knowledge turn all Karma to ashes.Upadeshas are given from AdhikAra bheda Upadeshas are given from AdhikAra bheda Another way of traditional teaching is to accept the existence and later on negate it.Understanding Advaita . This can be seen in Vivek Chudamani and in Gita. You will find same trend in Gita न शह कनशचतकणमशप जयातभ शतष्ठतयकमर ककतत। कयायर तक ह्यवशन कमर सवर न पककशतजवैरर भणवैन।।3. To a matured sadhaka. All means prArabhdha. then nothing can be done. and shoot an arrow. Gita also says that one cannot be free from any karma and so one should practice nitya karmas.

It was rediscovered by Revered Swami Sacchidanandendra Saraswati. This unique method is called adhyAropa apavAda. Page 87 of 619 .Understanding Advaita .4:38.Understanding Advaita Refer BG 4:36 . which sings the glories of Jnana.

According to this method. Thereby the creatures become deluded. jiva bhAva and Atma bhAva Sri Once Ramakrishna Sri Rama asked Hanuman says. Gita and Brahma Sutra.15 The Omnipresent neither accepts anybody's sin nor even virtue. this method is consistent and is found in Upanishads.15।। 5. Bhagavan in Gita says that Ishwara is neutral. how Page 88 of 619 he looked at him.Understanding Advaita .13. Knowledge remains covered by ignorance. Statements are made from different POV considering the mindset of questioner: sarira bhAva.Only Consistent Traditional Teaching of Adi Shankara BhagavadpAda adhyAropa apavAda is a unique traditional method of teaching rediscovered by Swami Sacchidanandendra Saraswati.adhyAropa apavAda .Only Consistent Traditional Teaching of Adi Shankara BhagavadpAda adhyAropa apavAda . . Ishwara is Neutral says Gita नयादत्तक कस्यशचतपयापश अजयानकनयावकतश न जयानश चवैव तकन सभककतश मभह्यननत शवभभन। जनतवन।।5.. A separate page has been dedicated to explain this unique method of teaching taking help of Shankara Bhasya.A Consistent Traditional Teaching Lets move ahead. According to Swami ji. first super imposition on Self is mentioned and later on superimposition is negated. Please visit adhyAropa apavAda . Swamiji observed that this method of teaching was adopted by Shankara BhagavadpAda from his Gita BhasSya in 13.

So if you say that ‘I am experiencing unity’ .advaita. In advaita. I am your das (servant) and you are my lord (master. Page 89 of 619 . be it peace. prabhu) As a jiva. You may be in visistadvaita. I am ansha (part) and you are whole (purNa) but from Tatva Jnana. Advaita talks from this third POV . hey RAma. I am you and you are me.Understanding Advaita Hanuman Replied: As a body. We are not different.Atma bhAva and not jiva bhava. bliss or oneness. but it is not advaita. it is not ultimate state . there is no experiencer. You are still experiencing something.

do they cross over this divine Maya of Visnu. things. all. undecaying. delusion. does not know. repulsion. and am avyayam. deluded as it ismade to have indiscrimination. as having manifestation. of the transformations of the gunas. made of the gunas.How. does not know Me who am transcendental to these and undecaying. this. by these.38. distinct. jagat. constituted by the three gunas? That is being stated: अव्यकश व्यशकमयापन्नश मनयनतक मयामबभध्दयन। परश भयावमजयाननतरो ममयाव्ययमनभत्तममत।।7. Me. i. ebhih. viz birth etc. i.13 Sarvam. world. deluded as it is by these three things made of the gunas (qualities).-Tr.24।। Adi Shankara's commentary Page 90 of 619 . idam. the aggregate of creatures. three. different. शत्रिशभरभरणमयवैभयारववैरशक भन सवर शमदश जरतत। मरोशहतश नयाशभजयानयाशत मयामकभ्यन परमव्ययमत।।7. ebhyah. bhavaih.13 All this world. free from all (the six kinds of) changes in things. mam. See note on p. Adi Shankara's commentary 7.Krishna taught both dvaita and advaita. immutable and most excellent nature. aforesaid tribhih.24।। Translation 7. they think of me as a person with body Hindi Translation by Swami Ramsukhdasji Maharaj: बभशदहमन मनभष्य मकरक सवर शकष्ठ अशवनयाशम परमभयावकरो न जयानतक हह ए अव्यक (मन-इननदययोंसक पर) मभझ सनच्चदयाननदघन परमयातमयाकरो मनभष्यकक तरह हम शरमर धयारण करनकवयालया मयानतक हह ।।7. transcendental to. etc.24 The foolish think of Me. again. in the forms of attachment. Krishna taught both dvaita and advaita.13।। Translation 7. from these gunas as referred to above.e. the Unmanifest. mohitam. who am param.Understanding Advaita . knowing not My higher. and gunamayaih. na abhijanati.e.

supreme.' Since this is so. visible. ajanantah. that has become. deluded.25 Yoga-maya-samavrtah. thereforeKrishna was also a tyAgi and is also called as yogeSwara. mudhah.that yoga-maya. aham. think. apannam. mam. In verse 13 the reason for the nonrealization of the supreme. by that yoga-maya. do not become manifest. sarvasya. to the world. birthless. Das bhava is not to only bhava to worship him and that you need be afraid of him.e. The present verse states the reason for the non-realization of the qualified Brahman. My reality as the supreme Self. does not obstruct the knowlege of Me who am God. Hence Krishna is called a Jagat Guru. manifest. and anuttanam. lokah. Adi Shankara's commentary 7. I. undecaying. the coming together. being enveloped. For this very reason.Understanding Advaita - 7. They think so because they are unaware of My reality.What is the reason for their ignorance? This is being stated: नयाहश पकयाशन सवर स्य यरोरमयाययासमयावकतन। मभढरोतोऽयश नयाशभजयानयाशत लरोकरो मयामजमव्ययमत।।7. this. veiled. mam.'That yoga-maya. immutable. Krishna showed other ways to reach him. who am ajam. unqualified Brahman was stated.24 Abuddhayah. that (combination) is itself maya. vyaktim. There are two types of bhakti-s. state. This is explained by Shri Nithin Sridhar here Page 91 of 619 . the unmanifest. This is the idea. My prostrations and salutations to Jagat Guru Bhagavan Krishna.-though I am the ever well-known God. unsurpassable. Me. i. which is avyayam. bhavam. of Me. ayam. and avyayam. yoga-maya. because of My being covered by which the world does not know Me. the possessor of maya. na abhijanati. being enveloped by yoga-maya-Yoga means the combination. the non-discriminating ones. undecaying. to all. as avyaktam. since it belongs to Me. I do not become manifest to all.25 Being enveloped by yoga-maya. This deluded world does not know Me who am birthless and undecaying. of My. at present At present. na prakasah. does not know. just as the magic of any other magician does not cover his knowledge.25।। Translation 7. of the (three) gunas. unaware. param. world. manyante. The idea is that I become manifest only to some devotees of Mine. mama. the invisible. the unintelligent. after being embodied as an Incarnation.

first is nirvikalpa samadhi and then it is savikalp saamdhi. other is just to be experienced. If you want fire. Now there is no mind.blogspot.Understanding Advaita . Sri Ramana Maharshi called this as sahaj samadhi. as you cannot separate light of fire and it's heat. etc. In yog.html) In bhakti. Both sides of coin has to be understood. After one wakes from meditates or completes meditation. and later on reaches nirkikalp samadhi (source:http://indiaspirituality. e. But Some may return into this world to teach bhakti and jnana and keep a pseudo ego of knowledge or bhakta like that of shankara. A jnani experiences niivikalp samadhi. Such a person is called jivan mukta. But it is not over. This may not be like a vision of Krishna (person) everywhere. pure water. e. There is no need to further meditate. it freezes and takes shape by becoming ice. He sees divinity everywhere. But by repeated entering into samadhi. Mind of Jnani is brahman itself says Sri Ramana Maharshi. So. Fire (light) for lighting the room and heat for cooking food. Your focus can either be fire or ti's heat. as mind again rises from the dead (mano laya) and one enters into dvaita. connection with body permanently drops.in/2012/09/sahasrara-chakra. mind.g.blogspot.html Index: http://indiaspiri tuality. one keeps ego of 'I am bhakta' and later one even renounces this ego to merge into God losing his own identity says Sri Ramakrishna. sukhdev. But due to cold (of bhakti). (tat tvam asi and then sarvam khalu-idam brahman) In yog and bhakti reverse is true.g. Ordinary person do not return from nirvikalp samadhi and after 21 days. Page 92 of 619 .water. but you will have ot accept both. The purpose of meditation and this life (human birth) is fulfilled. One has to know both sides of coin. is gradually destroyed (mano nasha). In simple words of Sri Ramakrishna. one sees that this world is also Brahman and not maya. One day you began meditation. Both water and ice are technically one and the same .Both sides of coin has to be understood. one experiences divinity everywhere (sarvam khaluidam brahman. which is nothing but thoughts and vasanas. but just divinity. you will have to accept it's warmth. Only one side of coin is stressed. The which has beginning also has an end.in/2012/09/chakras-index. Nirakara brahman is like infinite ocean.

Devi Bhagavat all praise Gods as supreme. One must have a strong foundation. Makes sense right. After Understanding Advaita. Bhagavan of bhakta. Krushna is praised and the supreme personality. Some say bhakti is for kids is a false notion. bhakti is required. you do not need to take refuge in any other God. Another name of Jnani is Brahma-niSTha (niSThA = firmness . Advaita is not for everybody. intelligent / non-intelligent i. Our shastras teach many ways to attain moksha. The attention is diverted. Brahman or Atman of Advaita and Paratman of Yogis is one and the same. Each scripture glorifies it's personal deity and object of worship.e. Madhusudan Saraswati is a perfect e. In general laymen (anybody) can practice and progress in spirituality. devotion) The one has firm faith in Brahman or rather one who is established in Brahman with firm faith is a Brahmanishtha I would also like to say that bhakti has an edge that any class of people. of harmony and he believed that Advaita is not for everybody and for masses bhakti (krishna bhakti) is the best. then why not chant the name of Shiva. Jnana. WHY? The reason is if you are told. steadiness .Understanding Advaita Either side of Brahman (SaguNa and nirguNa) has to be experienced. But to progress in Jnana. Reason behind Shrutis. bhakti is the base. Sri Ramakrishna says that. that Krisha takes initiation from a sanyasin to chant the name of Shiva. Shiva Purana. attachment . Brahman Purana. lets understand an important technique taught by traditional Guru-s adyAropa apavAda Page 93 of 619 . To make one one-pointed and to make one understand that Krusha is enough. Smritis and Puranas praising one Personal deity I always ask the question. pure / impure minded. I would say. your will mind will think that if Shiva is supreme. Order is not important.g. Ganesh Purana. So bhakti is the foundation.

According to Swamiji. speech. However. in ajAta vAda. Page 94 of 619 . To sum up in brief. even the attribute of being a witness is removed. critical study and is beyond the scope of this work. no jagat. Only Atma tatva. The concept of witness is introduced since the objective is to indicate that 'I' am not any object of observation.Understanding Advaita - adhyAropa apavAda (अध्ययाररोप अपवयाद).A Consistent Traditional Teaching adhyAropa apavAda (अध्ययाररोप अपवयाद). first super imposition on Self is mentioned and later on superimposition is negated in same shruti. as in Gita 13. false Superimposition (adhyAropa. this method is the only consistent method of teaching. no Ishvara. Upanishads and Gita say that 'in the beginning there was no being and no non being'. there has to be another (an object that can be seen and observer). etc.Only Consistent Traditional Teaching as taught by Adi Shankara BhagavadpAda adhyAropa apavAda (अध्ययाररोपयापवयाद) is a unique traditional method of teaching rediscovered by Swami Sacchidanandendra Saraswati. अध्ययाररोप) Followed by Retraction (apavAda.13 This in itself is very deep. adhyAropa apavAda can be defined as. there is no creation. we will study it in brief. अपवयाद). as to see something. But later on. This doctrine actually leads to ajAta vAda. Attribute of witness is added and then it is negated by saying that it cannot be reached through mind. According to this method. no mAyA. eyes. Brahma tatva or pure consciousness.

e. but appears to be real under the influence of mAyA • Different forms of brahman like rAma. we can say that Brahman was one in the beginning Brahman became many --> attributes were added Being a witness --> beginning of separation Object of observation melts. and all that is non self • Unity of observer and object of observer is experienced • After the object of observation drops. etc are praised with attributes like creator. mind. • Though undivided brahman became many (This indicates that the creation is not completely real. So the false attribute of being a witness is also negated by saying that Brahman is beyond 5 senses and mind. what remains is non-dual brahman Brahman can be described only in a negative way It is not possible to describe Brahman. adhyAropa apavAda in Bhagavad Gita Note: In some versions. To further simplify. while Ramanuja commented. General trend in upanishads is found to be • There was only one brahman • Then brahman decided to be many i. hence it cannot be taught positively. destroyer. first verse of chapter 13 is not found.A Consistent Traditional Teaching Hence Brahman cannot be a witness also. being witness also drops. Page 95 of 619 .adhyAropa apavAda (अध्ययाररोप अपवयाद). created universe and jIva-s. all powerful. • Finally what remains is nothing but pure consciousness. Siva. intellect. It shows that all attributes are false and they are negated. compassionate. Hence the only method to explain Brahman is negative approach or false superimposition and retraction or negation of false super imposition.Understanding Advaita . etc • Theory of being witness to all that is non-self is given • Being a witness will help separate 'I' from body. Adi Shankara did not comment on it. No attribute can be given to describe it. kruShNa.

This verse mentions two things 1. This can be observed in Gita 13. To enter into non-dual state one has to even drop the attributes like 'knower' or 'witness'.34 They who. we must define what is Self. The 'object of observation'. the attributes of 'witness' or 'knower' are also removed.1 and 13. This means there is duality. But the terms observer is relative as it is dependent upon 'object of observation' i.13 Atman as Witness 'Kshetragya' Page 96 of 619 . while that in Ramanuja Bhasya are 35. go to the Supreme. Perceive the distinction between the field and its knower 2. perceive the distinction between the field and its knower and also the liberation from the Nature of being. After non-Self is separated from Self. If we accept 35 verses in chapter 13. The attributes are 'knower' or 'witness' or 'observer' or 'SAkSi' or 'kshetraGYa'. So here there are two things. by the eye of knowledge. But what is to be separated? that which we identify as 'I' or Self. total verses in chapter 13 are 34. one can be called as observer only if one is observing something. Last verse of Chapter 13 says ककत्रिककत्रिजयरोरकवमनतरश जयानचकभषया। भभतपककशतमरोकश च यक शवदय भ यारननत तक परमत।।13. This means that only thing left is observer. In other words attributes are given to Self or Atman.adhyAropa apavAda in Bhagavad Gita In Shankara Bhasya.34।। 13. To separate Self from Non-Self. it means that there is an object that one is witness. 'Witness' or 'Observer' called as kshetraGYa' and 2. 1.Understanding Advaita .e. then total number of verses in Gita will be 701. Liberation from the Nature of being This means that first Self or Atman is separated from Non-Self by being a witness. Since one is a witness.

13।। 13. unattached. Later verses are सवर तन पयाशणपयादश ततसवर तरोतोऽशकशशररोमभखिमत। सवर तन शभशतमलरोकक सवर मयावकतय शतष्ठशत।।13. सवरननदयरभणयाभयासश सवरननदयशववधजर तमत। असकश सवर भकच्चवैव शनरभरणश रभणभरोकक च।।13.1।। 13. and the perceiver of qualities. and verily the supporter of all. which has ears everywhere.1 The Blessed Lord said . (yet) devoid of all the organs. Points to be observed --> neither being nor non-being.Understanding Advaita . Those who are versed in this call him who is conscious of it as the 'knower of the field' or 'kshetraGYa'. It is incomprehensible Page 97 of 619 . by realizing which one attains Immortality. which has eyes.16 Existing outside and inside all beings. which has hands and feet everwhere. exists in creatures by pervading them all. That is called neither being nor non-being.A Consistent Traditional Teaching शम भरवयानभवयाच इदश शरमरश करौनतकय ककत्रिशमतयशभधमयतक। एतदरो वकधत्त तश पयाहह न ककत्रिज इशत तशददन।।13.16।। 13. Attribute of being a witness is removed जकयश यत्ततपवकययाशम यजजयातवयातोऽमकतमशनभतक। अनयाशदमतपरश ब्रह न सत्तन्नयासदच्भ यतक।।13.O son of Kunti.adhyAropa apavAda (अध्ययाररोप अपवयाद). बशहरनतशच भभतयानयामचरश चरमकव च। सभकमतवयात्तदशवजकयश दरभ स्थिश चयाननतकक च ततत।।13. The supreme Brahman is without any beginning. heads and mouths everywhere. this body is referred to as the 'field' or 'kshetra'. without quality.14।। 13.15।। 13.13 I shall speak of that which is to be known.then retraction of these qualities as devoid of all organs. without quality.14 That (Knowable). moving as well as non-moving. Then attributes of omnipresence -.15 Shining through the functions of all the organs.

4. Bhagavan says मयया ततशमदश सवर जरदव्यकमभशतर नया। मतस्थियाशन सवर भभतयाशन न चयाहश तकष्ववनस्थितन।।9.. but I do not dwell in them. unknowable.4 All this world is pervaded by Me in My unmanifest aspect (nirgina Brahman). bhūtabhrḥnna ca bhūtasthō mamātmā bhūtabhāvanah ḥ . because of Its subtlety. Select both hindi commentary (Sri Harikrishandas Goenka ) and english commentary (Swami Gambhirananda) AdhyAropa (superimposition) In chapter 9. Page 98 of 619 .. This method is found in other verses of Gita.9.. all beings exist in Me. and yet near. matsthāni sarvabhūtāni na cāhaṅ tēs ḥ vavasthitah ḥ . and near and far away is That. It is far away.4।। mayā tatamidaṅ sarvaṅ jagadavyaktamūrtinā.Understanding Advaita . ApavAda (retraction or negation) न च मतस्थियाशन भभतयाशन पशय मक यरोरमवैशवरमत। भभतभकन्न च भभतस्थिरो ममयातमया भभतभयावनन।।9. AdhyAropa ApavAda in Chapter 9 Please refer to shankara bhasya in 'Gita Super Site'.adhyAropa apavAda in Bhagavad Gita due to subtleness.. So also.5. 9.16 Outside and within (all) beings the unmoving and also the moving.5।। na ca matsthāni bhūtāni paśya mē yōgamaiśvaram. Lets analyze a few verses. OR 13.9.

Now you got he point as why in Sv. but not dwelling in them. AgAmi and sanchit.14 in other versions of Gita) We will try to understand this method in detail. How was this traditional Method discovered? Swamiji observed that this method of teaching was adopted by Shankara BhagavadpAda from his Gita BhaSya in 13.37 Just as burning fire turns fuel to ashes. no one ever remains even for a moment without doing work.A Consistent Traditional Teaching 9.g. AdhyAropa in Chapter 3. (13.13. All means prArabhdha. So even prArabhdha is destroyed. is My Self. Page 99 of 619 . behold My divine Yoga.adhyAropa apavAda (अध्ययाररोप अपवयाद).5 Because. To a matured sadhaka. ApavAda in Chapter 4 Adhyaropa न शह कनशचतकणमशप जयातभ शतष्ठतयकमर ककतत। कयायर तक ह्यवशन कमर सवर न पककशतजवैरर भणवैन।।3. Up. it says.37।। 4. it has to be experienced as infinite. supporting all beings. the efficient cause of beings. shastras say that all karmas are destroyed. For all are made to work under compulsion by the gunas born of Nature. then it is retracted or negated. another e.Understanding Advaita . Is this not contradictory? So first something is said. O Arjuna. Gita also says that one cannot be free from any karma and so one should practice nitya karmas. Upadeshas are said from adhikAra bheda. even though the size of jiva is given. to make things easy. ApavAda यथिवैधयाशधस सशमदरोतोऽशग्निभर स्मसयातकभरतकतोऽजभरन। जयानयाशग्निन सवर कमयारशण भस्मसयातकभरतक तथिया।।4.5।। 3. so does the fire of knowledge turn all Karma to ashes.5 Nor do beings exist in Me (in reality).

समस्त Page 100 of 619 .14।। 13. That is called neither being nor non-being.13 I shall speak of that which is to be known.Understanding Advaita .14 in detail सवर तन पयाशणपयादश ततसवर तरोतोऽशकशशररोमभखिमत। सवर तन शभशतमलरोकक सवर मयावकतय शतष्ठशत।।13. लरोकक पयाशणशनकयायक.सवर तनपयाशणपयादश सवर तन पयाणयन पयादयाशच अस्य इशत सवर तनपयाशणपयादश ततत जकयमत। सवर पयाशणकरणरोपयाधधशभन ककत्रिजस्य अनस्ततवश शवभयाव्यतक। ककत्रिजशच ककत्रिरोपयाधधतन उच्यतक। ककत्रिश च पयाशणपयादयाशदशभन अनककधया शभन्नमत। ककत्रिरोपयाधधभकदकक तश शवशकषजयातश शमथ्यवैव ककत्रिजस्य.14 That (Knowable). which has ears everywhere. heads and mouths everywhere.13।। Lets have the Hindi Translation of Shankara Bhasya by Sri Harikrishandas Goenka वह 'जकय' सतत शब्ददयारया हरोनकवयालम पतमशतकया शवषय नहहीं हवै .'अध्ययाररोपयापवयादयाभ्ययाश शनष्पपञ्चश पपञ्च्यतक ' इशत। सवर त्रि सवर दकहयावयवतवकन रमयमयानयान पयाशणपयादयादयन जकयशशकसद्भियावशनशमत्तस्वकयाययारन इशत जकयसद्भियावक धलङयाशन 'जकयस्य' इशत उपचयारतन उच्यनतक। तथिया व्ययाख्यकयमत अनयतत। सवर तनपयाशणपयादश ततत जकयमत। सवर तरोतोऽशकशशररोमभखिश सवर तन अकमशण शशरयाशधस मभखियाशन च यस्य ततत सवर तरोतोऽशकशशररोमभखिमत. exists in creatures by pervading them all. Lets analyze verse on 13. which has hands and feet everywhere.13. by realizing which one attains Immortality. The supreme Brahman is without any beginning. इशत तदपनयनकन जक य तवमभक मत 'न सत्तन्नयासद च्भ यतक ' इशत। उपयाधधककतश शमथ्ययारपमशप अनस्ततवयाधधरमयाय जकयधमर वतत पररकलप्य उच्यतक 'सवर तनपयाशणपयादमत' इतययाशद। तथिया शह सश प दयायशवदयाश वचनमत -. lets see what this verse says. Shankara Bhasya Sanskrit -. सवर तनशभशतमतत शभशतन शवणकननदयमत.How was this traditional Method discovered? Since Adi Shankara also discusses verse 13. ततत यस्य ततत शभशतमतत. जकयश यत्ततपवकययाशम यजजयातवयातोऽमकतमशनभतक। अनयाशदमतपरश ब्रह न सत्तन्नयासदच्भ यतक।।13. Important points are colour coded so that they can be easily located. सवर मत आवकतय सशव्ययाप्य शतष्ठशत नस्थिशतश लभतक।।उपयाधधभभतपयाशणपयादयादमननदययाध्ययाररोपणयातत जकयस्य तदत्तयाशङया मया भभतत इतयकवमथिर न शलरोकयारमभन -. इससक उसकक न हरोनककक आशङया हरोनकपर उस आशङयाकक शनवकधत्तकक धलयक . which has eyes.।।13.13।। 13.

.adhyAropa apavAda (अध्ययाररोप अपवयाद). which are perceived as limbs of all bodies.धजसकक शभशत अथियारतत शवणकननदय हरो वह शभशतमतत ( कयानवयालया ) कहया जयातया हवै। इस लरोकमम -. इतययाशद पकयारसक बतलयायया जयातया हवै। समपदयाय -परमपरयाकरो जयाननक व यालयोंकया भम यहम कहनया हवै शक 'अध्ययाररोप और अपवयाददयारया पपञ्चरशहत परमयातमयाकक व्ययाख्यया कक जयातम हवै। ' सवर त्रि अथियारतत सब शरमरयोंकक अशररपसक नस्थित हयाथि. by assuming this as a quality of the Knowable. that which has it is sruti-mat. etc.समस्त पयाशणसमभदयायमम वह सबकरो व्ययाप करकक नस्थित हवै ।।13.' Although the unreal form is caused by the limiting adjuncts. etc. is certainly unreal. The field. too.. Hence. Thus. for the comprehension of Its existence it is said. feet.वह जकय सब ओर हयाथि-पवैरवयालया हवै अथियारतत उसकक हयाथि-पवैर सवर त्रि फवैलक हह ए हह। सब पयाशणययोंकक इननदयरप उपयाधधययोंदयारया ककत्रिजकया अनस्ततव पकट हरोतया हवै। ककत्रिरप उपयाधधकक कयारण हम वह जकय ककत्रिज कहया जयातया हवै। ककत्रिरप उपयाधध हयाथि. शशर और मभखिवयालया हवै -. The others have to be explained similarly.Understanding Advaita . That which has eyes. पवैर आशद इननदययाभाँ.13।। Lets see simplified English Translation by Swami Gambhirananda 13. वह सवर तरोतोऽशकशशररोमभखि कहलयातया हवै तथिया वह सब ओर कयानवयालया हवै -. पवैर आशद भकदसक अनकक पकयार शवभक हवै। वयास्तवमम.धजसकक आभाँ खि. still. etc. शशर और मभखि सवर त्रि हयों. All diversity in the Knower of the field. caused by the differences in the adjunct-the field. heads. 'The Transcendental is described with the help of superimposition and its refutation'. '(It) has hands and feet everywhere. That which has ears everywhere is sarvatah-srutimat: sruti means the organs of hearing. as is well known. is diversely differentiated as hands. And the Knower of the field is spoken of as such because of the limiting adjuncts of the field. अतन यक सब जकयकक सत्तयाकक शचह्न हरोनककक कयारण उपचयारसक जकयकक ( धमर ) कहक जयातक हह। ऐसक हम और सबकक भम व्ययाख्यया कर लकनम चयाशहयक। वह जकय सब ओर हयाथि-पवैरवयालया हवै. perform. अतन उनकरो हटयाकर जक य कया स्वरप 'वह न सतत कहया जया सकतया हवै और न असतत हम कहया जया सकतया हवै ' ऐसक बतलयायया रयया हवै। तथिया जकयकया अनस्ततव समझयानककक धलयक उपयाधधककत शमथ्ययारपकरो भम उसकक धमर कक भयाभाँशत कलपनया करकक उसकरो 'सब ओरसक हयाथिपवैरवयालया' हवै.The existence of the Knower of the field is revealed through the adjuncts in the form of the organs of all creatures. in. the nature of the Knowable has been stated. their duties due to the presence of the power of the Knowable (Brahman). there is saying of the people versed in tradition . feet. Page 101 of 619 . जकय शशककक सत्तयासक हम स्वकयायर मम समथिर हरो रहम हह. ककत्रिकक उपयाधधययोंकक भकदसक शकयक हह ए समस्त भकद ककत्रिजमम शमथ्यया हम हह. Thus the grounds for the inference of the existence of the Knowable are metaphorically spoken of as belonging to the Knowable. and mouths everywhere is sarvatoksi-siro-mukham.13 That-the Knowable which has hands and feet everywhere. Everywhere the hands. तथिया सब ओर नकत्रि. 'That is called neither being nor non-being. by denying it.A Consistent Traditional Teaching पयाशणययोंकक इननदययाशद उपयाधधययोंदयारया उस जकयकक अनस्ततवकया पशतपयादन करतक हह ए कहतक हह -. That Knowable has hands and feet everywhere.

g. them all. False attributes are added on Self and then they are denied. With this purpose is view. ययाननत रच्छननत तक परश परमयातमतत्त्वश ब्रह्म. from many upanishads and from Gaudapadacharya's karika on Mandukya Upanishad.-ककत्रिककत्रिजयरोन यथियाव्ययाख्ययातयरोन एवश यथियापदशशर तपकयारकण अनतरमत इतरकतरववैलकणयशवशकषश जयानचकभषया शयास्त्रयाचयायर पसयादरोपदकशजशनतमत आतमपतयशयकश जयानश चकभन. by the eye of knowledge. 2.34।। Hindi translation by Sri Harikrishandas Goenka (on Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary) सयारक अध्ययायकक अथिर कया उपसशहयार करनककक धलयक यह शलरोक ( कहया जयातया हवै ) -.g. etc. तकन जयानचकभषया.How was this traditional Method discovered? Tisthati.Understanding Advaita . with this verse the shruti negates all that it has taught.34।। 13. perceive the distinction between the field and its knower and also the liberation from the Nature of being. there may not be the misconception that the Knowable is possessed of them (adjuncts). Also note that Swamiji pointed out e. that as a result of the superimposition of the organs like hands.. False Superimposition followed by negation is taught by wise.जरो पभरष शयास्त्र और आचयायर कक उपदकशसक उतपन्न आतमसयाकयातकयाररप जयाननकत्रियोंदयारया. This technique is called as adhyAropa apavAda. It exists. The commentary concludes that.34 They who. For Simplicity e. पहलक बतलयायक हह ए कक त्रि और कक त्रि जकक अनतरकरो. न पभनन दकहश आददतक इतयथिर न।।इशत शममतपरमहशसपररवयाजकयाचयायर स्य शमररोशवनदभरवतपभजयपयादशशष्यस्य शममच्छश करभरवतन ककतरौ शममद्भिरवद्रमतयाभयाष्यकत्रियरोदशरोतोऽध्ययायन।। शममच्छश करभरवतपयादशवरशचतमशममद्भिरवद्रमतयाभयाष्यमत ।।13. Sanskrit commentary by Sri Sankaracharya -. loke.उनकक पयारस्परशक शवलकणतयाकरो. from only Gita are given. भभतपककशतमरोकश च. Knowers of the Tradition say --> Adi Shankara did not say this is his own theory or yukti. तस्ययान भभतपककतकन मरोकणमत अभयावरमनश च यक शवदनभ शवजयानननत. Now Lets analyze the last verse of Chapter 13 ककत्रिककत्रिजयरोरकवमनतरश जयानचकभषया। भभतपककशतमरोकश च यक शवदय भ यारननत तक परमत।।13. by pervading. इस पभवरदशशर त Page 102 of 619 . भभतयानयाश पककशतन अशवदयालकणया अव्यकयाख्यया. Gaudapadacharya says. the (next) verse is begun: Important Points 1. feet. in the multititude of creatures. go to the Supreme. which are adjuncts. -. avrtya. remains established. sarvam. This is the traditional method as taught by wise men.

the particular mutual distinction between the field and the Knower of the field as they have been explained. through that eye of wisdom.adhyAropa apavAda (अध्ययाररोप अपवयाद). which arises from following the instructions of the scriptures and teachers. beyond mind and speech. the Reality which is the supreme Goal.32) or as in Satyam Jnanam Anantam Brahman. This is done keeping in mind the mental make-up of disciple. ययानम उसकया अभयाव कर दक नक क रो भम जयानतक हह . and the annihilation of the Matrix of beings-the Matrix of beings is that which is described as ignorance and is called the Unmanifest.35 Those who know thus. etc. the distinction. (those who know) the annihilation (moksanam) of that Matrix of beings. The idea is that they do not take up a body again.1 The Blessed Lord said -. first there is a false superimposition on the Self. In the beginning all disciples are in duality. पभनजर नम नहहीं पयातक ।।13. without beginning and end (BG 13. in the manner described above. From this we conclude that Adi Shankara pointed out traditional method of teaching found in shastras is adhyaropa apavada i. This is like separation of milk from water. It is like milk and water mixed and inseparable. और ववै सक हम अव्यक नयामक अशवदयारप भभत योंकक पकक शतकक मरोककरो .34।। English translation by Swami Commentary) – Simplified Gambhirananda (on Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit 13. cannot be described by words. beyond words. go to the Supreme. Self is separated as a witness and then then the superimposition on the Self is removed. thoughts and mind. After one separates oneself i. they reach.1।। 13.O son of Kunti. Here there is an attempt to negate the eariler attribute like Page 103 of 619 . Hansa is an important symbol in Advaita as it is said that it can separate milk from water.Understanding Advaita . the qualities superimposed on Self are also negated by saying that which not being and not non-being. 'I' or Atman from the sense objects. Next step is to separate the witness from the sense objects by instructing to be a witness of sense objects. to Brahman. Those who are versed in this call him who is conscious of it as the 'knower of the field'. this body is referred to as the 'field'.A Consistent Traditional Teaching पकयारसक जयान लकतक हह.e. through the eye of wisdom-the eye is the realization in the form of the knowledge of the Self. वक परमयाथिर तत्त्वस्वरप ब्रहकरो पयाप हरो जयातक हह. Those who are capable of doing this or practicing this art are called Hansa (Swan). So first the qualities of Self are given which are different from the qualities of Objects of perception. Idea is being Witness is given in 1st verse of chapter 13 शम भरवयानभवयाच इदश शरमरश करौनतकय ककत्रिशमतयशभधमयतक। एतदरो वकधत्त तश पयाहह न ककत्रिज इशत तशददन।।13.e.

witness. etc. eternal-pure-free. 1. they (seem to suffer from the) दरोशया doSa (defect) of रभणआधधनतया guNaAdhinatA i. it looks like paramAtmA is influenced by three guNa-s. After this negation of false superimposition. adhyAropa apavAda is also found in viShNu sahanranAma Sankara bhASya. This is the traditional teaching.kshetra-kshetragnya viveka.11 shruti vacan 'ककवलरो शनरभरणशच' 'kevalo nirguNaSca'. etc are superimposed on Self In third step. where there is no second. pratiShidhyate).that which is the best (परम) and is also AtmA (आतमया). that doSa (defect) is negated (पशतशषध्यतक. no one to experience and hence this state cannot be described in words. There is no witness to see Self or Brahman. most subtlest. the association of puruSa with three guNa-s is by Self will only. 6. nitya .e. Give knowledge that Self cannot be perceived and is beyond mind In first two steps.e. by saying pUtAtmA. puruSa is not bound by three guNa-s. Page 104 of 619 . bliss. some attributes like omnipresent.Understanding Advaita . drasTA-driShya viveka 3. my praNAma-s to all the wisemen. but it is the controller of guNa-s. meaning. Adi Sankara further explains that. so that only Self Shines. Give knowledge that Self is witness and that Self is indeweller of the body and hence can be a witness . atma-anatma vivek. One enters into the state of Nirvikalp Samadhi. to Shri Adi Shankara to Shri GaudpadAchArya and to Shri Swami Sacchidanandendra Saraswati. which means of pure nature (पशवत्रिस्वरप). is called by the name 'परमयातमया' paramAtmA. Up. My praNAma-s (prostrations) to all the teachers of Traditional teaching.anitya vivek 2. all the attributes are negated. My koti koti pranam to my Guru who put me on the path of spirituality and teaching this method. adhyAropa apavAda in viShNu sahasranAma bhASya Adi Sankara while explaining 10th name pUtAtmA says By भभतककतत bhUtakrut etc names. To sum up.How was this traditional Method discovered? being witness. Adi Sankara further quotes Sv. hence now. That [paramAtmA] is different from cause and effect (कयायर -कयारण) and is of the nature of 'शनतय-शभद-बभध्दमभक'. Adi Sankara further explains 11th word 'परमयातमया' as . Give knowledge that Self is different than body and sense objects i. drig-drashya vivek. Self Alone shines.

by saying ''he (the Self) is neither this nor that (Br. vidyA meaning the experience of Brahman (not as separate entity). He says. superimposition of non-self upon Self (Atman).org).iii. what is left is pure Knowledge i. in his Mandukya kArikA. Chapter 3. as is well known. Through this the Unborn is able to manifest' (G.6)''.adhyAropa apavAda (अध्ययाररोप अपवयाद). We can find adhyAsa BhASya here (html . lets understand how this method is traditional. Method of Vedanta. in the words. II. translated by A. " It is also found in Adi Shankara's Param Guru GauDapAdAchArya (Gaudapadacharya) . III. Unlike nidhidhyAsana where the enquirer literally enquires Page 105 of 619 . Swami Sacchidanandendra Saraswati. Meditation in the advaita way is called as nidhidhyAsana. Alston.A Consistent Traditional Teaching Before we try to find this teaching. 'The Transcendental is described with the help of superimposition and its refutation' . Method of Vedanta.K. Alston. here (pdf of html at scribd) and here (pdf at scribd.commentary by Swami Ghambhirananda) adhyAropa apavAda by post Sankara advaitins adhyAropa apavAda is found in pancadaSI of SrI vidyAraNya svAmI and in vedAnta sAra of sadAnanda yogigindra. it talks about avidya.. II. It is well known that Sri Gaudapada has the universal reputation in the Vedantic world of having been teacher of BhagavadpAda's teacher GovindpAda. In his Gita Bhasya he writes. and by showing that the Self is beyond all perception and conception. translated by A. 'The text denies all that it had previously taught.advaita-vedanta. an intro to SArIrika MimimAmsA (Brahma SUtra). there is saying of the people versed in tradition .K.Understanding Advaita .31) and 'By sages thoroughly conversant with Veda' (G. "Thus. How is this method Traditional? But this technique is not innovated by our acharya. Swami Sacchidanandendra Saraswati. GauDapadAchArya has cited Br. II. Up. adhyAropa apavAda in yoga texts yoga is a dualitc school which meditative approach than philosophical approach. Acharya ssays that avidyA is adhyAsa.e. If we have a look at adhyAsa BhASyam.26)' Source: Page 4. it's reason and removal of avidya. There is no mention in his intro that the purpose is to establish Vishnu as Brahman or give supreme satus to Vishnu or any form of God. Gaudapada himself has referred with marks of respect to earlier knowers of the tradition.K. Up. J. 'By experts in Upanishads' (G.35) Source: Page 39-40. J.

Can be skipped Siva samhitA is one of the three principle texts on haTha yoga.67 That one Spirit. Further. The final destination according to a yogI is also nirvikalp samAdhi. SankarAnandA and other AcArya-s we can conclude that this work is much older than 1500 CE and is considered as authentic as it is quoted by various AcArya-s. through differentiation. upanishads should also contain this teaching. Yoga Yajnavalkya is older than of most available literature on yoga. as said by guru gorakshanath in siddha siddhAnta paddhati and Jnandeva in his Amritanubhava or the world is unreal as said by Patanjali in his Yoga Sutra 2. a father. meditation on chakra-s and so on. clean and purify nADI-s and raise the kunDalini from mulAdhAra to sahasrAra chakra so as to get enlightened.adhyAropa apavAda in yoga texts into the true nature of his Self and tries to find the source of first person i. prANAyam-s. verily becomes a son. the world is real. The sacred scriptures have demonstrated the universe to be the freak of mAyA. the path is to strengthen physical and other bodies. the guru of the great vidyAraNya svAmI (13-14th century). hence the work out to be olden than him. However. Most scholars believe Siva samhitA as composed in 16-17th century. but James Mallinson in his critical commentary and translation of Siva samhitA argues that this text is widely quoted by medieval saints like SankarAnanda. According to him. 'I' by separating 'I' from all that is 'not-I' by the power of discrimination. nArAyaNa tirth (14-15th century). he said that Siva samhitA borrowed verses from older works like amritasiddhi which is said to be composed in 12th century. Considering the stature of vidyAraNyta svAmI. which is essence of Upanishads.Understanding Advaita . It also accepts meditation on both saguNa and nirguNa brahman as mentioned in yoga yajnavalkya. Various ways to do so are mentioned using various Asana-s. Hence Mallinson puts Siva samhitA as composed in 1500 CE. Page 106 of 619 .e. While these qualities are also important for a yogI and are also mentioned in some yoga texts. a student of nAtha yoga. ballAla (commentator on Siva saharanAma). etc. I would say that since vidyAraNya svAmI lived from 1331–1386. The yogI destroys this phenomenal universe by realising that it is but the result of adhyAropa and by means of apavAda. adhyAropa apavAda in Siva samhitA Dating and authenticity of Siva samhitA .22. The author of Siva samhitA is unknown. kriyAs-. yoga accepts both theories. a text highly revered by A great yogi of 20th century T Krishnamacharya of Sri Vaishnav Sampraday. and bhAvadeva mIshrA. adhyAropa apavAda in all 10 (ten) Upanishads Since we find this teaching in Bhagavad Gita. dispassion and other qualities. In chapter 1. verse 67 of Siva samhitA the author describes adhyAropa apavAda 1. the other two being geraNDa samhitA (composed in 17th Century) and haTha yoga pradipikA of svAtmArAma.

(sub-commentaries. It should also be noted that our vArttikakAra (SureshvarAchArya) has written his vArttikA. It is mortal. both belonging to Yajurveda. It is immortal. it is unlimited. Now therefore the description (of Brahman): ‘Not this. unlimited and undefined is this being that is in the right eye. and it is defined. while Isa is in the Samhita part. Up. II-iii-4: Now with reference to the body: the gross form is but this – what is other than (the corporeal) air and the ether that is in the body. adhyAropa apavAda in BrihadAraNya Upanishad Page 107 of 619 . mortal and immortal. adhyAropa apavAda in BrihadAraNya Upanishad AdhyAropa -Superimosition of different forms gross. lets study this upanishad first. for this is the essence of the undefined. etc on Brahman II-iii-1: Brahman has but two forms – gross and subtle. Because there is no other and more appropriate description than this ‘Not this’. it is unlimited. and It is the Truth of that. for that is the essence of the undefined. either. He who knows it as such attains splendour like a flash of lightning. The vital force is truth. immortal.Retraction of everything said before II-iii-6: The form of that ‘being’ is as follows: like a cloth dyed with turmeric. II-iii-5: Now the subtle – it is (the corporeal) air and the ether that is in the body. or like the (scarlet) insect called Indragopa. ApavAda . This is with reference to the gods. immortal. for it is the essence of the defined. subtle. mortal. or like a flash of lightning. or like a white lotus. or like grey sheep’s wool.Understanding Advaita . limited and unlimited. it is limited.A Consistent Traditional Teaching GauDapadAchArya had given example of BrihadAraNya Upanishad in his kArikA. not this’. So both are very important to Advaitins. it is limited and it is defined.adhyAropa apavAda (अध्ययाररोप अपवयाद). It is mortal. The essence of that which is gross. Now Its name: ‘The Truth of truth’. II-iii-3: Now the subtle – it is air and the ether. to study is that it is in the AraNyaka part of Shukla Yajurveda. The essence of that which is gross. unlimited and undefined is the being that is in the sun. The essence of that which is subtle. air. The essence of that which is subtle. Another reason to select Br. for it is the essence of the defined. II-iii-2: The gross (form) is that which is other than air and the ether. It is immortal. or like a tongue of fire. explanatory notes on Shankara BhASya) of BrihadAraNya and Taittiriya Upanishads. limited and defined is the sun that shines. and it is undefined. and it is undefined. mortal. limited and defined is the eye. defined and undefined.

The essence of that which is gross. and It is the Truth of that. Unmoving. unlimited and undefined is this being that is in the right eye. it is limited.Retraction of everything said before II-iii-6: The form of that ‘being’ is as follows: like a cloth dyed with turmeric. II-iii-5: Now the subtle – it is (the corporeal) air and the ether that is in the body. for it is the essence of the defined. ApavAda . The essence of that which is subtle. Om. and it is undefined. etc on Brahman II-iii-1: Brahman has but two forms – gross and subtle. it is unlimited. subtle. Page 108 of 619 . or like a white lotus. defined and undefined. it is limited and it is defined. Now therefore the description (of Brahman): ‘Not this. II-iii-2: The gross (form) is that which is other than air and the ether. It is immortal. It is one. and it is defined. limited and defined is the sun that shines. and it is undefined. or like a tongue of fire. faster than the mind. for that is the essence of the undefined. immortal. The essence of that which is subtle. not this’. limited and defined is the eye. or like a flash of lightning. Because there is no other and more appropriate description than this ‘Not this’.Understanding Advaita .adhyAropa apavAda in BrihadAraNya Upanishad AdhyAropa -Superimosition of different forms gross. for It proceeds ahead. It is mortal. limited and unlimited. immortal. whatsoever moves on the earth. The senses cannot reach It. for it is the essence of the defined. Now Its name: ‘The Truth of truth’. The essence of that which is gross. mortal. or like grey sheep’s wool. 4. It is immortal. either. air. The vital force is truth. II-iii-3: Now the subtle – it is air and the ether. unlimited and undefined is the being that is in the sun. This is with reference to the gods. for this is the essence of the undefined. adhyAropa apavAda in Isa Upanishad AdhyAropa -Superimosition of lordship on Brahman 1. All this should be covered by the Lord. II-iii-4: Now with reference to the body: the gross form is but this – what is other than (the corporeal) air and the ether that is in the body. it is unlimited. mortal and immortal. It is mortal. mortal. He who knows it as such attains splendour like a flash of lightning. or like the (scarlet) insect called Indragopa.

That which man does not hear with the ear. Distinct indeed is That from the known and distinct from the unknown. Thus have we heard from the ancients who expounded It to us. I-7. that by which. freeing themselves (from the identity with the senses) and renouncing the world. The eye does not reach there. the wise.Understanding Advaita . On account of Its presence. Because He is the ear of the ear.Retraction of everything said before I-3. become immortal. adhyAropa apavAda in Kena Upanishad AdhyAropa -Superimosition of attirbutes like senses and five elements on Brahman I-1. That which man does not see with the eye. and not this (non-Brahman) which is being worshipped. they say. know That alone to be Brahman. know That alone to be Brahman. that by which the organ of smell is attracted towards its objects. That which is not uttered by speech. It moves. and not this (non-Brahman) which is being worshipped. Matarsiva (the wind) conducts the activities of beings.adhyAropa apavAda (अध्ययाररोप अपवयाद). nor speech. It is within all. It is near. It overtakes others that run. That which one does not think with the mind. That which man does not smell with the organ of smell. and not this (non-Brahman) which Page 109 of 619 . the vital air of the vital air. Wished by whom is the mind directed to fall (on its objects)? Directed by whom does the foremost vital air move? By whom is wished this speech which the people utter? Who is the radiant being that unites the eye and the ear (with their objects)? I-2. that by which man hears the ear’s hearing. ApavAda . know That alone to be Brahman.A Consistent Traditional Teaching Remaining static. It is far. ApavAda . I-5. nor do we know (Its mature). and not this (non-Brahman) which is being worshipped. AdhyAropa -Superimosition of attirbutes like senses and five elements on Brahman I-4. and not this (non-Brahman) which is being worshipped. the mind is thought. that by which the word is expressed. know That alone to be Brahman. nor mind. that by which man sees the activities of the eye. the speech of speech.Retraction of everything said before 5. and the eye of the eye. I-8. It is without all. I-6. It moves not. know That alone to be Brahman. the mind of the mind. Therefore we don’t know how to impart instruction (about It).

It is unknown to those who know. O Death. ApavAda . The intelligent one examines both and separates them. 1-II-9. for It is not arguable and is subtler than subtlety. and known to those who know not. ApavAda . O Nachiketas. These two. chooses the preferable. the intelligent one prefers the preferable to the pleasurable.An Intermediate Step in Spiritual Progress Page 110 of 619 . Yea. about which man entertain doubt. only if taught by some teacher (other than a logician). adhyAropa apavAda in Katha Upanishad AdhyAropa .adhyAropa apavAda in Kena Upanishad is being worshipped. if taught by an inferior person. tell us of that. Good accrues to him who.Understanding Advaita . The preferable and the pleasurable approach man. he to whom It is known does not know It. He who chooses the pleasurable falls from the goal. is not easily comprehended. Separation of Self from non-Self by being a witness . May a questioner be ever like thee. 1-II-1. This (Self). for It is variously thought of. blind man. Different is (that which is) preferable. 1-II-2. (whereas) the ignorant one selects the pleasurable for the sake of yoga (attainment of that which is not already possessed) and kshema (the preservation of that which is already in possession). is the pleasurable. and different.Retraction of knowing by logical reasoning 1-II-8. leads to right knowledge. serving different purposes. indeed. This (knowledge of the Self) attained by thee cannot be had through logical reasoning. O dearest. O. It is known to him to whom It is unknown.Logical Reasoning 1-I-29. thou art rooted in truth. of these two. this doctrine.Retraction of everything said before II-3. Unless taught by another (who is a perceiver of non-difference) there is no way (of comprehending It). Nachiketas does not pray for any other boon than this which enters into the secret that is hidden. of the great Beyond.

One who is free from desire sees the glory of the Self through the tranquillity of the mind and senses and becomes absolved from grief. rejoices having obtained that which causes joy. distinct from effect and cause. dwells in the body. AdhyAropa .Understanding Advaita . this support is the supreme. That is the end. while lying It goes everywhere.Brahman or Self as Antaryamin 1-II-20. It goes far. is wide open unto Nachiketas.A Consistent Traditional Teaching 1-II-13.adhyAropa apavAda (अध्ययाररोप अपवयाद). and a controlled-mind as the reins. The unmanifested (avyakta) is subtler than Mahat (Hiranyagarbha) and subtler than the unmanifested is Purusha. Having heard this and grasped it well. the mortal. 1-III-9. 1-II-17. one does not (henceforward) want to protect oneself.) and attaining this subtle Self. The Purusha. To him the Self reveals Its own nature. of the size of a thumb. 2-I-12. This verily is that (thou seekest). The intelligent one having known the Self to be bodiless in (all) bodies. Knowing this support one is magnified in the world of Brahman. But intellect is subtler than mind and subtler than intellect is Mahat (the Hiranyagarbha). He certainly exists now and shall certainly exist tomorrow. and to be great and all-pervading. The sensory objects are subtler than the senses. reaches the end of the path – that supreme state of Vishnu. But the man who has a discriminating intellect as his driver. There is nothing subtler than Purusha. and subtler than the sensory objects is mind. does not grieve. 1-III-11. 1-II-14. The abode (of Brahman).. While sitting. (Realizing Him as) the Lord of the past and the future. 1-III-10. Who other than me can know that Deity who is joyful and joyless. that is the supreme goal. Only by him who seeks to know the Self can It be attained. not by intelligence nor by much hearing. 1-II-23. 1-II-21. I think. The Self that is subtler than the subtle and greater than the great is seated in the heart of every creature. separating the virtuous being (from the body etc. Tell me of that which thou seest as distinct from virtue. This verily is that (thou seekest). ApavAda . 1-II-22. to be firmly seated in things that are perishable. This support is the best. distinct from the past and the future. 2-I-13. The Self cannot be attained by the study of the Vedas.Duality of Purusha entering into bodies as antaryamin is refuted or retracted Page 111 of 619 . The Purusha of the size of a thumb is like a smokeless flame and is the Lord of the past and the future. distinct from vice.

This verily is that (thou seekest). passes from death to death. Retraction of Purusha being subtliest by defining the size of Purusha 2-I-12. He created a couple – food and Prana – under the idea. that is the supreme goal. there is no difference here whatsoever. dwells in the body. He deliberated on (past Vedic) knowledge. as Self is immutable (Unchanging / Indivisible) IV-9: And this one is the seer. He certainly exists now and shall certainly exist tomorrow. feeler. thinker. 2-I-13. What indeed is here is there. (Realizing Him as) the Lord of the past and the future. immutable Self.Understanding Advaita . ascertainer. hearer. Whoso here sees as though different.Creation and sense of duality. one does not (henceforward) want to protect oneself. Whoso here sees as though different. smeller. There is nothing subtler than Purusha. adhyAropa apavAda in PraSNa Upanishad (Prashna Upanishad) AdhyAropa . passes from death to death. division of Self / Ishvara I-4: To him he said: The Lord of all creatures became desirous of progeny. what is there is here again.Refuting Duality.adhyAropa apavAda in Katha Upanishad by explaining the final state as non-dual 2-I-10. The unmanifested (avyakta) is subtler than Mahat (Hiranyagarbha) and subtler than the unmanifested is Purusha. That is the end. doer – the Purusha (pervading the body and senses).” ApavAda . This verily is that (thou seekest). of the size of a thumb. 2-I-11. Page 112 of 619 . taster. By mind alone is this attainable. The Purusha. that is a knower by nature. Having brooded on that knowledge. “These two will produce creatures for me in multifarious ways. Purusha as Subtlest 1-III-11. This becomes wholly established in the supreme. The Purusha of the size of a thumb is like a smokeless flame and is the Lord of the past and the future.

who realises. ApavAda .adhyAropa apavAda (अध्ययाररोप अपवयाद). They call that Brahman Truth. as it is beyond mind (and senses) II-ix-1: The enlightened man is not afraid of anything after realising that Bliss of Brahman.Description of Duality and entering into something Page 113 of 619 . ApavAda . Truth became all this that there is. are one. attains this self made of vital force. AdhyAropa . as conditioned by the mind). entered into that very thing. after desisting from this world. the defined and the undefined. He undertook a deliberation. therefore it is called the life of all. pure. And having entered there. the true and the untrue. he created all this that exists. attains this self made of bliss. words turn back along with the mind. all human beings and animals that are there act similarly. “Let me be many.Knowing Brahman II-vi-1:He (the Self) wished. Pertaining to this. the sentient and the insentient. Having deliberated.A Consistent Traditional Teaching IV-10: He who realises that shadowless. colourless. along with the mind. attains this self made of intelligence. He who knows thus attains. again. he. Illustrative of this there occurs this verse: adhyAropa apavAda in Taittiriya Upanishad AdhyAropa II-iii-1: The senses act by following the vital force in the mouth.Brahman cannot be known. That (Brahman). It became the formed and the formless. let me be born. Immutable attains the supreme Immutable Itself. bodiless. words. Note: One cannot know Brahman as it is indescribable adhyAropa apavAda in Aitareya Upanishad AdhyAropa . attains this self made of mind. the sustaining and the non-sustaining.Understanding Advaita . having created (that). attain the full span of life. O amiable one. turn back. becomes omniscient and all. failing to reach which. since on the vital force depends the life of all. there occurs this verse: II-viii-5: He that is here in the human person. since on the vital force depends the life of all creatures.Brahman is beyond words (speech) and mind II-iv-1: One is not subjected to fear at any time if one knows the Bliss that is Brahman failing to reach which (Brahman. and He that is there in the sun. it is called the life of all. those who worship the vital force as Brahman. this self made of food.

ApavAda . feeling by the sense of touch. seeing by the eye. Note: Verse I. shoot (at It). as self or Brahman does not see anything else. thereby retracting from everything said earlier.iii. “If utterance is done by the organ of speech.Everything else is Brahman. This one is an abode.11 says something about entering into something. smelling by the sense of smell. therefore He is without vital force and without mind. this one is an abode. He manifested all the beings. for did He speak of (or know) anything else ? He realised this very Purusha as Brahman. since He is formless. This entrance is known as vidriti (the chief entrance).iii. is this immutable Brahman. ApavAda . adhyAropa apavAda in Mundaka Upanishad AdhyAropa II-ii-2: That which is bright and is subtler than the subtle. This one is an abode. “How indeed can it be there without Me ?” He thought. hearing. It is immortal. the act of drawing in (or pressing down) by Apana. again.adhyAropa apavAda in Aitareya Upanishad I-iii-11: He thought. a non-dual experience. And since He is coextensive with all that is external and internal and since He is birthless.12 describes of three states of consciousness Verse I.13 describes non-duality. Page 114 of 619 . which means there is duality Verse I. then who (or what) am I ?” I-iii-12: Having split up this very end. which means it realized itself as non-dual Self in which everything that looked dual was actually the Self. is speech and mind. Of Him there are three abodes – three (states of) dream. that is such. He is pure and superior to the (other) superior imperishable (Maya). This Entity.iii. He entered through this door. It.Understanding Advaita . is true.Final State II-i-2: The Purusha is transcendental. thus: “I have realised this”. etc. Hence it is delightful. “Through which of the two ways should I enter ?” He thought. O good-looking one. ejecting by the procreative organ. thinking by the mind. It is to be penetrated. and that on which are fixed all the worlds as well as the dwellers of the worlds. Hence the shruti is retracting from everything that it said earlier. It is this vital force. hearing by the ear. I-iii-13: Being born. the most pervasive.

ApavAda Page 115 of 619 . Brahman is at the back. From that is born food (the Unmanifested). ApavAda . eyes. the earth and the inter-space.A Consistent Traditional Teaching AdhyAropa . This world is nothing but Brahman.Understanding Advaita . multiformed. then follows the process of renunciation and being a witness to reach the state one is seeking. and attains absolute equality. too. nor do these flashes of lightning shine there. and the source of the inferior Brahman – then the illumined one completely shakes off both merit and demerit. This is the bridge leading to immortality. and give up all other talks. [Some work needs to done to make it more clear] AdhyAropa III-i-3: When the seer sees the Purusha – the golden-hued. on which are strung heaven. From food evolves Prana (Hiranyagarbha). becomes taintless. How can this fire do so ? Everything shines according as He does so. (thence) the five elements. which is without source. and undiminishing and which is the source of all. ApavAda . AdhYaropa – duality I-i-8: Through knowledge Brahman increases in size. all-pervasive. (thence) the worlds. (thence) the immortality that is in karmas. It is extended above and below. the highest. II-ii-10: There the sun does not shine. as also on the right and the left. extremely subtle. Note: Here the destination is given earlier. nor the moon or the stars.adhyAropa apavAda (अध्ययाररोप अपवयाद). the immortal. the mind and the vital forces together with all the other organs. which is eternal. which has neither hands nor feet. creator. and ears.Brahman is beyond Mind and senses I-i-6: (By the higher knowledge) the wise realize everywhere that which cannot be perceived and grasped. features.renunciation of non-Self II-ii-5: Know that Self alone that is one without a second.Intermediate state . by His light all this shines diversely. lord. (thence the cosmic) mind.non-duality II-ii-11: All this that is in front is but Brahman.

this Self of his reveals Its own nature. is the second quarter. and It is near at hand in this body. and seven limbs and nineteen mouths. nor through the other senses. who is dense with consciousness.Self is divided and is seated in heart III-i-7: It is great and self-effulgent. (The Self) seated in the state of dream and called Taijasa who. It shines diversely.non-duality . possessed of the consciousness of the exterior. Among sentient beings It is (perceived as) seated in this very body. Where the sleeper desires not a thing of enjoyment and sees not any dream. adhyAropa apavAda in Mandukya Upanishad AdhyAropa . therefore can one see that indivisible Self through meditation.sense of duality . It is farther away than the far-off. nor through the other senses. Since one becomes purified in mind through the favourableness of the intellect.Self is indivisible and inperceivable III-i-8: It is not comprehended through the eye. nor through the intellect. in the cavity of the heart. nor through much hearing. AdhyAropa . 4. the aspirant) seeks is attainable through that fact of seeking. The very Self which this one (i. therefore can one see that indivisible Self through meditation. is the first quarter. (The Self) seated in the waking state and called Vaisvanara who. and seven limbs and nineteen mouths. III-ii-3: This Self is not attained through study. (The Self) seated in the state of deep sleep and called Prajna. nor is It attained through austerity or karma. ApavAda . nor through speech. enjoys the gross objects. nor through speech. possessed of the consciousness of the interior.adhyAropa apavAda in Mundaka Upanishad III-i-8: It is not comprehended through the eye. who is full of bliss. enjoys the subtle objects. and Its form is unthinkable. in whom everything is unified.Self as different states of consciousness and as Ishvara 3. that state is deep sleep. nor is It attained through austerity or karma. It is subtler than the subtle.e. 5. Since one becomes purified in mind through the favourableness of the intellect. who Page 116 of 619 .Understanding Advaita .

the cessation of the phenomenal world. Page 117 of 619 .OM beyond three states 12. He who knows thus verily accomplishes all longings and becomes the first. ApavAda . and the letters are the quarters. is the third quarter. nor unconsciousness. 2. this is the in-dwelling controller (of all). Taijasa seated in the dream is u. 6. and viewed from the stand point of the letters.cessation of controller and hence indewller different than Self thereby retracting everything earlier said 7. as such. and who is the door to the knowledge (of the preceding two states). nor dense with consciousness. the auspicious and the non-dual. whose proof consists in the identity of the Self (in all states). Vaisvanara seated in the waking state is the first letter a. nor conscious of both the worlds. The letters are a. the quarters are the letters. nor conscious of the external world. He who knows thus verily advances the bounds of his knowledge and becomes equal (to all) and none who is not a knower of Brahman is born in his family. the third letter (of Om). This Self. He who knows thus measures all this and absorbs all. this is omniscient. That same Self. from the point of view of the syllable. The Fourth is thought of as that which is not conscious of the internal world. because of his being the measure or the entity wherein all become absorbed. This Self (Atman) is Brahman. owing to its all-pervasiveness or being the first.A Consistent Traditional Teaching is certainly the enjoyer of bliss. unthinkable. that is to be known. Prajna seated in the state of deep sleep is m.Understanding Advaita . AdhYaropa . is possessed of four quarters. 11. Thus Om is certainly the Self. the second letter (of Om).Self beyond states of Consciousness . u and m. is Om. He who knows thus enters the Self by the Self. This is the Lord of all. ApavAda . and which is unchanging. auspicious. 10. actionless. indescribable.OM as three States 8. That which is without letters (parts) is the Fourth.adhyAropa apavAda (अध्ययाररोप अपवयाद). and non-dual. All this is certainly Brahman. incomprehensible. this is the source and indeed the origin and dissolution of all beings. which is unseen. owing to the similarity of excellence or intermediate position. uninferable. beyond apprehension through ordinary means. nor simple consciousness. in which all phenomena come to a cessation. 9. That is the Self.

III-vii-4: As long as the sun rises in the east and sets in the west. III-x-2: They enter into this very form and out of this form they emerge. There is this verse about it: Page 118 of 619 . even twice so long does he (the Sun) rise in overhead and set below and even so long does he retain the sovereignty and the heavenly kingdom of the Sadhyas.retracting from everything that is said earlier III-xi-1: Then. III-ix-2: They enter into this very form and out of this form they emerge. even twice so long does he (the Sun) rise in the south and set in the north and even so long does he retain the sovereignty and the heavenly kingdom of the Rudras. rising from there upward. ApavAda .Understanding Advaita . even twice so long does he (the Sun) rise in the west and set in the east and even so long does he retain the sovereignty and the heavenly kingdom of the Adityas. He will remain alone in the middle. III-x-4: As long as the sun rises in the north and sets in the south. III-viii-4: As long as the sun rises in the south and sets in the north.adhyAropa apavAda in Mandukya Upanishad adhyAropa apavAda in Chandogya Upanishad Adhyaropa III-vi-4: As long as the sun rises in the east and sets in the west. he will neither rise nor set. III-viii-2: They enter into this very form and out of this form they emerge. III-vii-2: They enter into this very form and out of this form they emerge. even twice so long does he (the Sun) rise in the north and set in the south and even so long does he retain the sovereignty and the heavenly kingdom of the Maruts. so long does he retain the sovereignty and the heavenly kingdom of (or similar to that of) the Vasus. III-ix-4: As long as the sun rises in the west and sets in the east.

Duality: Jiva and Ishvara and Brahman are different Page 119 of 619 . III-xi-3: Verily.e. but when it knows Him. Incomplete adhyAropa apavAda in Svetasvatara Upanishad AdhyAropa . energy.Duality: Jiva and Ishvara and Brahman are different I-6: In this infinite wheel of Brahman.Brahman is causeless i. With the waning of ignorance. law. All his desires are satisfied. being under the sway of happiness and misery. space law. identity and the existence of the self. the universal lordship. it attains immortality. the manifest and the unmanifest. for him. can bear examination because of their own birth. it gets attached to worldly pleasures. ApavAda: Refutation of Duality. Going beyond the consciousness of the body by meditating on Him. matter. nor combination of these.e. all fetters fall away from it. in which everything lives and rests. chance. by this. and he becomes one without a second.A Consistent Traditional Teaching III-xi-2: ‘Never does this happen there. AdhyAropa .adhyAropa apavAda (अध्ययाररोप अपवयाद). As long as the self does not know the Lord. hitherto regarded as separate. birth and death cease. Never did the sun set there nor did it rise. viz. AdhyAropa . who know the Brahman. nature.Understanding Advaita . to be itself the Moving Force. subjected to the law of happiness and misery ? ApavAda . The self also is not a free agent.finding the cause of Brahman I-1: Students of Brahman (i. He who thus knows this secret of the Vedas. nature. all fetters fall off. etc I-2: Time. Knowing the individual soul. Beginning-less and beyond time. intelligence – neither these. which consists of a combination of the perishable and the imperishable. unity of Jiva nad Ishvara and Brahman I-11: With the knowledge of God. for him the sun neither rises nor sets. one reaches the third state. the Vedas) discuss (among themselves): What is the cause ? (Is it) Brahman ? Whence are we born ? Why do we live ? Where is our final rest ? Under whose orders are we. and is bound.. and blessed by Him. I-8: The Lord supports this universe. O gods. the pilgrim soul is whirled about. my assertion of the truth. may I not fall from Brahman’. there is perpetual day.

there is cessation of all illusion in the end. She. ApavAda: Refutation of Duality. smoke. who is engaged in bringing about the relation of the enjoyer and the enjoyed (or between these two).Duality .adhyAropa apavAda in Svetasvatara Upanishad I-4: We think of Him as the universe resembling a wheel which has one felly with a triple tyre. fifty spokes. I-12: This is to be known as eternally existing in one’s own self. and which each revolution gives rise to two. . Indeed. too.modifications of Prakruti II-11: Forms that appear like snow. there is nothing to be known beyond this. birth and death cease. all fetters fall off. is unborn. It is mentioned in earlier verses I-11: With the knowledge of God. rules over the perishable matter and individual souls. twenty counter-spokes and six sets of eight.. by uniting with Him. are both unborn.refutation of duality . the self becomes infinite. crystal and moon. knowing the Divinity as unborn. lightning. and by becoming one with Him. precede the manifestation of Brahman in Yoga practice. eternal and free from all the modifications of Prakriti.Understanding Advaita . As a result of meditation the enjoyer. then. With the waning of ignorance. the master and the dependent. the only God. he is freed from all sins. By meditating on him. universal and free from the sense of agentship. fire.no modificatios of Prakruti in Atma Sthiti II-15: When the Yogin realizes the truth of Brahman. sun. wind. but God is imperishable and immortal. through the perception of the truth of Atman in this body as a self-luminous entity. Note: The reason for duality and multiple appearance is due to ignorance. He. Page 120 of 619 . the enjoyed and the power which brings about the enjoyment – all are declared to be the three aspects of Brahman. sixteen extremities.. I-9: The conscious subject and the unconscious object. unity of Jiva nad Ishvara and Brahman I-10: Matter is perishable. ApavAda . AdhyAropa . which is driven along three different roads by means of a belt that is single yet manifold. When all these three are realized as Brahman. fire-fly.

III-8: I have realized this Great Being who shines effulgent like the sun beyond all darkness. though remaining single. the repository of all goodness and greatness. Lord Entering into beings. who is present in the shoreless waters. neither the moon. envelops the whole universe. There these lightnings shine not – how then this fire ? Because He shines. That is the waters. and who. V-4: Just as the sun shines lighting up all space above. That is the sun. adhyAropa apavAda in Maha Narayana Upanishad Adhyaropa . That is the moon.Understanding Advaita . One passes beyond death only on realizing Him. everything shines after Him. acts in the foetus (which grows into the living being that is born). even so does that one adorable God.A Consistent Traditional Teaching AdhyAropa IV-2: That Itself is the fire. below and across. I-6: Sages declare: That alone is right and That alone is true: That alone is the venerable Brahman contemplated by the wise. one becomes immortal. who is concealed in all beings according to their bodies. having entered the shining intelligences of creatures in seed form.Creation. preside over everything that has the nature of a cause. Knowing him to be the Lord. on the earth and above the heaven and who is greater than the great. By His light all this shines. That is also the starry firmament. Note: In earlier verses it is said that NirguNa Brahman is superior than saguNa Brahman III-7: Higher than this Personal Brahman is the infinite Supreme Brahman. nor the stars. ApavAda VI-14: The sun does not shine there. That is the air. There is no other way of escape from the circle of births and deaths. That alone being the navel of the universe. sustains manifoldly the universe which arose in the past Page 121 of 619 .adhyAropa apavAda (अध्ययाररोप अपवयाद). I-1: The Lord of creation. That is Prajapati. Acts of worship and social utility also are that Reality. That is the Brahman.

That alone is shining Stars and Ambrosia. I-8-9: All nimesas. Note: MimAmsins do not believe in Ishvara. kasthas. By sacrifice those who are hostile become friendly. they believe that Veda is supreme and our Vedic Rites give us Fruits and not Ishvara. All this comes under karma-kand. none whosoever beholds Him with the eye.Understanding Advaita . which is nirAkAra. AdhyAropa and ApavADa in brief If we see trend of Mahanarayana Upanishad. the firmament and the heaven. Verily gods have attained to heaven by their previous deeds of sacrifice. They have driven away demons by sacrifice. half-months. This technique is called adhyAropa ApavAda. Narayana is praised as supreme deity. then it praises many deities with variants in Gayatri Mantra. That is Sun. That verily is Moon. Therefore they say sacrifice is the supreme means of liberation. That is Water and He is the Lord of creatures. months. Page 122 of 619 . I-7: That alone is Fire: That is Air. were born from the self-luminous Person. In next verses meditation on OM is prescribed. then Rudra (Shiva) is praised as supreme deity. Later in the end. and seasons. Sacrifice is indeed dear to gods. Those who meditate on Him with their minds undistracted and fixed in the heart know Him. with Brahma as innermost Self. sanyAsa is considered as best means to realize Brahman. it begins with Creation. That is Food. they become immortal. kalas. AdhyAropa LXXIX-11: Others devoted to the Vedic religion say that sacrifice is the means of liberation. Why is shruti retracting everything that it said before? What about all stuti-s and praise of Supreme Godhead (SAguNa Brahman)? Names and forms are retracted and meditation on NirguNa Brahman is advised. He milked water and also these two. days. The year also was born from Him.adhyAropa apavAda in Maha Narayana Upanishad and which springs to existence at present. Apavada I-11: His form is not to be beheld. muhurtas. Everything is supported by sacrifice. Here karma Kand is refuted.

Understanding Advaita - adhyAropa apavAda (अध्ययाररोप अपवयाद)- A Consistent Traditional Teaching
LXXIX-12: Inward worship or mental concentration is indeed the means of attaining to the state of
Prajapati and so that is holy. Those who possess a mind endowed with the power of inward
concentration see and realise what is good. Through mental concentration, seers like Vishvamitra
created subjects by mere wish. All depends upon this power of the mind. Therefore they say that
the power of inward concentration is the supreme means of liberation. --> Ramana Maharshi's
Upadesha Sara, kaya vanga mana ...
ApavAda
LXXIX-13: Wise seers declare that Sannyasa mentioned as the supreme means of liberation
is Brahman, and that Brahman is the Universal Spirit, is supremely blissful, is self-born, is the
protector of created beings, is the soul of time, and so forth.
LXXIX-18: (The Sannyasin having meditated upon the Supreme) should concentrate his thoughts
on Him uttering the syllable Om. This, the syllable Om, verily is the substance of many great
Upanishads and a secret guarded by the gods without imparting to the unfit. He who practises
meditation on the Supreme thus with the aid of Pranava after Sannyasa attains to the unlimited
greatness of the Supreme. By that he attains to the greatness of Brahman. Thus the secret
knowledge has been imparted.
We also have verses like
XII-17: He is the Supreme Lord who transcends the syllable Om which is uttered at the
commencement of the recital of the Vedas, which is well established in the Upanishads and which
is dissolved in the primal cause during contemplation.
XXXIII-1: The one syllable ‘Om’ is Brahman. Agni is its Deity. Its Rishi also is Brahman. Its metre
is Gayatri. Its use is for the union with Paramatman who exists as the manifold universe.

adhyAropa apavAda in Amrit Bindu Upanishad
Adhyaropa
1. The mind is chiefly spoken of as of two kinds, pure and impure. The impure mind is that which
is possessed of desire, and the pure is that which is devoid of desire.
2. It is indeed the mind that is the cause of men’s bondage and liberation. The mind that is
attached to sense-objects leads to bondage, while dissociated from sense-objects it
tends
to
lead
to
liberation.
So
they
think.
3. Since liberation is predicated of the mind devoid of desire for sense-objects,

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therefore, the mind should always be made free of such desire, by the seeker after
liberation.
4. When the mind, with its attachment for sense-objects annihilated, is fully controlled within the
heart and thus realises its own essence, then that Supreme State (is gained).
5. The mind should be controlled to that extent in which it gets merged in the heart. This is
Jnana (realisation) and this is Dhyana (meditation) also, all else is argumentation and verbiage.
ApavAda
6. (The Supreme State) is neither to be thought of (as being something external and
pleasing to the mind), nor unworthy to be thought of (as something unpleasant to the
mind); nor is It to be thought of (as being of the form of sense-pleasure), but to be
thought of (as the essence of the ever-manifest, eternal, supreme Bliss Itself); that
Brahman which is free from all partiality is attained in that state.
8. That alone is Brahman, without component parts, without doubt and without taint. Realising “I
am that Brahman” one becomes the immutable Brahman.
9. (Brahman is) without doubt, endless, beyond reason and analogy, beyond all proofs and
causeless knowing which the wise one becomes free.
10. The highest Truth is that (pure consciousness) which realises, “There is neither
control of the mind, nor its coming into play”, “Neither am I bound, nor am I a
worshipper, neither am I a seeker after liberation, nor one-who has attained
liberation”.

AdhyAropa and apavAda in verse 7
7. One should duly practise concentration on Om (first) through the means of its letters, then
meditate on Om without regard to its letters. Finally on the realisation with this latter form of
meditation on Om, the idea of the non-entity is attained as entity.

adhyAropa
One should duly practise concentration on Om (first) through the means of its letters

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apavAda
then meditate on Om without regard to its letters.

adhyAropa apavAda in Brahma Upanishad
Note: Brahma Upanishad is mentioned in Chandogya Upanishad
AdhyAropa - Creation
1. Om ! Shaunaka, householder of fame, once asked Bhagavan Pippalada of Angira’s family: In
this body, the divine city of Brahman, installed, how do they create ? Whose glory does this
constitute ? Who is he who became all this glory ?
SutrAtmA
8. By It all this (universe) is transfixed, as a collection of gems is stringed together on a thread. The Yogi
who is the knower of all Yogas and the seer of truth should put on this thread.

Self is Witness, has no attributes
16. The One Lord (self-effulgent) in all beings remaining hidden, all-pervading and the Self
of all beings, controlling and watching over all works (good or bad), living in all creatures and the
Witness (i.e. neither the doer of any acts nor the enjoyer), the Supreme Intelligence, the
One without a second, having no attributes.

Activity of Jiva
20. As the spider weaves out the web and again withdraws it, so the Jiva comes out to and goes
back again to the wakeful and dreaming states respectively.
apavAda
26. From which without reaching It, the speech falls back with the mind, that is the
transcendental Bliss of this embodied being, knowing which the wise one is released (from all
bondage).

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adhyAropa apavAda in Kaushitaki Brahmana Upanishad
adhyAropa - Jiva as doer, enjoyer and sufferer of his deeds
I-2. He said : ‘Whoever depart from this world, all get to the moon. In the earlier half (of
the lunar month) it (the moon) flourishes on their vital breaths; in the later half, it causes them to
be reproduced. The moon verily is the door of the heavenly world. Who so answers it (aright), him
it sets free (to go further). (but) him who does not answer, having become rain, (it) rains down
here. Here he becomes a worm or an insect or a fish, or a bird, or a lion, or a boar, or a snake or
a tiger or a person or some other in this or that condition according to his deeds and knowledge.
Him who has come thus, one asks: ‘Who are you ?’ He should reply:
Witness (Agent)
‘O seasons, from the Resplendent (moon) the seed has been gathered as it was falling from the
fifteen-fold (the half lunar month) from the home of the fathers. As such, put me in a man as an
agent. With the man as an agent, in a mother infuse me.

I-4. ... He comes to the river Viraja. He crosses it with his mind alone. There he shakes off his
good and evil deeds. His dear relations succeed to the good deeds, those not dear to the evil
deeds. Then just as one driving a chariot looks at the wheel of the chariot, so he looks upon day
and night; so upon good deeds and evil deeds and upon of pairs of opposites.
apavAda - Knower of Brahman is devoid of good and evil deeds
I-4. ... Then just as one driving a chariot looks at the wheel of the chariot, so he looks upon day
and night; so upon good deeds and evil deeds and upon of pairs of opposites. Thus he, the
knower of Brahman, devoid of good deeds, devoid of evil deeds, goes on to Brahman.

adhyAropa apavAda in subAla Upanishad
(cited by rAmAnuja)
adhyAropa
1.1-3 The Unqualified Brahman: They say – ‘What existed ?’ He replied ‘Neither the existent nor

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the non-existent. From that Tamas was born; from Tamas was born Bhitadi (Prakriti – Matter),
from it space, from space air, from air fire, from fire water and from water earth.
This became the Egg; which existing for just a year became two-fold – earth below and sky
above. Between was Divine Man with a thousand heads, eyes, feet and arms (Virat-purusha).
4-6 He at first created the death of all creatures, having three eyes, heads and feet, armed with
an axe. Brahma was afraid – he entered Brahma himself, he created seven mental sons – they
created seven Virats, the pro-creators.
apavAda
1.4 At the end, becoming Vaisvanara (fire), he burned (destroyed) all creatures – earth was
absorbed in water, water in fire, fire in air, air in ether, ether in sense organs, they in subtle
elements, they in Prakriti, Prakriti in Mahat, Mahat in Avyakta, Avyakta in Akshara, Akshara in
Tamas, it in God. Then there is neither existent nor non-existent. This is the doctrine of dissolution
(as given in) Vedas.

adhyAropa apavAda in tejo-bindu Upanishad
(dikipA by nArAyaNa tIrtha)
adhyAropa
1.1 PARAM-DHYANA (the supreme meditation) should be upon Tejo-bindu (the seed or
source of spiritual light), which is the Atma of the universe, which is seated in the heart, which is
of the size of an atom, which pertains to Shiva, which is quiescent and which is gross and
subtle, as also above these qualities.
1.5. Therefore know it is the greatest of mysteries, without sleep and without support. It is very
subtle, of the form of Soma and is the supreme seat of Vishnu.
1.7. That seat is without Upadhi and is above the reach of speech and mind. It is Svabhava (Self
or nature) reachable only by Bhava (being).

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1.8. The indestructible seat is associateless, without bliss, beyond mind, difficult to perceive,
emancipated and changeless. It should be meditated upon as the liberated, the eternal, the
permanent and the indestructible.
Note: Here without bliss means, beyond the reach of experiencing bliss separately, as it is beyond
mind.
apavAda
1.10. It is void and non-void and beyond the void and is abiding in the heart. There is (in
It) neither meditation nor meditator, nor the meditated, nor the non-meditated.
1.11. It is not the universe. It is the highest space; it is neither supreme nor above the
supreme. It is inconceivable, unknowable, non-truth and not the highest.
adhyAropa
1.2. That alone should be the Dhyana of the Munis as well as of men, which is full of pains,
which is difficult to meditate on, which is difficult to perceive, which is the emancipated one, which
is decayless and which is difficult to attain.
apavAda
1.12. It is realised by the Munis, but the Devas do not know the supreme One. Avarice, delusion,
fear, pride, passion, anger, sin;
1.13. Heat, cold, hunger, thirst, thought and fancy – (all these do not exist in It). (In It) there
is no pride of (belonging to) the Brahmana caste, nor is there the collection of the knot of
salvation.
1.14. (In It) there is no fear, no happiness, no pains, neither fame nor disgrace. That which is
without these states is the supreme Brahman.

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adhyAropa apavAda in bAhvrica (Bahvricha) Upanishad
(commented by appaya dikshita and bhAskararAya)
adhyAropa
1. Om. The Goddess was indeed one in the beginning. Alone she emitted the world-egg.
(She) is known as Love’s Part (IM). (She) is known as the half-syllabic instant after OM.
2. Of Her was Brahma born; was Vishnu born; was Rudra born. All wind-gods were born, ...
apavAda
5. She alone is Atman. Other than Her is untruth, non-self. Hence is She BrahmanConsciousness, free from (even) a tinge of being and non-being.

adhyAropa apavAda in maitrayAni Upanishad
(Maitrayaniya SAkhA of Sukla yajUrvEda - considered as authentic upanishad)
adhyAropa
PRAPATHAKA ONE:
He bowed and said, ‘Sir, I am ignorant of the self. You know it; please impart it’.
apavAda
PRAPATHAKA TWO:
...This indeed, is your self’... (meaning you already exist as Self)

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...He replied: ‘It cannot be described. This one, bound by external causes, going upward, suffering
and yet not (really) suffering, dispels ignorance like the sun dispelling darkness. The tranquil one
rising from this body and approaching the supreme, manifests itself in its own essence, immortal,
fearless.
adhyAropa
PRAPATHAKA ONER:
‘Sir, what is the use of enjoyment in this body which smells badly and is a mass of bones,
skins, etc., attacked by lust, anger, etc., separation from near and dear people, hunger, thirst etc.
We see that all this is decaying, like flies and mosquitoes which live and die.
apavAda
PRAPATHAKA FOUR:
Just as fire without fuel dies in its own source, so the mind by the dying of its modes, calms down
in the source. The modes of mind, withdrawn, of the lover of Truth, not deceived by sense
objects, are false.

adhyAropa apavAda in atharvaSirasa Upanishad
(Cited by rAmAnuja, MAdhva and srikAnta, dipikA by Sankarananda and nArAyaNa)
adhyAropa and apavAda
[In the Atharvasiras Upanishad, the three syllable letter, which has meaning and also does not
have meaning and which is perennial stands alone. It is told that it is the basis of everything and
there is no basis for it.]
2. He replied: “I alone was in the beginning; I am now; and will be in the future. There is none
but me.”

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4. (He said): “I am eternal and non-eternal ... I am perishable and imperishable... I alone exist.
--52. Next, why is it called All Pervading (Sarvavyapi)? Because by mere recitation, it makes the
aspirant Omnipresent. Like the oil in the oil-seed, pervading through all this, it, the peaceful Om,
remains mingled and inter-mingled together.
53. Next, why is it infinite? Because the mere recitation of it, makes the reciter feel neither
beginning, nor end, or up and down, nor across.
54. Next, why is it named Tara? The mere recitation of it enables one to transcend the great four
of the trans migratory life consisting of conception, birth, old age and death.
Note: Here there is an effort to explain that initially there was nothing but one supreme entity
Brahman, here referred to as rudra. He created all beings and destroys all being. This upanishad
also speaks that he is free from pair of opposites. rudra is also called as OM and OM here is
defined as nirAkAra, and omnipresent, without beginning and end. The one who chants OM,
becomes the same.
This can be summed up as
1. There was only one rudra (Brahman or para Brahman)
2. rudra created worlds and entered into them
3. rudra is praNava (OM)
4. The one who chants OM becomes omnipresent, without beginning and end.
5. rudra is always one and will remain one.
The journey is from one to many and back to one.

adhyAropa apavAda in atharvaSikhA Upanishad

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Understanding Advaita - adhyAropa apavAda in atharvaSikhA Upanishad

(dipikA by nArAyaNa tIrtha, SankarAnanda and bhASya by ranga rAmAnuja munI, accepted by
Saiva-s)
adhyAropa
1.1 The sages Pippalada, Aangiras and Sanath Kumara approached the great God like sage,
Atharva Maharshi and asked him, “Oh, God like sage, what is the chief aspect of meditation?
What is the mantra (holy syllable) on which to meditate? Who can meditate? Who is the
God of meditation?”
1.2 The sage Atharva replied to them,” Mainly meditation has to be done on the single letter Om.
It itself is the mantra for meditation. The four legs of that mantra are the four devas and the four
Vedas. The letter has to be recognized as the Para Brahman (Ultimate reality) and
meditated upon.
1.3 to 1.6 explain a, u, m and crescent moon of OM.
1.7 The first is the red Brahma (creative aspect) , the second the holy white Rudra (destructive
aspect), the third the black Lord Vishnu (the administrative aspect) and the fourth which is like
lightning is the multi coloured Purushothama (best among males).
1.8 This Omkara has four legs and four heads (fires). The fourth is the half syllable sound of
“Ma” which is hidden. That is pronounced in a small short form, slightly extended form
(pluthyaga) and much extended form. It is pronounced as Om with one mathra, Om in two
mathras and Om in the extended three mathras (mathra is the unit of pronunciation).
apavAda
1.9. The fourth peaceful half syllable is hidden in the long ended pronunciation. It is the
incomparable glitter of the soul. It is that sound which was never there and which will be
never there. ...
Note: Here the trend is
1. Explain Pranav OM, it's 4 parts. 3 parts of OM are associated with Brahma, Vishnu, Mahesh and
the fourth part is purushottama.
2. Fourth part is further divided into the chandrabindu and the silence after it.

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3. Silence indicates transcending everything including trinity of Gods.

adhyAropa apavAda in paingala Upanishad
(Cited by Adi Sankara)
adhyAropa
I-1 ...Instruct me in regard to the supreme mystery of Aloneness.
I-2. The eminent Yajnavalkya replied: Dear one, in the beginning this (Brahman) indeed
existed. It was the eternally free, immutable, everlastingly one, secondless Brahman,
full of Truth, Knowledge and Bliss.
I-6 ...From that Self (Virat) arose ether; from the ether, air; from air, fire; from fire, water;
from water, earth. These five root-elements are composed of the three Gunas.
apavAda
I-3. In it existed the primordial and indefinable Prakriti, consisting of Gunas in a state of
equipoise, red, white and dark, resembling (the existence of) water, silver, a man and outlines
(respectively) in the mirage oyster-shell, a stump and a mirror; what was reflected in it
was the Witness Consciousness.
II-9. Texts like Tattvamasi declare the identity with Brahman of the real Jiva concealed
by ignorance and part of the unmanifest; not of the other two, the empirical and the
illusory Jivas (in the waking and dream-state).

adhyAropa apavAda in Srimad BhAgavatam
AdhyAropa - Brahman with Attirbutes - Krishna as person - quest for Self Realization
through karma and bhakti
SB 10.14.4: My dear Lord, devotional service unto You is the best path for self-

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realization. If someone gives up that path and engages in the cultivation of speculative
knowledge, he will simply undergo a troublesome process and will not achieve his desired result.
As a person who beats an empty husk of wheat cannot get grain, one who simply speculates
cannot achieve self-realization. His only gain is trouble.
SB 10.14.5: O almighty Lord, in the past many yogīs in this world achieved the platform
of devotional service by offering all their endeavors unto You and faithfully carrying out
their prescribed duties. Through such devotional service, perfected by the processes of hearing
and chanting about You, they came to understand You, O infallible one, and could easily surrender
to You and achieve Your supreme abode.
SB 10.14.22: Therefore this entire universe, which like a dream is by nature unreal, nevertheless
appears real, and thus it covers one's consciousness and assails one with repeated miseries. This
universe appears real because it is manifested by the potency of illusion emanating from You,
whose unlimited transcendental forms are full of eternal happiness and knowledge.
ApavAda - Self Cannot be realized through karma or Bhakti but by removal of ignorance,
which is root cause of bondage. Concepts of bondage and freedom are due to ignorance.
SB 10.14.26: The conception of material bondage and the conception of liberation are
both manifestations of ignorance. Being outside the scope of true knowledge, they cease to
exist when one correctly understands that the pure spirit soul is distinct from matter and always
fully conscious. At that time bondage and liberation no longer have any significance, just as day
and night have no significance from the perspective of the sun.
SB 10.14.27: Just see the foolishness of those ignorant persons who consider You to be
some separated manifestation of illusion and who consider the self, which is actually You, to
be something else, the material body. Such fools conclude that the supreme soul is to be searched
for somewhere outside You.
SB 10.14.28: O unlimited Lord, the saintly devotees seek You out within their own bodies
by rejecting everything separate from You. Indeed, how can discriminating persons
appreciate the real nature of a rope lying before them until they refute the illusion that
it is a snake.
More instances of Adhyaropa Apavada in Bhagavat and Uddhava Gita can be found here and here.
I hope this helps one gain clarity of true traditional teaching of AdhyAropa ApavAda.

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and the force of thoughts of very less. then there will be a saturation point. do not give importance by neglecting them and be aware of the source of mantra. and is able to meditate for long hours. After a few chants. Neti-Neti (Negation. OM Sadhaka meditates on the mantra OM. This requires God's and Guru's grace. total dedication and moksha as the only goal. then followed by mental and later followed by just observing mantra OM. Sadhana begins with verbal chanting. it is done with the help of mind. if one quickly realizes that one should be aware of OM. For Advanced sadhaka After on is able to be aware of OM. Thoughts will automatically fade away or dissolve. Even if one is involved in thoughts. chanting of OM. it goes on automatically. as one does not chant. you allow thoughts to come. just ignore them. One does not have to make an effort to chant OM. If chanting is done with the help of mind. but when the chant continues by itself.sorry about bad translation). which is the obvious thing to do in the beginning. one can be aware of the source of the mantra. Renunciation helps one to neglect thoughts and not give importance to any thoughts. When one is putting mental effort in chanting. Of course it requires vivek-yukta-vairagya (renunciation accompanied by power of discrimination . uprooting of thoughts and desires is done by OM itself and you as an individual has no hand in it. say 3 hours. except that you are allowing it to happen. Pratik 2. Even if thoughts come. there is no effort of mind. then OM chanting continues by itself. There is a limit to put an effort.Understanding Advaita . Self Enquiry) types upasana: of sAdhanA OM 1. After one regularly meditates. then chant it mentally. Now there is transformation from effort to effortless. spandan (gap between 2 OMs). Dedication. mediator remains fresh and can extend the duration of meditation. Meditation continues. If OM does not continue. there are 2 1. By meaning to meditate may first be considered as Japa So it is chanting of OM. But when there is no effort. then slowly and smoothly shift your focus on OM and just be aware of it. faith and Page 135 of 619 .Meditative Journey of an Advaita Vedantin Meditative Journey of an Advaita Vedantin Two types of sAdhanA can be practiced by Advaita Vedantin In advaita. If all these are present then meditation becomes easy. the pitch.

The Journey After one has purified the mind with karma-kand and bhakti. This is vairagya. But again mind rises. Peace and bliss unconditionally flow. After this state. nothing is mine. my friends are not mine. as all these factors may be present but not to the fullest extend.e. The process repeats until everything that is dumped into the mind is uprooted by OM. Just like one can find the ocean shore by moving in the direction of sound of waves. This is sahaj samAdhi. etc is been robbed away and one feels that nothing is meaningful. As one advances. he / she sees that the world which we thoughts as an illusion. Meditation is over. When one jumps into this insecurity. mental renunciation increases. initially. and one is again in duality. as it was sleeping or temporarily subdued. which is Brahman / Atman. After that there is mano-nASa (destruction of mind). Advaita asks one to rise from duality. one can step into advaita. After that even OM rests. my family is not mine. It is said from Atma bhAva and not Jiva bhAva. Advaitin lives on minimum requirements. This takes time. one feels that suddenly the joy. when one opens eyes. and one gets clarity. One may or may not renounce physically. Practically.1. mind becomes steady. OM surrender to Brahman is extremely important and without surrender. etc. one realizes that one is most secured. One is Jivan Mukta and has achieved moksha. enjoyment. as they are a result of renunciation and so do not depend upon any external factor.I am not this not this. ananda. This is advaita sthiti called as nirvikalp samadhi. but mental renunciation is a must. It happens. After passing through this phase one becomes steady i. when one is taught .Understanding Advaita . The journey of an Advaita Vedantin is: 1. one can go into the source of OM. OM continues in mind throughout the day or most of the day. Mental Chanting Page 136 of 619 . It produces fear and insecurity. Verbal chanting 2. Entire thing is controlled by God. is nothign but Brahman itself (sarvam khalu-idam Brahman --> everything 'Else' is (also) Brahman ). God will not take over your mind in meditation. There is only you and nothing else. Slowly the truth unfold. mind becomes peaceful. Practically.

Videhi Mukti (after death. one enters achAnaka (suddenly with surprise . One thinks of Brahman constantly. still he attains moksha. e. Mano laya: Experience of Nirvikalp Samadhi 5. Hence Advaita is not for everybody. One can purify by doing karma-kand (rituals) and doing bhakti on personal God.g. There is no technical different between jivan mukti and videhi mukti 2. Moksha: Experience of both nirvikalp and savikalp samadhi . Mano-nASa: sahaj samadhi 7.Understanding Advaita 3. But the result is same. Repeated attempts to be in samadhi. After opening eyes. Period of samadhi increases 6. In this type of sadhana. Page 137 of 619 . A-japA japa i. Meditation is complete. is nirvANa shaTaka by Adi SankarAchArya. If a person quits body in nirvikalp samadhi. Notes: This type of meditation is extremely difficult and so most of them take AdhAra (support) of OM. one enters into samadhi knowingly whereas in case of OM. So even desires like serving humanity or any sattvik desires are also up-rooted. Maandukya upanishad takes about OM. There is no OM. Even sattva gUNa is a dosha. 2. OM is one tatva that can effortlessly take one above maya (as maya was created by OM or from OM).e. Return to duality. Mantra goes on by itself 4. Pure mind and renunciation are pre-requisites for Advaita. Meditation continues 6. Some 10 verses on Brahma bhAvanA are given in Vivek Chudamani. Hence advaita do not rejects dvaita but asks one to rise above it. Later depending upon prakruti one can shift to either Advaita (for logical reasoning type people) or continue sAkAra bhakti (emotional characters). OM up-roots both good and bad desires.Jivan Mukta 9. Khandan is done with the intention that one rises. one experiences: satvam khalu-idam brahman Everything else (this world) is brahman 8. connection with body drops permanently) Note: 1.again bad translation). as taught in Yog-Vasista and Sri Ramana Maharshi. Neti-neti This is actual advaita.

Focussing on one part does not mean other parts are automatically refuted. Neti-neti For Beginners: Please read The Difference between Japa With and Without Japa Mala (External Link) Is Sri Ramana Maharshi's Teaching Traditional? There is often a confusion regarding many sAdhaka-s whether Sri Ramana Maharshi's teachings are traditional or not. When attending wife. Many people just stick to the words brahma satya. A Husband says to his wife.g.2. If possible. he is playing the role of husband and for time being just focussing only Page 138 of 619 .Understanding Advaita . He gave definition of anitya and that definition does not have the word illusion. Adi Shankara did not just hold on to Brahma satya jagat mithyA. "I love you'. Adi Shankara's life was much much then this. This is due ot incorrect understanding of Mahashi's life and teachings. will make it clear. One has to understand that 1. "I hate my mother. a new page with will dedicated to the like of Adi Shankara in different light. Does this mean that. I hate my sister"?? No. As explained in first section Understanding Advaita. I hate my daughter. jagat mithyA. So Brahma SAtya Jagat Mithya does not fully reflect Adi Shankara's views. It will be discussed briefly in Dispelling Doubts section. An e. He gave importance to Meditation and Self Experience than shastras. Traditional people believe that Study of Scriptures is compulsory and that Sri Ramana was neither initiated nor did he studied any shastras.

It is well known that finally shAstra vAsanA also has to be dropped and after knowing everything i. translated Vivek Chudamani into Tamil. They are never meant to replace traditional advaita." J Krishnamurti says that Guru is not needed". In the same way. which focus only on Self Realization and rejects everything. This does not mean that he does not support scriptures or did not considered them as authority. They had knowledge of shastras and meditated over years. Sri Ramana Maharshi also said that one should have Guru When someone asked that. Infact Sri RAmana Maharshi when requested by devotees. Just like Teachings of AshTAvakra Gita are revered with all Advaitins and are not contradictory. It should be noted that Sri Ramana Maharshi's teachings are not applicable to everybody. as Tamil version was out of print. 2. Sri Ramana Maharshi's teachings which focus of Self Enquiry are also traditional and found in Ribhu Gita.Understanding Advaita on his wife.e. Other Acharya-s like SureshvarAhArya. Yog Vasista and ashTavakra Gita.s advantages. There are other smritis like AshTAvakra Gita. printed and tossed into wild. Teachings of Sri Ramana Maharshi focus only on Self Enquiry. you can say that after Self Realization but not before" 3. Adi Shankara preached vivarta vAda. Sri Ramana Maharshi replied. understanding essence of shastras. Upadesha-s are given from adhikAra bheda All those to whom Sri Ramana Maharshi answered were very learned like Ganapati Muni. " Who said so. Sri Ramana Maharshi's upadesha-s and his compositions are Page 139 of 619 . VidyAraNya Swami and Madhusudan Saraswati created their own shastras. Not all Shastras are like Bhagavad Gita which focus of many parts. Even GAuDapAda taught ajAta vAda in Maudhukya kArikA. Doe this mean that both of their thoughts clashed? No. Sri Ramana Maharshi never claimed that his teachings substitute Adi Shankara's. one has to drop them and practice meditation. but it has it's disadvantages too. It is based on ajAta vAda. commentaries which complement Adi Shankara's teachings. To them Sri Ramana Maharshi has given upadhesha-s which would give importance to Self Enquiry. It is a sad part that now-adays everything is noted. Later on he even composed his own shastras like Upadesha SAram and Sad Dasrhan Chalisi (40 verses on reality). Internet has it. They are only applicable to uttam adhikAri or at most madhyam adhikAri. GauDapAda focused on ajAta vAda while Adi Shankara focus on vivarta vAda and at times adopted other vAda too for exlpaining advaita to beginners. Still they had doubts. that too for free. etc. 4.

he was not even given initiation by Guru GovindapAda. was Jnani by birth form due to his sAdhanA in 2 births prior. It is the song of realized. Adi ShankarAchArya 2. Druv was only 5 years old when he left his home. Acharya hastAmalaka 3.Understanding Advaita . Again he was not initiated by Adi Shankara nor was taught any shastras in this life as a boy.e. chanted ma-rA instead of rAma (in reverse order) So there are exceptions. 5. You will find exceptions like 1. JaDA bharat. Another big problem is that people copy life and actions of acharya-s. Druv 5. He had little or no formal education of scriptures. Sri Ramana Maharshi did not preached ot live a life like he lived. VAlmiki They all did not had any official training and some were tatva Jnanis without being initiated. he created hastAmalaka stotra. VAlmiki did not knew any shastras but simply chanted Rama nAma that too in wrong way i. This list includes Adi Shankara too. At this time. Remember how he spontaneously composed dasa sloki when upon meeting his Guru Sri GovindapAda for first time.Is Sri Ramana Maharshi's Teaching Traditional? complementary to teachings of Adi Shankara and hence complementary to Traditional Advaita. Each one hold one to one thought or hold on to the state of Self Realization constantly. his Guru asked Adi Shankara to give his intro. Sri Ramana Maharshi also hold on to this state on Self Realization. Acharya hastAmalaka was a mute boy after he was 2 years old and upon being asked by Adi Shankara to describe who he was. JaDa bharat (from Srimad Bhagavatam) 4. Page 140 of 619 .

I too will not and concentrate on Self Enquiry. cannot stay in Atma Sthiti like him. Maharshi was operated for cancer without anesthesia. Fools would say. At one time. he simply shifted to another location. as prescribed by him. Yet he did not make any comments against them and remained neutral. Nothing more than this. During his time freedom struggle was at his peak. Page 141 of 619 . Mahashi's upadesha-s are for advanced meditators and not for beginners. when the owners of land started taking 'visiting fees'. • Maharshi did not build his ashram. yet they would copy him and take things for granted. They cannot meditate like Sri Ramana Maharshi did. why don't to take maun when you mother calls? Ramana Maharshi did not respond upto 3 days and maintained maun.Understanding Advaita - All these saints are pure by birth and hence need no scriptural knowledge in their last life. cannot meditate like him. • Maharshi did not pass on a single comment against Britishers. His upadesha-s complement Adi Shankara's teachings and hence complement Traditional Advaita. Since my Guru Sri Ramana Maharshi did not had Guru. Thats it. • Maharshi did not react when someone was making his statue somewhere. 'everyone interprets according to their own understanding' • Maharshi stopped translating Vivek Chudamani when tamil translation was reprinted again. Maharshi's meditation did not break even when his whole body was bitten by ants and other insects. Later upon request to his devotees after many years he completed translation of balanced verses. • Maharshi did not react when someone approached to him with wet eyes and pain that his teachings on 40 verses on reality are badly interpreted. Maharshi simply replied. • Maharshi a. He was impartial to all.ways remained neutral and in atma Sthiti. I too will not have. Since Maharshi did not study shastras. Maharshi took care of his mother and so we will. It just happened. Maharshi's teachings just focus on Self Enquiry. • Maharshi allowed animals to freely roam in his ashram. we wouldn't. People cannot remain neutral like him. Later he just inaugurated it and stayed according to divine will. • Maharshi allowed foreigners to have his darshan. He did not fight with them. But world copies them. They would say that since Sri Ramana Maharshi did not do any work. Bold wa oozing out of his body and whole body was covered with blood. Laymen cannot live like he lived and yet they copy him. they are not universal. Since you too are sAdhaka. To my opinion. Ramana Maharshi did not talked to his mother during his sAdhanA days.

one thought after another and one is lost in thoughts. God who is inside us. then thoughts about some thing or something whom you care or hate will some. that too upon instruction and guidance of divine power or Ishwara. MithyA just does not mean illusion. Khandan is done with the intention that one develops vairAgya and so does not give importance to it. but Guru orders it. so does meditation Page 142 of 619 . But in that sthiti Sri Ramakrishna says one can only live for 21 days. Then thought process will continue . the decision is not taken by the disciple. We are taught to be neutral. So this waking state is absent in dream state and vica versa. Always remember. As month of delivery comes nearby. tackles our mind when we meditate and uproots desires. Many times the person himself distances from us. Mithya also means that one which is not present at all times. Why is renunciation important from beginning? If you keep giving importance to worldly activities. After that connection with body drops permanently. If glories of mAyA are sung then mind will remain attached and will be attracted towards it. After say 7-8 months very less work is given. though it is true from Brahma bhAva or advaita sthiti. as we reach maturity. of pregnant women. Decisions are taken by Guru.Is Sri Ramana Maharshi's Teaching Traditional? Current (69th) Shankaracharya of Kanchi Kamakoti peetham Swami Jayendra Saraswati declares that Sri Ramana Maharshi was a Jivan Mukta. Rest all is taken care by God Sri Ramakrishna gives e. amount of work is reduced... Jivan muktas are the ones who return to this world for the good of all. mithyA = illusion like sea-shell as silver and rope and snake. Even selecting a path and the way to meditate is decided by Guru.g. Only work is to be with baby (Jnana). After delivery of baby (Jnan). no work is given. Just like we charge mobile for an hour and it goes not for a day. Mantra is lost.Understanding Advaita . So as one progress God reduces physical work and the responsibility. truth = true in all tenses and all states waking sleeping and deep sleep and in turiya false = not there at any time or any state like rabit's horn. This is the reason why renunciation is important and so we say this world is mithya.

japa mantra (OM in this case) pops up without effort. This is what I feel and understand from my limited knowledge. then consciousness will cling and embed into jiva and one will stay in jiva bhAva. japa continues in sub-conscious mind. That song randomly pops up at any time (mostly when we are free). consciousness is in dream state. whom you have surrendered? If this happens then the mantra has continued through day in subconscious mind. so even body is not given importance. Guru and God. Guru also helps one understand shastras and makes one introvert. More you associate with mind. so it is not a shunya state. Again.e. Khandan is done for this purpose. Only than doubts will be uprooted. before sleeping. Gives direction. if one does japa and then first thought after waking up is that mantra. Page 143 of 619 . when our consciousness is merged with Brahman. then still the mantra has continued. The moment you drop the work i. Even scriptures will be interpreted from jiva bhAva. If a song can pop up then why can't God's name.etc and merge with Brahman. Yes without effort. Also remember that you cannot negate your own existence. Not thinking about this world is enough. if we cannot accept that this world is nothing but illusion. but satchit-ananda Since one has to even detach from own body i. similarly. and so if thieves rob your house. But if one thinks of Brahman and associates himself with Brahman.Understanding Advaita charges you and keeps you connected with God even when you are fully concentrating in work. Have Faith and say . chit or ego more will it be embed into them. Just like we clearly see this world and experience it and do not see God. more is the consciousness clinged / connected / attached to the body. finish it. you are smiling. As one matures. Until then . God handles it. Have faith in shastras. In such case. Where your mind is important and not where your body is. We sometimes listen to a song just before going out and then switch off TV. Consciousness or awareness is important. jiva. When one is sleeping. More you associate with body. Remember that you only feel lonely when you are not with God. then one clearly experiences that 'I Am Brahman' and one does not experiences or sees this world. Not by parroting or by logically accepting but by merging with brahman one becomes Brahman. If you think that you are Jiva. because you are with a beautiful girl.God Exist. detach consciousness body. no matter how intelligent or concentration power we have or how brilliant one is in studies. the consciousness will loosen it's grip with mind-body-intellect-ego. This is the reason why it all depends upon God's grace.Have Faith.e. God will make one experience what Shastras say. Guru is extremely important. It does not matter if dreams come. This happens to all our us.

the statement that 'I am Brahman' is true as one is speaking from this state. This is a big problem in Advaita. Meditation.Understanding Advaita .i. Mr. technically there is no 'other' to surrender or fear to. It is their prakruti and so do not have anything negative emotions (bhAva) about them. You cannot prove anyone who claims to be a Jnani that he/she is not a jnani. It means that Jiva exists (for ajnani. Advaita asks to rise above dvaita and so things are neglected and 'NOT NEGATED'. Reading all shastras specially the ones on ajaata vaada may result into this behavior. Self Enquiry is the core of spiritual life. when time passes. But who will tell them? From the beginning dvaita is not rejected. but do not care to meditate. Again. Only from pArmArthic satya. Sadly consciousness is still attached to physical body and one cannot experience effortless meditation (a-japA-japa . people are told negative points so they can leave samsAra from mind. but what will Guru say to a new one who has not yet passed through this 'dark night'? Can you see 'Beautiful sunrise' and experience it's beauty. Advaitins do accept NirGuNa brahman as supreme. It means that there is something above us. Advaita asks us to rise by meditation to know who you are. 'Negation' and not 'Rejection' There is a universal problem. They believe in shastras. X or your parents are not faulty. if you do not pass Page 144 of 619 . Only initially. but the fact is you are still in duality. the very statement that "Brahma Satyam Jagan Mithya Jivo Brahmaiva Na Aparah" says that Jiva is brahman. mind becomes neutral and the issue is left behind.Why is renunciation important from beginning? 'Direct Experience' v/s 'Intellectual Understanding' People do not feel any need to meditate and remain satisfied with logical reasoning. It is said to do brahma-bhAvanA and not just presume and sit and do nothing more. whatever is the reason). They presume that they are Brahman. surrendering to SELF would give rise to Ego if wrongly understood. but in advaita. Afterwards.e. As I have said khandan is done with an intention to rise above it and not to presume logically that I am Self' and so above everything and so 'I am not the meditator' hence I will not meditate. same guru will say. But this is said to a disciple who has stepped in and passed through the turmoil. OM continues by itself and destroys all vAsanA). Consciousness is connected with physical body.

He will do all kinds to analysis. We are taught 'titixA' . 2. It is said that the mind of GYAnI is brahman itself. What is 'Negation'? Practically. it's beginning and it's end and mind will try to find source and merge in it. a person has to neglect any impulse of senses or mind and stay calm. guru or GYAnI is speaking from his natural state. Always have faith that OM is capable of up-rooting all desires and take care of anything and everything. He knows that his disciple still gives importance to certain things in the world. The effect of desires will soon fade away permanently. It is the duty of disciple to approach Guru and humbly ask for direction and clarification. Be aware of OM. With this faith chant OM.titikshaa (be neutral in positive and negative circumstances). forever. There are two reason which I can think of. while a wicked. diplomatic person will never have blind faith in anyone. As a guru. when there is no faith. OM can tackle all kinds of thoughts. In second case. you may want to arise your SiSya (disciple) to advaita-sthiti. Being neutral is not negative. throughout their life. You speak by abiding in advaita-sthiti In first case. So then what is the reason behind saints emphasizing on 'this world is mithyA'. an innocent person will believe in whatever other person is saying. What can be done? Unfortunately. To remove them from his disciple's mind. So you cannot remain negative about any thing. guru will emphasize on 'brahma-bhAvanA' . it is a conscious effort by guru to raise his disciple to non-duality. 1. Thoughts that are up-rooted will not come again in mediation. which is non-dual. Soon the force of thoughts and impulse will face away. This process is called as 'negation'.Understanding Advaita through 'dark night'. What you see is a projection of your mind. get more info about the person Page 145 of 619 .g. Now turn mind slowly and silently back to the mantra OM. Reason behind saying everything is mithyA Many people cannot digest this world as an 'illusion'. no upadeSa can be given. We all know that each one of us experience this world. Only the one contemplating the advaita way will understand rest all will take the first upadeSa and remain stuck to it. for wrong reasons.sajAtiya vrutti pravAh vijAtiya tirakruti meaning continuously think of similar thoughts (related to brahman) and do not let worldly thoughts into mind. e. Thoughts will fade away.

1. Same thing happens when one sings bhajans. 2. rites and rituals 3. In temple. has spiritual power i.e. We do not talk about worldly matters so worldly thoughts are not present. Atmosphere is purified by regular prayers. Devotion pours in from hearts of devotees 4. This also has effect on devotees. vibrations and God recedes in it after we call him (AvAhana). There is an effect of environment. After understanding advaita. Say when we move into temple. atleast for few seconds.Reason behind saying everything is mithyA and only after he gets convinced he will trust others. Gaudiya Vaishnavas and other schools. Mind and heart is purified. Idol which is consecrated (prANa-pratisThA). a GYAnI's mind experiences brahman everywhere and so he tries to equate everything to advaita-sthiti. Advantage of Singing or Listening to Bhajans. the moment we step in. In this context. Hence thoughts will come back. Devotional Songs. Hymms and Stotras Bhajans help one neutralize mind. Devotion cleans heart and removes thoughts. lets dispel doubts and accusations put on by Vaishnavs.Understanding Advaita . But we do not have the habit to remain silent. Page 146 of 619 . we will feel peace and a change.

vyavahArika satya (Practical / Empirical Reality) and pArmArthika satya (Absolute / Ultimate Reality). knowledge is called as as real. mAyA is triguNAtmikA . Page 147 of 619 . the article is divided into two parts PART I . mAyA is called as anAdi. immutable. (Br. But it can be experienced in any one state. Brahman Unreal. In other words.Advaita. satya That which is eternal. undivided. infinite. asatya That which do not exist at any time. present at all times. Creation and it's Practicability Advaita. rabbit horn MithyA That which is neither real nor unreal. Theory of Creation and Duality Lets being by taking some considerations. but is not even real (eternal). unreal and mithyA. e.Understanding Advaita .16) Reality. This means that it is in between real and unreal. False. mithyA is that which is not present at all times. unchanging.g. (refer BG 2.g. Creation and it's Practicability Pranams For convenience. but it ends in Jnana. mithYA is that which is not totally unreal. Up – II-iii-6) 2. e. Definitions of real. Two Levels of truths . 1. Both levels are shruti based.Explaining Advaita. Brahman is beyond guNa-s.that which has 3 guNa-s. This means that it is without beginning. Truth.

Hence removal of Ignorance is the path of Advaita. • How can nirguNa Brahman associate with mAyA. hence nirguNa is absent. We would like to say that a great Ex. This voids the definition of Brahman that it is undivided and that the Self was already present. Theory of Creation and Duality Since mAyA ends in Jnana. Most prominant one is his master piece advaita siddhi. the association itself makes it saguNa. as real. etc. 3. Brahma sthiti. Experience in waking state are not experienced in dream state and vice versa. He has also defended AcArya SrI harsha's khaNDa-khaNDa-khAdya and also explained bhakti from advaita POV.Understanding Advaita . though experienced in waking state. Page 148 of 619 . We all know that truth is one. mAyA. Questions and Doubts From pArmArthika level. We advaitins believe that all logical objections are answered by this great advaita AcArya who was also a great devotee of bhagavAn SrI kruShNa.dvaitin and a celebrated name in dvaita-advaita polemical debates SrI madhusudan sarasvatI jI has answered to all logical objections by writing many independent works. So how it is said in shastra-s that • Brahman created this world and became many. it cannot be real. NirguNa Brahman does not create anything. His other works like siddhAnta bindu are also much appreciated and so is his commentary on bhagavad gItA which he writes in his intro that after thoroughly studying SrI Adi SankarAcArya jI's gItA bhASya. He and svAmI brahmAnanda ( who has written a commentary brahmAnandI on advaita siddhi has kept advaita thorn free.Explaining Advaita. ends in Jnana. It is in advaita siddhi that madhusudan sarasvatI has given five definitions of mithyA and also reestablishing one of the definitions of mithyA that which is neither real nor unreal. Ignorance (avidya) is the root cause.PART I . In this sense. Some Typical Objections Some well-versed vedAntin-s quote objections raised by SrI mAdvAcArya jI and his successors or of other vaiShNava AcArya-s like SrI rAmAnujAcArya jI on the basic tenets of advaita as propogated by SrI Adi SankarAcArya jI. Hence there cannot be two things that can be true. which even the great vidyAraNya svAmI has also stated the same definition in his pancadaSI.

Hence. there can be no creation. and is perceived under ignorance.. destruction. so Brahman was not present in-between. but they are perceived in ignorance. preservation. it means that Brahman was absent and then it is found. Page 149 of 619 . Creation and duality are not experienced or perceived in Jnana. but that too from vyavahArika or empirical level only. hence not a reality. Since creation. • If we say that Avidya veils (covers) Brahman. From Absolute level.Understanding Advaita • If we say that Jiva got deluded or Brahman got deluded. from empirical level. one into many are accepted at empirical level only and at absolute level. Brahman. How can nirguNa associate with mAyA? Just to recap . and in Jnana avidyA is removed. becomes one as many.27 For death of anyone born is certain. if Brahman is already established. The theories of creation. hence this creation is not eternal. hence both are accepted as real. is accepted as long as one is under ignorance. again it would violate the basic tenet of Advaita. How can you achieve that is already achieved? Again it violates basic tenets of advaita. and of the dead (re-) birth is a certainly. They are accepted at empirical level and by the one who is under ignorance. Why theory of creation is not true from absolute standpoint? bhagavAn in gItA says: BG 2. then also the path cannot be started or if we say that we achieve what was already achieved. then it is again a doshA..Remember three things - Relative reality / practical reality / vyavahArika satya Absolute reality / PArmArthika satya Ignorance / avidyA I will also try to be as brief as possible. On the other hand. it is mithyA. creates. Since the creation cease to exist in state of Jnana. etc cease to exist in Jnana. hence it cannot be considered as real.

It is not killed when the body is killed.20 Never is this One born. nor is it that having come to exist.Why theory of creation is not true from absolute standpoint? This means that anything that is born dies. Page 150 of 619 . eternal.21 O Partha. the definition of real and unreal is BG 2. One attains identification with Brahman by being established in this state even in the closing years of one's life. Definition of Self is BG 2. nor do I become separated from him. One does not become deluded after attaining this.25 It is said that This is unmanifest (avyakta). ancient.18 These destructible bodies are said to belong to the everlasting. BG 2. all-pervading. indestructible. indeed. It is eternal. indeterminable. BG 2.24 This Self cannot be cut. embodied One. eternal. he who knows this One as indestructible.16 Of the unreal there is no being. BG 6. None can bring about the destruction of this Immutable. wetted. birthless and undecaying . immovable and ancient. he never becomes separated from Me.. BG 2. This One is birthless. and never does It die.17 But know That to be indestructible by which all this is pervaded (omnipresent / all pervading). has been realized by the seers of Truth. This is unchangeable. undecaying. nor dried up. BG 2. burnt.30 He who sees Me everywhere and sees everything in Me. BG 2. this is the state of being established in Brahman. It will again cease to be. BG 2.72 O Partha. stable. But the nature of both these.. the real has no non-existence.Understanding Advaita . This is inconceivable.

In other words it Page 151 of 619 . Hence universe.creation). one has to be within the realm of time. Whatever is beyond kAla is unborn and so deathless and hence changeless too. Hence they suffer from prior non-existence (i. Since Self is beyond time. jIva-s was created. This space is omnipresent and allows other four elements to move within itself. Lets take an example for better understanding. which is subtler than other three cannot be seen. Since Self does not undergo the process of decay. it indicates that Self transcends time (kAla). If we move further. is withing the realm of time. air. If Self is birthless. All activities including creation. fire. Then brahman created the universe. Beyond kAla is non-dual static brahman. It can only be felt. movement i. this universe was non-existence before it's birth . In order of increasing subtleness. they are earth. Things decay as time passes and finally gets destroyed. But why the Self is immovable.Understanding Advaita - Hence we can conclude that That which has beginning has an end. they happen within kAla. In other words in order to manifest. You can only infer it. travel.e. air and space. Out of five. which is subtlest of all cannot be felt. which is a kind of activity. these three are very important qualities of Self or Brahman. Again. Why cant it move? The simple answer it Self is omnipresent and all pervading. Moving still further. has a definite shape.e. However. bhagavAn says that Self does not die. this is not the case. preservation and destruction can happen only if there is kAla i. when established in brahman becomes immortal. The important definition of Self or Brahman is undecaying.e. Self is Undecaying / Immutable / Unchanging Decay is the nature of time. this means that Self is already present everywhere. Lets discuss them. then who can it be born. hence there is no need to move. shruti-s explain that in the beginning there was only one brahman. it is in unmanifest form (avyakta). Since Self is already present and is beyond time. space. But since Self is not born. only earth. Self is unmanifested and birthless. as it is already there. water. Water and fire can be seen and felt but does not have their own shape. We have five great elements. as it is emptiness. Self is Immovable / Omnipresent / All-Pervading Many would argue that being immovable or omnipresent (both have different meaning) does not reduce itself to an inert identity. You an only move from place A to place B if you are absent in place B. which is grossest of all. it does not die. It is invisible (an attribute of Self / brahman). immovable and unchangeable. The very meaning of immovable means it is not moving.

then a question arises . he never becomes separated from Me. there cannot be duality i. else bhagavAn could have said that He (the soul or jIva) merges in me. bhagAvan vAsudeva (as brahman) sets a condition of immortality and permanent abiding in him as 'He who sees Me everywhere AND sees everything in Me'.How can one see bhagavAn in everything and everything inside bhagavAn? to experience anything. by using the word 'see'. Only by being formless. The word NOR establishes non-duality as none difference is accepted at both sides. it is beyond time and omnipresent. indicating that the after realizing Brahman as Atman of all. Further the ability of seeing everything inside bhagavAn would mean we too need to be omnipresent to know this fact.sees me everywhere AND . BhagavAn also uses the words 'He' and 'Me' indicating duality (at vyavahArika plane) and says that both he and me are 'forever united' i. as beyond time. Self does not need to move anywhere. Page 152 of 619 . Brahman or Self is conscious. an Atom.30 He who sees Me everywhere and sees everything in Me. there is no activity. then what about the Self which is subtler than space? To sum up. as outside kAla. upanishads and shruti vacan-s like nAsadiya sUkta says that in the beginning there was only one non-dual brahman. Here too the condition is . an aNu.refer viShNu and caturbhuja viShNu for more details) are one and the same. infinite and omnipresent can one know the quality of omnipresence. they are never ever separated. nor do I become separated from him.Understanding Advaita . existence of both jIva and brahman. Again.30 BG 6. but itself does not get affected by the smells which air may carry). but I do not merge in him. If an element like space can stay in formless state. Now we know that activity cannot be done outside the realm of time. indicating that jIva is a part of bhagavAn AND not vice versa. unaffected. there is no activity. Then brahman became many. Both Self and Brahman are beyond kAla and hence there cannot be any activity of 'seeing' as 'seeing' is within the realm of time. is invisible. non-duality is confirmed. Seeing at once the entire brahmANDa indicates that the Self is also omnipresent.e.Why theory of creation is not true from absolute standpoint? gives space to even air to move within itself. one needs to be conscious of it. Since bhagavAn says 'he never becomes separated from Me' NOR 'do I become separated from him'.e. else it would takes eons to move in bramANda-s and keep seeing bhagavAn everywhere. bhagavAn means to 'know' as both Self and bhagavAn. 'merging' etc are to be taken only figuratively.sees everything in me If we consider ourselves a tiny little soul. at vyavahArika plane. Hence words like 'seeing'. as brahman (not as a person . Talking in brief. omnipresent. for the sake of explanation. Finally lets understand BG 6. Hence space is untouched by other four (another attribute of Brahman).

appears to be existing as divided in all beings. Each one of us is in dvaita. Why do SAstra-s explain the theory of creation? The goal of vedAnta is to re-establish to existence of SELF as the direct non-dual experience. there was only one brahman • Then this one brahman became many Shruti Hinting non-duality while explaining Creation Shruti also accepts the fact the one is under delusion and is in duality. It devours and It generates. It is to be known as the supporter of being. hence SAstra-s also talk in 'tone of duality'. body.Understanding Advaita - Hence we conclude that it is illusion. we are not able to experience this state. That which has a beginning also has an end says bhagavAn in giTA. Self attaches itself with non-self. present and future.17 And undivided. etc and thinks of it as 'I'. which is self-evident form our day-2-day life. and It is the sustainer of all beings as also the devourer and originator. OR BG 13. mind. hence it must be self existent in all three tenses of time i. eternal state. yet It exists as if divided in beings. It is an inner journey from (presumed) dvaita to advaita. So the general trend of most principle upanishads is - • In the beginning. At the same time shruti Page 153 of 619 .17 And the Knowable. Since brahman is the only tatva that qualifies for being called as satya. Since we live in duality. past. So the path starts with presuming dvaita. But under delusion. the natural. but due to ego. though undivided. Hence we can conclude that the undivided Brahman cannot be actually divided. bhagavAn later says that BG 13. From the above analysis we can conclude that the theory of creation is explained from empirical reality or relative reality and not from absolute reality. as shruti-s say that in the beginning there was only one Brahman.e. This statement which we find in many shruti-s is our 'natural state'. In other words the division is not real. Hence brahman cannot be born.

but it is well accepted that the sun was never veiled and never lost it's shine. brahman is viSaya (object to be worshipped) under and until there is ignorance and not from absolute level. infinite. but from different standpoints . which our revered AcArya has explain in Atma-bodha and in hastAmalaka stotram. shruti even while explaining creation hints • Temporary nature.Understanding Advaita .Shruti Hinting non-duality while explaining Creation maintains that the creation is not permanent and hints the truth by saying like. We all accept this from empirical level. then the statement 'though undivided' is violated. Lets take famous example of cloud veiling sun. This example will help us understand why we experience duality to be true and why duality was never the truth at any time. Page 154 of 619 . as if we do not accept this fact. This will violate the definition of Brahman being 'indivisible' To sum up. then the creation will be real and hence the division will be real. etc ---> satya It can be concluded that. then it means that mAyA is illusive power'. 'though undivided.' If the Lord says. etc ---> mithyA • Brahman is undivided. To extend this further. Sun is veiled means Jnana is lost. it is said that after the ignorance is removed or negated. which again violates basic tenets of Advaita. immutable. Brahman is realized. unattached. Veiling (covering) of Self by Ignorance Though it may seem that clouds veil sun and hence Sun is not visible AND Sun has lost it's shine.. 'Self or Brahman is immutable. adobe of misery. jiva is deluded Sun losing it's shine means Brahman looses it's knowledge or nature of shining. How can brahman loose it's natural state and become deluded. unchanging. as we experience the same. (it appears to be) divided . but yet divided through his yog mAyA'. impermanent. unchanging'. truth. It means that earlier Brahman was not realized that means that Brahman suffers from non-existence. etc.empirical / relative (vyavahArika) and absolute (pArmArthIka). 'undivided. Brahman getting deluded and becoming jiva. After understanding the reason behind theory of creation. It explains why we lost brahma-GYAna and why we never lost it. This means that if we think the creation as real. let us understand why contradictory statements are true. Hence we will have to understand via yukti that 'though undivided. it is divided'.

Real cannot be destroyed. there is no question of being veiled. maintenance and destruction of clouds. observer-observed. as there is no avidyA. the duality of guru-shishya. The dual statements also point to non-duality. It is a step by step procedure to raise one to non-dual state. But under ignorance. Sun cannot ever be veiled by anything. as it is only accepted at empirical level. as it is experienced when one is under ignorance. 'thou art that svetaketu' is repeated not once. Step-by-step processes like. etc are accepted. but laxyArtha is non-duality. but nine times. as the veil of ignorance is destroyed at empirical level and not at absolute level. The vachyArtha is duality. The words like' ignorance is destroyed' etc are to be taken as 'seems to be destroyed' and not literally. not twice. Chandogya upanishad. their study and veiling of ignorance. it is accepted. hence it is not unreal too. Also it is wrongly understood that Ajnana is destroyed. Since one experience duality and creation. meditation. as in case of Indra. experiences 5 sheaths but is not contended and finally gets Page 155 of 619 . Self forgetting it's true nature is confirmed in SAstra-s. Teaching can only be done on dual tone and under ignorance. the Self is always present like the sun is always present before. during and after the creation. Hence the path is also real and so is the shastra-s. Everything that is explained. one dives deep within. aviyA is present until Self is not realized.Understanding Advaita - This argument is not correct. etc) only lead to non-duality. rising above • Three guNa-s • 5 sheaths • 3 bodies (sthuLa. but negated. After the final step. For the Realized. The famous statement from sAme veda. hence they are real for him. Actually it is not destroyed. In advaita there cannot be any teaching. Hence advaita can be practiced and is practical. is under ignorance and they are acceptable when one is under ignorance. Hence avidyA is mithyA. To sum up. The veiling is also illusionary.

is chandra shAkhA nyAya Child is incapable of seeing moon. so mother point to a nearby branch (which can be easily located or spotted by child) . etc are no more needed. w. Even the life span of this earth and is momentary and of short life as compared to Page 156 of 619 . Sure. Should I add . which we are all searching knowing or unknowgly. Taking help of this branch. which does not last more than a few seconds or say which vanishes in a flash i.. then it is hard to digest. Even if we take just our life span. it is permanent and one does not return.r.The dual statements also point to non-duality. Why the knowledge of Self Realization is supreme? This knowledge is supreme. Everything happens under ignorance. Hence it makes sense to call this 80 years of life as illusion. illusion exists only for a short period of time.this is Lord Krishna. After realizing the truth. surit-s say that once we reach this state. our life like a drop in ocean and earth as compared to whole whole universe is very small. then you. his blessings. Another e. nothing is applicable in state of Jnana. Few words on 'Illusion' We understand the word 'illusion' as just a momentary temporary phase. 70-80 years and that we know that this world is going to exist even after we die. Self Study.Understanding Advaita .ISvara is also an illusion.e. as after realizing this. ISvara is eternal in the form of brahman. as the purpose is fulfilled (or say) . will follow the direction that my finger is pointing and finally you will see the idol of Lord Krishna. etc are real. as one is not capable and the e. It is moon that is important and not the branch.g is if I point my finger to an idol and say that . nothing else is needed to be realized. Hence ISvara creating this world. contended as he realizes is Self as Brahman. his grace. Shruti also says gives the phala of Self Realization as . but under ignorance. until there is duality. Agian. There is a sense of fulfillment. how is unaware of the presence of idol. as we see him only under ignorance. sAdhanA. as everything happened in ignorance at empirical level. ISvara is an empirical reality.t to Jnana. But the word illusion may give wrong signal and it is so strongly tied with the word mithyA that mithyA is also understood as a momentary approach. still we cannot believe that this world is illusion. ISvara is endowed with upAdhi-s. which is infinite. as we live for long.. So when we are told that this world is illusion.g. Similarly one studies shastra-s or is in search of truth clearly indicate that one is under ignorance. completeness and ananda. mother points child to moon.. which points to moon.nothing more needed to be achieved Then why Teach Theory of Creation if it is illusion? The direct teaching is not taught. etc are no more needed.

Different updesha-s for people with different temperaments and mental make-up 5. as if he is having a look at all this play from a bird's eye view. Only limited to establishing truth psychologically. adhikAra bheda 2. Let us accept that we are under ignorance and though momentarily. Four Pre-requisites 3. Advaita has been wrongly understood as it has been looked from Absolute POV. then we will find that Sri Ramana Maharshi's instructions are very beneficial and compliment to Classical Advaita. In this way when we focus on sAdhanA. Sri Ramana Maharshi's theory can be applied in a way that it does not contradict shastra-s and one reaches non-dual state. So let it be. I agree. But do we hav that vision too? Since we lack this vision. 7. Necessity for Guru and shastra-s. According to me. However. which is of course natural. hence we find this world as illusion not acceptable. Self Study (abhyAsa) 8. Reading too much about the above explained approach of illusion snatches away all the bhakti. a lot on empirical reality and ways to rise above adapting bottom-down approach. as the purpose is fulfilled. what I will consider any philosophy as 'Neo' when it does not take into account 1. for all including the once who are under ignorance. but not fully. if we talk about sAdhanA. It considers SAguNa Brahman or mAyA as something positive and not illusion. Necessity for sAdhanA and hence aparoksha anubhuti (direct experience of Self Realization) 6. Hence let us think positively. then we will have to think about this world and how to rise above it. But should I say that Neo-philosophy teaches or better focuses. let us try to remove this ignorance. We see Lord describing this and Veda Vyasa describing the creation and preservation. where you do not need to do anything.Understanding Advaita the continuous creation and destruction of galaxies and universes from time immemorial. Neo Philosophy It is said that Neo Vedanta or Neo Advaita is not traditional advaita. Rishi-s have such a broad vision. Three Levels of truths 4. Page 157 of 619 . and God's glories.

hence he repaired temples. Let us chant his holy name.The Jagad Guru Adi Shankara knew this. so it is not proper to say in such a manner. hence he will also not talk to us in the same way to lift us. Adi Shankara . to obtain his grace directly and via Guru and shastra-s.Understanding Advaita . Practical Advaita Advaita would be meaningless. the one who traveled length and breath of India and debated with many had just 4 disciples. We are all under ignorance. Rest all were devotees. his grace. Page 158 of 619 . Ishvara (SaguNa Brahman).pArmArthika satya and vyavahArika satya has no place. shastra-s. now lets take it positively. guru. They are REAL for US. Advaita is not for everybody The fact that Advaita is not for everybody is evident from the fact that he had only four disciples the undisputed winner.Positive Approach PART II . wrote commentaries on Patanjali Yoga (YOga TArAvali) and Tantra (PrapanchsAra Tantra). bhakti. but he will make sincere attempt to arise us step by step. wrote commentaries on prasthAntrayi.Positive Approach So. and spiritual path (meditation) all are accepted AND considered REAL. After one realizes. surrender. if there was only one level . All this he did to cover all types of people having different temperaments and mental make-up.PART II . hence accepting. Let us not forget that we are under ignorance and hence it is not proper to just think of this world as illusion. So lets start this journey and remove the ignorance. But thankfully vyavahArika satya is wholeheartedly accepted and is used extensively to neutralize contradictions. follower or admirers. reinstalled Jaganath temple. there will be no second. It will be just an empty talk. to destroy the ignorance. Since we all are under ignorance and not Jnani-s. He also composed many hyms dedicated to various deities and also accepted karma kand and encouraged it upto certain extend. pray to Lord to remove the ignorance.

Only refuge at lotus feet of Lord can save us and make us cross the terrible ocean of samsAra. hence he only opposed other systems w. Adi Shankara created many prakaraNa grantha-s which teach the basics. But even in Tatva Bodh. noting is possible. an example of rose flower is given. Consider defects in this world and always think of this world as impermanent and abode of sorrows. The final destination according to advaita is NirguNa Brahman. Our AcArya Adi Sankara has written a gloss on patanjalI yOga sUtra by the name yOga tArAvalI. vidyAraNya svAmI in pancadaSI cites amrit nAda upanishad.t final goal and he did not negate the path itself. sadAnanda yOgindra in his vedAnta sAra describes eight limbs of yOga in brief. Since Advaita is difficult to understand. yOga is helpful to gain concentration and attain sufficient purity.Understanding Advaita Adi Shankara knew that not all can accept advaita. haTha yOga is also practised by many in the beginning.r. Lets apply mithyA into our real life. But it is said that since there are two objects the Page 159 of 619 . Anyone who has these qualities or pre-requisites is an introvert person. which is considered by many as the most basic and first to be read also starts with adhekAra or qualities or pre-requisites. Gita starts with Arjuna ViSAda yoga and begins with a mohAndha (DritarAShTra) and Arjuna ends with nasTO mohA smrutir labdhA … Lets return to practical world and start our journey with Prayers Without the grace of mAyA. Q-2: In the example explaining draSya and draSTA and the difference between them. Hari OM Q&A Q-1: Does Advaita allow the practice of yOga? A: Yes. which is of yogic nature and explains that yOga is useful for those who are not sufficiently inwardly pure and whose mind is not calm and hence hence are not able to concentrate and practice Atma-vicAra. and Lord Jaggannath. Let us not keep saying the word 'mithyA' without realizing the mithyAtva. Let us pray to the great almighy Lord for our own progress and for the whole of humanity.

So. This is refers to external objects (bahir draShya). by your way of understanding. So the map would be external objects --> internal objects --> source of both (no objects). This refers to internal objects (antar draShya). etc. jIva spreads through the body via 72000 nADI-s. from Brahman to jiva to mind to sense is a journey outward. sanchita Jnana. present in mind. dvaita (duality) is established.Understanding Advaita . In other words whatever is draShya (observed) be it worldly objects or their reflection in mind. external (outside our body .e. Now our journey is to go back from extrovert to introvert.Q & A knower and the known. How to correctly interpret an example? A: Upadesha-s should be said and has to be understood from the perspective which makes one introvert.in material world) and in inside us (in our mind) are to be renounced. that which is already known in past. Similar is the case with other examples like clay and pot . If unrecognized. kuTastha (AtmA / Brahman) is reflected in pot water is called as chidAbhAsa (jIva). can we reach the source of both (which is the substratum of every reflection? By seeing pot and clay will mind calm down and merge in source or will it remain to keep seeing 'something'? Coming to the above example. Now. Rose flower example is intended to teach us Page 160 of 619 .e. jIva with the help of mind and mind with the help of senses becomes extrovert. the question is. mind and brain or say perception is done by reflecting upon and matching the current image with the past image that is seen. are to be renounced and mind has to be turned introvert. means mental reflections. Mind travels via sense objects upto objects (my own understanding) and intellect interprets and gives meaningful perception which is associated with our past memories i. Both the reflections i. it is a new shape and needs a new name.

Q-3: Should one be skeptical in approach? Does advaita teach one to be skeptical? S: Our intellect should be used in a way that it increases our devotion. some do have. Hence one cannot say that advaita is an atheist philosophy. which are once created and are of destructive nature. How can a path which rest on vedic karma-kANDa be an athiest philosophy? Page 161 of 619 . 2.Q & A 1.Understanding Advaita . rose flower in this case. The base has already been setup in karmakANDa. Now. After attaining certain level of inner purification. Advaita (and vedAnta in general). Separation by discrimination. The focus is on clay and not the name and form which is 'pot'. Being skeptical is not a solution. faith in God increases. As Adi SankarAcArya in his TAi. BUT NOT BHAKTI. As on regularly performs vedic rites and rituals. while performing karma-kANDa. Certain things are not cleared even b shastras. one must have unflinching faith in our shastras or vedas so to say. upon which advaita rests. follow the dharma. not just once but until one is sufficiently purified. Naturally one must believe in God. They need not be renounced. fades away from memory and one dives deep into self. While not all westerners have hidden motives. Sub-commentaries and further sub-commentaries / glosses on bhASya says that one must practice vedic karma-kANDa. After discrimination. one is taught to think in an introvert way (vAnaprastha ASrama) and then finally it is sanyAsa of mind. Q-4: Does advaita make one atheist? Advaita is connected with last stage of life (sanyAsa ASrama). Up. So mind is made introvert. brahman is sat-chit-Ananda all lese consists of names and forms. So bhakti also has to be there. We must have full faith in our shastras and our guru. Our faith in shastras. They are only cleared by personal direct experience. Object of observation is different from observer. Sattva is born in mind and with it love for God dawns in heart of devotee. Similar is the example of clay and Pot. 1/11 bhASya says satyam vada. asks one to renounce these external rites. Also note that meditation is extremely important. Object of observation. 3. god and guru are still there. focus shifts to the 'observer' or 'knower' or 'SAxI'. dharmam cara meaning speak truth.

Understanding Advaita . Q-6: Does advaita accept ISvara / saguNa Brahman / God with form and attribute? All AcArya-s surrender and revere to ISvara. Advaita only sees common factor Brahman in both.advaita does not speak of this type of not non-difference. Advaita asks one to question this very notion. jIva becomes ISvara One does not begin to appear like 4 armed viShNu or Trident holder Siva. one cannot have salvation. Saying that jIva will BECOME ISvara is not correct. ISvara = Brahman + vidyA mAyA jIva = Brahman + avidyA mAyA Common factor (Brahman) is accepted and uncommon factor which is vidya mAyA (in case of ISvara) adn avidyA mAyA (in case of jIva) are rejected (tyAga). We cannot equate ourselves with their characters and replicate their acts which are often called as miracles. It is a custom that whenever someone bows down to a SankarAcArya. God or ISvara is all powerful. Kanchi Paramacharya says that without grace of mAyA. Page 162 of 619 .Q & A Q-5: Does advaita say that jIva becomes ISvara? S: The acceptance of non-difference is due to bhAga-tyAga laxaNa or jahad-ajahd-laxaNa. jIva (in reality) is Brahman Advaita does not say. ISvara will merge in Brahman at will and does not need grace of anyone. Talking as a laymen. Rama and Krishna or Shiva all have their own typical character. jIva becomes Brahman Advaita does not say. they reciprocate it by saying nArAyaNa-nArAyaNa. The word ISvara has 6 upAdhi-s associated with it. Advaita says. as here there is an a priori of 'I' being jIva. One does not become a viShNu or Shiva look-a-like .

In PrabOdha sudhAkara. but by not giving importance to experiences. but that part is not focused by advaitin. While explaining 27 Siva. Remember the example of Sun veiled by clouds? Both views. sun being veiled and sun never being veiled are true but from different standpoint. Until one is not beyond mAyA. Adi Sankara cites Kai. From practical reality. one remains rooted in Self. we do revere all forms of God with dAsa bhAva. one stays neutral and stable. advaita accepts ISvara.bhakti and Jnana. nor does ISvara die and ofcourse. one keeps experiencing what others are experiencing. Up 8 to indicate non-duality of Siva and viShNu. yOgi-s gives importance to kundalini. Adi Sankara says that there are two ways of worship . Advaita is not atheist philosophy. In this way. While explaining 114 rudra. while advaita technically considers it as an illusion and hence neglects it. Adi Sankara further says that Siva is rudra and is the cause of all (parakAraNa) In mAyA pancakam. while explaining meaning of attributes 27 Siva. Adi Sankara has many times attributed his reverence to Vishnu / Krishna. when snake renounces it's skin. we focus more on nirguNa aspect which is an adobe of peace and bliss. but in formless state. Q-7: Did Adi Sankara and advaita consider Siva and viShNu an non-different (abheda)? A: Yes.Understanding Advaita . Only from absolute reality. devotional worship (upAsanA) and disassociation with non-Self through viveka. one does not become a viShNu or Siva look-a-like. Also saying that ISvara dies is not correct. his lesser known work. Adi Sankara indicates non-difference between brahma. In fact he says that there are three ways to reach absolute and control mind. 114 rudra explains non difference between them. breath control. it dies. It is. viShNu and Siva Page 163 of 619 .Q & A It is only the path that does not give importance to names and forms. It is like saying. Advaita does accept higher authority (brahman). while a yOgi / Sakta / tAntrika will intentionally arise kundalini to sahasrahAra. This does not mean that kundalini of an advaitin is not activated. Adi Sankara cites Siva purANa to explain non-difference. Adi Sankara in his viShNu sahasranAma bhASya.

In simple words. su. AcArya also cites BG 12. govindam bhaja mUdhA madhe. 169-170). AcArya says bhaja govindam. Adi SankarAcArya says that Brahman is both with with and without attributes. bhaja govindam. the struggle is greater. Many wrongly translate 'mUdha' as 'fool' and some like Srila Prabhupada translates it as 'rascal'. 5 Who know that laws do not tell of the differences between Vishnu and Shiva. In bhaja govindam. He does not say that the path is difficult for all. the one who considers himself as body is called as mUdha. Page 164 of 619 . Our AcArya cites brihadAraNyaka upanishad (pra. Adi Sanakra says Bhagavadavataarah kashcha bhagavaan? Maheshah shankaranaaraayanaatmaikah Q: Who is Bhagavaan? A: The one Supreme Lord in whom Shankara and Naraayana are united.5 our AcArya says that for those whose consciousness is strongly embedded in physical body. Nagathitha ghatanaa patiyasi maya. Notes: Commenting on BG12.Understanding Advaita .Q & A Bramayathi hari hara bhedha bhava.5 Similarly in praSna uttara ratna mAlikA.5. (part of question 65) In a lesser known work prabOdh sudhAkara. Delude themselves and make them see differences in Shiva and Vishnu . Here the word mUdha indicates the one whose consciousness is strongly embedded in physical body.

which is the highest philosophical truth. As a jagadguu Adi Sankara had to take care of common people also who are are spiritually inclined to a limited degree. sUrya is the only deity that is visible with physical eye. For a small percentage of people. From viShNu sahasranAma bhASya. considering them as equal and manifestations of supreme brahman. The word 'demi-god' gives false impression. gaNeSa and sUrya deva. who are inwardly pure due to intense meditation in this life or due to intense meditation and nitya karma. Adi Sankara also has to reconcile the differences in SAstra-s and harmonize them into one system. Rest four are on four sides. and can be directly experienced. Adi Sankara added the sixth deity skanda. are qualified to practice the direct path . Q-9: Did Adi Sankara accepted other religio-philosophical systems? A: Adi Sankara established Advaita as the supreme goal. which was possible through only smArta and advaita. In this way. Regarding other gods. Page 165 of 619 . After that comes. tripurAsundari (Sakti) is the main deity of Sakta-s. Other systems like vedic karma kANDa. another one viShNu. advaita rests on the foundation of duality. Similarly gaNeSa is the main deity of worship of many people. but he never denigrated status of any devatA. param pada. who is very popular in south. Since Adi Sankara's parents were Siva bhakta-s and Adi Sankara was a viShNu bhakta. Advaita by it's nature negates duality. However. Not all are sincere in spiritual practices and are not ready to quit worldly desires and objects. as advaita is not suitable for all. One form of God remains central and is kept in centre. vedic karma in past life/lives. SivapancAxara stotra.Understanding Advaita . he blended the worship of all forms of God. it is evident that the equality of all forms of god is only found in smArta dharma. His ISTa devatA was bhagavAn viShNu.Q & A Q-8: Did Adi Sankara preached smArta dharma? It is believed that Adi Sankara propagated smArta dharma. not all are inwardly pure. polemical debates are different and teaching for masses is different. the advaita. Adi Sankara established advaita as the top-most religio-philosophical system. and other independent hymns dedicated to other devatA-s indicate that for masses he propagated smArta dharma. yet another one can have Sakti as his main deity of worship. like tripurAsundari. His independent compositions like daxaNAmurtI stotra.advaita. Not all want moxa (moksha). the nivritti mArga. Other systems are used upto a point until sufficient inner purity is achieved. One member of family can have Siva as his ISTa devatA. For establishing ultimate truth. it is concluded that Adi Sankara did not considered any difference between Siva and viShNu. purANA-s and various Agama SAstra-s are also supported by Adi Sankara. soundarya lahiri.

visiting places of pilgrimage. Absolute Reality or higher truth Relative reality is further split into a. Dreams are abstract. etc are acceptable until one attains sufficient purity to practice advaita. someone has to know this zero state. as we are aware. we continue from where we had left day after day. It is none other than Brahman. practising karma-kANDa. They say Atman is non-existence. Relative Reality or lower truth 2. such questions may arise. According to advaita. This Self is indestructible. For mental purity.Q & A Advaita is can be practically applied by only purified mind who longs only and only for liberation. However. Atman is nothing but void. other systems like yOga. as preached by Adi Sankara.Understanding Advaita . reciting veda-s. advaita questions the buddhist philosophy. Dream Reality . The most similar Buddhist philosophy is SunyavAda. i. Practical Reality / Empirical Reality . know says that Atman is zero state? To make a statement.prAtibhAsika satya Hence there are three levels of reality. For Page 166 of 619 . idol worship. According to this system.e. who is the the knower of zero state? i. advaita accepts two levels of truths 1. advaita accepts veda-s as supreme authority. a covered Buddhism? What is the difference between Buddhism and Advaita? A: Buddhism has many sub-divisions.e. Dream reality is different from practical reality. you cannot negate your own Self. Q-11: How does an advaitin carry out day-2-day activities? A: When one thinks of brahma-satya-jagan-mithyA. Dreams do not continue from one night to another. Other difference between Buddhism and Advaita is that. It is Atman only. doing nitya-karma. Q-10: Is Advaita. with no connection to each other. Advaita disagrees with it. as propounded by famous buddhist nAgArjuna. zero state.vyavahArika satya b. Day-2-day work Rules and verses that are for absolute reality are not to be applied for practical reality. Practical reality is continuous.

Since our mind is attached to names and forms. it is said to be in sattva guNa and do the work. the effect of meditation lasts the whole day. Advaitins are mentally balanced and use their common sense. On the other hand remaining alert that we do not get attached ot anything helps in meditating in better way. Here. But we see all this as play. One does not experience them separately. It is like charging a mobile. the creation theory is established. Hence glories of God are sung. We do not act foolishly :) . Superimposition 2. then how is deity worship. we advaitns follow veda-s (samhitA-s. While Meditating When meditating. Superimposition. we understand from logic that we do not cling to any of the worldly issues or persons. Praying to a name and form is acceptable. Retraction of superimposition 1. Now comes into picture the second part Page 167 of 619 . The separation of from our body is is experienced and this experience and other experiences like constant feeling of peace and bliss are carry forwarded after we come out of meditation and are engaged in day-2-day work. When mind become sufficiently purified. but the 'actor'. We accept duality on this plane and act accordingly. In the same way. which helps you to not to get involved in any issues or in the work you are doing. the creator too does not exist in nirvikalp samAdhi? Traditional teaching of advaita is adhyAropa-apavAda. The attributes like sat-chit-Ananda are described figuratively and not in absolute sense. Like an actor will put his heart and soul in his acting. to create this world. We follow what bhagavAn says in gItA about how one should do karma. brAhmaNa-s) and dharma smriti-s. Charge for 1 hour and it works for 1 day.Understanding Advaita . we try to rise above mAyA and apply all those shruti-vacana-s said from the plane of absolute reality. and this world being real and praying to ISvara justified since ISvara. bhagavAn in gItA says in chapter 14 to rise above 3 guNa-s (last few verses) and in chapter 3. the creator 'ISvara' who is not affected or who is in total control of mAyA is accepted. multiplicity nature or dual nature of this world is established. which is formless and without attributes. (false) superimposition followed by subsequent retraction. This can be split into two parts 1. Q-12: Advaita depicts mAyA in a 'negative way'. yet he knows that he is not the character.Q & A practical reality. then one comes to know that ISvara can exist without name and form as Brahman. which means.

and higher worlds. Adviatin may experience kundalini Sakti. Brahman. a GYAnI stays in dual plane and considers himself as jIva who is powerless and is working according to the will of ISvara. Q-13: Can a doer be a witness at the same time? If one is a doer. service to ISvara and singing his glories are all justified and accepted by advaitins. S/he is taught to remain neutral and rise above it. Hence to break free Page 168 of 619 . Retraction of superimposition Now the search begins to know the true nature of Self. deity worship. Am I jiva? One is taught to be a witness and separate from what is not 'I'. Ego is defined as 'sense of individuality'.Understanding Advaita . At right time. 2. idol worship. Hence for the sake of devotees who have not attained sufficient purity and these are the majority of sAdhaka-s. Advaitins also experiences bhAva. kundalini. still one has ego. So it is in the second phase of teaching that mAyA is depicted as 'something that is negative' not in the first phase when superimposition on Self and Brahman is applied. Spirituality is not about intellectually knowing SAstra-s.Q & A 'Retraction of superimposition'. Finally the 'ego of servant' melts into oneness. mAyA etc is spoken negatively. In many cases this is not possible. Very few attain sufficient purity to be ready for the teachings of second phase. In this way. chakra. If one decides to renounce the attachment towards family members mentally. Our mind should follow the direction of intellect. One asks the presumption does 'jiva' exists. In advaita. describing mAyA as positive is justified. A matured advaita vedAntin will never make fun of deity worship and deity worshippers. In this process of neti-neti. for the good of all. though one is the servant of Lord. then one cannot be a witness. A witness cannot act. then mind should faithfully follow this instruction. Finally what remains is pure Self which is limitless and it is not experienced separately. There is only one tatva i. ISvara himself with inspire a matured devotee to practice advaita's philosophy of negation. the world. Negating anything does not mean disrespect. In jIva bhAva. as s/he is a witness. Even after one is Self Realized. vedic rites and rituals. In order to stay neutral and not get mesmerized by these divine phenomenon. In Gita. we are taught to be the witness. Laws of karma are for those who are doers.e. all that is 'not-I' is discarded by being a witness to 'not-I'.

one has to disassociate oneself with doership by being a witness of the karma that one does. Atman does not do anything. (Cf.28 says ‘रभणया रभणकषभ वतर नत … ।।3.23).I am not the doer. 'Oh Arjuna I am the Atman'.28।।’ ‘guNA guNeShu vartante …’ which means 'guNa-s as senses move amidst the guNa-s as the sense-objects. the knower of kshetra and is a witness to everything.20 says 'aham AtmA ghuDhAkeSa' meaning. as he is the knower of guNa and karma vibhAga and is separate from gunas [by being their witness]. mind. Atman is akartA. and the GYAnI is is not attached. Karma-vibhaga means the varieties of inter-actions among these.XIV. He knows? I am Akarta -. He who knows the truth about the classification of the Gunas and their respective functions understands that the alities as sense organs move amidst the alities as sense objects. Atman is the witness of everything that is happening and is separate from everything.They are the five subtle elements. the non-doer.Understanding Advaita . ego. intellect. Atman is called as 'kshetraGYa'. five sensory organs. five motor organs and five objects (sound etc. The law of karma is only for doer and not for non-doer (witness). Atman is a witness and bhagavAn in gItA BG 10. Therefore he is not attached to the actions. In chapter 13. The verse means: He who knows the truth that the Self is entirely distinct from the three Gunas and actions does not become attached to the actions. In brief. Page 169 of 619 .Q & A from the law of karma. bhagavAn in gITa BG 3. bhagavAn in gItA teaches us to be a sthita praGYa. Guna-vibhaga means the products of Prakrti which consists of the three gunas.) of the senses.

still it will only increase discomfort. if you are 'Mind your own business' type. an updesha.Understanding Advaita . hence an AchArya who writes commentaries Gita and other shruti-s cannot write anything negative. they defame their own AcArya. nor do they teach something and live a different life. as one becomes aware that there are people who accuse our sampradAya and so we need to defend ourselves. then continue to read on. All paths. For a laymen. Kanchi Paramacharya says. Feel Compassion for accusers. imparting spiritual instruction or even a prayer by Guru for disciple to help him rise above ocean of samsAra. If you are convinced. there is no need to read any further. lower emotions gets replaced by higher emotions. as reading accusations might upset you. it is very difficult to counter arguments. One who has surrendered to God and meditates on him with full faith. depend upon God's grace. True saints do not speak ill of anyone. In this process. Good luck for your spiritual progress. a mantrOpadesha (initiating disciple by giving a mantra). I was a bit hurt and spend a lot of time collecting information. Gita does not teach us to accuse. Even though I have attempted to answer them. I personally believe that none of AchArya-s have actually accused each other. sparshadikshA (touching a disciple and blessing him). as now you have passed through a through patch. who are not free from lower emotions wrongly or purposefully interpret commentaries in convoluted way. rising kundalini of disciple. God gradually removes devotee's ego. but themselves do not denigrate other deities. If you are the one who thinks that we should know about accusations by rival sampradAya-s and you should be prepared for them. no matter whatever sampradAya he belongs to. AchArya-s praise their chosen deity and ask for one-pointed devotion. I would like to request readers to understand some facts. meaning not to criticize anyone.Clearing Accusations & Doubts Clearing Accusations & Doubts A Note to Readers Pranams. There would be a permanent change in the behaviour. As one progresses. accusations. God also makes one experience that the progress is only and only due to his grace and Guru's grace and a seeker has no control over his progress. This does not mean one should not praise own sampradAya or chosen deity. My personal opinion is that to live in communal harmony. Unfortunately immature disciples. cannot dwell in any true saint. A laymen does not study tons of SAStra-s of their and rival sampradAya-s. it is better not to read any further. Intolerance. As one progresses in spirituality. pray to God to show them correct way and the truth and move on. Their life itself is a teaching. Before beginning this section. an upadesha can be maun (silence). In this context. I am such laymen. describes sthitapraGYa laxaNa (qualities of a Self Realized person). specially when Bhagavan in chapter 2. The very purpose of spirituality and of Upadesha-s is to uproot Ego. one becomes very soft from within. An Upadesha is anything which is done or said with the intention of lifting a disciple to the highest truth. When I first read accusations. smaraNadikshA (remembering disciple from distance). it is best to adopt nAhI nindA nyAya. 55-59. including advaita. Not being blessed by sharp intellect and retention Page 170 of 619 . This is because our shastra-s do not teach us to accuse.

with little effort. then you may not read any further.7 || Page 171 of 619 . it's not that dangerous.Tat Tvam Asi and Aham Brahmasmi. If you have taken resolve to read further. 'Let's begin' :) Quoting Padma Purana to accuse Adi Shankara . Logical objections raised by Vaishnavas are already successfully replied by • Adi Shankara's work vAkya Vritti in which Adi Shankara explains two mAhA vAkya-s . if you do not mind others speaking anything and do not take it to your heart.Refutation of mAyAvAdam asatSAstraM Praccanam baudham uchyate Vaishnava-s have raised logical objections to philosophy of Advaita. but for our inner progress and Atmic upliftment. you are easy-to-go guy. well. But to defend our faith and sampradAya.Clearing Accusations & Doubts power made things difficult for me. but as said. In the Padma Purana. Vaishnava-s Specially Gaudiya-Vaishnava-s use this verses to accuse our acharya and Advaita Vedanta. Continuous critical examination a verse or a canonical text like purana or a granth or independent works of a saint and thinking like a historian may result in losing one's bhakti. then should I say. i. Lastly I would say that if I could manage and reply to accusations and general doubts. Reading further is left to you. • VidyaraNya Swami in his work PanchAdasi. a We will move to refuting accusations. • Sureshvaracharya's Naishkarmya Siddhi and • Madhusudan Saraswati's celebrated work Advaita Siddhi commentary on Shri Adi Shankara's Dasa Sloki • Swami Sacchidanandendra Saraswati's critical Study 'Vedanta PrakriyA Pratyabhigya' (Method of Vedanta in English . Adi Shankara's sutra bhAshya also refutes other systems. Lack of sanskrit knowledge added the difficulty. We do not study shastra-s for intellectual gain. then.e. which can be conveyed by reading proper translation and listening to audio / video discourses. anyone can do. one needs to dig a little deep. mAyAvAdam asachchAstraM prachchannaM bauddha ucyate | mayaivakathitaM devikalau brAhmaNa rUpiNA || Pa Pur 6. as laymen would not bother studying sanskrit and keep piling up layer and after layers. which is time consuming. there are verses wherein Shiva tells Parvati that he will appear in the age of Kali as a brahmana (Brahmin) to preach asat-sastra. Hence meaning of verse is more important.A critical Study) and 'Shuddha Shankara PrakriyA BhAskara' and Siddhanta Bindu. It also derails us from our path.Understanding Advaita .236.

Adi Shankara's Kevala Advaita is nothing but mAyAvAda. Hence. We will take some logical arguments with relation to accusations. Adi Shankara was spreading Asat shastra and those who follow him will be doomed. Adi Shankara's teachings are non-vedic. of the form of a brAhmana. Using these verses Vaishnava-s accuse our acharya and Advaita Vedanta. O goddess.Quoting Padma Purana to accuse Adi Shankara .7) vedarthan maha-sastram mayavadam avaidikam mayaiva kathitam devi jagatam nasakaranat || Pa Pur 6. we will consider these verses are authentic and not an interpolation as a result of hatred against Advaitins and Shankara. There are many more accusations and objections.Understanding Advaita . They are dealt later in this section. • Lord Shiva will come to destroy the world and will spread mAyAvAda which is an asata shAstra and nothing but hidden Buddhism. I propagate this philosophy in order to destroy the world. but is by nature non-Vedic. Page 172 of 619 . They conclude that • Vaishnavas say that Lord Shiva will incarnate by the will or order of supreme personality of Godhead (Lord Krishna). • Vaishnava-s argue that. uttara-khaNDa.236. 6.11) For time being. I myself. the Brahmin described in these verses is none other than Adi Shankaracharya. Adi Shankara and his Grand Guru (Param Guru) Shri GauDapadAcharya were hidden Buddhists. will proclaim it in Kali (age). Some even go on to say that he was demon who walked on earth.11 || This powerful doctrine of Mayavada resembles the Vedas.236.236.Refutation of mAyAvAdam asatSAstraM Praccanam baudham uchyate The doctrine of MAyA (illusion) is a wicked doctrine (preaching false shastra) and said to be pseudo-Buddhist. Philosophy of ajAta vAda was adopted from a famous Buddhist NAgArjuna. (Padma Purana 6. • Recently. reformists and ISKCON leaders also accuse that Shankara was biased with Brahmins. Hence they accuse our acharya and Advaita as 1. (Padma PurANa. 2. 3.

5.Clearing Accusations & Doubts 1. After Adi Shankara knew his mistake. Shiva Appears and disappears. This sows that Adi Shankara was absolutely neutral and not against idol worship. None of the verses directly name Adi Shankaracharya. as the name indicates is dedicated to Sarada Devi. Dwarka Matt at Dwarka and Puri Matt dedicated and build in memory of Jagannatha Puri. Adi Shankara's Guru was an avatar of Lord Vishnu's Shesha nAga. transformed into four veda-s). If Lord Shiva is given the task of misleading this world to begin it’s destruction.000 years. In support of their theory. Page 173 of 619 . Kanchikoti peetha is dedicated to KAmAkshI Devi. 6. Hence we are in first phase of kAlI yuga. then none can stop it. According to bhAgavat purANa. a Shaiva.000 years.e. That’s what happened. Vaishnav acharyas and Chaitanya Mahaprabhu would incarnate after Adi Shankaracharya? If it is the will of God to destroy this world. None would stop this destruction. which starts after Bhagavan Krishna left his physical body i. a Shakta all at a time by being an advaitin. we are in later half of Kali Yuga.Joshi Matt at Badrinath. 7. Siddhanta Shaiva-s do not believe in AvatarvAda. To add to it. According to this theory. How can he teach asat shastra or mAyAvAda. 4. According to them. Krishna said that the whole Yadav dynasty will be whitewashed and Dvarka will be submerged under water. Devotional hymms composed by Shri Adi Shankara are proofs of him being a Vaishnav. Shiva Does not take any avatAra. 2. Adi Shankara cannot be accused of preaching mAyAvAda.Understanding Advaita . if Adi Shankara was an Avatar of Shiva than who was Chandala (Chandala was Lord Shiva who appeared in disguise. Atleast 3 Matts of Adi Shankara are build in NArAyaNa dham . which happened 5400 years ago. According to the legend. Lord Revealed his true form. Kaliyug (Kali Yuga) has not ended and so before it ends we cannot conclude that Shankara was teaching maayaavad. but does not take birth like Rama and Krishna. i. It’s too early to conclude anything before Lord Kalki appears. 3. Four dogs he carried. They do not believe that Adi Shankara was an Avatar of Lord Shiva. Sharada matt. they say that. According to Brahma-vaivartana Purana. None could Stop Bhagavan Parashurama who killed kshatriyas for 21 generations. returned to Vaikuntha. where the verses which categorizes different purANa-s are of dubious of being interpolations. then why would other avatars. VarNA is by guNa but guNa is inherited by birth is accepted by all major acharya-s. 8. the age of kAlI is 432. Hence. GovindapAda. in his earlier avatar was Maharshi Patanjali. We have Adi Shankara's beautiful commentary of 28 verses on Patanjali Yoga Sutra-s We will later talk about interpolations in Padma Purana.e. Kali Yuga will last for 10.

11 for better understanding and see if they point to our acharya Sri Adi Shankara and Advaita Vedanta. 3.236. in the form of a brAhmana. 236.11 || I stated this Brahman's nature to be qualityless.236. O goddess. (padma PuraaNa. I myself.Understanding Advaita .9) brahmaNosyasvayaMmrUpaMnirguNaMvakshyate mayA | sarvasyajagatopyatramohanAarthaMkalauyuge || Pa Pur 6.e. (but) non-Vedic due to the principle of Maayaa (illusion) (present in it).10 || vedArthavanmahAshAstraMmAyayAyadavaidikam | mayaivakalpitaMdevijagatANAshakAraNAt || Pa Pur 6. I myself have conceived.Lets explore related verses from Padma Purana for better understanding Lets explore related verses from Padma Purana for better understanding To understand the verses targeted against us and our acharya. mAyAvAdamasachchAstraMprachchannaMbauddha ucyate | mayaivakathitaMdevikalaubrAhmaNarUpiNA || Pa Pur 6.236. uttarakhaNDa.7) apaarthaMshrutivAkyAnAMdarshayanlokagarhitam | svakarmarUpaMtyAjyatvamatraivapratipaadhyate || Pa Pur 6. uttarakhaNDa. and for deluding the world in this Kali age. In this (doctrine) only the giving up of one's own duties is expounded. 236.236. (padma puraaNa.236. 236.10-11) Page 174 of 619 .9 || And that is said to be religiousness by those who have fallen from all duties. (Padma PuRANa 6. uttara-khaNDa.236. the great doctrine resembling the purport of the Vedas. Lets analyze more verses i.8) sarvakarmaparibhraShTairvaidharmmatvaMtaduchyate | pareshajiivapAraikyaMmayAtupratipAdhyate || Pa Pur 6. for the destruction of the worlds.8 || It shows the meaninglessness of the words of the holy texts and is condemned in the world. proclaimed it in Kali (age).7 || The doctrine of MAyA (illusion) is a wicked doctrine and said to be pseudo-Buddhist.236. I have propounded the identity of the Highest Lord and the (individual) soul.7 to 3. (padma puraaNa.236.

it is the only one which exists.7 4. Aitreya Upanishad 3. ततवमधस Tattvamasi .Yajur Veda.Sama Veda. अहश ब्रहयानस्म Aham brahmāsmi I am Brahman . अयमयातमया ब्रह Ayamātmā brahma This Atman is Brahman . which are Jnana-kand. पजयानमत ब्रह Prajñānam brahma Consciousness is Brahman .Tat Tvam Asi That thou art . Independent Reality . bruhadAraNyaka (Brihad-araNyaka) Upanishad . Dependent Reality . Mandukya Upanishad 2) Nowhere in these mahAvAkya-s the word mAyA appears.Understanding Advaita .4.6. why mAyA is talked too much (in the beginning) and that finally mAyA is neglected and renounced to enter into non-dual state. mAyA is not given importance. Chandogya Upanishad . We will understand later as why advaita vedanta is BrahmavAda.ISvara 2.Clearing Accusations & Doubts Lets analyze important words: The doctrine of MAyA (mAyA vAdam asat SAstraM) Advaita is not mAyAvAda. we can conclude that shruti teaches unity of Atman and Brahman. we have studied that why concept of mAyA is important. The independent reality is called as Absolute reality and in reality.Creation of ISvara Advaita also accepts both these realities.Atharva Veda.10 3.1.3 2. Earlier in section Understanding Advaita. associated with four different veda-s. It is BrahmavAda. All AcArya-s (including mAdhvAcArya) agree that there are two realities 1. Since four mahAvAkyA-s are from four different upanishads.8. To understand this we will analyze our mahAvAkya-s 1. Word Brahman appears in all the mahAvAkya-s.Rig Veda. but it is Brahman that is given importance.meaning That (Brahman) is you) . The dependent reality is the one which is created by Page 175 of 619 .

(but) non-Vedic: This is completely opposite to that taught by Sri Adi Shankara.Understanding Advaita . This means that either Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. as ilusion is an overblown concept. Vedic rituals are done so that a person becomes fit to realise Brahman. Advaita also accepts jIva and the world as real. actually did not accused Adi Shankara and Advaita but were later interpolations by lesser evolved disciples. Pseudo-buddhist (prachchannaM bauddha) The doctrine shares some common terminology with Buddhism. hence it is not completely false. it is said that Shiva in the form of Brahmana. It shows the meaninglessness of the words of the holy texts (shruti): The great doctrine resembling the purport of the Vedas.16. It is relative reality. by (the recitation of) sacred texts. it is customary to drop all kAmya karma (sacrifices. we do feel it. From practical POV. by the (acquisition of the) threefold sacred science. This means that this avatar of Shiva will not take sanyas. rituals and so agni). but he expounded Advaitic verses describing the Brahman. Adi Shankara did not say that he was Brahmin. Even Jiva goswami and Chaitanya Mahaprabhu considered Sridhara Swami. while Vaishnava sanyasins are tri-dandi sanysins. but will preach asat shastra as a Brahmin. By the study of the Veda. only brahman exists.Lets explore related verses from Padma Purana for better understanding ISvara. Since mAyA or it's creation. jIva bhAva is not experienced in nirvikalpa samAdhi. and by (Srauta) rites this (human) body is Page 176 of 619 . We will see it later in this section. Shruti. and manes). As far as teaching brahma-vidya is concerned. mAyA is mithyA from absolute standpoint. while taking sanyAsa. by burnt oblations. SanyAsin is above varNa. who was a Rama Bhakta and an Advaitain as an authority on spiritual matters and his commentary on Srimad BhAgavatam should be revered by all. In the above verse. Hence a sanyAsin renounces the very activity with the help of which he gained inner purity. by vows. by the great sacrifices. This sloka-s are famous as dasa-sloki meaning ten verses. Smriti and Manudharma smriti teach us to renounce vedic rituals. by (the procreation of) sons. From absolute POV. but only on the plane relative reality. a great Krishna Bhakta and an avatar of Bhakti. When Adi Shankara went to his guru GovindapAda. hence following the definition of real and unreal as per BG 2. his guru asked him his introduction. Of the form of Brahmana (Brahmin): (brAhmaNa rUpiNA ) It is true that Adi Shankara was born as a Brahmin. Still it holds major difference. It should be noted that Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was also eka-dandi sanyasin. Things are taken as negatively and mAyA. we consider everything other than brahman as mithyA. by offering (to the gods. Rishis.

13.35. says that . then. Shri Chandrashekharendra Saraswati of Kanchi Kamakoti peetham.t. merely in the form of the ability for steadfastness in Knowledge.48 which talk about varNa dharma. See verses 87-100 in Chapter 1. Paramacharya. They eat and sleep and copulate and. It is noteworthy that an Advaitin SAyanAchArya with help from his brother VidyAraNya Swami has written full commentary on all 5 veda-s (with Krishna and Shukla Yajurveda as two).48: O son of Kunti one should not give up the karma. but guNa is inherited by birth.28 Adi Shankara in his sutra-bhAsya says. which devolves from the very birth even though it be faulty.46. In this (doctrine) only the giving up of one's own duties is expounded. And that is said to be religiousness by those who have fallen from all duties.41: (Essence): varNa is by guNa. Keshav Kashmiri of Kumar VAishnav (NimbArkAcharya) also speak the same. as allotted to each caste BG 18. Also note that Sri RAmAnuja. as compared to remaining alive while engaging in another (varNa's) duty. duty to which one is born. worshipping svakarmana. Bhagavan in Gita says the same thing.Manu Smriti 2. Adi Shankara revered veda-s as supreme authority.35: Doing svadharma. is the difference between the two? it is adherence to dharma that distinguishes human beings from animals. Even death is better while engaged in sva-dharma. BG 4. Lets talk them in brief w. It is a well known fact that our shastra-s are extant because of Adi Shankaracharya. Adi Shankara in his Gita BhASya teaches us not to leave our svadharma. by adoring.13 & 18. "PasvAdibhiscAviswsat' It means. Sridhara Swami. Without dharma to guide him man would be no better than an animal. How can a man. Shankara BhASya BG: 3. besides. "Human beings and animals have the same urges. who is responsible for bringing back the vedic dharma and reviving the tradition alive be accused of teaching asat shastra? It is unfortunate that Vaishnava-s and other non-advaitins do not give him his due credit. the feelings of fear are common to both. though done defectively is superior (sreyas) than performing another's (another varNa's) in a better way. Both eastern and western scholars uninanimously agree that SAyanAchArya's commentary is the most authentic. 18. Acharya (Adi Shankara) has commanded us to hold on to our old dharmic traditions and keep them alive. What. with his own duties stated above. BG 18.Understanding Advaita . Page 177 of 619 . No other acharya of any sampradAya has accomplish this feat.46: A human being achieves success.41 .r. 4. This is reflected in his commentary on verses 3. VarNa by birth is also supported by Manusmriti.Clearing Accusations & Doubts made fit for (union with) Brahman .42-45 talk about duties of 4 varNa-s BG18.

Sa. do your duties properly. 1/11 with commentaries by Sureshvara and sayana (vidyaraNya) says Page 178 of 619 .66।। sarvadharmānparityajya māmēkaṅ śaran ḥ aṅ vraja. all forms of rites and duties: Here the word dharma (righteousness) includes adharma (unrighteousness) as well. Let us take a little excerpt form Tai. 18. 'Give up religions and irreligion' (Mbh. In Taittiriya Bhasya.66 says सवर धमयारनपररतयजय मयामककश शरणश वज। अहश तवया सवर पयापकभ्यरो मरोकशयष्ययाशम मया शभचन।।18. do not have a motive to harm others. I shall free you from all sins. Practice non-violence.66. 'One who has not desisted from bad actions' (Ka. 1.18. that Follow and practice Truth. Adi Shankara in his Gita BhASya says. 18. speak without hypocrisy. Up. our acharya explains the importance of duties in Taittiriya Upanishad 1/11. for. He instructs them. what is intended is total renunciation of all actions.66 Sarva-dharman. ‘सतयश वद। घमर चर। स्वयाध्ययाययानत मया पमदन।’ ‘Satyam vada. Up. as is enjoined in Vedic and Smrti texts like. ahaṅ tvā sarvapāpēbhyō mōks ḥ ayis ḥ yāmi mā śucah ḥ .66 Abandoning all forms of rites and duties. 1//11 BhaSya by Adi Shankara and his disciple SureSavarAcArya.Understanding Advaita .. speak truth. Shankara Bhasya of Tai.. 1/11 Shankara BhaSya says. dharmam chara. TAi. Keep doing karma kand and keep following smriti-s which are moral and ethical codes for harmonious living. In simple words. .24). (Therefore) do not grieve. follow dharma. Up.. Just by performing vedic rites once. do not consider that karma kand is over for you.Lets explore related verses from Padma Purana for better understanding We will take another verse from Gita: Bhagavan in Gita BG 18.. etc.2. 329.40). go to my refuge alone. Sloka begins with .‘वकदमनभतव्ययाचयायर्थोतोऽनतकवयाधसनमनभशयानस्त’ – ‘Vedamanoochyãchãryo’ntevãsinamanushãsti’ – ‘The teacher instructs the students who have completed their study of the Vedas’ (Taittireeya Upanishad: 1/11).

it was explained that Advaita is the only Vedantic branch which accepts full shruti and veda-s. without hypocrisy or a motive to do injury. Follow Dharma.Clearing Accusations & Doubts Duties 2. Bhasyas clearly shows that Adi Shankara did not teach anything non-vedic or against dharma." one may suppose that after a single performance of the works enjoined in the shruti and the smriti they may be abandoned. earlier in Understanding Advaita. Up. the abstaining from theft. Speak the true: give utterance to what them comest to know by proper evidence and what is worthy of utterance. are particularized below.Understanding Advaita . Truth-speaking stands also for other virtues mentioned along with it. They forget that all 18 purANa-s were written by Bhagavan Ved Vyas who is an avatar according to Bhagavatam. Several quotes from Shastra-s both Smriti and Shruti are mentioned in next section Advaita in Shastras. Jaimini has defined it thus." etc. And thou shalt follow Dharma. To prevent this supposition the shruti commands as follows … For full commentary. The wise say that Dharma consists in the observance of Agnihotra and other works. such as truth-speaking. briefly Speak the true. source: refer page 178 References from Gita and Tai. inasmuch as the several duties. stated. truth. refer his bhasya. (S).speaking consists in giving utterance to a thing as it is perceived. The wise who know all Dharma lay down that truth . the command of the scriptures has been observed. too. Vaishnavas even go as far as downgrading the Status of Shiva as just a demi-god and in this claim they quote some verses from BhAgavatam and the quote from Gita in which Bhagavan talks about 'anya-devata'. Is Advaita Non-Vedic? Now let us try to understand that Advaita is vedic or not. Vaishnava-s do not accept that Shiva is a Supreme God and Shaivas do not accept Krishna as Supreme God. It is also well known that Advaita accepts all 6 pramANas of KumArila BhaTTa school of pUrva mimAmsA. " Dharma is the thing taught in (the word of) command (Veda)"t Thus the two comprehensive sentences teach that all duties enjoined in the sruti and the smriti should be observed. On the principle that " Once done. Duties never to be neglected. They also do not accept the verses from Bhagavatam and other purANa-s like Page 179 of 619 . 'Dharma' here stands for duty in general. such as "harmlessness. Apart from this.* 'Dharma' means Agnihotra and other sacrificial rites enjoined in the extant srutis.

Same is the case with Shaivas. but considers them an important step for inner purification. Shaktas believe that only Adi Shakti is supreme and all incarnation including Krishna and Rama come under Adi Shakti. Jnanam Anantam Brahma. but mAyApati i. "anumana". It says they are all manifestations of NirguNa Brahman. It is unknown to me if Brahman is ever defined as Individual sole in Upanishads. They do not accept Vishnu or NArAyaNa as Ved-purusha. The six pramANa-s are "pratyaksa". Vishnu and Shiva (Rudra). controller of mAyA. This means direct insult to Bhagavan veda vyas. Ishvara is not mAyA. Advaita. After careful studying of Shatra-s. No Acharya is above Bhagavan Veda Vyas. "sabda" "arthapatti" and "anupalabdhi". Advaita considers it as an important step for inner purification. and the teaching style of Adi Shankara is not of his own but is passed on to Adi Shankara by Guru-Shishya parampara. Adi Shankara in his bhasya teaches us that it is a definition of Brahman (brahmanah lakshanaartah vakyam) Sri Ramanuja in Gita 13.pratyaksa. but Vaishnava-s do not accept it.1. Advaita accepts all 6 pramANa-s as prescribed by mimAmsA of KumArila Bhatta. Advaita correctly teaches that Brahman is supreme.13 interprets Brahman as individual soul. Advaita only teaches that having divine vision of God is not the final state. Advaita do not consider vedic rituals and Vedanta as opposite to each other. It is Nirvikalp SAmAdhi. Advaita also do not discard dvaita and idol worship.e. This is in accordance to Shruti and Smriti which teaches Brahma-vidya. as taught by our Acharya which fully complies with shruti and smriti. as done in Padma Purana is nothign but childish. "upamana". Acharya's method of teaching. If Bhagavan Ved Vyas has written 18 purANa-s then there must be some purpose behind them. Taittiriya Upanishad 2. Brahma purANa which says that there is no difference between Brahma. Rejecting them on the basis of categorization (sattvik. Advaita is the only vedantic school which accepts all forms of God as supreme and gives equal status to them. rajasic and tamasic). Ramanuja's qualified non-dualism accepts only three. is the only traditional consistent method.1 says satyam. Acceptance of all six pramanas of Mimamsa Unlike other non-advaita schools. anumana and the Veda (sabda) Page 180 of 619 .Supreme Brahman. Rudra is mentioned in veda-s as veda-purusha. adhyAropa apavAda.Is Advaita Non-Vedic? pamda purANa. it will be clear that it is only Advaita. while Adi Shankara interprets Brahman in this verse as it should be . It should also be noted that it was Bhagavan Veda Vyas who blessed Adi Shankara and extend his life for 16 more years to uproot adharma and teach the correct Shastra.Understanding Advaita . Unlike other schools. kurma purANa.

Kapila Maharsi's "Kapilam" (Sankhya).Clearing Accusations & Doubts We need all types of Knowledge Paramacharya says. It enfolds even those systems that are critical of it.an example of "nahi ninda nyaya". It concedes them the place they deserve. we must make them sharp as if by frequent honing so that they will help us in finding the truth. That is why I am speaking about all such sastras though I am called "Sankaracarya". Advaita does not state that other systems are totally false. all the arts. Further Paramacharya says The purpose of exalting a particular deity over the another is not to depreciate the latter. Such exclusive devotion is called "ananyabhakti". The idea here. We must make good use of our brain and mind. Vaisnavism and so on. Anviksikyaiksi tantre Kapile Pitam paracitiratula kapi Patanjalambhah Bhatta lebhe paramapi viditam ghattartha-tattvam Advaita embraces even those sastras that apparently do not speak about it. Adi Shankara at the request of his disciples gave instructions in 5 stanzas to his beloved disciples which are called as SopAna Panchakam or Updesha Panchakam Page 181 of 619 . If it opposes them it is only to the extent needed to counter their argument against itself. We learn from the SankaraVijaya that the Acarya mastered Nyaya or Anviksiki. source Last message of Adi Shankara BhagavadpAda Last Message or parting instructions of any saint is considered as extremely important. Why did Sankara master all the sastras. Indeed. however.Understanding Advaita . Sankara who thought the world was Maya? Why did he ascend the "sarvajna-pita" (seat of omniscience)? I said Nyaya was also known as Tarka. is not to regard other devatas as inferior to one's own chosen deity. Kumarilabhatta's Mimamsa ("Bhatta-sastra"). "Anviksiki". qualified non-dualism. Saivism. Nondualism inheres dualism. all the sciences. Patanjali's Yoga-sastra ("Patanjalam"). The underlying idea is that a person who worships his chosen god has unflinching faith in him and becomes totally devoted to him.

consider (mentally) the defect in worldly pleasure. They miss the purpose and incident that let to spontaneous creation of beautiful hymm. Advaita was the only school which was extant during Adi Shankara Bhagavadpada's time. worship the Lord.Adi Sankara . This means that Adi Shankara was not against sAkAra upAsanA.Understanding Advaita . yet he did not defamed or denigrated other paths. through that (act). All schools agree on union of Jiva with Brahman as final release. It shows the method of Neti-Neti. which talks about Advaita. Swamiji has written extensively in his work Shuddha Shankara Prakriya Bhaskara booklet Series. is also of Advaitic nature. it can be safely concluded that neither our acharya Sri Adi Shankara nor his Advaita is non-vedic. in the end of his life. Bhaja Govindam stress on surrender to the Lotus feet of Lord and on VairAgya (dispassion). get out of your home without delay. strive for the desire (for the knowledge) of the Átmán (Self). Some also accuse Adi Shankara that though he was spreading Asat Shastra.A Jagadguru> Another Accusation on our acharya is that . giving step by step instructions from Page 182 of 619 . The first and the last composition of Adi Shankara is a proof that he taught Advaita from the beginning to end.Adi Shankara became Vaishnava during his last years. Bhaja Govindam was not his last composition. shake off the group of sinful deeds.Last message of Adi Shankara BhagavadpAda The first verse says वक द रो शनतयमधमयतयाश तद शभ दतश कमर स्वनभष्ठ मयतयाश तकनकशस्य शवधमयतयाश अपशचशतन कयामयक मशतस्तयजयतयामत । पयापरौघन पररधभयतयाश भवसभखिक दरोषरोतोऽनभसनधमयतयाश आतमकच्छया व्यवसमयतयाश शनजरकयाहयात्तभणर शवशनरर मयतयामत ॥ १ ॥ Study the Veda every day. According to Swami Sacchidananadendra Sarasvati.A Jagadguru <content Shifted to a New Page . First composition was Dasa sloki. which lead to same truth. Upadesa Panchakam. do properly the karma prescribed therein. give up the thought of doing an act with desire (for its fruit). Madhusudana Saraswati wrote an extensive commentary called 'Siddhanta Bindu'. he become a Vaishnava and composed Bhaja Govindam. They only differed in their approaches. Adi Shankara . Last composition. From the above analysis.

wise person (for knowledge). (4) Source [1] Ramajuna and Madhva say that they follow PanchrAtra Vaishnavism Second verse of Upadesha Panchakam is saN^gaH satsu vidhIyataaM bhagavato bhaktirdR^iDhaa.. Last verse of Upadesha Panchakam is ekaante sukhamaasyataaM paratare chetaH samaadhIyataam.Understanding Advaita .h . puurNaatmaa susamIxyataaM jagadidaM tadbaadhitaM dR^ishyataam. the Self is known as of the nature of the Absolutely Pure.h .h . approach the good. give up at once the fast-binding karma (action). brahmaikaaxaramarthyataaM shrutishirovaakyaM samaakarNyataam.. symbolized by the single Syllable (Om). Sit comfortably in a lonely (quiet) place. the Auspicious. nor that Pancharatra [1] nor Jaina. serve (worship) his sandal (feet) every day. through the direct realisation of what is qualified. am I. praakkarma pravilaapyataaM chitibalaannaapyuttaraiH shliShyataam.h . That One. praarabdhaM tviha bhujyataamatha parabrahmaatmanaa sthIyataam.h .h . fix the mind on the Higher (Supreme) Self.h . seek (from him knowledge of Brahman. shaantyaadiH parichIyataaM dR^iDhataraM karmaashu santyajyataam. Fourth verse of Dasasloki says न सयाख्यश न शवैवश न ततपयाञ्चरयात्रिश न जवैनश न मममयाशसकयादकमरतश वया शवशशषयानभभभतयया शवशभदयातमकतवयातत तदककरोतोऽवशशषन शशवन ककवलरोतोऽहमत ॥४॥ There is no Sankhya nor Saiva.adhIyataam. sadvidvaanupasR^ipyataaM pratidinaM tatpaadukaa sevyataam. the Alone. listen to the Vedánta-vakya dealing with Brahman.h .Clearing Accusations & Doubts following injunctions of Veda-s to Self Realization. the Residue. practise Ùánti (calmness of mind) and so on.a. seek the full Page 183 of 619 . For. The conception of the Mimamsaka and others does not exist. Form association with good. entertain firm devotion for the Lord.

Sankara bhASya on above verses is worth reading for more clarity. it tastes salt. We can conclude that our beloved acharya never became Vaishnava. get detached from future actions. entire. OM represents NirAkAra. jIva is like reflection of sun and moon is seen in water. but from wheresoever one takes it. and (this separateness) is destroyed with them. (all-pervading) Átman within.Understanding Advaita . So said Yajnavalkya. II-iv-12: As a lump of salt dropped into water dissolves with (its component) water. even so is the Self without interior or exterior.5. NirguNa Brahman. consider this Universe as sublated by it. and no one is able to pick it up. my dear. 2. Adi Sankara says that Parabrahman by association with panch-mahAbhUta comes to be known as jIva.4. and (this separateness) is destroyed with them. infinite Reality is but Pure Intelligence. endless. my dear. the reflection vanishes and what remains is un-touched supreme brahman. specially in the form that we see today. and purely saline in taste. says jIva is destroyed Page 184 of 619 . a part of Padma Purana teaches advaita.12 and 4. This is what I say. even so. my dear. When water is removed. (The Self) comes out (as a separate entity) from these elements. similarly reflection (AbhAsa) of Brahman is known as jIva. After attaining (this oneness) it has no more (individual) consciousness. (The Self) comes out (as a separate entity) from these elements.13 by saying that yaGYAvAlkya taught to maitrI htat jIva is destroyed after GYAna. No where in the first or last composition.Adi Shankara became Vaishnava during his last years.Another Accusation on our acharya is that . our acharya tends to preach Vaishnava bhakti. Shiva Gita. This is what I say. this great. finally remain (peacefully) in the exalted state of the Supreme Self (Para-brahman). IV-v-13: As a lump of salt is without interior or exterior.36 cites Br. go through the effect of karma which you have begun to experience here. So said Yajnavalkya. and Pure Intelligence alone. After attaining (this oneness) it has no more (individual) consciousness. Up. melt away (destroy) the effect of karma already done by dint of discriminating knowledge. BrihadAraNyaka upanishad says jIva is destroyed vidyAraNya svAmI in panchdaSI 8. entire.

It says that Jiva is destroyed in 10.38 Sanskrit Sloka: तत्ततकमयारनभसयारकण इदश जयाग्रभ्दरोररोपलब्धयक धलग्ङशरमरयाख्यमयामरोकयान्न । शनवतर तक ॥ ३७ Hindi ॥ Translation: अपनक शकयक उन कमर्थो कक अनभसयार जयाग्रतयाशद अवस्थिया मम सभखि-दनभ खि कया सयाकयातकयार जमव करतया रहतया हवै । समपभणर वकधत्त धलशरशरमर सक उठतम हवै । जब तक मरोक न हरो. Until moksha is not achieved. धलशरशरमर कया नयाश नहहीं हरोतया English । Translation: According to the karma done in waking consciousness.37) Sanskrit Sloka: आतमजयानकन नषकनतोऽनस्मनसयाशवदक आतमस्वरपयावस्थियानश सशरमरकक मभशकररतयशभधमयतक ॥ । ३८ Hindi ॥ Translation: धजस समय जयान दयारया जमव और ब्रह कया भकद शमट जयायकरया और अशवदया सशहत इस धलशरशरमर कया नयाश हरो जयायकरया उस समय ककवल आतमया कया अनभभव मयात्रि 'अहश ब्रहयानस्म' इस स्वरप मम नस्थिर Page 185 of 619 हरोनक सक हम मभक हरोतया हवै । .37. It says that Jiva is destroyed in 10. all vrriti-s (thoughts arising in mind) arise due to ling sarira (jiva / subtle body). 10. Vaishnavas believe that Jiva is not destroyed even after liberation. 10. one experiences pleasure and pain.Understanding Advaita . please visit here.37. (Shiva Gita 10. Sri Abhinava Nrisimha Bharati has written a wonderful Sanskrit commentary on Shiva Gita. linga sarira is not destroyed.Clearing Accusations & Doubts For more details. Chapter 10 teaches Jiva Brahma Aikya. Guru of Sadashiva Brahmendra wrote a commentary on Shiva Gita Shiva Gita is referred by Sadashiva Brahmendra of Kanchi Kamakoti Math.38. Sri Sri Paramasivendra Saraswati II. Source Chapter 10 teaches Jiva Brahma Aikya.

At that time there will be the experience of only Atman in the form of 'I am Brahman' will be stabilized. शचत्त इनकया चतभषय और पयाभाँच पयाण यह सब शमलकर धलशर शरमर करो उतपन्न करतक हह । उसम धलशर शयारमर मम अशवद्ध्ययायभक यह चवैतनय कया पशतशबमब पड़तया हवै. मन.Understanding Advaita . chitta and air) to ling sharira.Shiva Gita. in this ling sharira.38) Note: Definition of Ling Sarira is given in Shiva Gita 10. there is a reflection of this chaitanya Page 186 of 619 . a part of Padma Purana teaches advaita. one become mukta (free). अहशकयार. उसम करो व्यवहयार मम ‘जमव'. ‘ककत्रिज' और ‘पभरष' करतक English हह । Translation: Taking aadhaara (support) of Different types of avidya (ignorance). the of senses intellect. due to adivya (ignorance).16 and 10. (vital rise and knowledge). 5 karmendriya-s 5 jnanendriya-s Collection of 4 5 - Locus of all prana (parts (5 mind. says jIva is destroyed English Translation: Moment when. only I (Bhagavan Shiva) reside in Jiva-rUpa. (Shiva Gita 10. 10. Due to stabilizing or staying in this experience. due to Jnana. बभशद. above rise action) of ego.17 Sanskrit Sloka: नयानयाशवध्ययासमयायभकरो जमवतवकन पच्चकमरननदययाणयकव पच्च मनरोबभशदरहशकयारनशचत्त वयवन वसयामयहमत जयानकननदययाशण वकशत पच्च तत्रियाशवध्ययाररकमयायभकश च चतभषयमत शमधलतया । यशशत ॥ धलङशरमरतयामत चवैतनयश १५ ॥ धलग्ङशरमरतयामत ( पशतशबनमबतमत । ॥ । ) १६ ॥ व्ययावहयाररकजमवस्तभ ककत्रिजन पभरषरोतोऽशप च ॥ १७ ॥ Hindi Translation: अनकक पकयार कक अशवध्यया कक सयाशय हरोकर जमवरप सक भम मह हम शनवयास करतया हह भाँ । पयाभाँच कमरननदययाभाँ और पयाभाँच जयानकननदययाभाँ .15. only I reside in Jiva-rUpa OR Associating with different types of ignorance. the difference between Jiva and Brahman will be removed and avidya (ignorance) including ling sharira will be destroyed.

So if advaita is mayavad. So Guru must have capacity to teach avatars and so their teachings cannot be ignored. This in relative terms is called as 'Jiva'. starts with the request of MAharshi Valmiki and Brahmarshi VishvAmitra who requested Brahmanshi VasisTa to teach a varAgi disciple (Rama). as VasisTa was Rama's guru. For the follower of Sri Ramakrishna and Sri Ramana Maharshi. Both Rama and Krushna accepted Guru. and is also one of the sapta-rishis. Here vyavahAra means 'in practical reality'. even though he was a kshatriya) and was also given Shiva's bow. Also note that Here the word vyavahAra (व्यवहयार) is used. You also cannot ignore the teachings of Yog-Vasistha. To understand Janak. both practiced Advaita and reached Page 187 of 619 . Tatva Jnana. as he was fit for it. Yog vasistha talks about Advaita. which is spoken from the grave of karma. his Gurus. He was also spared by Lord Parshurama. 'Kshetragya' and 'Purusha'.Understanding Advaita . Shri sulabhA (maid servent). then all of these advaita teachers were mayavadis and so taught wrong things to both Rama and Krushna. Infact Yog-Vasistha. Relative truth and absolute truth. you will have to know the philosophy of Janak. Pre shankara Advaitins are Rajarshi Janak. which can be known by reading Ashtavakra Gita.Clearing Accusations & Doubts (consciousness). which is not worship of personal God. as he was chosen by Maa Sita as her father. It is not for masses. Rama's guru was Brahmarshi VasisTa and Krishna's Guru was sAndipanI. Pre Shankara Advaitins Vaishnavas and dvaitins also accuse that ajaata vaada was adapted from nAgArjuna. a famous buddhist. Rishi Yajnavalkya and Rishi Ashtavakra and his disciple Rishi Sukadev (son of Ved Vyasa)Sri Krishna in Gita says live like Janak (BG: 3:30). You cannot ignore Janak. This also indicates that there are true truth. CAUTION: DO NOT READ ASHTAVAKRA GITA. Relative truth is not eternal. which talks about advaita nd ajaata vaada. which is based on Ajaata vaada.

If you consider Lord Buddha as an avatar of Lord Vishnu. Both Hindus and Buddhists have studied each others shastras in-depth so that they could refute them. Advaita and ajAta vAda has been there since the beginning of this world. Brahman can stay without maya. who were tatva jnanis. and talk in the language of their time. Adi Shankaracharya has commented from Brahmasutras according to the knowledge passed from Bhagavan Veda Vyas. For more details please visit is Advaita for everybody? In Sutra Bhasya. So is Bhagavan Shiva. Shankaracharya is accused as hidden-Buddhist. Brahmarshi Vasista is Bhagavan Brahmaji's mAnasa purtra (mind born son). meditated and went on till the extreme before he found the ‘middle path’. and so existed with the beginning of this world. the un-destructive. who authored both Puranas and Brahmasutra. Page 188 of 619 . beyond time and space. Adi Shankara mentions names of teachers prior to him like Brahmanandin. ajAta vAda will never be popular and laymen will never understand it. then he could not go against our Vedas and Vedanta. words used by Buddhist are that of indian origin. who is the disciple of Bhagavan Veda Vyas. untouched by creation. Lord Buddha is glorified as an avatar of Lord Vishnu in Srimad Bhagavat Purana. So Lord Buddha and their disciples may have used both local and sanskrit words to convey their message.Pre Shankara Advaitins highest goal. who is a pratik (symbol) of Jnana. in the purest form will stay on. preservation and dissolution. They are for pure minds. Bhagavan Vishnu is the sustainer of this universe and so he is beyond the realms of Maya. So the question that Advaita is not vedic and authentic is out of question. nArada asks his brother Sanat kumar who taught him Tatva Jnana (advaita). It is evident that Buddha was well versed with sanskrit and vedas. the one who has narrated puranas to sages. So using them would not do any harm. It is also well known that Sidhartha studied Hindu Shastras. So were 4 kumars. in order to explain people influenced by buddhists would have also explained using buddhists terms. Both advaita and ajAta vAda are not for laymen. Gaupadacharya is disciple of Sukhacharya (sukh dev). Dravidacharya (different from Dramidacharya which Ramanuja mentions) and Upavarshacharya. Further according to Madhaviya Digvijay. In return Hindus. All are Bhagavan Brahma ji's sons so Brahma ji is also a tatva jnani. It is possible that both use each others way of expression freely to convey the message. Hence sanskrit words could well be used by him and his disciples. Brahman.Understanding Advaita . Infact buddha chose to teach in the local language (mostly Pali) and not in Sanskrit as Sanskrit was not day-2-day language. The trimurty represents the very essence of Tatva Jnana. the one without beginning. even after dissolution of this world. Technically.

Anyone on the pada while addressing the crowd will always be descend in action and speech. as he is only concerned with his God. Do you think such a noble personality will accuse Adi Shankara. Buddha is found in many places meaning baudho or baudhyo (know). like Kumaril Bhatt studied buddhism. during Gaudpadcharya. one should refrain making wrong statements. An acharya is considered as a strong logician if s/he can use the same logic.Understanding Advaita . Govindacharya and Shankaracharya’s time. as avatars cannot behave in such a way. The alAtacakra is a burning firebrand that is waved in a circle. alAtacakra is a peculiarly buddhist one. vaishnavas. So we cannot say how he refuted jains. GauDapAda is accused as hidden-Buddhist Even Sri GauDapAda. creating an impression of a continuous circle of fire. True Saints will never feel lower emotions like hatred and will accuse others. Further. chaarvaakas. It's all human ego that accuses. Bhakta does not waste time in nonsense. There is an incidence in the life of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu where he transformed 2 dreadfull sinners into bhaktas. etc. Guru of Shankaracharya's Guru GovindpAda is being accused to be a hidden buddhist. as in commentaries you will find that it is concentrated on the verse. He could have accused them and could have made people against them. before refuting one has to study in-depth the philosophy. Hence. Adi Sankaracharya. NirvAna PrakaraNa is the 6th chapter of Yog-Yasistha. Do you still think that Chaitanya Mahaprabhu or Madhva had actually accused the way it is told today with rubbish translations. buddhists. So rather than accusing Shankara as hidden Buddhist. Only if that verse is wrongly explained. actual teachings of Lord Buddha must not have been sustained.Clearing Accusations & Doubts Another Point is that Lord Buddha had himself declared that his teachings will not last more than 500 years. we can say that Naga-Arjuna was a hidden-Advaitin. Ramanujacharya. Buddhist and Advaita Vedanta philosophy have much in common. Great Guru. 'alAta shAnti PrakaraNa' is the forth prakaraNa. It is interesting to note here that gauDapAda characteristically inverts the use of the buddhist metaphor. Logical contradiction is fine. Word like NirvaNa are also found in shastras. Infact not much has been written by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu himself including his charitramruta. ritualists (mimamsis). Before thorough study. That is why they commented on the same verse but from different point of view and in this process refuting the logic and point of view of other school of thought. The Page 189 of 619 . idiot. Not all is documented. then a saint will make an attempt to clarify and refute false argument. Madhvacharya all did the same. but he did not do such a thing. but it is always polite. Quoting from commentaries is not good enough. as by that time also original teachings of Buddhism would have perished. Surely it is the human hand. shaivas. The word alAta is used by buddhists. English translations make mess or even mockery. dvaitins. buddha means the awakened. I have seen in one commentary of Bhaja Govindam in which ‘mUDha’ is translated as foolish. shaktas. rascal. Further. We do not have all and full accounts of debates of Shankaracharya. same ideoms. They only feel compassion. same examples to explain vedAnta and find fault in the explanation of opponents GAudapadacharya. kapaalikaas. etc.

If the concept is not clear Page 190 of 619 . Even if some words are purely of Buddhist origins. Hence. but in turn glorify you of being a true vedantin who took the very example. care is been taken that SrotA (listener) should understand the concept. it is plainly an error to see the burning circle as having any svabhAva "own-nature". (Source: Swami Chinmayananda's commentary of Shri gauDapadAchArya's karika on MANdukya Upanishad. This is not being hidden-buddhist. from the buddhist prespective. GauDaPada took the some example to point the error in interpretation and to project it correctly from vedic standpoint. But it can be adapted from Shri Bhashe played as a drama. Also note that the word 'alAta' circle is used in MaitraiNi Upanishads (4-24). If the concept does not clash or dis-approve Vedantic concept. Another example of 'magical elephant' is accused to be adapted form Buddhist. Here. Again. Hence our acharyas explain fro practical standpoint.GauDapAda is accused as hidden-Buddhist buddhist uses the metaphor to insist that the impression of a continuous circle is an illusion. Hence. who. This is the reason why Lord Buddha preferred to preach in local language pAlI (paali). covering famous or popular incidents in the life of King udayana also has these words. if the logical conclusion of any monk is true. logic and grammar) to hit back at them is very effective method to prove your point. they try to explain concepts in day-2-day language using day-2-day words connecting them to our shastras. when why will anyone refute it? ajaata vaada is age old tradition. gauDapAda on the other hand points out that the burning brand is itself the substratum of its momentary spatial positions and the illusion of a burning circle caused by waving the brand. its svabhAva is nothing other than that of the burning brand. There are two types of teachings 1. so ajaata vaada is not not refuted. even if the burning circle is an illusion. Source. but it is projected correctly from vedic standpoint. actually took our siddhanta and examples to convey their philosophy. then that has to be accepted. which was strongly embedded in the minds of common people and point out the logical and grammatical error in them. one should come down to their level. to use enemies weapon (example or draSTAnta. Keeping srotA (listeners) in center 2. Even if you thin that the words are purely of buddhist origin. alAta SAnti prakaraNa) GauDapAda took the very example of buddhist monks. This in no way makes you a hidden-buddhist. keeping listeners in center When you want to explain to laymen. It is mark of humility. One the other hand. according to him. The very purpose of great saints and avatars is to sustain and propagate Vedanta. was correctly put forward. there being nothing more than the momentary spatial positions of the burning brand.Understanding Advaita . Keeping truth in center 1. talk and explain them in a way they understand. this does not make you Hidden-Buddhist.

meaning that my moha is destroyed and I have got back my knowledge i.Clearing Accusations & Doubts fro m direct translation of a verse. Gita starts with a mohandha (dhrutraShTa). my children and pAndu putra have done. So here is I nad mineness. So he asks. an example (draSTAnta) is given.Understanding Advaita . Hence in second chapter.e. there is hardly any upadesha is given. what have. 2. ti is the masti (ananda) of two tatva Jnanis. Earlier. Pandavas. Keeping truth in center In this type of pravachana or upadesha. Bhagavan patiently listens to Arjuns doubts and then peacefully replies to all the doubts. The best disciple is rAjA janak. gauDapAda. Guru came down to the level of disciple. all remained stuck with one point. expecting disciple t raise to his level. Atman is not Shunya. Here. etc. as Janak listened without any doubt or fear or objection. me and mineness. In Bhagavad Gita. If one example is not enough. Adi shankara and other acharyas were first type of gurus and so they took the very own words and concepts of buddhists to refuge their philosophy. know my true nature (Atman / Brahman). Infact. Janak was instantly realized after giving upadesha. ashTAvakra gItA is one such dialog in which truth is kept in center. sanyasi or yogi. smrutir landhA. Truth is expounded in naked form and not everyone can digest it. The fact remains that Shri gauDapdAcharya. All that was being said by his guru aShTAvakra was directly absorbed by the mature disciple. What matters is the intention. pAndu putras are sons of his younger brother Pandu i. the truth is kept in center and not the disciple. who is blind.e. Last verse by Arjuna is naSTo moha. Guru talks from his standpoint. Vedanta was flowing through their veins. Hence this type of teaching is not for the masses. Krishna is the best guru. but even bhagavan could not get such a disciple like Janak. Later on same thing is repeated in another way and may be using another example. Two types of Granths and Commentaries are created Page 191 of 619 . while those who cannot cna stay confused. symbolizing blinded by emotions. those who can understand can grasp the meaning. Shri GovindpadAcharya and Shri Adi ShankarAchArya. They all were hardcore Advaita Vedantins. Arjuna asks same question again in different ways like which is better Jnana or karma yog. Arjun represent disciples and Krishna is an AdarSa Guru. he became realized. This goes on upto chapter 18 when Arjuna becomes Self Realized. another is given. so that concept is refreshed. after the first chapter. all for the good of listeners and devotees.

Please visit adhyAropa apavAda .Understanding Advaita . The arguments. This method of teaching was rediscovered and propagated by Swami Sacchidanandendta Saraswati of Shrengeri Math. But not the whole commentary is written to prove any point. Dogmatic sects take the commentaries of first type. To refute any objections raised upon Vedanta Commentaries on Upanishads are generally not of second type. A separate Page has been dedicated to explain this method. Page 192 of 619 . Adi Shankara did not formulated his own teaching style that which ever existed prior to him. The unique method of Teaching. Classic example 'Advaita Siddhi' by Shri Madhusudan Saraswati is the celebrated work refuting Shri Vyastirth's logical objection to Advaita Vedanta. The second type of grantha take up the the issues and objections and refutes them. Adi Shankara walked length and breath of India. If everything was documented. it would fills thousands of pages. as taught by wise men and Jnani-s representing Traditional System of Teaching is called by Adi Shankara as 'adhyAropa apavAda' meaning False Superimposition followed by Retraction. This is often the logical conclusion that non-advaitins make which at times even advaitins find it difficult to give satisfactory answer. objections and their refutations are not at all documented. and had many many verbal duels. Only a select few remain. which was being targeted by opponents.Two types of Granths and Commentaries are created Commentaries or any shastras. Adi Shankara's teachings are not consistent. though at places an acharya may clarify the correct meaning of a verse. contain very few clarifications / refutations from buddhist philosophy say conclude that there was no objection from Shri gauDapAda or from Shri Shankara. To give clarity of Vedantic concepts 2. Infact Adi Shankara followed a unique teaching method which was passed down to him via GuruShishya paramparA (guru -Disciple tradition). granthas are written from two points 1. This method can also be found in Shri GauDapadAcharya's KArikA on Mandukya Upanishad.A Consistent Traditional Teaching.

sureSvara (vArttikakAra). Sukam. ca tatputra parASaram.Clearing Accusations & Doubts Once this method is understood. and others (anyA:). Devotional Works by Adi Shankara Shankara is also well known for propounding a system of bhakti (selfless devotion) and composing several bhajans (devotional songs). the second verse says that Shiva (sadASiva) is the Page 193 of 619 . toTaka. which he believed brought one closer to God. govindayogIndram athAsya Sishyam. tam.Understanding Advaita . Some of his well-known bhajans are Bhaja Govindam. (brahmA) bhagavatpAda hastAmalaka. I will try to explain in brief.karAcAryam athAsya padmapAdam. all doubts about inconsistency will be uprooted. Infact he has written more hymms and stotras than any other acharya. Saundaryalahari and Śivānandalahari. Saktim. infact he repaired many temples including jaganathpuri. gauDapadam. mahAntam. | SrI Sam. padmabhuvam. toTakam. Advaita paramparaa starts with NarAyaNa as their Adi Guru. Shankara was dogmatic Such persons have not read Shankara charitramrita. If time permits I will try to write something about it in future. that too in a very short life span of 32 years. Adi Shankara also did not defame idol worship. ca Sishyam. ca hastAmalakam. Advaita parampara starts with Narayana as first guru nArAyaNam. vasishTham. vArttikakAramanyAn asmad gurUn santatamAnatosmi || nArAyaNa padmabhuva vasishTha Sakti parASara vyAsa Suka gauDapAda govinda SankarAcArya padmapAda. ca vyAsam. This clearly shows that Adi Shankara did not try to defame NaaraayaaNa.

eventhough he was his disciple. two on each side. wrote five pancharathnam stotras for each of the following prime deities. source:http://202. you would chant Shiva pancharathnam stotra by placing Shiva's idol in the center other four Hindu deities surrounding Him.g. In fact he is proud. Adi shankara was not afraid to write vasudeva / vishnu in his bahsya. Those five stotras are Ganesha pancharathnam and Lalitha pancharathnam. Similarly if you believed in Vishnu. SankarAcArya madhyamAm. Adi Shankara has many times mentioned the word Vasudeva (vishnu) in his bhasya (commentary) in the verse like one who has surrendered (e. Humility of Adi Shankara In commentary on Hastamalaka hymm. Adi Shankara.org/wiki/Adi_Shankara#Works Page 194 of 619 .Advaita parampara starts with Narayana as first guru first Guru. The deities were Shiva.wikipedia." Source Not Afraid to write about praises to VAsudeva If you have read Shankara bhasya on Gita. This shows his humility.102/acquia/?q=node/22).3. Shakti. The idea was that if you believed in Lord Shiva. asmadAcArya paryantAm. vande guru paramparAm. || "We salute the lineage of masters starting with Sada-Shiva. sadASiva samArambhAm. 7:14. with Shankaracharya in the middle and my own guru at present. you would place Vishnu in the center. of an attempt to harmonize all paths.Smartism Smarta dharma is an e. source: http://en.g.77. Vishnu. in order to bring unity among various Hindu sects of those times.Understanding Advaita . Ganesh andSurya. Adi Shankara refers to Hastamaka as an acharya. Harmonizing all paths . Taking to dust of feet of Chandala is also a sign of humility.

. rather than as distinct beings.org/wiki/Shanmata Ved Vyas extending life of Shankara for 16 more years Like Vaishnavas strongly believe in Chaitanya and so in chaitanya-charitramrita. Shakti. but in fact he considered it important for purification of mind. He could have altered the mool slokas.e. Swami Chinmaya. and their conceptualization of the myriad deities of India as various manifestations of the one divine power. Shiva.com/advaita/advaita_index. the unity of Godhead.[1] It centers around the worship of the six main deities of Hinduism. Vishnu. Philosophically. Shakti. We have Gita and other shastras because of Adi Shankaracharya. the 8th century CE Hindu philosopher. Ganesha. so do we believe in authenticity of Shankara charitramrita and it says that Ved Vyasa (krishna dvaipayana) after having intense debate for 3-4 days was very satisfied with Adi Shankara and blessed him to live for futher 16 years. viz. mentions 108 works. believed by the Smarta tradition to have been founded by Adi Shankara. (Ganesha.kamakotimandali. His hymms. Adi Shankara Never Rejected Dvaita Adi shankara never rejected dvaita philosophy. source: http://en. a personal God with form. The very request by Shankara to Ved Vyasa to end in life here and now shows that he was not interested in being victorious. No one can take away this credit from him.html It was Adi Shankara who is credited of reviving our dharma and vedic texts. in his book. all are seen by Smartas as equal reflections of the one Saguna Brahman. six major deities are worshiped.wikipedia. Surya and Skanda) and the choice of the nature of God is up to the individual worshipper since different manifestations of God are held to be equivalent.Understanding Advaita . i. but he did not alter them. It is believed that in Adi Shankara's time these deities had their own Hindu followers who quarrelled with each other claiming the superiority of their chosen deity. This is based on the belief in the essential oneness of all deities. on Shankara's Jivan charita. Surya and Skanda.Clearing Accusations & Doubts South Indian have added Skanda as the sixth deity and have said to worship shanmata Shanmata (IAST S ḥ an ḥ mata) is the system of worship. and compositions to various deities is the proof. In this system. Shiva. Adi Shankara is said to have synthesised these quarrelling sects by integrating the worship of all these deities in the Shanmata system. Vishnu. Smartas accept and worship the six manifestations of God. source: http://www. Page 195 of 619 . Brahman. It was he who wrote all shastras.

I am servant of Lord Shiva 2. Same is said by a great vedantin and devotee of Sri Ramana Maharshi Dr. From Sarira Bhava. who do you see me? Hanuman replied. the great Vedantic scholar. From Atma Bhava (Jnana drisTi).M. दयास्स्तकतोऽहश दकहदृष्टयातोऽनस्म शमभरो जयातस्तमतोऽशरो जमवदृष्टया शत्रिदृषक । सवर स्ययातोऽतोऽतमन्नयातमदृष्टया तवमकवकतयकवश मम धमशनर नशचतया सवर शयास्त्रकन ॥ ६ .Adi Shankara Never Rejected Dvaita A website dedicated to Kanchi Kamkoti Peetham has also a list of Shri Adi Shankara works here.Mahadevan. bhinna = different). From Sarira Bhava. From Atma Bhava. I am part (ansh) and you are whole (anshi) 3. of Lord Hanuman Once Sri Rama asked Hanuman. O the Atman of the whole jagat (Universe) ! from Atma-bhava. I am not different from you (abhinna.e. Shastri in Intor to Vedanta says: Dr. 2. I am not different from you. In this way. T. O Trilochana (Lord Shiva) ! from Jiva-bhava I am your part (Ansh) and you are my anshi (whole). Shri S.P. In shri Shankara Digvijay by MAdhava VidyAraNya swAmI. says in his book `Ramana Maharshi and His Philosophy of Existence'– "We believe that Advaita is not a sectarian doctrine. 1.४१ ॥ O Shambho ! from SarIra-bhava i. T. From Jiva-Bhava. It is the Page 196 of 619 .P..g. I am servant of thy. in that manner. in 6th Sarga sloka 41 says. I am not different from you. From Jiva-Bhava. N. from standpoint of physical body. Even Gaudpada did not reject dvaita or wished to refute any other faith.M. Mahadevan. You are I are one.Understanding Advaita . I am part (ansh) and you are whole (anshi) 3. I am your servant. in view of all shastras In simple words: 1. Same is said by Sri Ramakrishna when he gives an e. my intellect decides (is determined). a-bhinna.

17 & 18. Source Even the current Shankaracharya Matt have temples and perform daily worship. Hostility arises out of partial vision. Vaishnavam and other denominations. but only. In fact. Even the current Shankaracharya Matt have temples and perform daily worship. the crown of all views.Clearing Accusations & Doubts culmination of all doctrines. Advaita is opposed to none. which will enable us to live in peace and amity. Here is a explanation from website dedicated to Shrengeri Matt. III. All denominations have the common Vedic basis. no school of thought is foreign to Advaita. Paramacharya further adds According to Shri Adi Sankara. a pre-Sankara teacher of Advaita. so essential for securing universal welfare. In words of Paramacharya. By bringing to our minds all the great Acharyas. chapter Advaita Vedanta Though other systems quarrel with Advaita. (Mandukya Karika. Establishing 4 maths in the four quadrants of our country Page 197 of 619 .Understanding Advaita . Here is a explanation from website dedicated to Shrengeri Matt. Advaita has no quarrel with any system of philosophy. every system contributes an essential step and so Shri Sankara used the truths of each of them and pressed them into his service. Advaita has no quarrel with any. By its very name. 5)". Advaita negates duality and dissension and comprehends every warring sect and system into its all-embracing unit. Advaita is not opposed to any of them. we can acquire that peaceful frame of mind and develop that catholic temper and universal accommodation characteristic of Shri Adi Sankara and of the Advaita Vedanta he expounded. that truth is not the whole. While the pluralistic world-views may be in conflict with one another. which sees no distinction between Saivam. In the scheme of the path to realise Adviataanubhava. It recognises the measure of truth that there is in each of them. As Gaudapada. there can be no hostility. the survival of Hinduism is itself due to this Advaitic temper. says. Shri Adi Sankara underlined the essential unity of all Sampradaayas and sects and saved Hinduism from disruption. from the book. IV. Though other views may imagine themselves to be opposed to Advaita. When the whole truth is realised. Acharya's Call.

He has reconciled the seemingly contradictory conclusions of the Upanishads and in the integrated view that He has presented the eternal. this mighty master left nothing undone in maintaining what he achieved. in ten verses. Though Brahman alone is Absolute Truth (Paramarthika). Adi Shankara's message in a nutshell The message that is contained in elaborate discussions in the Bhashyas of Sri Shankara is often succinctly expressed in a century of verses. etc. Among the four Maths two of them in the East and West were set up on the sea shore. He maintains that one who has ascended the yoga has to simply maintain this equipoise. who hailed from the north was placed in charge of the Math in the South. Karma and Bhakti help from a distance in the attainment of Jnana by bestowing the needed mental purity when done in a spirit of dedication to Iswara. He said that any karma done. The Knowledge of this oneness is liberation or moksha.erroneous Page 198 of 619 . This shows what a broadmind He had when it came to leadership in matters of national interest. while the Maths in the North and South were set up in the mountain regions. jiva is seen as one with Brahman as taught in the Mahavakya of the Upanishads. Likewise He ordained Maharashtra Brahmins to do Pujas at Rameshwaram. the one without a second. etc… Once the conditioning factors vanish. Sri Shankara clearly differentiates the qualification between “seeking to scale yoga’s peak ” and “having scaled the same”. By His power which is inscrutable ( अननरर चननयय ) and called maya. not being distracted. his mind concentrated.. In His Bhashya on the topic of meditation. Sri Sureshwaracharya. i. pot space. Therefore any doer of actions who has given up mental clinging to the fruits is a yogin. the knowledge of the objective universe . in one verse or even half a verse. opening temples. He has also declared in many places that even the obligatory works done in Nishkama spirit have punya as the fruit. He appears as the universe. The Upadhis limit comprehensions and are unreal like limitless space appearing like room space.e. or mitya. Time.Understanding Advaita . Hence Karma Must not be neglected. He Uses the word “फलसशकलपस्य शचत्तशवककपहकतभतवयातत”. organizing halls of education.e. indeed such dedication should make work nonfruitful besides bestowing the required mental purity. having been dedicated to God may not bear fruit is improper. while Totaka from the South was sent to Badri in the North. but due to Upadhis appears to be different and subject to limitations.Establishing 4 maths in the four quadrants of our country Establishing 4 maths in the four quadrants of our country. He made it mandatory that the Nampootiris from Kerla should perform Pooja at Badri. consciousness Absolute isthe Brahman. impersonal.in this Geeta Bhashya i. while the Brahmins from Karnataka were assigned for Nepal. conditions by space. mental clinging to the fruits of actions distracts.. till chitta shuddhi is ripe enough to maintain the meditational equipoise. karma has to be done by all in nishkama spirit as a dedication to God. that are ever changing. The jiva is not different from the absolute Brahman.

though a mud. see some such transcendental light that is without qualities and action. a mud pot. Madhusudan Saraswati in his Gita Bhasya.natural growth. can still be retained for keeping the water in it.this is the Truth. for filling our eyes with astonishment. People who do not understand Advaita. Every one of the several schools which developed in the past Shankara age. as explained in the answer given in response of creating temples. Page 199 of 619 .Brahma Satyam Jagat MithyA. let them see! But.g. stick to the famous sloka . bears the influence of Sri Shankara’s teachings in one form or other. says ध्यनयाभ्ययासनवशमककतकन मनसया तशन्नरभरणश शननष्कयश जयरोशतन शकशचनश यरोशरनरो यशद परश पशयननत पशयनतभ तक | अस्मयाकश तभ तदकव लरोचनचमतकयारयाय भभययानच्चरश कयाधलनदमपभधलनरोदरक शकमशप यन्नमलश महरो धयावशत || dhyanaabhyaasanavashiikR^itena manasaa tannirguNaM nishhkriyaM jyotiH kiMchanaM yogino yadi paraM pashyanti pashyantu te | asmaakaM tu tadeva locanachamatkaaraaya yanniilaM maho dhaavati || bhuuyaachchiraM kaalindiipulinodare kimapi If the yogis. For this we will have to look from a top down perspective. Why Temples are needed if God is omnipresent? This doubt arises in some people.Understanding Advaita .Clearing Accusations & Doubts form the highest stand point . God is everywhere. Please visit this link for explanation.. GuDhArtha DIpika. His message boils down to the formula . God exists in every particle . with their minds which have been brought under control through the practise of meditation. assimilating what is compatible and `co-existence’ with what is incompatible. Also it is to be noted that upadesha-s are given from Adhikara bheda. God is omnipresent . let there be forever that indescribable Blue (Light) alone which runs about hither and thither on the sands of the kaaLindi (Yamuna)! Source This shows that Advaitins are not against Dvaita and Krishna Bhakti. Also please refer to this link for further understanding Introducing Chapter of 13 Gita.can still be considered as a relative kind of truth for worldly transactions e.this is the Truth.

Why Temples are needed if God is omnipresent? There are different vAda-s and different bhAva-s and laxaNas which have to be considered for better understanding of the subject. Like potter creating pot. If it was real. e. Page 200 of 619 . The change is visible and real. sAnkhya Adopt this vAda. 2. e.g. Nyaya-vaisheshikA adopt this vAda. the transformation would have left traces e. Arambha vAda: God is the kartA and he created this universe. Without rope there is no snake. etc. As one sees rope.Understanding Advaita . They say that Sun which does not do any work but under it's influence we find transformations like water vapourizing into steam. It is for subtle intellect. VisisTadvaita and dvaita adopted this vAda.g. This vAda is for the ones who believe in karma and cannot believe that God does not do any karma. plants growing. snake-rope. cloth burned in fire reduces to ash. real and inconvertible back into cloth. Four vAda-s are 1. Vivarta vAda This vAda is adopted by Adi Shankara to explain the concept of mAyA as mithyA. They believe that without karma nothing is possible. which is permanent. 3. Snake does not exist but is super imposed on rope. is milk turning into curd. pariNAma vAda In this something changes into something else.g. snake vanishes without any trace.

sAdhaka enters into samadhi without making any effort spontaneously (sahaj).the enlightened. sAdhaka keeps moksha as the only goal in life and meditate on supreme brahman. Now the effort drops and one becomes free from last desire of moksha. He got enlightened when he dropped everything.I want moksha. To make him quit this last desire questions are asked to sAdhAka: 1. they have all desires up-rooted except the one .Understanding Advaita . one is taken a step further. hence it is said to drop the process of observation.after the enquiry.Clearing Accusations & Doubts As the mind is purified. ajAta vAda Non existence of MAyA and so this world. Now this desire also has to be dropped.Pure Non-duality experience. as one is still observing. more closer to reality. Please note that he is called as buddha . GauDapadAcharya adopted this vAda.Who Am I . One cannot negate existence of oneself.I want moksha. Who am I? If I am Sat-Chit-Ananda then I do not need to sit in meditation and then establish myself in samadhi. This path is for the ones who are eligible for Self Realization i. The great e. liberation is here and now (as there is no time lag after one realizes .e. AshTAvakra Gita talks about this vAda. one enters into non-dual state and seeking ends here and now . Bodh means Jnana and not void or zero state. Who wants moksha? 2. minutes or years). Who is the one who meditates? 3. without Jnana there is no mukti (liberation).immediately and not after some seconds. is Lord Buddha. then moksha is mahA-brAnti (great illusion). that is why it is said that Jnana cannot be obtained by karma. but not enter into samadhi. Only Sat-Chit-Ananda Atman exists .g. If bandhan (bondage) is brahti (illusion). thereby uprooting all other desires except one . One can become detached with this world and withdraw senses and become and observer. 4. --- Page 201 of 619 .

So now we move from Top to Bottom Since one cannot stay in atma sthiti. Now it cannot be stopped and will hit the target with full force. when there are such contradictions. All means prArabhdha. Earlier disciple was convinced that prArabhdha is like arrow that has left it's bow. But they are suffering due to their pApa karma in past life (lives). madhyam nad uttam adhikAri. The concept of PratibhAsika satya is created for satisfying the doubts. To know how to meditate and to know the real nature or it's qualities or a way to reach one has to take AdhAra of Shastras and a Self Realized Guru. ajAta vAda But for laymen. So niSkAma-karma is prescribed. Still some may not be able to detach themselves and withdraw 5 senses. All the different means by which people can attain knowledge of the self should be understood to be valid. Hence the concept of vyavahArika satya is created. These means are unlimited in number”. Upadesha-s are given according to mental purity and ability to grasp and understand subtle concepts. meaning that fire of wisdom burns (up roots) all karma. a concept of prArabhdha is created to satisfy them. Upon maturity. this is not possible. AgAmi and sanchit. Page 202 of 619 . There are 3 types of disciples. For those who would doubt that why Self Realized Saints suffer from illness and bad circumstances. sAkAra bhakti is preached for mental purity. old gross concepts are replaced by new subtle concepts. These means are unlimited in number Madhusudan Saraswati in Siddhanta Bindu says: 81. this is the answer. The Vartikakara (Sureshvaracharya / Vartika-kara) says: “All the different means by which people can attain knowledge of the self should be understood to be valid. But one cannot stay detached for 24 hours so the concept of mAyA and this world as mithya is brought.4. one has to make effort to realize. everywhere in Vedanta. All this is created to temporarily calm the mind and purify the mind. Some people cannot believe that one can stay in a-kartA bhavA. Thus. Saints ma not have done any pApa karma in this life. The make effort one has to meditate. All includes prArabhdha. All is done with intention to rise above until one reaches last stage. muDha.Such a person cannot believe that this world is illusion and feels that everything is real.Understanding Advaita . Gita says that Jnangni sarva karmaNi bhasmasAta krute tatha.

The followers of Sureshvara say that jahallakshana is to be adopted. Source shrI sureshvarAcAry says. Shastri: Different Acharyas have expressed different views about how the mahavakaya is to be understood. There is no pot in mere clay.' There are many other topics on which different views are held by the AchArya. ) Nyaya and Vaisesika believe that Isvara created the universe with the ultimate particles called "anu-s". N. All agree that the vakya declares the identity of the jiva and Brahman.Cause of Creation Note here 'our acharya' means Adi Shankara "Causes" or "karanas" are divided into two categories: "nimitta" and "upadana". So earth is the upadana for the pot. To shape the clay into a pot a potter is needed. You need earth or clay as a material to make a pot. or in other words. the author of Vedantaparibhasha interprets the vakya without resort to lakshana. But there is no difference as far as the ultimate import of the vakya is concerned. Without him there is no earthen pot. the pot without the potter is non-existent. Dharmaraja Adhvarindra.what he created did not exist in the particles. It is in similar fashion that Isvara created the universe with the "anu-s" . This is the doctrine of Nyaya. Sri Sri Chandrashekhara (Indira) Saraswati. Source 1 and Source 2 Other Sources: Meaning of Mahavakya . But how does it become a pot? Does it become a pot by itself? It has to be shaped by a potter. The nonexistent pot is produced from the clay. (The "nimitta" we spoke about in jyotisa is different.Clearing Accusations & Doubts Note by Shri S. So all these methods of interpretation are acceptable.Tat Tvam Asi and Brahman cannot be described by any word whatsoever Vivarta vAda is explained by Paramacharya. These means are unlimited in number. So when he shapes it out of clay he is the cause and the pot the effect. 'All the different means by which people can attain knowledge of the Self should be understood to be valid. The followers of Sarvajnatmamuni and Vachaspatimisra adopt ajahallakshana. Here Isvara is the nimitta-karana and the "anu-s" are the upadana-karana. This is called "arambha-vada" or "asat-karya-vada".he is the nimitta. So the potter is the cause. 68th Shankaracharya of Kanchi Kamakoti peetha says in his book Hindu Dharma chapter . Page 203 of 619 .Understanding Advaita . "Sat" means that which exists (the real) and "asat" that which does not.

According to it the inert Prakrti can function in such an orderly fashion only in the presence of Purusa. the Paramatman remains pure jnana. on the other. So the arambha-vada does not apply here. he shows himself through the power of his Maya as all this universe with its living-beings and its inert objects. The rope does not transform itself into a snake. There is no Isvara as a nimitta-karana. According to them Prakrti itself exfoliated into the universe. supporters of Sankhya base their theory on sat-karya-vada. According to Sankhya. with all the apparent diversity. that appears in the disguise of creation. with its power of Maya. all this jugglary of the universe. as we know. Adherents of the former believe that the clay is the upadana(material cause) for the making of the non-existent pot while the potter is the nimitta or efficient cause. It is the Brahman. the Reality in various disguises. do not believe in an Isvara. There is vivarta in the phenomenon of a rope appearing to be a snake. To say that Paramatman transformed himself into the cosmos is like saying that the milk turns into curd. For the potter who is the Paramatman there is no other entity other than himself called clay. Prakrti has transformed itself as the created world. It is all the appearence of the same Reality. On the one hand. the one Reality remains unchanged. This is called "parinama-vada". and. similar to the Nirguna-Brahman. as nothing but awareness. You cannot make a pot with sesame seeds nor do you get oil by pressing the clay. Is it right to reason that it is the intention of ice to benumb your hand? Similar is the case with Purusa for he is not attached to creation. I say so because Sankhya also postulates a Purusa who is jnana. Water dries up. Crops grow on their own in the sunshine. the pot concealed in the clay emerged as a result of the work of the potter. they came into existence by the anu-s being shaped. on account of our ajnana or avidya the Brahman too seems to us as this world and such a vast plurality of entities. ajAta vAda Adherents of Sankhya. " This argument is known as "vivarta-vada". "Our acarya says: "There is neither arambha-vada nor parinama-vada here. Does the sun worry about which crop is to be grown or which pond is to be dried up? Your hand becomes numb when you hold a lump of ice in it. The satkarya-vadins belonging to Sankhya argue thus: "The pot was there in the clay in the beggining itself. Page 204 of 619 . Similarly. If a man dons a disguise he does not become another man. The upadanakarana(material cause) that is the rope does not change into a snake by nimittakarana(efficient cause).Understanding Advaita . The curd is not the same as the milk. So the arambha-vada is not right. The presence of Purusa is the cause but he is not directly involved in creation. The oil-monger presses the sesame seeds to extract the oil that is already present in them. Similarly. Would it not be wrong to state that the Paramatman became nonexistent after becoming the cosmos? So the parinama-vada is also not valid. Such a belief is not to be mistaken for the contemporary athestic view. The pots are all anu-s of the clay. but on account of our nescience (avidya) it seems to us to be a snake. Similar is the case with all these disguises. While asat-karya-vada is the principle on which the naiyayikas base their view of creation. But with the power received from him. clothes become dry and it is all because of the sun.4. It is only by using the clay that you can make the pot. Prakrti creates the world out of itself.

Hence when Bhagavan says by his yog-maya or maya. अशवभकश च भभतकषभ शवभकशमव च नस्थितमत। भभतभतकर च तजजकयश ग्रधसष्णभ पभशवष्णभ च।।13.17 And the Knowable. In this verse. hence duality is ruled out. As Brahman / Atman) is undivided.17 And undivided. yet It exists as if divided in beings.Clearing Accusations & Doubts Nyaya lays the steps by which we may go further to realise the truth on which our Acarya has shed light. ईशवरन हृदकशकतोऽजभरन सवर भभतयानयाश भयामयनसवर भभतयाशन शतष्ठशत। यनत्रियारढयाशन मयाययया।।18. where any duality is due to the error in perception. then this statement is refuted or becomes false. to revolve as if mounted on a machine. and It is the sustainer of all beings as also the devourer and originator. the Sankhyas and Carvakas to establish the principle of Isvara as Karta(Creator). To grasp the One Reality that is non-dual and realise inwardly that we too are that Reality is to experience absolute liberation. causing all beings. Even PariNamam vAda is ruled out as nothing is a result of something. It must be said as one of the distinctive features of Nyaya that it inspires us to go in quest of apavarga by creating discontent in in our worldly existence. O Arjuna. Adi Shankara used Vivarta Vada. then it cannot change into anything else i. If Brahman is unchanging. I live in everybody's heart (18:61). But they do not take us to a higher realm.g.61 The Lord dwells in the hearts of all beings. It is just error in perception. appears to be existing as divided in all beings.Understanding Advaita .61।। 18. Shankaracharya only wanted us to rise above dvaita. jagat and Jiva. Nyaya and Vaisesika teach us how we may become aware of padarthas (categories) through reasoning and become detatched from them to realise "apavarga" in which there is neither sorrow nor joy. It is to be known as the supporter of being. Bhagavan Krishna. he Page 205 of 619 . though undivided.e.17।। 13. Even In Gita Lord says. milk turning into curd. by His illusive power. or 13. Another of its distinguishing features is that it employs all its resources of reasoning to contend against the doctrines of the Buddhists. Dualism also has it's limitations thus. It devours and It generates. e. IF it divides. as said by shrutis.

Initially it is said that no one can live without karma. Hence actually there is no second personality i. 306. e. nitya (eternal). ananadrUpa (full of Bliss). ananta (infinite).e. 301. Hence even prarabhdha is destroyed. Page 206 of 619 . is a tool (sAdhana) of freeing from bondage. shresTha (best) and svataH siddha (self evident) . But beginners may raise doubts about why saints and realized souls suffer from dis-ease. No trace of snake is found. viSuddha (pure). nirantara (continuous). all students live in dvaita.e. The substratum i. full of rasa. Jnana rUpa. hence at times Adi Shankara explains concepts that help one rise above dvaita. Adi Shankara BhagavadpAda in Vivek Chudamani. In Parinam vada milk turns into curd and is different though it is made up of milk. snake disappears after the rope is seen. and makes one victorious. But for a beginner. It is nothing but illusion. 225.Understanding Advaita . In Vivarta Vada.g. So here there is final product that is different from milk. Jiva created. anandrUpa (full of Bliss) Brahman. 227 describes Brahma as full of rasa. etc ब्रहशभन्नतवशवजयानश भवमरोकस्य कयारणमत । यकनयाशदतमयमयाननदश ब्रह सशपदतक बभधवैन ॥ २२५ ॥ The Jnana. So a concept of prarabhdha is derived (Refer: VC 452). sanchit and agami. with the help of which Jnani-s obtain / achieve advitiya (second-less). 'Brahman is not different from me'.Shankaracharya only wanted us to rise above dvaita. means by the illusionary power of maya. Atman as rope is only present. then later on it is said that Jnanagni (fire of wisdom) destroys all karma. inseparable from antarAtmA. सतयश जयानमननतश ब्रह शवशभदश परश स्वतन धसदमत । शनतययानश दवै क रस पतयरशभन्नश शनरनतरश जयशत॥२२७॥ Brahma is satya (truth). Some more accusations are If you walk of Advaita path you will loose all your rasa and Ananda. For mature student such question do not arise at all. The intention is the calm the mind so that one can advance in spirituality and later on destroy all karmas. Brahman is ananda rUpa or ananda svarUpa is given at various places in Vivek Chudamani. It is only due ot the error in perception that one sees snake. All means Prarabhdha.

Advaitins are taught to be neutral to likes and dislikes.Understanding Advaita . harmony and establisher of Vedic Dharma. When renunciation is one of the pre-requisites of learning advaita. Advaita does acknowledge bhakti. there is no sorrow. Krishna or OM. Vivek Chudamani says destruction of desires is nothing but liberation. hence there is peace and bliss. Less the number of desires more is the peace. Yes Adi Shankara was a maser of Mantra sAdhaNa and in Sri Vidya. PrakaraNa Granth like Tatva Bodh and Vivek Chudamani explains qualifications required to learn advaita. After understanding Advaita and Meditative Journey of an Advaita Vedantin. ignorance and intolerance. Cause of any kind of hostility (emotionally charged behaviour) is due to attachment with any object.e. Infact as stated above Adi Shankara was prophet of love. shakti upasana (tattra and Yog sadhanA). person or due to likes and dis-likes (rAga and dveSa). doing japa will know that mind calms down after chanting God's name be it Rama. who himself was a mater of these vidya-s. He not only preached advaita. but did not reject any path and discarded them as non-vedic. (Since there is no duality. It is unimaginable. who can one think of doing such a heinous crime. One of the ShaTasampatti (6 virtues) is titkSA. but also preached bhakti. Any person sincerely meditating i. Page 207 of 619 . which was passed down to him by his revered Guru GovindpadAcharya ji. One attaining Brahman rests in peace or becomes peaceful. Finally followers of Adi Shankara are accused as "Tyrannical people who burned down monastries. there is no activity.Clearing Accusations & Doubts Brahman is also said to be full of peace. As explained above. Acharya's Call. destroyed cattle and killed women and children" Such an accusation is completely out of sheer jealousy. peace. Some more accusations are Advaita Jnana needs no Bhakti This is a common assumption that Non-Advaitins believe.titikshA means to be neutral to likes and dislikes and remain calm in good (anukuLa) and bad (pratikuLa) situations. I will directly quote Paramacharya's words from the book. one can easily understand that Advaitin are peace loving people. Adi Shankara focused more one advaita. Advatins are peace loving as peace the true nature and very tolerant and of nonsectarian belief respecting all systems of Vedanta.

Thus the difference between the several systems of Hindu religious thought is slight. as the only system worthy of taking notice of for the purpose of criticising. We begin with a feeling of distinctness from God.Advaita Jnana needs no Bhakti Chapter: Advaita Vedanta It is worthy of note that whatever their mutual differences may be. Advaita. who lived about one thousand years ago. and as that grace can be obtained only through Bhakti. Isvaraanugrahaadeva Pumsaam Advaita Vaasana. Visishtadvaita. This shows that the expansive heart of Sri Adi Sankara accommodated all views of the ultimate reality and all approaches to it. He has the consciousness that God is imminent in himself and in every particle of the world. Bhagavan says : BHAKTYAA MAM ABHIJANAATI YAAVAAN YASCHAAMI TATVATAH The word. how ever minute. Though other systems quarrel with Advaita. And yet we find that in their ultimate reaches. Vidyaranya and Appayya Dikshitar wrote encyclopedic works on other systems with the fidelity of exposition rarely equaled and much less excelled by the protagonists of those systems themselves. All Achaaryas have stressed this need for Bhakti. meaning through devotion.Understanding Advaita . are one in their attack on Sri Adi Sankara's views. all thinkers belonging to schools other than Advaita. He reveals His true nature to us. as all are agreed upon the ultimate realisation of the Supreme. all of them speak the language of Advaita. this difference got magnified to the point of violent opposition. we should invoke that grace through Bhakti. The catholicity of Advaita is also evident from the fact that pronounced Advaitins like Vachaspati Misra. This should be regarded as a tribute paid by them to Sri Sankara Bhagavatpada. shows that bhakthi is the means for the realisation of the truth of God's nature. For such realisation grace of God is a pre-requisite. as expounded by Sri Acharya. Appayya Dikshitar says that as God's grace is required to reach the Ultimate Reality. Advaita has no quarrel with any. he was expounding the other systems which promoted this Isvara-bhakti. To whatever school we belong. Page 208 of 619 . Each of them singled out Advaita. BHAKTYAA. and if we do so. Our duty is worship Him in this way with devotion. and Dvaita are one in this emphasis on Bhakti to obtain God's grace. But when it comes to a question of expounding each system. The predicament of worship is one of duality of Deity and Devotee. in-dwelling every where and in everything. According to Advaita. Acharyas of other schools of thought would wish to have at least a tract of distinction between the two so that the Jivatma. may be able to enjoy the realisation of the Paramatma. standing apart. Chapter: Importance of Bhakti But mere intellectual comprohension of it is not enough. leaving it to Him to reavel the truth of His nature. It must be realised as a fact in one's own experience. the ultimate bliss is the experience of non-difference between the Jivatma and the Paramatma. But even then the devotee does not feel that God is external to him and to the Universe.

and an equal degree of devotion to the spiritual teacher. Visishtadvaita. as a servant in front of a Guru.. and Dvaita are one in the emphasis on Bhakti to obtain God's grace. this Om is Param. Brahman is indescribable. We have to stay in duality i. if one meditates with firm determination on the principle of “I am one without duality” need not resort to forest for penances.23: These truths. Guru Gita has many verses in support of this Therefore discarding all kinds of contacts with people. Guru is the one who has realized Brahman and hence the disciple must always approach him with reverence as a servant.Clearing Accusations & Doubts Advaita.2.e. (94 & 95) Katha Upanishads says 1. To teach one needs someone who has experienced Brahman.9 This knowledge is not attainable by logical reasoning. by all possible means. O! Dearest one! O! Nachiketa! let there be seekers like you! You are truly resolved in your desire. giving up all conflicts of the scriptures. the one who wishes to know OM. In advaita. nor it can be learned from an Acharya who is well versed in shastra-s .23) 6. Acharya while explaining this verse (Ka. Tarka means inference. shine forth only in that high-souled one who has supreme devotion to God.16 says that .2. one should take refuge in the Guru. Page 209 of 619 .this Om is Brahman. we have to surrender to Guru and to the words of the Guru. when taught. Ka.Understanding Advaita . Acharya explains that . 1. (103) On the advice of the Guru. becomes Brahman. Up.This Atman cannot be known by 'tarka'. but the path to reach it can be taught.2.a Guru who know the non-dual Atman.9) uses the word 'abheda-darshi AcArya' meaning . and the constant practice of the above principle brings about samadhi and his sins are burnt instantaneously. 1. Svetasvatara Upanishad says (6. It is of easy comprehension only when instructed by another. They shine forth in that high-souled one only. Up. In other words.. logical reasoning or thought process. Self Realized Guru. Here Darshan is taken as 'to know' and not 'to see'.

Whomsoever.Understanding Advaita . because of the (grace of) Atman. true nature) i. as per instruction of Guru.e.23 By study of the scriptures. Atman cannot be realized without the grace of Atman. 1.e. lecturing one's own intellectual enquiries or by wide learning or listening. This is clear that Student is surrendered to Guru and Prays to Atma Tatva. Our acharya comments on Ka. is attainable that realisation about It.e. they say . Up. Then how can it be achieved [realized]? for this they say A sAdhaka who prays Atman. One has to meditate on Atman with abheda bhakti i. achieves (realizes) the very Atman by itself i. as It reveals Its own nature to him. this Atman cannot be realised. with a feeling that 'I am not different from Atman / Brahman'. Guru is the one who is one with Ishvara.Advaita Jnana needs no Bhakti This verse instructs one to Meditate on om with a firm conviction or wish or one and only goal to know 'Brahman'. Atman reveals it's own pure nature as it is (in true sense) Note: Words in square brackets are that of author.2. 1. To understand further lets have a brief understanding of difference between buddhism and advaita vedanta. one knows Atman 'this Atman is like this' If one asks . the Atman reveals it's pArmArthika svarUpa (Absolute. Page 210 of 619 .How one realizes Atman?.For that AtmakAmi (the one who wishes to know Atman). nor it can be achieved [realized] just by attentively listening to discourses (sravaNa). it chooses alone. nor it can be intellectually meaning nor it can be known with the power of retention of various grantha-s (shastra-s).2.23 as This Atman is not realized (prApta) by pravachan (discourse) meaning This Atman is not realized by accepting many [statements of ] veda-s.

as one has already achieved what vedas want us to achieve. difference between buddhism and advaita is that advaita accepts brahman as substratum of entire universe while buddhism does not. cannot be denied. from Advaita angle would be the non-existence of mAyA and not the negation of Self (Brahman). You simply cannot negate your own existence. abhyupagantuH anabhyupagamAnupapatteH And their admission of mere non-existence is also illogical because the existence of the person who denies existence. Sri Ramakrishna says that there is no difference between (original) teachings of Lord Buddha and Advaita. while it should be opposite. which is the only expression capable of expressing Atma-sthiti. A true vedanting will say that Buddhist teachings are like Advaita and not the opposite. What is known is not true Knowledge. It alone is Knowledge. So if someone is talking that. So by taking maun. which is the very essence of vedas. It is our vedanta that is older and eternal. you do not take him / her seriously. Adi Sankara in his Chandogya up. look to vedanta from buddhist view. This is confirmed in Ribhu Gita which is quoted later on. Buddha. But VAishnavas. But logically speaking. sunya). something that is without any attributes whatsoever is as good as nothing (sunya)’. in practice. After that there is only maun. Also in this state. Brahman is nirguna (without any qualities). the zero. there is no duality and no expression (except maun) can explain it. In this state. Infact. Since the Self shines with nothing else to know or to make known. Buddhism was born with Lord Buddha and already it's essence had perished after 500 Page 211 of 619 . as a person in whom vedas flows in his veins can only look through an eye of vedas. 12.Understanding Advaita . taught conveyed the meaning.1 says asattvamAtrAbhyupagamo api ayukta eva. bhAShya 6. ’According to Advaita. It is not a void (zero state.Clearing Accusations & Doubts Difference between Buddhism and Advaita From my limited knowledge. That alone is true Knowledge which is neither knowledge nor ignorance.2. since Buddha was an avatar of Lord Vishnu. Sri Ramana Maharshi in his 40 verses on reality has refuted the zero state. So buddha did not answer when one asked to him if there is existence of God. But the original teachings have only been sustained upto 500 years after Buddha’s samadhi. there is no need to accept any vedas. Other than that there are many thoughts similar and common to both.

Shaivas believe that Shiva is the supreme God to be worshipped and one can attain moksha only by worshipping him. Sri Ramana Maharshi in 40 verses on Reality says the following: 3.Understanding Advaita . this sthiti (state) i. Krushna is the creator of this universe and the ultimate reality. as if it is dual with attributes. Due to the power of maayaa.' 'No. brahmavAda) mAyAvAda and brahmavAda Vaishnavas believe that Vishnu (naaraayana.' What’s the use in arguing this way? Leave this jagat-drishti (make oneself introvert). without ‘I’ (without ego). Brahmavad means any talk or belief in which brahman is in the center and the ultimate. lets understand mayavad and brahmavad (mAyAvAd.shankara advaita proponents introduced the concepts of maayaa. know yourself (your True svarupa. is a mere illusory appearance.e. Buddhism was invariable mixed with tantric practices. Page 212 of 619 . maayaa is the illusionary power of nirguNa brahman. Believers of Ganesha and shaktas have same thoughts. So Adi Shankara and other pre . beyond advaita and dvaita. Maayaa does not have the existence. is agreeable to all. Brahman is the substratum of entire universe and the only reality.' 'No. krushna) is the supreme God to be worshipped and one can attain moksha only by worshipping him. Maayaa is the cause of this creation. maayaavad and brahmaavaada. It is called ajaata or ajaati vaada.' 'The world is happiness. param sthiti (ultimate state). the world which is technically not different than brahman itself is perceived in a false way. nature). which means not-born. Ultimate Advaita state does not talk about maayaa. Now.' 'No. Maayaa has to be neglected and one has to rise above maayaa and it’s 3 gunas to be one with Brahman or simply to be Brahman or better know and abide in True Self (BG 7:1 to 7:13). Chaarvaakas believe that lust is the reason for the creation of universe. But this is difficult to explain.Difference between Buddhism and Advaita years.' 'The world is conscious. it. mayavad means any talk or belief in which maayaa is in the center and the ultimate. 'The world is real. Shiva is the creator of this universe and the ultimate reality. Similarly.

Ribhu Gita. becomes aware that ‘I’ is nothing but pure consciousness (Brahman). in the absence of the body. i. the Creator. There being only Brahman alone. Infact.Understanding Advaita . It is not present in all 3 states (waking Dream. actually talk about maun. which is not available in all the triad of time--past. In simple words maayaa is the one which is not there. So ‘just be’. there is no walking. So it is not real (SASvata. it is sat-chit-anand. is Lord DakshiNaamurti. there is no world. ever the most secret of the secret.g. there is no experiencer. By the absence of all sankalpas. deep sleep). Please find the link here and here. 15. Atman is not void. which is only true in one state at a time. nor the world as the non-Self. The very meaning of maayaa is: yaa is 'that which is not' maa is feminine. In the absence of mind. Because of the absence of feet. Brahman / Atman is not Shunya says Ribhu Gita. but you are not separate from them so as to experience them separately from you. present. there is no work. It is by thinking of Brahman (and not maayaa) that one becomes Brahman i. says Sri Ramana Maharshi. It does not give importance to maayaa Sri Ramana Maharshi referred to Study Ribhu Gita. there is no aging.Self. eternal truth or reality). and future-11. Then. Page 213 of 619 . Ribhu said: I shall tell you about the definition of the Self. Brahman alone exists. With the conviction of there being only Brahman. by the conviction of there being only Brahman. there is no Hari. a matured advaita sadhaka does not think about mAyA. addressing Nidagha.e either in waking or in dream. Anu Gita and Yog Vasistha Verses from Ribhu Gita confirm that Self is not Shunya or void or zero state (slokas 11 22). Because of the absence of Brahma. Advaita teaches us to neglect maayaa and rise above it. Be of the certitude that there is nothing that is non-Self. 13. Practically. always abiding in Brahman. the sustainer. neither the mind as the non-Self. 12. There being only Brahman alone. 10. because of the absence of hands. there is no thinking. be of the certitude that there is no non-Self.Clearing Accusations & Doubts Final advaita state is just maun. 14. Mind of Jnani is brahman says Sri Ramana Maharshi. maya is a concept. be as your are. be of the certitude that there is not anything that is non. be of the certitude that there is no non-Self. takes us beyond duality and non-duality into the realm of Brahman. be of the certitude that there is no non-Self. in the absence thereof. by summarizing what has been expounded by Siva.e. by the elimination of all forms. There is nothing that can be talked of as non-Self. zero or sunya. Classic e.

be of the certitude that there is no non-Self. 19. without belongings. There being only Brahman alone. free from the pairs of opposites. devoid of qualities. no [concept of] truth. Likewise. he gradually obtains tranquility. in the absence of birth. does not exist. there is no disciple. fear is concomitant with fearlessness. Karma Kand is finished in just 3 verses. be of the certitude that there is no non-Self. there is no death either.Self. In the absence of aging. 22. 20. please visit wiki and Sivanandaonline. If there is death. There being only Brahman alone. void of color. 23. He who sees the enjoyer of the qualities. Because there is no decay. a concept of truth will also arise. he is released. no purity. If there is bondage. devoid of form. There is no dharma (righteous conduct). with it. If there is the concept of truth. 17. something as non-truth will also arise.Understanding Advaita . void of taste. If you think of fearlessness. there is nothing that is the second. which in 30 verses incorporates the very essence of 700 verses of Bhagavad Gita. He who is free from all impressions. Then freed Page 214 of 619 . 21. void of belongings. no fear. nor is there the world or the Vedas or the gods. like fire devoid of fuel. is released. void of touch. Bhagavan in Anu Gita says Seeing the self void of smell. be of the certitude that there is no non. void of sound. Abandoning by the understanding all fancies bodily and mental. there will be inauspiciousness. To know what is Ribhu Gita. if there is auspiciousness. there is no death. there is birth. indeed. be of the certitude that there is no non-Self. there is nothing as the first. there being no second. If there be any concept of nontruth. in the absence of bondage. there is no insentience. If there is inauspiciousness. devoid of the qualities of the five elements. There being nothing that is the first. be of the certitude that there is no non-Self. Anu Gita and Yog Vasistha 16. there is no movement. Also refer to Upadesha Saram. 18. There being only Brahman alone. he is indeed released. The Guru.Brahman / Atman is not Shunya says Ribhu Gita. there is liberation. Because there is no decay. and who moves among the collection of organs with penance. there is no liberation. There being only Brahman alone. and having no cause. fear is postulated. There being only Brahman alone. truly. know that there is a notion of auspiciousness. and unknowable.

Understanding Advaita . who has rejected samsara and discarded all mental concepts. People lament needlessly that the Self is extinct. Jagat Mithya'. he would hav said everything else is maya. indestructible. when devoid of all thoughts he enjoys imperishable bliss. This statement would Page 215 of 619 . one feels that he / she is most secured. Note: As sadhaka progress. tranquil. Even the slightest thought immerses a man in sorrow. It is only in the beginning that one feels no enjoyment. but not void of itself.Sarvam khalu-idam brahma is bramavAda and not mAyAvAda Adi Shankara did not stop at 'Brahman Satya.Clearing Accusations & Doubts from all impressions.e. The observer is not the object. mAhAvAkya . mAhAvAkya is 'sarvam khalu-idam brahma' Which means everything 'Else' is brahman or can be said that Everything 'Else' is (also) brahman. Guru Vasistha in Yog VAsistha (Vasistha Gita) says: Ch1:1. Struggle decreases. But if one jumps into this insecurity. the pure consciousness which can be known by experience only. Ch1:21. In fact everything depends upon God's and Guru's grace. This clearly indicates that Atman is void of anything 'else' i. constantly increases.. mAyA. unmoving. Advaita is not a negative state: Ch2:19. constant. bliss increases. for sadhana to become effortless. So if Advaita was mAyAvAda and Adi Shankara wanted to preach a-sat-shastra. One feels lack of interest in anything and feels insecurity. time etc. the ether (consciousness) limited by the heart (hridayam) alone ceases to exist. it is not easy for beginners. Advaita does depends upon grace. Salutations to that calm effulgence which is endless and unlimited by space. as one progress and finally sadhana transforms from effort to effortless. The bliss of a man of discrimination. Since advaita demands renunciation from beginning. he attains to the eternal Supreme Brahman. Ch1:17. as the senses are being pulled back or withdrawn. Life becomes joyless. He went on to say 'Jagat satyam'. On the dissolution of the body.

Sarvam khalu-idam brahma is bramavAda and not mAyAvAda not be selected or propogated by him.. were also tatva Jnanis.It shows that Advaita is about brahmavAda and not mAyAvAda Brahma Bhaava शनतयश ब्रह शनरयाकयारश शनरभरणश बरोधयकतत परमत | भयासयनत ब्रहभयावश च दमपरो दमपयानतरश यथिया || The Guru is one who instructs the disciple about attributeless. eternal Brahman. but is by nature non-Vedic. surviving from the beginning of creation. Brahma dev’s maanas putras (mind born sons). Importance of Guru Tatva (Atma Tatva. but a true vedantin who propagated sacred doctrine of Advaita vedanta.. It is clear that Advaita is not maayaavaad (mayavad) and advaita is brahmavaad (brahmavad). (Padma Purana 6. Advaita is the oldest tradition. and there by reveals the Brahmanbhava (feeling of being Brahman) in his heart just like one lamp kindles another lamp is the Guru. Brahman) वकद्शयास्त्रपभरयाणयाशन चकशतहयासयाशदकयाशन च | मशत्रियशत्रिशवदयाशदशनमरोहनरोच्चयाटनयाशदकमत || शवैवशयाकयारमयाशदशन ह्यनयक च बहवरो मतयान | अपभशशयान समस्तयानयाश जमवयानयाश भयाशतचकतसयामत || Page 216 of 619 . 4 kumaras.Understanding Advaita . (75) Lets recollect the verse from padma purANa This powerful doctrine of Mayavada resembles the Vedas.236. Infact.11) Now you know that there is subtle difference between maavaada and brahmavaada.mAhAvAkya . but went on to reach Brahman. Shankaracharya was not hidden buddhist. Adi Shankara did not stopped at mAyA.

atma. the all-pervading. na upalipyate. so the Self seated everywhere in the body is not tainted. Agama. (19. everywhere. Simplified Shankara bhAsya 13. Further. akasam. dehe. Japa austerities. na. atma (the Self) which is present everywhere in the body is not defiled.-though pervasive. Uchatana etc. the science of Mantras.. is not. still. sarvatra. 20.33 Yatha.Understanding Advaita . and other cults existing in the world today are merely false theories expressed in corrupted words which confuse the ignorant and deluded Jivas. is not defiled. Shakta.Clearing Accusations & Doubts जपस्तपरोवतश तमथिर यजरो दयानश तथिवैव च | रभर ततवश अशवजयाय सवर व्यथिर भवकतत शपयक || The Vedas. as. Puranas.. Yantras Mohana. the Itihasas etc. does not come into contact because of its subtlety. saukmyat.33।। Translation 13. though pervasive. tatha.all these become a mere waste without understanding the Guru Tattva. present. similarly. observances. avasthitah. etc. similarly. space. does not come into contact. is not defiled. Further. Page 217 of 619 . charity . because of its subtlety. sarva-gatam. upalipyate. still. defiled.33 As the all-pervading ether is not tainted. please visit Advaita in Shastras: Guru Gita Another Inference is that Atman is prakash or the effluence of Jyoti of Krishna Atman is not Prakash (light) or Jyoti (flame or point of light) or Lord's Effulgence Bhagavad Gita says: यथिया सवर रतश सरौकमययादयाकयाशश नरोपधलप्यतक। सवर त्रियावनस्थितरो दकहक तथियातोऽतोऽतमया नरोपधलप्यतक।।13. the Self. Shankara Bhasya 13. in the body.33 As the all-pervading akash (space). pilgrimage sacrifice. because of its subtlety. cults like the Shaiva. the Shastras.. 21) For more slokas.

the Self is one in all the fields.Understanding Advaita . lokam. and that It remains unaffected. imam. go to the Supreme. know.34 as one sun illumines this whole world similarly.e. and that It remains unaffected. through the eye of wisdom-the eye is the realization in the form of the knowledge of the Self. illumines the whole field. field. prakasayati. from the 'great elements' to 'fortitude' (cf.Importance of Guru Tatva (Atma Tatva. this. though one. which arises from following the instructions of the scriptures and teachers. Brahman) यथिया पकयाशयतयककन ककतस्नश लरोकशममश रशवन। ककत्रिश ककत्रिम तथिया ककतस्नश पकयाशयशत भयारत।।13. through that eye of Page 218 of 619 . perceive the distinction between the field and its knower and also the liberation (moksha) from the Nature of being. the Self is one in all the fields. the one. evam.-who?-ksetri.34 Just as the one sun illumines the whole world. Here the illustration of the sun serves to highlight two aspects of the Self. those who.35 They who. i. the supreme Self.34 Yatha. the supreme Self. from the 'great elements' to 'fortitude'. ravih. the Knower of the field.Here the illustration of the sun serves to highlight two aspects of the Self. jnana-caksusa. illumines. ksetram.35।। Translation 13. ksetri. ekam. so also the Lord of the field (Supreme Self) illumines the whole field. like the sun. Shankara BhAsya 13. similarly. viz that. as. in the manner described above. prakasayati. O Arjuna.35 Ye. thus. by the eye of knowledge. the whole. viduh. 5-6). sun.e. krtsnam.34।। Translation 13. krtsnam. i.This verse is meant for summarizing the idea of the whole of this chapter: Simplified Shankara BhAsya 13. world tatha. like the sun. whole. the Knower of the field. illumines. This verse is meant for summarizing the idea of the whole of this chapter: ककत्रिककत्रिजयरोरकवमनतरश जयानचकभषया। भभतपककशतमरोकश च यक शवदय भ यारननत तक परमत।।13. though one. Shankara BhAsya 13. viz that.

which is the supreme Goal. Ashtavakra Gita also says the same thing 18. go to. water. (those who know) the annihilation (moksanam) of that Matrix of beings. Prakash means knowledge. nirvikarasya dhirasya niratankasya sarvada . The idea is that they do not take up a body again.78 kva tamah kva prakaso va hanam kva ca na kimcana . The idea is that they do not take up a body again. beween the field and the Knower of the field as they have been explained. Simplified Shankra BhAsya 13. Translation For one who knows.e. fire and wind) and like everything is within AkASa i. and bhuta-prakrti-moksam. the annihilation of the Matrix of beings-the Matrix of beings is that which is described as ignorance and is called the Unmanifest. like AkASa is omnipresent. the Supreme.. through the eye of wisdom-the eye is the realization in the form of the knowledge of the Self. get liberation. antaram.e. to Brahman. unaltering.Clearing Accusations & Doubts wisdom.Understanding Advaita . atman is AkASa-vat and not AkASa (akasha) i. the particular mutual distinction. ksetra-ksetrajnayoh. te. the Reality which is the suprme Goal. yanti. param. in the manner described above. (those who know) the annihilation (moksanam) of that Matrix of beings they reach the Reality. shastras teach us. where is there dark? Where light? Where giving up? Where anything at all? Clearly the Atman is Prakashak and not prakash itself. the particular mutual distinction (ksetra-ksetrajnayoh). between the field and the Knower of the field as they have been explained and the annihilation of the Matrix of beings. Likewise. AkASa gives space to everything. reach. they. beyond all trace of doubt or fear. the distinction. which arises from following the instructions of the scriptures and teachers through that eye of wisdom. invisible and is very subtle (sukshma) and uneffected by other 4 elements (earth. It is also not lord's effulgence.35 those who know thus. Page 219 of 619 . described as ignorance and is called the Unmanifest.

There are some more upanishads which are revered by a particular sect. so they are not authentic. They only passed on to his disciple. Atman. prakASa. light. snake.g. Dating is useless for an oral tradition. Jnana-ChakSu is different than Divya Chakshu. mega) svarupa (form). Brahman) similarly. devi-bhagavat is not one of the major 18 purANAs but is highly respected and is worshipped like that of bhagavat worshipped by vaishnavas by shaktas. So does in Gita say that sadhaka knows atman by Jnana ChakShu. We cannot discard them. Shiva Rahasya an up-purana. Here light symbolizes knowledge. they may have become famous in their name. which is subtlest. In the snake-rope analogy.Understanding Advaita . So the nature (svabhAva) of prakASa is to give knowledge. Atman. who in turn passed on to his disciple when he assumed the role of Guru. Rishis saw the words and slokas or heard them. subtle than even AkASa. has the nature of giving knowledge. Atman is prakASa-svarupa. you cannot find it in dark.e. By switching on tube light. Suppose you enter into dark room and want to find your wrist watch. This comparison is to give us a visualization or create a picture or an imagination. Page 220 of 619 . Jnana-ChakSu is not different than Jnana i. Major or minor does not make difference. which is an illusion. Shakras revere Devi Bhavagat though it is not one of 18 major puranas All 108 upanishads are authentic (for an advaitin) as a great advaitin Upanishad Brahma Yogin has written commentaries on them. A Rishi im[parting Brahma-vidya in any Upanishad does not mean that that particular Rishi created or authored upanishads. Being a minor gita or a minor purana does not take credit away from them e. caused by wrong perception in dark. Their quality of content is what is important. Snake was wrongly superimposed on rope. Refuting authority of scripture on basis of dating and classification Some people make ill attempt to refute authenticity of scripture if it does not fit one's ideology. you can easily find your watch. vanishes when one throws some light on it and it turns out to be a harmless rope. Also some sources say that some puraNas are not authentic or up-puranas and some Gita's are minor. It is only because that they have written down or spread the teachings. which was given by Bhagavan to Arjun (chapter 11) so that he can see bhagavan's virATa (cosmic.Importance of Guru Tatva (Atma Tatva. which contains Ribhu Gita is considered important and revered by Shaivas. Attempts to date scripture is useless as they are 'apaurusheya' (unauthored). Even a small samvAda (dialog) of just few slokas is equally potent and may contain the very essence of vedantic teachings. as genuine sadhakas study them for their personal spiritual progress.

It is mentioned in Katha Upanishad (quoted in Advaita in Shastras and in Understanding Advaita) that only knower of Brahman can impart Brahma-vidya and only a disciple who does not long for worldly desires but only longs for Brahman is only fit to study Upanishads which impart brahmavidya. abides only in Self (svarUpa). Up. pdf). Note: PancadaSI vidyAbhAskara) in English (html. Upanishads are not for the masses. Sri Ramana Maharshi also says the same thing. Bhagavatam and Gita is enough for a laymen to progress in spirituality. knowledge) and adarSana (aGYAna.Clearing Accusations & Doubts The Great VidyAraNya svAmI in his prakaraNa granth PancadaSI has cited a verse from MuktikA Upanishad 2. According to Swami Shankarananda of Chinmaya Mission. 1. Prasna and Katha? Is it a part of daily worship or chanting of verses? Do you meditate on OM? if no then why are you so much concerned about it. Thirukkural and Periya PurANa. The commentaries on Upanishads and Brahmasutra by Shri Madhvacharya and Shri Ramanujacharya may be done due to the reason which are unknown by laymen whose whose consciousness is strongly embedded in physical body. (in other words. yet some like Thirumandiram. Brahmavid Brahmaiva Bhavati. Mund. then both Guru and disciple undergo Page 221 of 619 . that if a guru is immature. Still people pick up books. Same is same in Guru Gita.64 दशर नयादशर नक शहतवया स्वयश ककवलरपतन .64 Muktika Upanishad.Understanding Advaita . 3. I would ask. but it has to be peacefully neglected. not just knower of Brahman. Hindi (archive. who has Translated PancadaSI in Hindi and have commented on it says that this verse occurs in Yog VAsisTa too. Knower of Brahman is Brahman itself.dvaita viveka) O Brahman! The one leaving both darSana (GYAna. If by referring to Purana. ignorance). (2.. RAmAvatAra Tamil scriptures are not universally accepted and / or quoted by all Hindu schools. Not accepting anything that you do not know or that contradicts your belief and philosophy may look fine.2. do you practice what is written in Upanishads like Mandukya. does this mean that other puranas were written after Adi Shankara? Refuting is generally motivated by intolerance and fear of insecurity. Adi Shankara means only one purana – Vishnu Purana. Lingayas do not worship according to vedas but according to their agamas.org.68 PanchdaSI . as now-a-days they are freely available. If anyone is refuting any philosophy.9). Upanishads are commented and translated by the ones who have not realized Brahman. scribd by Pt.4. य आस्तक कशपशयादर ल भ ब्रह स ब्रहशवतस्वयमत . he himself is Brahman only.

This is general statement applicable for masses and does not say that Advaita is fake. In Caitanya-caritamrta. This shows that Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu only stressed on Krishna Bhakti and did not spread hatred against Advaitins. There is no discussion. So please do not pickup any upanishad commented by a scholar or a fact finder or a historian. till date of chaitanya Mahaprabhu). would carry a contrary purport. Sri Ramakrishna says that Advaita is difficult to practice.Refuting authority of scripture on basis of dating and classification endless sufferings. I therefore accept him as a spiritual master. At other times. Indeed bhakti is for masses. forget argument and refutation. They only put things their way. Have you seen any kind of debates in upanishads.e. Sridhara Svami is the spiritual master of the entire world because by his mercy we can understand Srimad-Bhagavatam. by Rama Bhakta and an Advaitin Sridhara Swami was very popular and even appreciated by Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. Such high souled person an avatar of Bhakti. but I will give you knowledge through which you can attain Brahma-vidya (Anu Gita 9-15). 1975. Bhakti is the best. trying to surpass Sridhara Svami. One who comments on Srimad-Bhagavatam following in the footsteps of Sridhara Svami will be honored and accepted by everyone. Whatever you might write due to false pride. cannot have negative emotions. but debating with other paths is not good for spiritual progress. To add to it. That is your false pride. bhakti is the best (that suits). It is always Q & A system. Same is said by Bhagavan Krishna in Bhagavad Gita. Naradiya Bhakti. Sri Ramakrishna says that for this yuga (Kali Yuga). Bhagavan Krishna in Anu Gita (also known as Brahman Gita) says that he has established himself in Brahman and then imparted brahmavidya to Arjun and now it is not possible to repeat it entirely. (Bhaktivedanta.Understanding Advaita . Only one who has realized Brahman can understand Brahman and hence can understand essence of Upanishads thereby fit to write a commentary if God orders him to do so. not accepting his authority. commentary on Srimad Bhagavatam titled Bhavartha-dipika. not even detaching ourselves of sara-bhava. When a Vaisnava named Vallabha Bhatta approached Caitanya with a new Bhagavatam commentary wherein he apparently refutes Sridhara’s explanations as inconsistent Caitanya become very displeased: You have dared criticize Sridhara Svami. Disciple asks and Guru replies. It is fine of 2 advaitins discuss to clear their doubts or 2 dvaitins discuss shastras to clear their doubts. who considered it as authentic and the best known full bhasya till date (i. and you have begun your own commentary on SrimadBhagavatam. Better learn and practice then just speaking 'I am Brahman' and not experiencing anything. Caitanya directly speaks about Sridhara Svami. Put forth your explanation of Srimad-Bhagavatam following in the footsteps of Sridhara Svami. Page 222 of 619 . a devoted Advaitin and Sankara’s follower. Therefore no one would pay attention to it. 63).

etc reflect their own mindsets.org) For an Avaitin. refutation on basis of authority. you will notice that he has a way of being concise and to the point. due to their immaturity and not reaching ultimate goal of life. Uttara Gita is also revered by Advaitins as Shri Gaupadacharya has written commentary on it. while the fully filled does not. Allopanishad (Allah Upanishad) then we. people talking about this stuff may actually be the ones who does such infamous deeds. Niralamba Upanishad is revered by Advaitins. when one fills water in empty pot from river. Vaishnav panth Does Not represent the entire Hinduism. All 108 Upanishads are authentic Non-advaitins argue or believe that only the Upanishads that are commented by Adi Shankara and Vaishnav acharyas are authentic. If the reference is to a particular term or concept. Have a look at all 108 Upanishads most of them talk about Advaita and if Advaitins could manipulate upanishads or create new upanishads. Shaivas and Shaktas A List of authentic Upanishads can be found here Page 223 of 619 . Lord buddha says. and may not be quoted by Vaishnav acharyas. without going into other things. If the reference is to a text X. (Credits: Sri VidyAsankar ji of advaita-vedanta. Advaita.Understanding Advaita . In the same way. the half filled pot makes too much of noise. if an advaitin or present Shankaracharya would make a comment that 'x' upanishad is not valid even though it looks like it is of advaitic nature. Again. So all acharyas must unanimously say that 'x' upanishad is fake e. that does not mean that he was unaware of it. he won't wander into discussions of things that are only peripherally related. Tantra. but Lahiri Mahashay has written a commentary on it. they harm themselves by increasing negativity within themselves and giving bad name of their acharya. Shaiva. Same goes true for Vaishnavas. can discard it. Person having jaundice sees yellow tinge in everything. 'Anger is like holding hot coal with the intent of throwing at others' People talking about interpolation. Ones wearing blue glasses can only see everything in blue colour. There is Shakta. Often disciples make mess and in harming others. that is every possibility that the ones accusing others are involved in such infamous business.Clearing Accusations & Doubts There is a popular saying that. he will not quote texts Y and Z that are similar. So.g. Purva Mimamsa which are also according to vedas and are authentic. if he has not referred to a text. nor does it mean that he did not recognize its validity. This is a false assumption. all Hindus. He gives you the essence. then we can accept that such an upanishad has to be discarded. If you study Sankara's texts closely.

'Hindu Dharma'. The following sloka enumerates the ten upanishads: Isa Kena Kathaa Prasna Munda Maandukya TAithari Aitareyam Cha Chaandogyam Brahadhaaranyakam Dasa ईसककनकथियापशनमभणड मयाणडभ क्य तवैधत्तरम । एइतरकयशचछयानदरोजयश ब्रहृदयारणयकशदश ॥ Adi Shankara has written his commentary also in the above order of texts. page 68 mentioned the name of 10 mukhya (main) upanishads. While prasthantraiyi which includes Gita. Online Source Page 224 of 619 . Part 5. The Ten Upanishads. On the other hand. it is believed that Sri Ramanuja has given reference of Mudgal Upanishad. as commented by Shri Adi Shankara. Adi shankara in rest of his bhasya-s give very apt verse. page 219. as listed in Muktika Upanishad. Other acharyas followed footsteps and wrote bhasya-s on prasthantraiyi. The Ten Upanishads. which is one of 108 upanishads. at times half verse and not more than one verse for one sloka.All 108 Upanishads are authentic Some say that bhasya on Svetesvatara Upanishad is not made by Adi Shankara but by later acharyas.Understanding Advaita . as mentioned in Muktika Upanishad). Upanishads and Brahma Sutras was studied prior to Adi shankara by Dvaitins. Chapter 33. Visistadvaitins or advaitins has to be found out. chapter 11. Hindu Dharma' is only 2 volumes of the larger book. translated in English in the name 'The Voice of God' In the book he says. the reason for this argument is that in the beginning many references to purANa-s and longer verses are given. The book vedas is an extract of the larger book 'Hindu Dharma'. which contains same upanishads (10 principle upanishads. A point to be noted is that are there any documented facts available in which Authenticity of any upanishad is questioned by any of the acharyas? Paramacharya Sri Sri Chandrashekhendra (Indira) Saraswati if Kanchi Kamkoti Peetham in his book Vedas. Same passage and chapter occurs in the book. 'Deivaththin Kural' in Tamil. Also note that the book.

Clearing Accusations & Doubts Muktika Upanishads says The list of 108 Upanishads is introduced in verses 26-29. he sticks to traditional method. then Paramacharya would certainly not have quoted it. Mandukya Upanishad 7. if knowledge is not got from it. The Vedas. Page 196.org appears instead of word dasa in online copy found at For convenience they are put as Numbered List: 1. Warrier) Isa Kena Kathaa Prasna Munda Maandukya TAithari Aitareyam Cha Chaandogyam ईसककनकथियापशन मभणड Brahadhaaranyakam मयाणडभ क्य tathA - तवैधत्तरम 30 । एइतरकयशच छयानदरोजयश ब्रहृदयारणयकश तथिया ॥ ३० ॥ Note: The word tathA sanskritdocuments. If desiring Moksha without the body. Katha Upanishad 4. read the 108 Upanishads. If Muktika Upanishad is not an authority. Taittiriya Upanishad 8. At other places like in Part 5.Brihadaranyaka Upanishad If you have noticed. Aitareya Upanishad 9. Chandogya Upanishad 10. study the 32 Upanishads and stop. Mundaka Upanishad 6. Chapter 27. "But by what means is the Kaivalya kind of Moksha [= Mukti] got? The Mandukya is enough. Paramacharya is an authority on almost all spiritual matters and is revered by all. Hear their order" (trans.Understanding Advaita . Prashna Upanishad 5. Paramacharya says that Page 225 of 619 . Being a Shankaracharya. you will reach my abode. not only the upanishads but their order exactly matches with what Paramacharya says. Kena Upanishad 3. If certainty is not got even then. Getting knowledge very soon. then study the Ten Upanishads. Isha / Isa / Isavasya Upanishad 2.

In Page 195 of same chapter. The Upanisads are believed to have been large in number. he was honoured with title of 'Upanishad Brahmendra'. hence there are 1180 upanishads. His monastic institution is still to be seen in Kanci.the Isavasyopanishadnand the Brhadaranyaka Upanishad. page. He earned the name of "Upanisad Brahmendra". It can be concluded that Page 226 of 619 . Paramacharya himself says that his math is in close contact with Upanishad Brahmendra's Math. There are 1180 shaka-s of vedas. Page.Understanding Advaita .jnana Kand). Paramacharya. as he is fondly called out of respect and reverence. as a great ascetic and informs his followers about his achievement of writing commentaries on 108 upanishads and explaninig that due to his achievement. Part 5. 215 Another info about the close association or contact with Upanishad Brahmendra Math can be found here and here. Source: Veda and Vedanta : Are They Opposed to One Another?. Paramacharya again uses the word 'Dasopanishad'. Online Source At another instance. considers Muktika Upanishad as genuine and hence all 108 upanishads mentioned in Muktika Upanishad are authentic. Another distinction of the Yajurveda is that of the ten Upanishads ("Dasopanishad") the first and the last are from it . Most of them are extinct. On another instance. Chapter 32. Paramacharya considers Upanishad Brahma Yogin or Upanishad Brahman. Paramacharya mentions the name of 'Nrsimha Tapini Upanisad' in Part 5. Chapter 38. 261 This indicates that the direct successors of Adi Shankaracharya ji and one of the most revered names among Shankaracharyas. an ascetic belonging to Kancipuram wrote a commentary on 108 Upanisads.All 108 Upanishads are authentic It is believed that those who seek liberation need nothing to realise their goal other than Madukya Upanishad. who was from same Kanchi Matha. Each shakha has one upanishad (essence . Two hundred years ago.

Since 10 upanishads commented by all Acharyas are the exact 10 as mentioned in Muktika Upanishad 2.11. There is none second to him. Up-puranas and Sthala Puranas> Classifications of Puranas in Padma Purana and Matsya Purana < article shifted > Interpolations in Padma PurANa < article shifted > Shiva is none other than Brahman Atharva Siras Upanishad . there is no day or night. Hence Muktika Upanishad and all 108 mentioned in Muktika Upanishad are authentic. He is the one who creates all beings and upkeep's them. Other Upanishads like Atma Upanishad has similar verses as found in Bhagavad Gita 4. Brahma Upanishad mentioned in Chandogya Upanishad (3.Lord Siva is praised by 300 names in Namakam. Vishweshwara and Isana and Eeshwara. <article shifted to Authenticity of Puranas. While the other Gods in the Vedas have only Sukthams (Praising of their qualities) there are extensive Namakams (Salutations in Vedic Format) for Rudra (Siva). He rules all worlds by his power. neither being nor Page 227 of 619 .Understanding Advaita .Clearing Accusations & Doubts 1. Svetasvatara Upanishad – 4:18. at the time of deluge. thereby giving importance to Mandukya Upanishad are all found in Muktika Upanishad.5. He is the one who. he is the only God praised in the entire vedas as Mahadeva.2 says Rudra is one and only one. In the Vedas. He pervades fully in all beings.3) 3. No purAnA is superior or inferior. absorbs all beings. 130 boons are seeked from Him in Chamakam. KarikA on Maudukya by Shri GauDapada. 'When there is no darkness of ignorance.

as Krishna (ViShNu / NArAyaNa) is the Supreme Godhead. It is clear from the definition of Shiva that Shiva is none of than Brahman.9. ययाननत दकववतया दकवयानत शपतकतृ़नययाननत शपतकवतयान। भभतयाशन ययाननत भभतकजयया ययाननत मदयाधजनरोतोऽशप मयामत।।9. It is adored by the Sun. Chandra means moon. the worshippers of the ancestors (staying on chandra-loka) go to the manes (chandra-loka). the worshippers of the Beings reach the Beings.25 Worshippers of the gods (devata-s (deva-s) ascend and stay in deva-loka..25 Votaries of the gods reach the gods. Just like there is earth kingdom. etc.pi mām. the votaries of the manes go to the manes. piSAca) reach their loka. they cite a verse 9. and those who worship Me (Ishvara) reach Me. English translation by Swami Gambhirananda 9. bhūtāni yānti bhūtējyā yānti madyājinō. Page 228 of 619 . the worshippers of the Ghosts (bhUta.25।। yānti dēvavratā dēvān pitrḥnyānti pitrḥvratāh ḥ .Understanding Advaita . That immutable Reality is the meaning of "That". moon-kingdom.Shiva is none other than Brahman non-being.. Loka can be taken as kingdom. we will cover interpretations of Anya-devata. Note: Deva-loka means heaven. Vaikuntha and param pada in Gita In this article. In support of their claim.25 from Bhagavad Gita. OR 9. there is sun-kingdom. From It has proceeded the ancient wisdom. Sri RAmAnuja explains the meaning of the word 'Vrita' mean 'will'. and those who worship Me reach Me. pada and dhAma by AchArya-s of different Vaishnava sampradaya Anya-devata Worship Vaishnava-s say that they do not worship anya-devata (other Gods).25. Anya-devata worship. the pure Siva alone exists.

56 In BG 8. Brahmins conducted puja in Shiva temples are are called Shivayogins. a Vaishnava agama (other being pAncharAtra). We will find that nowhere in Gita there is a description or even the mention of the word Vaikuntha. Gita also talks about renouncing vedic rites. None of the acharya-s have translated the word 'me' as 'loka'. It should be noted that a seeker. Like the upanishads. According to Kanchi Paramacharya.m (पदश ) . We have picked up this verse as this verse specifically deals with doing worship and as a merit of worship. Under the same roof (ghaTikA-s. Pada Verses containing the word 'padam' are 2. Typically. They do not consider that all actions and their fruits has to be surrendered to Ishvara. They think that veda-s give us fruits of rituals and in general veda-s give fruits of our deeds.Understanding Advaita . which talk about Vaikuntha. It should be noted that Shiva is considered as Ishvara and not just a devata (demi-God). this verse talks about devata-worship and their loka-s. There are rituals mentioned in verses which mimAmsaka-s follow.e. who has purified his mind by doing vedic rites and rituals has to drop the very karma that gave him inner purity and move ahead to Atma Jnana. Note: 'pada' (पद ) or 'padaM' / 'pada. big school teaching various subjects). which deals with idol worship.m (पदश). Sri Rudram is advised to be daily chanted even by the Vaishnava-s. Page 153). Gita is not dharma-shastra-s which teach us religious observances.51. 18. those who worship me attain 'Me'. It should be noted that the verse does not contain the word 'Vaikuntha'. All acharya-s include Adi Shankara. 15.Clearing Accusations & Doubts The worship here refers to kAmya-karma i.4. 15. Kindly note that the word used by Bhagavan is not 'my loka'. None of the acharya-s have clarified on this verse that Ishvara (Shiva) is also anya devata in this verse. the verse under discussion says that instead of worshipping other Gods for personal benefits or even for universal benefit.note the difference is anusvAra (dot) Page 229 of 619 . vaishnava and shaiva agamas were taught (Source: Guru Tradition. Bhagavan says.11. In other words.e. nor it is an agama. at least not the principle upanishads. one should worship Ishvara. one school teaches both shaiva and vaishnava agama-s. achArya-s explain the meaning of the word 'pada' (पद) or 'padaM' / 'pada. Hence vedic rites and other kinds of worships are discouraged by Bhagavan fo a devotee who lives his life only and only for Ishvara and wants nothing else. while learning VAilhAnasa. to fulfill our desires or for peace and spiritual progress of our ancestors. four Vaishnav acharya-s. one attains or stays in the loka of a deity worshipped. which deal with procedures of temple worship. While studying agama-s. 8.11. In this context. Hence this verse excludes Shiva / Rudra. temple construction and consecration of deities. worshipping done with some objective in mind i.5. I am not aware of Upanishads. Shreedhar Svami (hid commentary is accepted by Nimbarka sampradAya) and Abhinava Gupta (Kashmir Shaivism). Bhagavad Gita is the essence of Upanishads and hence it is a moksha shastra.

By meaning closest. Now begins the summation. Vaikuntha and param pada in Gita above the word pada in second spelling.यदकरशमशत।' .Understanding Advaita . Lord Krishna speaks this verse with a view to instruct how the preceding practice is based on the sacred syllable OM which is the most dearest and nearest [1] transcendental sound vibration of the Supreme Lord. Since the aspirants attain that consciousness it is known as padam or state and once that state is reached it is designated by the word 'visanti' meaning to enter. In reference to context with BG 7.Anya-devata worship. it is verily the ParamAtmA. Sanskrit commentary is 'ककवलयादभ्ययासयरोरयादशप पणवयाधयारमभ्ययासमनतरङश शवधधतसभन पशतजयानमतक -. Since that consciousness is achieved by the ascetics.m' and ' Full commentary of the verse is : The ultimate goal to be attained is explained by Lord Krishna in this verse. we can take that OM is the closest to ParamAtmA. This is denoted in transliteration as '. If we split the verse we get ककवल-अभ्ययासयरोरन-अशप पणव-आधयार-अभ्ययास-अनतरशर शवधध-अस्तभ. Source Sri Sridhara Svami explains akshara as praNava OM. 'What is attained by the mind as its goal is called 'pada'' Sri Madhva explains us the meaning of 'pada' as. We hear the word 'antaranga-bhakta' Page 230 of 619 . Brahmacarya or voluntary celibacy for spiritual purposes denotes attuning one's consciousness in full devotion to the Supreme Lord excluding everything else. it is known as padam.पशतजयाशनतक यदमत-अकरमत-इशत [1] The word antaranga can be defined as antar-anga.m' or 'M' Sri RAmAnuja explains us the meaning of 'pada' as.8. Antar means 'inner' and anga means 'organ'. 'Since the aspirants attain that consciousness it is known as pada. The Narada Purana states: That the ultimate goal to be attained is Lord Krishna is confirmed in the Vedic scriptures.

nor do the references made to Br. Sanskrit commentary by Sri Madhvacharya तदथिर च तमकव पपदक पपदकत। तच्चरोकश तत्रिवैव "तश ववै पपदकत यश ववै पपद न शरोचशत न हृष्यशत न जयायतक न शम्रियतक तद्ब्रह मभलश तनच्छतसभन" इशत।'नयारयायणकन दृषशच पशतबभदरो भवकतपभमयानत' इशत च मरोकधमर। छक दनरोपयायरो ह्यत्रियाकयाशङ्क्षितन न च भरवतरोतोऽनयन शरणयरोतोऽनस्त ।।15. However. neither it mentions Shiva as anya-devata. which is the goal. nor subtle. the only progenitor.5 do not describe of any pada as loka.4।। सयाधनयानतरमयाह -. contains extra words: . no acharya has mentioned pada as loka or as Vaikuntha. none of the acharya-s talk of Vaikuntha.4.8) The purpose of commentary is to give more clarity of the verse. Hence we can conclude that none of the Vaishnava acharya-s say that the param pada is Vishnu- Page 231 of 619 . does not say mention the word Shiva... Sri Adi Shankara mentions the pada. Indra and all the 300 million demigods are nothing but emantions from Him like rays of sunlight from the sun. is neither gross. Shiva. it is not that clarifies what is the unmanifest. refuted advaita and shaivism. He is the primal Supreme Lord.'शनमयारनकशत' ।।15. Sri Ramanuja talks of 'शयाशवतश पदमत अव्ययमत' (SASvata. mention Vaikuntha.46.5।। While commenting on BG 18. as available on Gita Super Site. Realising that the Supreme Lord Krishna is the seperate and distinct from all else is what makes Him clearly superior and paramount. Up. indicating that Brahman is beyond description. which could be connected with BG 15. The question is why didn't they mention the word vaikuntha.m padam avyayam).the Vedic aphorism neti neti meaning it is not this.Clearing Accusations & Doubts We all know that OM represents nirguNa brahman.Understanding Advaita . as found here. English translation of MadhvachArya. Bhagvan in Gita says 'I am OM' (BG 7. All created beings including Brahma.4 and 15. Here. Sri Adi Shankara and Sri Abhinava Gupta mentions pada as 'the goal' Commentaries on 15. the sanskrit commentary.

. the state of self-luminous existence as the pure self. BG 9. Kena Upanishad says that . Up.. The essential nature of the freed self is boundless knowledge. Therefore Lord Page 232 of 619 .13 also asks us to know.6 Sri Ramanuja and Sri Madhva gives definition of dhAma as luminosity which means prakASa (prakash) and prakASa means Jnana (Knowledge) Sri Ramanuja says: BG 8. Pada or Parampada. it means only that. BG 10.2 says that even demi-gods and great sages do not know my true nature.Understanding Advaita . Vaikuntha and param pada in Gita loka (heavenly planet or heavenly kingdom of Lord Vishnu) which is Vaikuntha.28.11 and 9. VII-xxv-2 also uses the word 'to know'. which stands in contrast to the shrunken knowledge of the self. And luminosity connotes knowledge.3) BG 3.21 Or the term 'dhama' may signify 'luminosity'.21.Anya-devata worship. It is interesting to note that none of the acharya-s have connected with BhAgavat PUrANa (Srimad BhAgavatam -SB). DeSa Word 'desa' or 'desam' occurs in 8. Sridhara Svami says The six causative case by the word mama meaning my is used in the sense of identity as when one states Rahu's head which is all that remains of Rahu. or supreme light. 'reach Me' etc has to be taken as a state of as MadhvachArya says 'consciousness'. Nowhere it is mentioned 'to see'. The description given above is that of Kaivalya.35 uses the word 'to know' (GYAna chakShu means eye of knowledge. Ch. when involved in Prakrti.Indra excelled than other Gods as he was the first to know that 'I am Brahman' (4. 8.2-4. which is nothing but knowledge itself. 15.

From the above explanation. etc in PrasthAntraya bhASya. which is state of consciousness. They have not passed on any negative Page 233 of 619 . dhAma is light. what I have concluded is that the param pada. their philosophy has to be reflected in their commentaries. or works attributed to them are against their commentaries or contradict their philosophy in commentaries on PrasthAntrayI. One may argue that there are statements like . which is knowledge. please re-read the above verses and commentaries by revered acharya. I do not speak ill of others' :) .Do not worship Shiva.e.6 Sri Ramanuja explains light (Prakasha i. It is sin to worship Shiva. individual self) consists in its capacity to illumine the light of knowledge. Since teachings of saints cannot be different then their life and their philosophy they are preaching.28. The adoption of NAhI NindA nyAya by acharyas. Knowledge as The supremacy of this light (i. If any teaching by a later saint. With this in light. Does this not automatically disqualify anya-devatA-s? does this not mean that there anya-devatA-s are demi-gods and only nArAyaNa is the supreme. Knowledge alone can illuminate all things (including the light of the sun which sheds only physical light on objects. It denotes one-pointedness in devotion.KrShNa is supreme or NArAyaNa is supreme or in veda-s we find word like 'NArAyaNa param'.25 and other related verses that we have examined. Nahi Ninda Nyaya is a nyaya of tarka shastra. which says that 'My philosophy is true. as commentaries on prasthAntrayI are considered as 'undoubtedly authentic'.e. Shiva is a Demi-God. While commenting on the verse BG 8.). If we observe carefully. then these verses or statements by AcArya-s say that NArAyaNa is supreme. In short there is no attempt to denigrate any deity. This is a common approach by all scholars irrespective of the sampradAya they belong.Clearing Accusations & Doubts Krishna.Understanding Advaita . If you have noticed in all these verses. you wont find a single statement that will say . none of the acharya-s have explained the meaning of 'desha' or 'deSa' In BG 15. Shiva and adoption of Nahi Ninda Nyaya by acharyas We will focus on another aspect of this topic. then their authenticity has to be doubted and they have to be discarded.. Himself is the paramam gatim and no other. You will notice that there is no denigration of anya-devatA even in the verse BG 9. This is the purport.

as he is supreme . When I say . To focus on one aspect but in this process. as they do not accept superiority of Rudra / Shiva. I think they adopted a nahi ninda nyaya. One may say that it automatically implies that anya-devata includes everyone except Krishna. Worshipping anya devatA like Shiva. There is tight logic where there is no escape window.is a positive statement Worship only NArAyaNa and none else. • As a rule. as he is Supreme . Vaishnava is not a pUrNa vedic sampradAya. Hence we have to adopt nAhI nindA nyAya.is a negative statement. But we do not find any derogatory words or any negative statements in commentaries on PrasthAntrayI.is also not derogatory. Since the commentaries are personal opinion and not words of veda-s.Understanding Advaita . as he is supreme. to speak only and only of one God and not to denigrate any deity.Speak the truth I am speaking positively When I say . But there is a difference.Speak the truth and do not speak lie There is both positive and negative upadesha. It's just Krishna Krishna Krishna and nothing else.Shiva and adoption of Nahi Ninda Nyaya by acharyas statements like Shiva is Demi-God. Mind does not think of anything else. not to denigrate other aspect is called a 'nAhI nindA nyAya'. and also no other path. they may have refuted arguments put forth by rival sampradAya-s be it advaita or Shaiva. Worship only NArAyaNa. AcArya-s are free to write what they want. who is a demo-god is a sin . whatever is superior has to go to Sriman NArAyaNa. Page 234 of 619 . worshipping him is sin. But this is not so. Hence this is also a positive statement BUT Worship only NArAyaNa and none else. It should also be noted that in order to defend their philosophies. We also find Rudra as supreme in Veda-s. If there was no such statement. Shiva automatically drops as one can surrender to only one form of God. then we would have no confusion.

Hence all such negative emotions are mischief of disciples. I would not accept it as it will shows acharya in bad light.45.25) Shiva Gita or Siva gItA (SG) is an authentic text with more than three commentaries written on it. After this kathan (statement). which is negative is to prove the verse is interpolated or to accuse or to denigrate other deities) I hope to convey that acharyas cannot have a negative approach and cannot accuse.45] He rAmachandra ! those who think nirguNa upAsanA (worship of formless. In the 12th adhyAya.45 (upAsanA = worship) Meaning: Those who find practising nirguNa upAsanA. उपयासनरतरो भभतवया तस्मयादयास्स्व सभखिम नकप [11. we find verses similar to BG 9. A bhakta cannot have lower emotions. Souls of those worshipping any form of ISvara will never move downwards (to lower worlds). Before going to chapter 12. bhagavAn rAma asks bhagavAn Siva (maheSvara) how to practice upAsanA.. Even if one shows quote from PrasthAntrayi. attributeless brahman) is difficult. An accuser cannot be a matured bhakta. upAsanA GYAna phala. उपयासनशवधधश ब्रभशह दकशश कयालश च तस्य तभ [1] Page 235 of 619 . भरवनदकवदकवकश नमस्तकतोऽस्तभ महकशवर . In SG 11.. Anyone practicing saguNa upAsanA is not demoted to lower worlds (adhogatI) i. (An interpolation. after leaving physical body. which forms the basis of asking questions on saguNa upAsanA. Verses in Siva gItA similar to anya-devatA verses in bhagavad gItA (9. lets have a look at chapter 11.Clearing Accusations & Doubts • Else.e.Understanding Advaita . The exception is Madhvacharya who at many places has denigrated Shiva and tamasic puranas or maybe it is the mischief of early madhvas to interpolate his bhashya. they should practice saguNa upAsanA (worship to any form of ISvara) first. bhagavAn Siva says to bhagavAn rAma that उपयासकरो न ययातयकव यस्मयातपभनरधरोरशतम . शमरयाम उवयाच . It also makes one use Grammar to derive the meaning in such a way that the central deity of glorification of the verse quoted ) • If it is not possible to somehow convince that the verse is not glorifying Sriman NArAyaNa.25. it has to be interpreted in a way that it goes to Sriman NArAyaNa (here comes part and whole philosophy and concept of antaryAmI. It is a part of padma purANa. then it has to be discarded.SG 11. they must first practise saguNa upAsanA. jIva's movement will not be downwards . Infact SG is more clearly explains the meaning of these verses.

2-3 यक तवनयदकवतयाभकया यजनतक शदययाननवतयान . Listen with present mindedness. मदशशकन पररनच्छन्नया दकहयान सवर शदवरौकसयाम [3] Isvara said (bhagavAn Siva said .4 यस्मयातसवर शमदश शवशवश मत्तरो न व्यशतररच्यतक .5 यकनयाकयारकण यक मतययार मयामकववैकमभपयासतक . due to this reason.SG 12. SG 12. सवर शकययाणयाश भरोकयाहश सवर स्ययाहश फलपदन [5] Because in this entire world (samsAra). I am enjoyer of all actions (kriyA-s) and also the giver of fruits of actions (phala) . they are not different than me .1 Meaning: Please explain in which way. All the devatA-s are my rUpa only (they are me only).Understanding Advaita . they consider these devatA-s different than me .e.SG 12.Shiva and adoption of Nahi Ninda Nyaya by acharyas अङयाशन शनयमयाशशचवैव मशय तकतोऽनभग्रहरो यशद srI rAmachandra said .He rAma ! I will explain to you the procedure of upAsanA and will also tell you at which time and place it must be done. there is nothing except me. तकतोऽशप मयामकव रयाजकनद यजनतयशवधधपभवरकम [4] Those who are devotees of other devatA-s.SG 12. in which time and in which way upAsanA should be done.. In reality.e.. ईशवर उवयाच . Page 236 of 619 . and they faithfully worship these devatA-s.He deva of deva-s maheSvara (Siva) ! I prostate before you. at what time and place should upAsanA be done. O king ! they worship me with bheda buddhi (dual stand point) i. Please can you describe vidhi (step by step procedure) and describe time and space (place) i. शृणभ रयाम पवकययाशम दकशश कयालमभपयासनक [2] सवयारकयाररोतोऽहमकववैकन सनच्चदयाननदशवग्रहन .

Clearing Accusations & Doubts तकनयाकयारकण तकभ्यरोतोऽहश पसन्नरो वयानञ्छतश ददक [6] The one who worships (me) with whatever bhAva (spiritual emotion . शवधधनयातोऽशवधधनया वयाशप भक्तयया यक मयामभपयासतक . tAmasika or intention).sAttvika.6 Now. rAjasika. In bhagavad gItA. I think this is one of the reason why we have different sahasranama's for Vishnu. तकभ्यन फलश पयच्छयाशम पसन्नरोतोऽहश न सशशयन [7] Those who worship me with vidhi (step by step procedure as ordained by SAstra-s).SG 12. pleased with their devotion. Though you can technically say all forms of Vishnu are one and same. Krishna. he would not play flute. or worships me by any way. Laxmi-Narsimha and stotra-s dedicated to each form of God.7 From this we can conclude that there is no difference between Siva and kruShNa. Page 237 of 619 . etc. When Krishna appeared. mind can concentrate on only one form. She would not chant RAma Nama nor Narasimh nAma Though all avatars of Vishnu are one and the same. bhagAvan Siva goes one step further and says. or those who worship me without any vidhi. Rama. nor would play politics (which was necessary and not against dharma). Each form of God has distinctive Personality Hanuman only chanted RAma Nama and not Krishna NAma. I give them [appropriate] fruits [of their devotion] . give them fruits according their bhAva . in that form of devatA.Understanding Advaita . Rama would not do what Parashurama did nor did Rama lived like an Avadhoot. he requested Bhagavan to give darshan as Rama Meera Bai chanted only Krishna's name. Siva is playing role of gUru and ISvara and bhagavAn rAma is playing the role of disciple for the good of all. Rama would not do that Krishna did. (avidhi upAsanA). kruShNa is playing the role of gUru and ISvara and in Siva gItA. still they have distinctive personality. I.SG 12.

domestic observances. What are agama-s? Swami Sivananda explains: The Agamas are theological treatises and practical manuals of divine worship. one denigrates them. Agama-s are composed keeping in mind certain Veda ShAkhA-s.Understanding Advaita . devotion. They also give elaborate details about ontology and cosmology. Mantras and Yantras. Suppose an agama states that . Instead of ignoring other deities. Source In short. still we can take 'and none else' as indicating one-pointed devotion. 'Only Vishnu is supreme and none else. social rules. It is our mind that takes it negatively. liberation.'Only Vishnu is supreme and none else'. Rudra is NOT supreme'? They do not speak negatively. etc. public festivals.'Purusho vai Rudra' ? Do agama-s say. charms and spells. temples.Veda or Agama. they are secondary in authority as compared to Veda-s which are topmost authority. The Agamas include the Tantras. in idols. (ii) Yoga or Concentration. which is supreme authority? Veda or Agama. If pramANa-s are found. Should we take it that agama implies that Rudra is not supreme or that Rudra / Shiva is a Jiva and not Brahman. great Rishi-s also composed Agama-s. meditation. etc. agama-s are composed by Sages. mystic diagrams. Suppose an agama states that . Just like great Rishi-s who had mastered veda-s composed Smriti-s. specially we find pramANa from veda-s which says . Lets take an arbitrary example. then we can accept this statement. All the Agamas treat of (i) Jnana or Knowledge. but compliment veda-s.'Vishnu is supreme'. What if an agama says the above statement? Page 238 of 619 . philosophy of Mantras. When they contradict veda-s they have to be discarded. which is supreme authority? PanchrAtra and Vaikhanasa are agama-s. Since they are not a part of veda-s. (iii) Kriya or Esoteric Ritual and (iv) Charya or Exoteric Worship. temple-building. These are treatises explaining the external worship of God. image-making. then we will have to find pramANa from veda-s.

It means that they are not to be neglected and that they speak the same truth of veda-s but in a very friendly way. Visistadvaita. It should be taken in literal sense. Veda-s do not eulogize one deity. each citing reference from Veda-s and complimenting Veda-s. else it would contradict veda-s. They are projecting one-pointed devotion by stating supremacy of one deity. then we will have to discard this statement as it contradicts veda-s. then comes smriti-s (which includes Bhagavad Gita) followed by purANa-s. etc According to Swamiji. at most they can be called as anSa vedic (partly vedic) and not pUrNa vedic (fully vedic). Many samhitas. consider them as supreme authority and then go on to interpret veda-s in a way that it does not contradict their agama-s.Clearing Accusations & Doubts In this case. one should consider the view of veda-s as final. I think that this is the reason why acharyas do not denigrate other deities. aganas and sutras relating to Pancharatra VAishnavism are now extinct. Shaiva agamas and Shakta agamas. supremacy of one deity does not mean that one has to denigrate another deity. It only means to have one-pointed devotion to a supreme deity. Whenever one finds contradiction. which eulogize another deities. Sadly. Sir Vaishnavas and Madhvas claim to follow the Panchratra Vaishnavism. Similar is the case with PurANa-s and itihAsa (MahAbhArata). as they only concentrate on parts of veda-s. The problem comes when one keeps agama-s in center. the then Panchratra Vaishnavism was different then it is today. all school of thoughts agreed on unity of Brahman and jiva as final release. If at all you call them as vedic. All acharya-s unanimously agree that veda-s are considered as supreme authority. This gradations does not imply that purANa-s are weak or do not speak truth. whoare accused for interpolating pancharatra agamas to suit their needs. There are Vaishnava agamas. All schools during Adi Shankara's time were advaitic According to Sacchidanandendra Sarasvati Swami of Holenarsipur. during Adi Shankara's time. we will have to find pramANa from veda-s. in present times. Perhaps purANa-s are not preserved as very well and are said to contain interpolations here and there. Page 239 of 619 . Pancaratra-s (Vaishnavas) and Pashupata-s (Shaivas) denigrate rival deities.Understanding Advaita . To repeat again. They only differed in approaches like dvaita. Both are often eulogized as the '5th Veda'. If we find a pramANa from veda-s stating supremacy of Rudra. as denigration is not found in their commentaries on PrasthAntrayi.

I think that Nahi Ninda Nyaya is the best approach. There are 4 Vaishnava sampradaya-s with Gaudiya Vaishnava as the 5th. Vaishnavas discards Shiva being praised as supreme Godhead by Brahma-dev. some say Krishna is an avatar of Vishnu (Madhvas and Ramanujas). So what is the truth? Both cannot be true. there are basic differences between core philosophies / beliefs of all 5 sampradayas. Adi Shankara.reference in Madhaviya Shankara Digvijaya).Understanding Advaita . it is acceptable. Avatars cannot be wrong nor can they contradict each other as far as final release is concerned. Such is their rigidity and accuse us of being rigid. Some believe that Krishna is original source of all avatars (Gaudiya Vaishnavas. Not going deep. Again. only one God and one path is true. Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu came after Ramanuja. Vishnu avatars are devotees of Lord Shiva .Parashurama. The very philosophy of discarding whole shruti or even parts of authentic shruti / smriti / purana is dreadful. which in time got corrupted by his followers. but when same Brahma-dev in chapter 10 praises Vishnu / Krishna as supreme. Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was a Eka Dandi Sanyasi and his guru was Ishvara Puri. which one of them is true? This automatically disqualifies all other sampradayas except one as non-vedic. Nimbarkas and Vallabhacharyas). They only put their philosophy in their way and only differed in the initial approach. I have written on it here. It means that there were already established Vaishnava Mathas. If Ramanuja wished he could have changed the rules of Sanyasa as per Vaishnava guidelines. 5 Vaishnava Acharyas and Sant Gyandev (Gyaneshwar) would not preach anything contradictory as far as final release or final state is concerned. Vaishnava sanyasins are tri-dandi sanyasins. So they even discard a part of Bhagavat Purana. who are revered as avatars may have also experienced and preached Advaita as final release. As the name suggests his guru was an advaitin. Hence it is natural to be a Vishnu devotee. This indicates that all Gurus of Vaishnava. as per their philosophy. All cannot be true.All schools during Adi Shankara's time were advaitic Swamiji has done research work and is found in book Shuddha Shankara Prakriya Bhaskara Booklet Series According to popular belief. Page 240 of 619 . As we know that Ramanuja and Madhva were eka dandi sanyasins and were initiated into Advaita. Rama and Krishna. It reflects their own mental status. Another great Vaishnava saint who is revered as avatar preached Krishna bhakti as the easiest way but preached that Advaita is the final state. All avatars Govindpada and Patanjali (avatars of Shesha Naga . Adi Shankara was an avatar of Shiva (Dakshinamurty). In this context.

Dvaita. By exaggerating. Attacking a strawman is to create the illusion of having refuted a proposition by replacing it with a superficially similar yet unequivalent proposition (the "straw man"). according to Dikshitar. emotional issues. Their logical fallacy is a strawman.Clearing Accusations & Doubts What we know about these sampradayas might be a myth. but this kind of dishonesty serves to undermine honest rational debate.Other Side of Coin. This technique has been used throughout history in polemical debate. Page 241 of 619 . or just completely fabricating someone's argument. they. Lets see Advaita in Shastras. and to refute it. and that it was the real intention of Srikanta that the final truth lies only in Shuddhadvaita. So. Dikshitar's great dialectical skill is fully reflected in the work called 'Anandalahari chandrika'. accusers have created a false identity and then knocked it down. vishishtadvaita as the middle step and sivadvaita and advaita which are very close to each other as the highest steps. who knows. misrepresenting. propagated his cult on the understanding that sagunopasana (Worship of name and form) is only the first step to nirgunopasana (Propitiation of the nameless and formless). we conclude that. where he tries to narrow down the differences between the apparently divergent schools of thought and tries to show that the advaita of Sankara is the real eternal truth to which all others try to approximate. Logical arguments put forth by Vyasatirth are successfully refuted in the celebrated with ‘Advaita Siddhi’ by Madhusudan Saraswati (links given on References and Sources Page) After dispelling doubts. Starting from the basics Understanding Advaita to other articles in the Section 'Advaita Vedanta' up to Musings . He makes it clear in his work that Srikantha-Bhashya on the Brahmasutra has been written in very close approximation to the trend of thought of Adi Sankara in his own bhashya.Understanding Advaita . particularly in arguments about highly charged. Visistadvaita and Advaita are steps leading to ultimate truth Dikshitar graphically describes dvaita as the lowest step. Srikanta. Finally. without ever having actually refuted the original position. it's much easier to present your own position as being reasonable. lets see scriptural evidences of Advaita. giving a false sense of victory. They have attacked strawman.

Their logical fallacy is a strawman.Understanding Advaita . Page 242 of 619 .

but bhagavAn himself Lets begin our study with the analysis of anya-devatA worship.Other side of coin Namaste. paramAtmA all point to one thing . parampada and param dhAma in gItA anya-devatA worship..9. or consciousness which is GYana 2.Musings . param gati. vaikunTha. we will give our conclusions in brief 1. deva..pi mām.25.Understanding Advaita .brahman. ययाननत दकववतया दकवयानत शपतकतृ़नययाननत शपतकवतयान। भभतयाशन ययाननत भभतकजयया ययाननत मदयाधजनरोतोऽशप मयामत।।9.25 Votaries of the gods reach the gods. English translation by Swami Gambhirananda 9. param dhAma is not vaikuntha. the votaries of the manes go to the manes. we have presented musings which represent 'other side of coin' of certain concepts which are generally taken to [obviously] mean a specific thing. Words like param dhAma.25।। yānti dēvavratā dēvān pitrḥnyānti pitrḥvratāh ḥ . bhūtāni yānti bhūtējyā yānti madyājinō. pada and dhAma by AchArya-s of different Vaishnava sampradaya Anya-devata Worship Verse BG 9. param dhAma is param jyoti. we will cover interpretations of Anya-devata.25 from bhagavad gItA says. vaikunTha. param-pada. param pada.Other side of coin Musings . the worshippers of the Beings reach the Beings. bhagavAn. But before starting a detailed study. param-dhAma in gItA In this article. Page 243 of 619 . In this page. ISvara. and those who worship Me reach Me.

Understanding Advaita - Anya-devata Worship

OR
9.25 Worshippers of the gods (devata-s (deva-s) ascend and stay in deva-loka; the worshippers of
the ancestors (staying on chandra-loka) go to the manes (chandra-loka); the worshippers of the
Ghosts (bhUta, piSAca) reach their loka; and those who worship Me (Ishvara) reach Me.
Note: Deva-loka means heaven. Chandra means moon. Loka can be taken as kingdom.
Just like there is earth kingdom, there is sun-kingdom, moon-kingdom, etc.
Sri rAmAnuja explains the meaning of the word 'vrita' mean 'will'.
The worship here refers to kAmya-karma i.e. worshipping done with some objective in mind i.e. to
fulfill our desires or for peace and spiritual progress of our ancestors. There are rituals mentioned
in verses which mimAmsaka-s follow. They do not consider that all actions and their fruits has to
be surrendered to Ishvara. They think that veda-s give us fruits of rituals and in general veda-s
give fruits of our deeds. Bhagavad Gita is the essence of Upanishads and hence it is a moksha
shastra. Gita is not dharma-shastra-s which teach us religious observances, nor it is an agama,
which deals with idol worship, temple construction and consecration of deities. Like the
upanishads, Gita also talks about renouncing vedic rites. In this context, the verse under
discussion says that instead of worshipping other Gods for personal benefits or even for universal
benefit, one should worship Ishvara. It should be noted that a seeker, who has purified his mind
by doing vedic rites and rituals has to drop the very karma that gave him inner purity and move
ahead to Atma Jnana. Hence vedic rites and other kinds of worships are discouraged by Bhagavan
fo a devotee who lives his life only and only for Ishvara and wants nothing else.
It should be noted that the verse does not contain the word 'Vaikuntha'. We have picked up this
verse as this verse specifically deals with doing worship and as a merit of worship, one attains or
stays in the loka of a deity worshipped. In other words, this verse talks about devata-worship and
their loka-s. Kindly note that the word used by Bhagavan is not 'my loka'. Bhagavan says, those
who worship me attain 'Me'. None of the acharya-s have translated the word 'me' as 'loka'. All
acharya-s include Adi Shankara, four Vaishnav acharya-s, Shreedhar Svami (hid commentary is
accepted by Nimbarka sampradAya) and Abhinava Gupta (Kashmir Shaivism).
It should be noted that Shiva is considered as Ishvara and not just a devata (demi-God). Hence
this verse excludes Shiva / Rudra. None of the acharya-s have clarified on this verse that Ishvara
(Shiva) is also anya devata in this verse. Typically, Sri Rudram is advised to be daily chanted even
by the Vaishnava-s. While studying agama-s, which deal with procedures of temple worship, one
school teaches both shaiva and vaishnava agama-s. According to Kanchi Paramacharya, while
learning VAilhAnasa, a Vaishnava agama (other being pAncharAtra), Brahmins conducted puja in
Shiva temples are are called Shivayogins. Under the same roof (ghaTikA-s, big school teaching
various subjects), vaishnava and shaiva agamas were taught (Source: Guru Tradition, Page 153).

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We will find that nowhere in Gita there is a description or even the mention of the word Vaikuntha.
I am not aware of Upanishads, which talk about Vaikuntha, at least not the principle upanishads.

Pada
Verses containing the word 'padam' are 2.51, 8.11, 15.4, 15.5, 18.56
In BG 8.11, achArya-s explain the meaning of the word 'pada' (पद) or 'padaM' / 'pada.m (पदश).
Note: 'pada' (पद) or 'padaM' / 'pada.m ( पदश) - note the difference is anusvAra (dot) above
the word pada in second spelling. This is denoted in transliteration as '.m' or 'M'
Sri rAmAnuja explains us the meaning of 'pada' as, 'What is attained by the mind as its goal is
called 'pada''
Sri mAdhvA explains us the meaning of 'pada' as, 'Since the aspirants attain that consciousness it
is known as pada.m' and '

Full commentary of the verse is :

The ultimate goal to be attained is explained by Lord Krishna in this verse. Since the aspirants
attain that consciousness it is known as padam or state and once that state is reached it is
designated by the word 'visanti' meaning to enter. The Narada Purana states: That the ultimate
goal to be attained is Lord Krishna is confirmed in the Vedic scriptures. Since that consciousness
is achieved by the ascetics, it is known as padam.

Now begins the summation.
Brahmacarya or voluntary celibacy for spiritual purposes denotes attuning one's consciousness in
full devotion to the Supreme Lord excluding everything else.
Source
Sri Sridhara svAmI explains akshara as praNava OM.
Lord Krishna speaks this verse with a view to instruct how the preceding practice is based on the

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sacred syllable OM which is the most dearest and nearest [1] transcendental sound vibration of
the Supreme Lord.
Sanskrit commentary is
'ककवलयादभ्ययासयरोरयादशप पणवयाधयारमभ्ययासमनतरङश शवधधतसभन पशतजयानमतक -- यदकरशमशत।' . If we split the verse we get
ककवल-अभ्ययासयरोरन-अशप पणव-आधयार-अभ्ययास-अनतरशर शवधध-अस्तभ- पशतजयाशनतक यदमत-अकरमत-इशत
[1] The word antaranga can be defined as antar-anga. Antar means 'inner' and anga means
'organ'. In reference to context with BG 7.8, we can take that OM is the closest to ParamAtmA.
By meaning closest, it is verily the ParamAtmA. We hear the word 'antaranga-bhakta'
We all know that OM represents nirguNa brahman. Bhagvan in Gita says 'I am OM' (BG 7.8)
The purpose of commentary is to give more clarity of the verse. Here, no acharya has mentioned
pada as loka or as Vaikuntha, nor do the references made to Br. Up. mention Vaikuntha. The
question is why didn't they mention the word vaikuntha, refuted advaita and shaivism.
Sri Adi Sankara mentions the pada, as 'that which is the goal, is neither gross, nor subtle',
indicating that Brahman is beyond description.
Sri Abhinava Gupta mentions pada as 'the goal'
Commentaries on 15.4 and 15.5 do not describe of any pada as loka, neither it mentions Shiva as
anya-devata.
English translation of mAdhvAchArya, as found here, contains extra words:
...the Vedic aphorism neti neti meaning it is not this, it is not that clarifies what is the unmanifest.
Realising that the Supreme Lord Krishna is the seperate and distinct from all else is what makes
Him clearly superior and paramount. He is the primal Supreme Lord, the only progenitor. All
created beings including Brahma, Shiva, Indra and all the 300 million demigods are nothing but
emantions from Him like rays of sunlight from the sun.
However, the sanskrit commentary, as available on Gita Super Site, does not say mention the
word Shiva.

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Sanskrit commentary by Sri Madhvacharya
तदथिर च तमकव पपदक पपदकत। तच्चरोकश तत्रिवैव "तश ववै पपदकत यश ववै पपद न शरोचशत न हृष्यशत न जयायतक न शम्रियतक तद्ब्रह मभल श तनच्छतसभन "
इशत।'नयारयायणकन दृषशच पशतबभदरो भवकतपभमयानत' इशत च मरोकधमर। छक दनरोपयायरो ह्यत्रियाकयाशङ्क्षितन न च भरवतरोतोऽनयन शरणयरोतोऽनस्त ।।15.4।।
सयाधनयानतरमयाह -- 'शनमयारनकशत' ।।15.5।।
While commenting on BG 18.46, none of the acharya-s talk of vaikunTha. Sri rAmAnuja talks of
'शयाशवतश पदमत अव्ययमत' (SASvata.m padam avyayam), which could be connected with BG 15.4.
Hence we can conclude that none of the vaiSNava acharya-s say that the param pada is viShNuloka (heavenly planet or heavenly kingdom of Lord Vishnu) which is Vaikuntha. Pada or
Parampada, 'reach Me' etc has to be taken as a state of as MAdhvAchArya says 'consciousness'.
Atleast this can be taken as an alternate explanation or they left gap to give room for another
interpretation.
Kena Upanishad says that ...Indra excelled than other Gods as he was the first to know that 'I
am Brahman' (4.2-4.3)

BG 3.35 uses the word 'to know' (GYAna chakShu means eye of knowledge, which is nothing but
knowledge itself.

BG 9.11 and 9.13 also asks us to know. BG 10.2 says that even demi-gods and great sages do not
know my true nature.

Ch. Up. VII-xxv-2 also uses the word 'to know'.
Nowhere it is mentioned 'to see'.
It is interesting to note that none of the acharya-s have connected with bhAgavat pUrANa (Srimad
bhAgavatam).

DeSa
Word 'desa' or 'desam' occurs in 8.21, 8.28, 15.6
Sri rAmAnuja and Sri mAdhva gives definition of dhAma as luminosity which means prakASa
(prakash) and prakASa means Jnana (Knowledge)

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Understanding Advaita - DeSa

Sri Ramanuja says: BG 8.21 Or the term 'dhama' may signify 'luminosity'. And luminosity
connotes knowledge. The essential nature of the freed self is boundless knowledge, or supreme
light, which stands in contrast to the shrunken knowledge of the self, when involved in Prakrti.
The description given above is that of Kaivalya, the state of self-luminous existence as the pure
self.
Sridhara svamI says
The six causative case by the word mama meaning my is used in the sense of identity as when
one states Rahu's head which is all that remains of Rahu, it means only that. Therefore Lord
Krishna, Himself is the paramam gatim and no other. This is the purport.
While commenting on the verse BG 8.28, none of the acharya-s have explained the meaning of
'desha' or 'deSa'
In BG 15.6 Sri rAmAnuja explains light (prakASa) i.e. Knowledge as
The supremacy of this light (i.e., individual self) consists in its capacity to illumine the light of
knowledge. Knowledge alone can illuminate all things (including the light of the sun which sheds
only physical light on objects.).
From the above explanation, what I have concluded is that the param pada, dhAma is light, which
is knowledge, which is state of consciousness.

211 धयाम DhAma and 212 सतय satya
Lets understand the meaning of word dhAma as explained by Adi Sankara in viShNu sahasranAma
bhAshya name #211 धयाम (dhAma)
jyoti is called as dhAma. In mantravarNa i.e. nArAyaNa Up. 13.1 it is said 'nArAyaNa is parama
jyoti' or by being the support or substratum ofall desires (kAmanA-s) bhagavAn is known as
dhAma. shruti i.e. Br. Up. 2.3.6 says, 'is parama brahma and param dhAma'
In the next name $212 सतय (satya), Adi Sankara says, ... shruti says, 'hence truth (satya) is called
as parama' or is the truth of the truth hence is truth. Shruti i.e. Br. Up. 2.3.6 says, 'prANa is truth,
[paramAtmAn] is the truth of this truth i.e. paramAtmAn is higher truth'

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Understanding Advaita - viShNu and caturbhuja viShNu

viShNu and caturbhuja viShNu
Updated: 21st Mar 2015

Namaste,
After reading explanation given in Musings - Other Side of Coin, it can be concluded is that the
param pada, dhAma is light, which is knowledge, which is state of consciousness.
We can understand from the commentaries by Sri Adi SankarAcArya ji that he used to refer to
kruShNa, nArAyaNa, viShNu, hari as brahman. Lets try to understand whether our AcArya really
meant caturbhuja viShNu or is it something different.
Before starting a detailed study, we will give our conclusions in brief

1. Whenever any form of ISvara is described as 'that which is worshipped as AtmasvarUpa in
heart', it is always nirguNa brahman.
2. brahman is GYanasvarUpa and is nirguNa only, but is seen by 5 senses as having guNa-s
due to faulty vision.
3. viShNu is not always carutbhUja viShNu. viShNu or nArAyana when described as
substratum of entire universe as the sole creator, preserver and destroyer, and as the
source of all avatAra-s then the verse does not point to catur-bhUja viShNu, the deity of
preservation, but brahman.
4. viShNu is sometimes taken as pradhAna prakruti meaning it is feminine form, SAkti of
nirguNa brahman.
5. caturbhuja viShNu is 1/4th part of the supreme brahman, also called as viShNu.
6. viShNu or any form of ISvara is saguNa brahman and is the closest manifested form of
brahman, and hence this all-powerful form 'viShNu' is worthy of worship
7. When is it said, 'I am you and you are me', then it confirms non-duality. e.g. if viShNu
bhagavAn says that I am Siva', but Siva never says that 'I am viShNu', then one can
understand that Siva is a part of viShNu, but when viShNu says, 'I am you and you are
me', then it confirms non-duality. In the same way, at one instance, viShNu says 'I am
Siva, brahmA, etc' and at a separate instance, Siva says, 'I am viShNu, brahmA, etc', then
this too confirms non-duality.
8. 'I' or 'Me' in gItA can be taken as 'brahman'

Now, lets analyze how the word 'bhagavAn' is used in purANa-s.

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Understanding Advaita - Meaning of the word 'bhagavAn' as given in bhAgavat purANa 3.32.31-33

Meaning of the word 'bhagavAn' as given in bhAgavat purANa 3.32.3133
bhAgavat purANa BP 3.32.31-33 talks about two ways of obtaining knowledge - the path of
knowledge and the path of bhakti (devotion)
BP 3.32.31: Revered Mother! I gave you the knowledge (GYAna), a tool, that gives you the direct
experience of Brahman (brahmasAxAtkara), and because of which one can know (bodha) the true
nature (yathArtha svarUpa) of prakriti (mAyA) and puruSa (controller of mAyA, an omnipresent
entity.

Note: Here it is said that one can know the true nature of both mAyA and puruSa. puruSa is
sometimes taken as 'jiva' also, but in general, it is 'virATa' svarUpa. No matter whichever
meaning we take, it indicates that one 'knows' both mAyA and puruSa. The knower, as witness,
is always different from object of observation, hence we are not mAyA or purSa. Only in case
of brahman, it is said that it cannot be reached by mind and senses, and is indescribable.
Hence brahman is not to be experienced separately, but as our very own Self, there is not
second, as said in mANDukya up. 7 - SAntam Sivam advaitam (brahman is peaceful,
auspiciousness and non-dual)

BP 3.32.32: O Divine mother! The fruit of both of these paths - the knowledge related to
nirguNa Brahman and the knowledge of bhaktiyOga given by me is one [and same]
only; Fruit of both paths i.e. final destination obtained by practising both approaches
(bhakti and GYAna) are also referred by the name of ‘bhagavAn’
BP 3.32.33: Just like the substratum of rUpa (form), rasa (taste), gandha (smell, aroma,
fragnance), et al, many guNa-s (qualities), is one and only tatva which is experienced by different
senses as different forms, in the same way, by practicing different paths as said in SAstra-s, one
experiences the one and only same bhagavAn.
Earlier, sUtajI says,
BP 1.2.11: tatvavetta-s (the knowers of truth), calls advaita-GYAna as tatva. Some call
this tatva as brahma, some paramAtmA or some 'bhagavAna'.

Brahman is both saguNa and nirguNa explains kapila munI in
bhAgavat purANa 3.32.34-36
BP 3.32.34-36 without english translation of core words.

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Understanding Advaita - viShNu and caturbhuja viShNu
BP 3.32.34-36: Different types of karma-s [as sanctioned by SAstra-s], yaGYa, dAna, tapa, vedaadhyayan, veda-vicAra / veda-chintan [mimAmsA], Atma-indriya-nigrah {Atma is taken as mind,
sanyAsa, yoga consisting of various limbs, bhaktiyoga, both types of dharmic actions like
renunciation and action done with sakAma or niSkAma , knowledge of atma-tatva (Self /
Brahman) and strong vairAGYa – by using all these sAdhana (tools), we can know svayamprakASa
(self-effulgent) [that which lights all and which is not lighted by anyone i.e. consciousness is called
as svayamprakAS] bhagavAn who is saguNa and nirguNa.
BP 3.32.34-36 with english translation of core words. (can be skipped)
BP 3.32.34-36: Different types of karma-s (actions) [as sanctioned by SAstra-s],
yaGYa (vedic rites and rituals),
dAna (donation)
tapa (austerity)
veda-adhyayan (to study the veda-s),
veda-vicAra / veda-chintan (thinking / comtemplating on veda-s) [mimAmsA],
Atma-indriya-nigrah (control over mind and [five] senses) - {Atma is taken as mind}
sanyAsa [karma-tyAga] (renunciation of actions),
yoga consisting of various limbs,
bhaktiyoga,
Both types of dharmic actions like renunciation and action done with sakAma (action done with
keeping fruits on mind) or niSkAma (action done without any attachment of fruits or outcome),
knowledge of atma-tatva (Self / Brahman) and
strong vairAGYa (dispassion, absence of worldly desires in mind)
– by using all these sAdhana (tools), we can know svayamprakASa (self-effulgent) [that which
lights all and which is not lighted by anyone i.e. consciousness is called as svayamprakA]
bhagavAn who is of the form saguNa and nirguNa.

GYAna is param Brahma, it is one without a second and it is nirguNa
says bhAgavat purANa
bhAgavat purANa says,
BP 3.32.26: GYAnamAtra para.m brahma
BP 3.32.28: GYAnameka.m parAcInairindriyairbrahma nirguNa.m
Translation of full verses:
BP 3.32.26: It is GYAna that is pra-brahma, parameSvara / paramAtma, Isvara, puruSa;
the same bhagavAn is himself jIva, SarIra, viShaya-s, senses, etc that is manifested is different
forms.
BP 3.32.28: Gyana i.e. Brahman is one [without a second], it is nirguNa, but still, due to
extrovert senses, this brahman, due to illusion, it is experienced (Abhasa) in the form of different
forms / objects (vibhinna padArtha-s) of the nature of word (Sabda), etc
i.e. the one, without the second the Brahman, which is knowledge, due to extrovert senses and

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Understanding Advaita - GYAna is param Brahma, it is one without a second and it is nirguNa says
bhAgavat purANa

due to illusion, is experienced in different forms or objects which can be known by the 5 senses
via qualities like words (Sabda), etc. Here Sabda means speech. Sabda represents all 5 senses
and their GYAnedriya-s like

Sabda (words) → ears
rUpa (form) → eyes
rasa (taste) → tongue
sparSa (touch) → skin and
gandha (smell) → nose

In other words, Brahman, the one without a second, though nirguNa, i.e. without guNa-s
(attributes, beyond sattva, rajas and tamas), and so inconceivable is wrongly conceived with the
help of mind and 5 senses and GYAnendriya-s, due to extrovert senses (extrovert mind).
viShNu purANa in anSa 5, adhyAya 18 says,
VP 5.18.57: Whose vAcaka (expression) is 'sata' pada ['OM tat, sat'], that axara (akshara)
(indestructible) 'OM' is your parama svarUpa (ultimate, highest, absolute form). I bow down to
your GYAnasvarUpa (that which is pure knowledge, pure consciousness).
(This and related verses from viShNu purANa are studied later in article 'viShNu is not always
caturbhUja viShNu'

viShNu bhagavAn is the most nearest svarUpa of brahman
viShNu purANa says,
VP 1.22.61: all powerful viShNu is the para-svarUpa (higher form) of brahman and is manifested
who is contemplated by yOgI-s before entering into yOga.
VP 1.22.62: O muni-s ! Whose mind is properly concentrated with continuous practice, attains
'Avalamban-yukta sabIja mahAyOga'. [1] O the fortunate one! the sarvabrahmamaya [2] [viShNu
bhagavAn] is the foremost among all the parASakti and is the most nearest mUrta-

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Understanding Advaita - viShNu and caturbhuja viShNu
brahmasvarUpa (manifested form of brahman)
[1] yOga attained by taking help of name and form i.e. manifested form of brahman.
Avalamban means support. Here it means that those who meditate properly with one-pointedness
on the form of viShNu attains union. Since these yOgI-s take support of a 'form', hence their
achievement is called as Avalamban-yukta. sabija could mean 'that with form' as beej is a form of
manifestation. beeja also means garbha i.e. source or mAyA or lower brahman (lower brahman is
explained in Gita BG 8.20).

[2] sarvabrahma-maya means 'completely identified with brahman'
Source: Gita Press, Hindi translation, page 109

viShNu is not always caturbhUja viShNu
It is a common notion to take viShNu as caturbhUja viShNu, i.e., viShNu bhagavAn having a
particular form with mace, discus, lotus, Sankha, etc.
'I', 'me', param pada of viShNu, and the real nature of viShNu is nirguNa.
viShNu purANa is considered as most authentic and is most quoted purANa by Adi Sankara. When
our AcArya used to write purANa, it is to be taken as 'viShNu purANa' and 'itihAsa' has to be
taken as 'mahAbhArata'. (AcArya bhagavadpAda also considered vAlmiki rAmAyaNa as authentic.)
Lets study some sloka-s from viShNu purANa (VP) which cover these words.
Legends

VP: viShNu purANa
To separate viShNu, paramAtmA from chaturbhuja viShNu, [the deity of preservation] will be
added in square brackets
[] square brackets are used when extra words are added to complete statement. It is not
always possible to insert square brackets, we sentence construction in English is different
from hindi / sanskrit.
() curved brackets are used in to define or translate sanskrit words in English, specially when
the translation is not the accurace.
{} curly brackets are used to give additional explanation or alternate meaning of same word.

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Understanding Advaita - viShNu is not always caturbhUja viShNu

viShNu the supreme brahman is different from 'viShNu' of trinity. viShNu is the cause of all three.
Similarly nArAyaNa is supreme brahman is different from chaturbhuja viShNu.
VP 1.2.1-2: srI parASarajI said – the one who is the cause of brahmA, viShNu (hari) {deity
of preservation} and Sankara and assumes the forms of brahmA, viShNu {deity of
preservation} and Sankara for the creation, preservation and destruction of the world (or
universe). And who helps his devotees to swim the ocean of samsAra i.e. transcend his devotees
beyond samsAra (this transcient world), that changeless, pure, indestructible, paramAtmA,
always one and uniform (ekarasa), completely victorious (sarvavijayI), my salutations to
bhagavAn vAsudeva viShNu.
Simple translation of VP1.2.3:
VP 1.2.3: Inspite of being one, appears as in many forms, is of the nature of gross-subtle, is
unmanifested and is also manifest, and is the cause of liberation of his devotees, I bow to that
bhagavAn viShNu.
VP 1.2.3 directly translated from hindi version of Gita Press:
VP 1.2.3: Inspite of being one, still is [seen] in different forms {appears in different forms}, is of
the nature of gross-subtle, is unmanifested {the cause - kAraNa}, and is manifest {effect –
kArya} (vyaktarUpa), and is the cause of liberation (mukti) [of his devotees who worship him with
continuous devotion / or with feeling 'I am not different from brahman'] [I bow to that bhagavAn
viShNu]
VP 1.2.4: The one who is the root cause of the creation, preservation and destruction of this
world, I bow to that viShNu paramAtmA.
From the above verses, it is clear that there are two viShNu-s.

One who is the root cause of the trinity and takes their form

One who is the deity of preservation.

The verses also point the

viShNu is both manifest as effect and unmanifest as the cause.

viShNu is paramAtmA

Verses also point that thou viShNu appears in different forms, viShNu is still the changeless
and pure. Here pure is to be taken as free from guNa-s. In gItA it is said that one must

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Understanding Advaita - viShNu and caturbhuja viShNu
'know' bhagavAn' and this can be done by using 'asanga SAstra'. a-sanga means not to
associate with any guNa.
Later verses 5-8 describe bhagavAn viShNu is nirmal GYAnasvarUpa i.e. of the nature of
pure consciousness, but due to ignorance is seen as various forms.
VP 1.2.5-8: That which is the substratum of the whole universe, is subtle than the
subtlest, is the puruSottama established in all beings and is indestructible, that
paramArtha (highest truth) [in reality] is nirmala [1] GYAnasvarUpa [2], but due to
ignorance, is recognized as vaious forms, and that [in the form of kAla (time)} is the creator,
preserver and destroyer of the world, to that jagadiSvara (lord of the world), ajanmA (unborn),
axaya (akshaya) (indestructible) and avayaya (unchanging), [who is ] bhagavAn viShNu, I bow
and will tell you the whole event gradually (in order), that truth which was told by bhagavAn
brahmA
jI
when
he
was
requested
by
daxa
(daksha),
etc
munI-s.
[1] nirmala - stainless, that which is not impure by mixing of guNa-s
[2] GYAna-svarUpa - that which is of the form of pure knowledge / consciousness. Here the word
'form' is not to be taken literally. sva-rUpa means 'one's own [real] form. GYAna-sva-rUpa means
that whose form is GYAna [itself] i.e. that which is Self-effulgent and can be known by itself only.
Verses 10-13 describes viShNu, the paramAtmA as free from all guNa-s and six
types of changes or modifications like birth, etc, is beyond names and forms, and
for the one we can only say that 'it is' [or it exists] (in hindi - 'hai'). Due to being
eternal (nitya), without any birth, undecaying, imperishable, the one and due to the
absence of guNa-s[viShNu bhagavAn] is called as pure parabrahma.
VP 1.2.10-13: 'That which is para (higher) than the para [prakriti], parashreSTha (best of the
best), paramAtmA abiding in AtmA {heart}, that in which form, colour, name and
attributes are negated (absent) (vivarjIta); in which birth (conception), existence, growth,
transformation (change, modification), decay (xaya, kshaya) and destruction - all these six
changes are absent; which can only be said to 'exist' (i.e. is existence), and for which it is
popularly said 'it is present everywhere' and in him the whole universe resides - hence
wise call it [this tatva as] vAsudeva' that [same tatva] is eternal, unborn, undecaying
(imperishable), unchanging, unchangeable (ekarasa) and is devoid of guNa-s like 'can
be renounced' (heya) etc, due to these reason is called as 'nirmala parabrahma' [1]
[1] nirmala = pure, mala = impurity, nir-mala = in which there is no impurity, i.e. devoid of any
impurity
paramAtmA is beyond guNa-s and attributes, it cannot be negated and is called as nirmala
parabrahman (pure consciousness)
Verse 15 describes puruSa as the first from of parabrahma.
VP 1.2.15: O dvija ! (twice born), puruSa is the first form of paramAtmAn, unmanifested
[prakruti] and manifested [mahada, etc] are his other forms. And since [this form] is adorned by
all, kAla (time) is the topmost / best form (paramarUpa).
Four forms of paramAtmAn are

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with third kAla and with fourth stays in all bodies and worlds (omnipresence) Studying verse VP 1.24-25: With one part becomes unmanifested brahmA ji. preservation and destruction of the world. then sattva (preservation) and lastly tamas guNa (destruction) VP 1. Now. with one part takes rudrarUpa.22.15 shows that puruSa itself is not the supreme para-brahman. assumes the form of manu. VP 1.22.22. that unborn bhagavAn taking AdhAra (support) of tamo guNa (tamas guna). with second part. This is because this classification is based on guNa-s [1] The literal meaning is . Here the classification is different than earlier verses.22. a person. This is also confirmed in kurma purANa.26-27 into consideration. Some more verses from viShNu purANa will make thing clear We will take verses 1. but the first form or manifestation of viShNu. During that time.r.2.28-29: and in the end [when time for destruction of universe has come].viShNu is not always caturbhUja viShNu 1.t. viShNu [deity of preservation] form preserves the world. preservation and destruction divides itself into four parts. puruSa avyakta (prakriti) vyakta (mahada. Earlier verse 2. etc) kAla Verse 1.26-27. VP 1. 4.23: [That] janArdana divides itself into four parts while creating and preserving the universe and by dividing itself in four forms destroys the world. 2. i. the word unmanifested brahmA ji indicates that brahmA ji was present even during first creation of universe and later on stayed in unmanifested form. with second [part] agni (fire) and form of death. First it starts with creation (rajas). the four parts are described w. Later verses describe four parts assumed during creation.26-27 Then that puruShottama with support (getting in tune with) sattva guNa preserves the world. during creation. with second part marici. from first part [1]. VP 1.Understanding Advaita .22.22. we can come to following conclusion: Page 256 of 619 .e.from first part becomes viShNu and preserves the universe. Here puruSa can be an omnipresent entity and not caturbhUja viShNu. etc and from third assumes the form of kAla (time) and from forth is present in all bhUta-s (all bodies. 3. guNa-s. etc prajApati.23 says that janArdana. is present everywhere).22. [lord's] third part is kAla and fourth is all beings.

viShNu and rudra become jiva-s. etc and all jIva-s (beings) .all these four parts (vibhutis) are of SrI janArdana and are the cause of destruction (pralaya) [of the worlds]. nArAyanA. kAla and all beings . VP 1. is only a part of puruShottama viShNu. puruShottama. means that puruShottama can stay nirAkAra (formless). viShNu [deity of preservation] and rudra are parts (vibhuti-s) of the supreme lord.33: and rudra. kAla and omnipresence (ability to be present in all beings) Assuming the form of kAla. time is not a person and the word 'all jIva-s' is separated by the word 'and' (ca .all these are the cause of sustenance of the worlds and are the parts (vibhuti-s) of bhagavAn viShNu VP 1. VP 1.42 VP 1. etc then it is not chaturbhuja viShNu.22. hari. preserver and deity of destruction and also present in all living beings. does not have quality of assuming forms of manu.e. kAla.41: For the creation. as deity of preservation.22. brahmA. four types of everlasting (sarvakAlika)[1] divisions are imagined of that mahAtmA (vibhAga-kalpanA) sarvakAlika also means. viShNu takes form with the help of three guNa-s. If you take 'and' as just the addition of last word.all these are parts (vibhuti-s) of Sri hari are the cause of the creation of the world.22. nirguNa brahman.22.22. at the time of destruction] of Page 257 of 619 . Hence what we see is actually viShNu (tatva) covered with guNA-s. it is the supreme brahman. death. then all three brahmA.33 indicates that rudra is not a jiva. etc. etc. But from our study.30: O brahman ! for [the purpose of] destruction [of these worlds]. present at all times. etc are interchangeably used with chaturbhUja viShNu.viShNu and caturbhuja viShNu • • • • • puruShottama is different from viShNu. Hence here we can take sarvakAlika as the divisions that occur each time there is destruction of the world.e. These verses indicate that • • • brahmA. viShNu [deity of preservation] and rudra are not jIva-s as kAla i. commonly referred by the name 'viShNu' We shall understand some more verses: For understanding that the substratum of universe and all activities is nirguNa brahman. occurrence at all times. janArdana. daxa (daksha) etc prajApatigaNa. but a form or partial manifestation of the supreme brahman.31: brahmA. This creates a lot of confusion. a person. creator. viShNu. kAla and all living beings . viShNu.22. lets have a look at verse 1.in sanskrit). preservation and in the end time [i.41 and 1. we can conclude that whenever any form is glorified as the supreme. viShNu as deity of preservation. manu.Understanding Advaita .22. the deity of preservation. is mahA-kAla and assumes the form of manu. which is unwise to accept. There are more verses which confirm that viShNu is not always caturbhUja viShNu VP 1. the names viShNu.32: he dvija ! (twice born). An interesting thing is that. VP 1.22.

and hence his parampada is [the] great nirguNa. he. Sanskrit-Hindi edition) VP 1. prANayam etc is sAdhana (tool / subject) and parabrahman is sAdhya (object). Note: The word nirguNa is not used in sanskrit. vyApaka (all pervading.22. spread everywhere).45: For those yogi-s who wish for liberation (mukti). It is logically derived meaning. VP 1. established in non-dual knowledge.43: (Sri maitreya jI said) .22. this knowledge is called as 'Alambana-viGYAna' [1] and is the second difference. [1] Alamban-viGYAna is taking help of knowledge.22. the yogi's 'sAdhya-rUpa' (object of worship). associates with three guNa-s. O great saint.22.22. which is brahma.44: (Sri parASara jI said) . samvedya means to be known) and anupama (incomparable. It will be more clear when we take next few verses into consideration.Understanding Advaita .22.'sAdya-sAdhana' In simple words. with word viGYAna can also mean direct experience. from where one does not have to return [back to this world] VP 1. Note: The first different is sAdhana and second is sAdhya.48: The third difference is 'advaitamaya-GYAna' (non-dual knowledge). as desrcibed by you is of four types? Please explin this step-by-step (vidhi-pUrvaka) VP 1.viShNu is not always caturbhUja viShNu this world.42: This form (svarUpa) of paramAtmA is GYAnamaya (of the form of knowledge). This is similar to 'tvam pada' and 'tat pada' in the mahAvAkya 'tat tvam asi' VP 1.47: To free oneself from kleSa-bandhan (bondage of sorrow). which is the realization of non-difference between the two . to be taken as beyond comparison) and that form too is of four types.22. that 'sAdhanAlamban-GYana' [1] (knowledge obtained through prANayama) is the first difference of brahma-bhUta parampada (the supreme Brahman) [1] prAnAyama etc are called as sAdhana-Avalamban GYAna (as given in Gita Press. sAdhana is subject or tool and sAdhya is object or destination or final goal. svasamvedya (self-known. realizes the non-difference Page 258 of 619 . the practitioner of yoga. Gorakhpur. a yogi. (later verses describe this four types) VP 1. self effulgent.46: he muni! the one which is the reason (cause) of liberation of a yogI.O muni ! Please explain me how the param pada.O Maitreya ! That which is the cause (kAraNa) of all is also the tool / effect (sAdhana) and the achievement (siddhi) of the wished / imagined (abhimata) object is subject (sAdhya) Lets study these four types of knowledge VP 1.

Even if we take this state as experience.negation of above three different types of knowledge and realizing the Self as nirguNa brahman. without association (with anything) All the laxaNa-s point to nirguNa brahman.e. We can further simplify the four types of knowledge as • • • Preparation (i. sAdhana) and object (sAdhya) i. after negating [1] these three types of knowledge.e. means asanga.22. jIva is not different from brahman. sattAmAtra (as mere entity or existence). same as) the Self.Understanding Advaita .41. this supreme state known by the name 'brahma' (brahman). is the fourth difference. mastery over breathing techniques. Earlier we had also seen that the cause and effect are non-different (VP 1. Lets brief the four types of GYAna (knowledges) as described in VP 1. by realizing the quality of these three types of knowledge [mentioned earlier]. vyAptimAtra (omnipresence). alaXaNa (without any characteristics.e.e. There is no difference between us'. It is difficult to explain these differences. jIva (tvam pada) and brahman (tat) Page 259 of 619 . emotion. pure consciousness). Hence in VP 1. or form). experiences the GYAnasvarUpa viShNu's (viShNu as knowledge.viShNu and caturbhuja viShNu between the the subject and object of worship. anupama (incomparable). without any expression. anirvicanIya (indescribable). Third type of knowledge is understanding that there is non-difference meditator (subject. abhaya (in which there is no fear).e. 'advaitamaya-GYAna' (non-dual knowledge). still there is a thin line of separation and a trace of Ego left which says.22. sentiment. Santa (peaceful). 'I am brahman. In other words.22. bhAvAtIta (beyond expression.e. getting qualified for knowledge of brahman) Spiritual instruction (updeSa) about knowledge of brahman Knowledge that object of meditation and subject i. is Self Supporting. and is Ashrayahina-rUpa (is of the nature of 'without any support. where there is no second. VP 1. 'sAdhana-Alamban-GYana' (knowledge obtained through prANayam) --> sAdhana (subject) 'Alambana-viGYAna' (knowledge / information of object of worship i. Suddha (pure) [2]. There is someone experiencing 'unity' or 'oneness'.22. The fourth type of knowledge is the knowledge of the supreme Brahman. a yogi. • • • • First type of knowledge is the mastery over breath (prANa) i. This may also include activation of kundalini Second type of knowledge is the understanding of brahman via study or by words of guru. 'I' of jIva is not different from real 'I' . Lets try to understand them. not dependent upon anything else). manifestation).44). as nirvyApAra (inactive or action-less).'sAdya-sAdhana' 3. which is the realization of non-difference between the two .46-51 1. we have added the word 'nirguNa' for the sanskrit word 'mahAn'.49-51 and O great yogi!.e. brahma) --> sAdya (object of worship) 2. [1] word used is nirAkaraNa [2] pure means without any mixing. in which there is no separate experience. brahma-saxAtkAra . AtmabodhasvarUpa (of the nature of knowledge of Self). i. which is similar to the similar to (i.brahman.

10-13 that we can only say that ISvara 'exists' (VP 1.22. the word used is 'sattA-mAtra' which means. that is you . avikArI (unchangeable. During meditation. that which cannot be meditated by using 5 senses.To break this jynx. This 'I' is completely different from 'I' of Ego.18. It is you only who is imagined (kalpite) and is described (glorified) by [the names and forms] brahmA.2.18. One may have a doubt that even when one realizes non-difference. It is direct experience of brahman as 'Self' or 'I'. Realization of non-dual brahman as Self. The fourth type of knowledge is different. One rises beyond dvaita-advaita.2. which is relative term. there is a duality of observer and object of observer. What remains is only 'I' also called as 'consciousness'. viShNu and Siva.4951. and ajanmA (unborn) para-brahma. a person. I repeatedly bow down to you.18. mind and intellect) and are beyond prakruti. VP 5. The fourth type of GYAna is the best. then observer.e. Hence it is also said in VP 1.52: he nAtha! (O lord!). it is said that ISvara 'exists'.nitya (eternal). Lets continue our study in which we try to understand that viShNu is not always caturbhuja viShNu. which are nothing but imagination. 'existence' or 'consciousness' After knowing the non-difference between subject (meditator) and object (brahman). preservation and destruction of both सतत sat (truth) and असतत asat (unreal) is called as sarva. Lets understand this fourth type of knowledge. Hence earlier it is said that in relation to ISvara.25) in viShNu sahasaranAma says that the says of the cause or substratum of creation.51: O xara-axaramaya ISvara (kshara-akshara ISvara) (that which is of the form of both perishable and non-perishable i. VP 5. What remains is just 'you' or 'I'. When the object drops.10-13). of form and formless). one is experiencing something.viShNu is not always caturbhUja viShNu • pada are not different. Page 260 of 619 . [please] be pleased. also cease to exist. as there is nothing left to observe. To negate any trace of duality in unity. [1] Adi Shankara while giving explaining the word सवर (sarva . adhyAya 18 relates viShNu with yaGYa (vedic rites and rituals) VP: 5. the fourth type of GYana in which there is no [separate] experience is mentioned.49: O inconveivable ISvara ! I bow to parameSvara who is everything (sarvarUpa) [1] and of the form of oblations offered in havan (havis) You are inconveivable via intellect (beyond intellect. the separateness melts. immutable).(here there is someone who says that 'I am one'. negation) of names and forms. the fourth type of knowledge is defined. Here too in VP 1. where there is always abhAva (non-existence. viShNu purANa in anSa 5. nothing more can be said.Understanding Advaita . sarvarUpa also means who has taken all forms.

However. pradyumna and aniruddha. which praised by all is available.com are not accurate. आशद पवर । नयारयायणश नमस्ककतय नरश चवैव नररॊत्तमम । Page 261 of 619 . [In reality you cannot be referred by any name. who took avatars to protect the universe and reestablish dharma. 1. highest. OM preprestns para-brahma and expresses 'sat' pada. no element (padArtha) can be known. Adi parva.Bh. pure consciousness). the absolute truth.18. Also not all verses are typed in Sanskrit. chapter 1. section 1. hence you are glorified [and worshipped] by the names kruShNa. that axara (akshara) (indestructible) 'OM' is your parama svarUpa (ultimate. sankarShaNa. hence names and forms of formless brahman are imagined.1.22-25 (Adi parva.58: He prabho! (O Lord). we can understand that everything that we see both perishable and imperishable is nothing but ISvara. From above verses. VP 5.Understanding Advaita . chapter 1. verses 22 to 25) महयाभयारत. I bow down to your GYAnasvarUpa (that which is pure knowledge. verses 29-37 give the account of creation. Since one cannot meditate on (know) that which cannot be imagined and is beyond intellect. We can also conclude. as it is easy to contemplate on names and forms. In Adi Parva. the sanskrit verses in sacredtexts.52: Since without imagination.net. that brahman is conventionally referred as viShNu or vAsudeva or by any other names and forms of ISvara. section 1. which is GYAnasvarUpa. absolute form). M. viShNu [deity of preservation]. sat']. acyuta.18.vAsudeva. viShNu and caturbhuja viShNu in mahAbhArata It is said that what is found in mahAbhArata may not be found anywhere else. Any form of ISvara is nothing but imagination.viShNu and caturbhuja viShNu VP 5. chapter 1. but what is not found in mahAbhArata is not found anywhere else. The English translation of sanskrit verses is compared with Hindi Translation of Gita Press and an edited translation is presented. ananta and viShNu etc names. viShNu [not the deity of preservation].] VP 5.18. rudra [not turiya Siva]. Hence we have adapted Gita Press's version with Sanskrit-Hindi Translation uploaded by vedpuran. section 1. verses 22-25 sings the glory of unborn supreme reality. These verses describe birth of brahmA. English Translation of Kisari Mohan Ganguli. I repeatedly bow down to your forms (svarUpa) .57: Whose vAcaka (expression) is 'sata' pada ['OM tat.

the ancient. worthy of all preference.. perceptible. the most exalted male being.Understanding Advaita - दकवहीं सरस्वतहीं चवैव ततरॊ जयम उदमरयकत ।। Om! Having bowed down to Narayana and Nara. eternal. inexhaustible one. who is the true incorruptible one. who is viShNu. who is the universe and also distinct from the existing and non-existing universe. . to whom multitudes make offerings. the ruler of the faculties. imperceptible. who is the creator of high and low. शनष्पभक तोऽनस्मनत शनरयालरोकक सवर तस्तमसयावकतक । बकहदणडमभभदककश पजयानयाश बमजमव्ययमत ।। २९ ।। यभरस्ययादरौ शनशमत्तश तनमहशदव्यश पचकतक । यनस्मनत सशशभयतक सतयश ज यरोशतब्ररह सनयातनमत ।। ३० ।। अद्भिभतश चयाप्यशचनतयश च सवर त्रि समतयाश रतमत । अव्यकश कयारणश सभकमश यत्ततत सदसदयातमकमत ।। ३१ ।। यस्मयातत शपतयामहरो जजक पभभरक क न पजयापशतन । Page 262 of 619 . who is hari [3]. pure and immaculate. Brahman [1]. and who is adored by the multitude. and also to the goddess Saraswati. who is both a non-existing and an existing-non-existing being. auspiscious and the auspiciousness itself [2]. सरौशतरवयाच आदश पभर षममशयानश पभरहतश परषभ तमत । ऋतमककयाकरश ब्रह व्यकयाव्यकश सनयातनमत ।। २२ ।। असच्च सदसच्चवैव यदत शवशवश सदसपरमत । परयावरयाणयाश स्त्रषयारश पभरयाणश परमव्ययमत ।। २३ ।। मङलयश मङलश शवष्णभश वरकण यमनघश शभश चमत । नमस्ककतय हृषमककशश चरयाचररभरश हररमत ।। २४ ।। महषरन पभधजतस्तकय सवर लरोकवैमर हयातमनन । पवकययाशम मतश पभणयश व्ययासस्ययाद्भिभतकमर ण ।। २५ ।। Sauti then said. exalted. 'Having bowed down to the primordial being ISAna [1]. must the word 'Jaya' be uttered. the guide of all things movable and immovable..

auspiscious and the auspisciousness itself viShNu here means all -pervading as the word viShNu is rooted in the word 'viSh' ' शवषत'. Siva means 'in which all things lie'. and enveloped all around in total darkness (tamas) [when there was no name and form] [4]. the Yakshas. Brahman Indicates that First there was ISAna. was the true light Brahman (satya-svarUpa brahmajyoti) . and the twin Aswins.Understanding Advaita . and the Pitris. and was formed at the beginning of the Yuga. which is nothing but pure consciousness. neither male (he). Vasishtha and Parameshthi. not female (she).. the Sadhyas. Then appeared the man of inconceivable nature / Atman (aprameya-AtmA) [puruSa.viShNu and caturbhuja viShNu ब्रहया सभररभरन स्थियाणभमरनभन कन परमकष्ठ्यथि ।। ३२ ।। पयाचकतसस्तथिया दकरो दकपभत्रियाश्र्च सप ववै । ततन पजयानयाश परतन पयाभन्नककशवशशशतन ।। ३३ ।। पभर षश्र्चयापमक य यातमया (पभर षश च अपमक य -आतमया ) यश सवर ऋषयरो शवदनभ । शवशवकदकवयास्तथियाशदतयया वसवरोतोऽ तोऽथियानशवनयावशप ।। ३४ ।। In this world. there came into being [or then manifested]. viShNu] whom all the Rishis know [6] and so the Viswe-devas. when it was destitute of brightness and light. ISAna is Brahman of the upanishads. the Guhyakas. Manu. a mighty egg. whose nature partaketh of entity and non-entity (sat-asata) everything is this brahman only. mangalmaya or mangalaM 'मङलश '. [1] primordial being Isana. Then appeared the twenty-one Prajapatis. Lord Siva is not born during the creation. but tatvam (it). It is called Mahadivya. but it is the primordial being. the Vasus. ten Prachetas. the Adityas.e. the invisible and subtile cause. viz. the wonderful and inconceivable being present alike in all places. in which we are told. [2] who is viShNu. the one inexhaustible seed of all created beings. the Pisachas. with Suraguru and Sthanu. [3] who is hari Page 263 of 619 . Even in the mahAbhArata. Siva also means 'auspiciousness' i. ISAna ( ईशयान) is the name of rudra / Siva. the one only prajApatI. From this egg came out the lord Pitamaha brahmA. the eternal one [5]. and the seven sons of Daksha. as the primal cause of creation. Daksha. the primordial Being.

ignorance] is called as 'hari'. viShNu] whom all the Rishis know aprameya AtmA (name #248) is another adjective. From the above analysis. but supreme brahman itself. the name of Siva also means 'to remove or withdraw'. [4] enveloped all around in total darkness (tamas) [when there was no name and form] This refers to nAsadiya sukta of rig veda which says that from darkness [tamas].e. It also means 'of Siva'. we can conclude that 1. name of 'Indra'. In viShNu saharanAma stotra bhASya. This hari and hara are not person. which is ignorance. the eternal one This was the manifestation of Brahman and so is spread in all that is created. 'sun'. This is already discussed in earlier article. and pulls it back into himself. It means 'immeasurable Atman'. Adi SankarAcArya jI has explained the meaning of hari (name #650) as 'because of removing or withdrawing. in rudra form also destroys samsAra. [5] was the true light Brahman (satya-svarUpa brahmajyoti) . rudra / Siva was not born from brahmA jI during the creation of the world. [6] Then appeared the man of inconceivable nature / Atman (aprameya-AtmA) [puruSa. which is a popular name of bhagavAn viShNu has many meanings. it is can understood that both viShNu and Siva are same as brahman. withdraw what? the cause of suffering. viShNu and Siva) is established. everything is born. 'captivating'. 'hara'. nAsadiya sukta is explained in another article.Understanding Advaita - 'hari. hari is the name of 'brahmA'. [2]. Siva. 'viShNu is the nearest form of manifested Brahman' From [1]. He is the first puruSa whom is worthy of worship and whom the rishi-s knew. or name used for viShNu bhagavAn. Here it means that there was no form or shape and the first shape that appeared was an 'egg'. Page 264 of 619 . this world along with it's cause [which is avidyA. samsAra. hari-hara-aikya (non-difference between hari and hara i. They are just praised in the form of person for our convenience and also because they are both the nearest form of manifested brahman (mUrta-brahma-svarUpa). be it moving or non-moving. In this way. and [3].

(2) By meditating on nArAyANa holding Sankha. brAhmANa-s could here mean religious. is beloved of brAhmANa-s who are always steadfast in his devotion. Up. 1. the mantra of nArAyaNa as personal deity. the causal and comsic (virATa) person Page 265 of 619 . Up. the inner most. existing in all creatures. 'u'-kAra and 'm'-kAra is praNava OM. [that] madhusUdana is always the well-wisher of brAhmaNa-s. of the nature of brahman. this [tatva] alone shines like a deepak (lamp) without any external light. meditating on brahman. cakra (chakra) and gadA and chanting the mantra 'Om namo nArAyaNAya' ascends to vaikunTha. yogI-s attain liberation. pious. Up.1: The one who is of the nature of Ananda. lets study the upanishad from beginning. By meditating on nArAyANa holding Sankha. To understand those verses. Hence the verse says that the one who chants OM is liberated. AB. goes to vaikunTha.4 nArAyaNa is the one. By chanting this mantra. nArAyaNa mentioned here is specified as having a particular form. 1. Hence this nArAyaNa is different from brahman.Understanding Advaita . By chanting this mantra. knowers of brahman.viShNu and caturbhuja viShNu 2. {pura means city}. it shines by itself. 'u'-kAra and 'm'-kAra is praNava OM. Hence it is interesting to study this upanishad. hari is different from puruSa viShNu who took avatAra-s to protect the world and re-establish dharma. First verse of Atma bodha (Atma Bodh) upanishad describes that by meditating on OM one gets liberation and by meditating on nArAyANa holding Sankha. yogI-s attain liberation. hari / viShNu is different from caturbhuja viShNu. Up. AB. AB. hari and ISAna / Siva are same as brahman and are not a person.e. Adi Sankara quotes verse 4 and half verse 5 from adhyAya 1. i. 4. the inner most. cakra (chakra) and gadA and chanting the mantra 'Om namo nArAyaNAya' ascends to vaikunTha.3: Son of devaki [bhagavAn kruShNa] is the well-wisher of brAhmaNa-s (brahmins). while the one who chants 'Om namo nArAyanAya'.2: The hridayarUpI kamal (heart-lotus) is brahmapUra. having three mAtrA-s 'a'-kAra. the deity of preservation. AB. having three mAtrA-s 'a'-kAra. Atma bodha upanishad describes caturbhuja viShNu Atma Bodh Upanishad is quoted by Adi Sankara in viShNu sahanranAma bhASya. lotus-eyed bhagavAn viShNu is always well wisher of brAhmaNa-s and this indestructible [bhagavAn viShNu]. 1. cakra (chakra) and gadA and chanting the mantra 'Om namo nArAyaNAya' ascends to vaikunTha. of the nature of brahman. but supreme brahman 3. It is not mentioned that the devotee is liberated. The verse is split into two (1) The one who is of the nature of Ananda. 1.

e. Later verses describe that the one chanting OM gets fruits of all actions (as GYAna is the best fruit. He becomes jivan mukti and after the prArabhdha is completed. by chanting OM]. hence initially support of a personal deity is taken. nidhidhyAsan or meditation on OM or neti-neti or practice Self Enquiry. All actions finally lead to same para-brahman. repeatedly attains death. yoga vAsisTha in arjunopAkhyAna explains who should meditate on viShNu as AtmasvarUpa and caturbhuja viShNu yoga vAsiSTha is one of the best advaitic text and widely quoted one by SrI vidyAraNya svAmI in his pancadaSI. 1. then it is nirAkAra. AB. one gets free from sorrow / misery (Soka) and attachment (moha) and never suffers any sorrow (dukha). nArAyaNa is not a person. becomes free from the fear of death. attributeless brahman. Practically it is observed that no one meditates on any form of ISvara like nArAyaNa or Siva with chanting OM. The reason for extolling a form of viShNu is because of it is difficult to contemplate on formless. Anyone who sees difference in brahman.Atma bodha upanishad describes caturbhuja viShNu (puruSa). one is shifted to nirguNa upAsanA i. The trend observed in most upanishads is creation. now experiences non-duality. hence when any form of ISvara is compared or equated with OM. (and depending upon prakriti). Mind needs something to hold on to. dvaita becomes advaita. Up. OM is nirAkAra.e. one believing in difference.Understanding Advaita . mostly by theory of negation. of the universe form one and only one brahman.1 we have seen that chanting OM leads one to liberation. it means that the 'I' ness that divides consciousness and experiences duality. In the sixth part.5: [In this way the] by meditating on viShNu [as parabrahman. else beginners cannot meditate on that which is invisible. By saying that dvaita becomes advaita. nArAyaNa is causeless. is parabrahma and is praNava-rUpa omkAra (OM). One needs a name and form to visualize nad meditate upon. This form is also connected with brahman and is glorified as brahman itself.. the one without a cause. Here. one attains videh-mutki. Hence the form closest to or nearest to brahman which is either viShNu or Siva is praised. In verse 1. Later. Hence by knowing this brahman. Then non-dual nirguNa brahman is described. after maturity. there are 267 verses which are called as Page 266 of 619 . but the cause of all. Similarly advaita means the one who believes in non-difference. Later verses extol brahman by a name say viShNu or Siva. dvaita here means the one having dvaita-buddhi i. nirguNa brahman and not a person. one's all wishes are fulfilled). as that form is direct manifestion of brahman. Each form is it's own mantra.

viShNu and caturbhuja viShNu arjunopAkhyAna. discus and mace. O Lord of Gods. Both these two constitutes the entire rAmAyaNa. Only 28000 are available today). [Comment: 'Common' means easily understandable for ordinary people] Page 267 of 619 .Understanding Advaita . brackets. Scholars say that rAmAyaNa consists of two parts .kathA-upAya (the story part) and moksha-upAya (method for spiritual Liberation). SrI rAma asks questions as to what will viShNu give upadeSa in future (dvApAra yuga). According to yoga vAsiSTha. sarga 53. guru vAsiSTha. the common one and the transcendental. but the famous one is by Sri Ananda bodhendra sarasvatI (ABS). Arjuna now asks how to know the qualification (adhikAra) and the appropriate time for (worshipping either of the two natures). ABS Comment is given after verse inside sq. titled 'The homily (religious discourse) to Arjuna' verses 35-40 discuss about two forms of bhagavAn kruShNa (Krishna) Arjuna said: 35. In chapter 2. kathA-upAya is traditional rAmAyaNa and moksha-upAya is yoga vAsiSTha. which closely follows advaita. These are sarga-s 55 to 58 of nirvANa prakaraNa . The common form is endowed with hands and so forth.I (There are two nirvANa prakaraNa-s in yoga vAsiSTha which is said to have 32000 verses. This version of bhagavad gItA is the anticipated version to be spoken by kruShNa in dvApAra yuga. and when should I resort to and abide in it for fulfilment (siddhi)? [Comment: Following the instruction concerning the two natures (of God) in verses 34. holding conch. (the transcendental) beyond and the immanent lower (in this world). O sinless One. present and future all at a time) describes in brief the updeSa given by nArAyaNa (kruShNa) to nara (arjuna) both are the parts of bhagavAn viShNu. It gives us a lot of clarity.] The Lord said: 36. being a trikALadarSI (knower of past. know My two forms. you have two forms. This version is also called as vAsiSTha's version of bhagavad gItA. of what nature. Many commentaries are written on yoga vAsiSTha. This is an essence of vedAnta and a treat to read. What (is) the form.

O destroyer of enemies. When in due order you become enlightened. (who am) God and your Self Self. If. then. however. your being (bhAva). without corruption. and investigating the meaning of the word tvam (thou). your being has known (the aspect of mine) that is worthy of knowledge. Awakening to this. This coalescence is between investigating the meaning of the word tat (that). whose nature is totality of cognition (vijnAna-eka-svabhAva). (My Self) in it's transcendental nature determining its objects. we can conclude that Page 268 of 619 . difficult to attain by those of impure mind. That which is my transcendental form has no beginning and end. which is yourself. it is one. that is.Understanding Advaita . 39. be firmly established in it. and your self in its objective nature determining its essence. be intent upon the worship of the god with the fhour-armed form. 'Resort to'. however. becoming enlightened: be resolute upon it. Until you are fully awakened and remain without the knowledge of Self. and who is worthy of being known. viShNu [deity of preservation] and SivarUpa are indescribable powers (abhUtapUrva Sakti). that same deva is [bhagavAna] viShNu's parampada From this verse. which is Myself.] viShNu is sometimes feminine aspect of brahman viShNu purANa explains paramapada as. mind. and by (knowing which) one is not born again. 'Self'.] 38. and it is expressed by words such as Brahman. 'Supreme Self' [Comment: The Supreme Form. [Comment: 'In due order' means with the gradual purification of mind'] 40. the form of Me that has no beginning and no end. the Self of (your) self. that is.yoga vAsisTha in arjunopAkhyAna explains who should meditate on viShNu as AtmasvarUpa and caturbhuja viShNu 37. you should resort to the indivisible and completely perfect Self. Then resort to the indivisible completely Full Self. then resort immediately to my Self. [Comment: I have told you of devotion to the qualitative (saguna) nature. considering the possibility of a lack of purity of (your) mind.55: That deva of which brahmA. is so pure (as to be one with) Brahman. If.9. (This you may do) by coalescing My Self. you will know that nature beyond. 1.

and has responsibility of preservation of the worlds. viShNu and Siva are called as Sakti (powers). (iti linga purANe 1. who is brahman 3. When they are mentioned as masculine. etc. For the benefit of those who wish to work on four purushastha-s and gain siddhi on all four puruSartha-s. brahman. when explained as paramapada. Here the word 'deva' is used. meaning that which is sung in all bhagavat-kathA-s (glorious stories explaining the divine life and liilA of bhagavAna). viShNu and Siva are forms of viShNu. I am going to tell you the name of that great deva (mahAtmA) who cannot be contemplated by mind. creator.70. viShNu. parama-gati.all the names of acintyaprabhAva deva (that deva which cannot be contemplated). brahmA. 2. those who are willing to walk on 4 puruSArtha-s . and is known by mantra-draShTA rishi-s. who is a person. preserver and destroyer of three worlds. and that which is sung in all divine stories of bhagavAn. (you can skip this section to avoid complication) The most famous mantra of all the names that are created by the guNa-s. hence they can be taken as feminine aspects under some circumstances. brahmA.viShNu and caturbhuja viShNu 1. deva is mahAtmA.e. paramdhAma. adhyAya 8 4.Understanding Advaita . and is AtmA. their feminine aspects are usually their consorts. Adi Sankara explains the word deva in bhASya on viShNu sahasranAma (in padaceda 13. out of that which is most famous. who are their powers as described in viShNu purANa in the anSa 1. just before sahasranAma begins explains).for the siddhi of four puruSArtha-s I am describing you Page 269 of 619 . of guNa-s meaning that which arises due to guNa-s. this viShNu is different from the viShNu. Detailed verse in simple words. that mahAtmA . and is known by mantra and by mantra-draShTA muni-s (mantra seeing rishi-s [1]).16) Translation given by Gita press (hindi version) Those names of lower-related i.

this 'deva' is 'mahAtmA' [1] seeing symbolically represents all 5 senses.Understanding Advaita . very close. is not caturbhuja i. viShNu is not brahman. at this moment. hence is known as 'AtmA' By this statement. Tarasara. viShNu is a feminine aspect. [in dream sleep]. then we can conclude that here. hence it is said that rudra derives his strength from viShNu. After prostrating before the celebrated form of Sri Mahadeva-Rudra in his heart. I take refuge in that Pure State of the Supreme Absolute which can be known by the Vidya. [2] beyond realms of mind and hence contemplation [3] puruSa in dream sleep cognizes via mind and not 5 senses [4] nirantara . adoring the sacred Bhasma and Rudraksha and mentally reciting the great Mahavakya-Mantra. a personal deity. the Sakti or power of Siva or rudra. In rudra-hridaya Upanishad. Gita Press Similarly. but is Sakti of rudra. can I please the Devas in whole? Page 270 of 619 . Source: Page 50. the para-Siva or para-bhairav of Saiva-s. thus: Who is the real God of gods? In whom are all these existences established? By worshipping whom. Since this puruSa (jIva) attains [brahmabhAva in suShupti]. Sri Suka asked his father Sri Vyasa Maharshi. In this case. rudra here is brahman. brahman cannot do anything without it's power.viShNu is sometimes feminine aspect of brahman That which is mahAn AtmA is called as mahAtmA. if we read somewhere that rudra derives strength from viShNu. and [in waking state] enjoys this objects [of senses] and hence is always [4] in present state (tense). the all pervading power of rudra. which indeed is rudra's very own Sakti. experiences objects [without indriya-s [3] ].no distance. viShNu is said to be umA The upanishad says: Now. called the Rudra Hridaya Upanishad. or nira-antar . hence no separation --> indicates nonduality or un-divided. nira-antar means no distance.without break. viShNu sahasranAmaSankara bhASya. It can also mean to intuitively realize as flash in heart.e.

and knowable by the intelligent daring sages. Vishnu is the embryo of the seed. The root is Lord Siva. Nirakara. For the benefit of the worlds. Hence everybody should prostrate to Sri Maha Vishnu with great devotion. Rudra has taken these three forms. impersonal. without hands. All the mobile and immobile creation of this universe.viShNu and caturbhuja viShNu Hearing these words. But the Para Vidya is called the Moksha-Sastra. decry Vishnu Himself. worship Siva Himself. He is the Paramatman. Vishnu is the Eternal Atman of all this universe. The Vyakta is Sri Uma. He is the Antaratman. All devas are merely different manifestations of Sri Rudra Himself. The effect is Vishnu. are actually hating Sri Vishnu.Understanding Advaita . Therefore. and then three Agnis (fires). there exist Sri Umadevi. eternal. There are two Vidyas to be known. Rudra is the generator of the seed. there is the sun. and the Avyakta is Lord Siva. Salutations to the destroyer and to the protector of all beings in bondage. Martya and Patala Lokas is a big tree. And to Him who is the destroyer of all ills. Sri Veda Vyasa replied thus: Rudra is the embodiment of all Devas. The feminine gender is Sri Bhavani Devi. Uma Herself is the form of Vishnu. The whole world is full of Agni and Soma. The action is Brahma. ununderstandable. This whole creation of Svarga. He is the Atman. And those who worship Siva. Siva Himself is Brahma and Brahma Himself is Agni. Vishnu Himself is the form of the moon. On the right side of Rudra. Those who decry Lord Siva. Sri Rudram from yajurveda says: "Namo bhavaya cha rudraya cha namah sharvaya cha pashupataye cha namo girishaya cha shipivishhtaya cha |" (Anuvaka 5) "Salutations to Him who is the source of all things. imperishable. without feet. then the four-headed Brahma. Brahma is the stem. They are Para and Apara. omnipresent. Apara Vidya is the embodiment of the four Vedas and their six Angas. Vishnu is the top portion (branches) of this tree. They do not deal with the Nature of the Atman. Siva is the Paramatman. The cause is Siva. On the left side. The masculine gender is Lord Siva. Nirguna. Salutations to Him who Page 271 of 619 . is filled up with Uma and Rudra. worship Lord Vishnu in reality. Those who envy and hate Sri Rudra. Rudra is full of Brahma and Vishnu. It deals with that supreme philosophy of the Absolute Truth. without eyes. and also Vishnu and Soma (moon). those who worship Lord Vishnu. without ears. The combination of Uma and Sankara is Vishnu. Brahma is the Antaratman.

The glory of Vishnu is given in ‘Etavan’ (so much is his greatness). Vasudeva instructed the knowledge of Bhagavan to Indra. we can conclude that There is no difference between rudra. speaks of the glory of Aniruddha.. In ‘from that Virat was born’ has been shown the origin of Prakriti and Purusha from a quarter of Hari. specifically nArAyaNa or viShNu. II. means infinite distance. ‘Vedaham’ speaks of Hari’s glory. umA and viShNu • umA is viShNu • viShNu is combination of both umA and Sankara . the third speaks of his giving liberation. One who knows it becomes liberated. The same stanza states his four-fold nature. the indweller of all beings. mudgal Upanishad is cited by rAmAnuja. A SUMMARY OF PURUSHASUKTA We shall explain the Purusha-sukta: In ‘a thousand-headed’ thousand means countless. It describes the real form of puruSa. again imparted to the humble Indra the great mystery with two sections of the Purusha-sukta. By ‘Yat Purushena’ the sacrifice of creation is stated as well as Moksha. by the first stanza Vishnu’s pervasion in space is stated. By ‘Yajnena’ is stated the end of creation and liberation. From the above verses. hard for worldly people to Page 272 of 619 . the word ‘ten fingers’. THE SUPREME MYSTERY In Mudgalopanishad the greatness of Purusha-sukta has been stated in detail. These two are: The Purusha described above gave up the object which was beyond the scope of name and form.this viShNu means omnipresent entity. In ‘Tasmad’ world creations are stated.Understanding Advaita .In rudra-hridaya Upanishad. viShNu is said to be umA dwells on the mount and who is in the form of Shipivista (Vishnu)". by the second the pervasion in time. I. ‘Tripad’ etc. puruSa is not always a person It is a common notion that puruSa means a person though in macro cosmic form (virATa svarUpa).

Page 273 of 619 . vidyAraNya svAmI says that mAyA is eka-deSiya. as it sees through the eyes of all and hears through ears of all. This tatva. This is confirmed in chapter 2 Chapter - 1 2. Present and the Future. bhagavAn as 'AtmasvarUpa' and GYAnasvarUpa is non-other than nirAkAra brahma Whenever it is said that one has to know bhagavAn as 'AtmasvarUpa'. is non-dual and is nirguNa and nirAkAra. as this brahman is all-pervading and is also situated in our heart. the real 'I'. though denoted by the word 'bhagavAn' is nothing but my own Self. it hears without ears. In full form the latter did not know the work of creation – this Aniruddha-Narayana told him.Then Bharadvaja asked Yajnavalkya: “What is Taraka ? What is that which causes one to cross (this mundane existence)”. It should be worshipped as Chidatma. The above verses also make us understand that only a part of brahman is manifested. By the fourth. And was the giver of Moksha to all. nArAyaNa is not a personal deity but OM itslef and is chidAtmA. As earlier said. This Narayana was the Past. a person. To which Yajnavalkya replied: “OM namo nArAyaNAya" is the Taraka.20: Realisation of 'AtmasvarUpa bhagavAn' in heart destroys all types of heart-knots. Some statements like BP 1. all worlds have come to be. bhagavAn is GYanasvarUpa. If we take viShNu as person. In that form. Hence bhagavAn is the Self. Again. but formless-attributeless (nirAkAranirguNa) brahman. Brahman. for uplifting the suffering Devas and others. it sees without eyes. tArAsAra upanishad Chapter 1 explains 'OM Namo Narayanaya' as tAraka mantra. pervading the world he was beyond it by an infinite distance. the word Atma means 'I'. seated in heart as GYAnasvarUpa.viShNu and caturbhuja viShNu understand and took a form with a thousand parts and capable of giving Moksha on sight.2. Taking into account verses in bhagaVat purANa and viShNu purANa. then it will be difficult to explain verses which say bhagavAn has infinite eyes. as this world is created only from the part of Sri hari.Understanding Advaita . doubts and bondages due to karma-s point to us that bhagavAn is established in our heart as AtmasvarUpa. the Aniruddha (for of) Narayana. This (part of) Narayana created Prakriti (Matter) for making the worlds (Prakriti stands for the four-faced Brahma). we can can understand that puruSa is not the person or caturbhuja viShNu. and the verses which says. He is greater than the greatest – none is greater than He. He made himself into four parts and with three of them exists in the heaven. Only formless can be interpreted in this way.

It is this that is of the eight subtle syllables. ‘M’ is the third. and that which is beyond these is the eighth. Namah is of two syllables and is of the nature of Prakriti (matter). Nada is the fifth. And this becomes eight. That alone should be worshipped. through ‘Na’ is Ishvara produced. through ‘Na’ is Vishnu produced.Understanding Advaita . Through ‘Om’. Kalatita (that beyond Kala) is the seventh. being of eight forms.bhagavAn as 'AtmasvarUpa' and GYAnasvarUpa is non-other than nirAkAra brahma Now the mantra OM namo nArAyaNAya is explained Om is a single syllable and of the nature of Atman. It is called Taraka. because it enables one to cross this mundane existence. is Brahma produced. He who knows this becomes immortal. Narayanaya is of five syllables and is of the nature of Parabrahman. Thus is the Rig-Veda with the first foot (or half). through ‘Ra’ is the Anda-Virat (or Virat of the universe) produced. Kala is the sixth. the supreme and Brahman. (Chapter 2 explains OM as tAraka mantra) CHAPTER – II That which is Om is the indestructible. ‘A’ is the first letter. through ‘Ya’ is Purusha produced. Bindu is the fourth. Know that Taraka Page 274 of 619 . through ‘Ma’ is Rudra produced. and through ‘Ya’ is Paramatman produced. through ‘Na’ is Bhagavan (Lord) produced. ‘U’ is the second. This Ashtakshara (eight syllables) of Narayana is the supreme and the highest Purusha.

शबनया शवष्णभ हह ए शवष्णभकया स्मरण न करक और न शबनया शवष्णभ हह ए शवष्णभकरो पयाप हरो । ' This pujA (worship). शबनया शवष्णभ हह ए शवष्णभकया पभजन न करक.viShNu and caturbhuja viShNu alone is Brahman and it alone should be worshipped”. it is said .Hindi Translation. without beingbecoming viShNu do not perform pUjA (worship) viShNu. Adi Sankara in viShNu sahasranAma bhASya says one should worship viShNu as Atmarupa In VS BhAshya. Page 275 of 619 . all these names are of parabrahma only' 'whichever object a bhakta wishes.Understanding Advaita .स्तभशतनमस्कयारयाशद कतर व्यमत । 'नयाशवष्णभन ककत्तरयकद त शवष्णभश नयाशवष्णभशवर ष्णभमचर यकतत । नयाशवष्णभन सशस्मरकद त शवष्णभश नयाशवष्णभशवर ष्णभमयाप्नभययातत ॥ In Hindi it is translated as ' शबनया शवष्णभरप हह ए शवष्णभकया ककतर न न करक. In mahAbhArata karma kANDa. stuti (praise) and namaskArAdi (offering respect / reverence / salutation or worship) is to be meditated upon (chintan) viShNu [bhagavAn] as AtmarUpa.without being / becoming viShNu do not do kirtan (sing holy glories) of viShNu. Later Adi Sankara quotes that In viShNu dharmottara it is said that 'O faultless. without becoming viShNu one does not attain viShNu' Note: Becoming means to have a bhAva that 'I ma not different from viShNu' it is an attitude of feeling non-difference from viShNu [tatva] which is noting but Atmatatva. while explaining the words 1 and 2. s/he will. Adi Sankara confirms one has to worship viShNu as chidAtmA / AtmarUpa quoting mahAbhArata karmakANDa Sanskrit: आतमयानश शवष्णभश ध्ययातवयाचर न . Sanskrit . In page 64 of Gita Press. there is a long commentary.

Siva as supreme brahman says bhAgavat purANa Earlier we have seen that none of the trinity is jIva. In order to save the universe and all devatA-s and asura-s. Hence wise persons worship only you. Please save us from this deadly poison which otherwise destroy the whole universe. Humans can attain govinda by being absorbed or being identical (tanmaya) with him. Hence in all three actions. who is supreme brahman.22: Only you are capable of liberating and giving bondage of the world(s). as we have seen in the article 'viShNu and caturbhuja viShNu'. This means that govinda also gets his powers from viShNu. guru are one and the same as brahman. We have seen that from 1/4th part. We all have come to your refuge. Siva is glorified BP 8. as you are the remover of sorrows of those who have taken refuge in you and are jagadguru (world teacher) Page 276 of 619 . there cannot be any action. there can be no creation. it is not the case.7. In following verses. Adi Sankara later maps Krishna of bhagavad gita and then guru as brahman.21: O deva of devatatA-s mahAdeva! you are the AtmA of all beings and are the life saver of all. brahmA ji along with devatA-s approached bhagavAn Siva. This deity of preservation does not sound all powerful. It is also said in viShNu purANa that kAla is the most favourite form of brahman. During samudra-manthan.7. viShNu [the supreme brahman] creates viShNu [deity of preservation]. namely the kAla (time) as for doing any thing. This means that viShNu. it is not a personal deity. krishna.Understanding Advaita . attain it. BP 8. indicating that by indicating the name govinda. all desires are fulfilled. as it is not capable of becoming other 3 parts. preservation and destruction. By worshipping (ArAdhanA) of jagadguru. however. as it is the parabrahman who is talked about. if there is no time.Adi Sankara in viShNu sahasranAma bhASya says one should worship viShNu as Atmarupa no doubt. govinda is the representative of this brahman. but in reality the parabrahman. bhAgavat purANa also glorifies Siva as supreme brahman. a deadly poison emerged from the churning. Adi Sankara now maps this parabrahma with govinda. without time. there is no doubt in it. time is necessary. Brahman has kAla as one part. We may think that this indicates that the person govinda / viShNu is the brahman. that who becomes absorbed or becomes identified [with govinda] obtains all objects desired by him/her.

then this state is called as 'Siva' (Siva-Akhyam). tatpuruSa is the eastern face.29 defines Siva as a state BP 8. and represents the rejuvenating and dissolving qualities of Shiva as well as being connected with the water element and Svadishthana chakra. This face is associated with the Pranamaya Kosha. you manifest (appear) as brahmA. animals. it is the same Self Effulgent paramArtha-tatva (supreme consciousness). because.Understanding Advaita . This form is associated with Akasha or ether. from which 38 celebrated vedic mantra-s are created. This face represents the parātman or supreme soul behind the physical being. viShNu and Siva. Connected with the Annamaya kosha. aghora is associated with the southern direction and jῆāna Shaktī--the power of knowledge. birds. living / moving or non-moving. this face is associated with the fire element representing the fire of the mind and the fire of the body. Additionally. These five faces can be associated with 5 great elements (pancamahAbhuta-s) or five bodies (koSa-s) sadyojAta is associated with the western direction and represents Icchā Shaktī--will power. In reality. Verse BP 8. VAmadeva is associated with the northern direction. etc whatever is real or unreal. Nothing exists that is not Siva). Siva is present in all living and non-living and Siva is everything.e. This face of Shiva is associated with the shakti of strength and beauty as well as the goddess Maya. This face is the Citta rūpa. as well as the Buddhi rūpa meaning the form of the intellect. when you arise beyond guNa-s and are established in your Self. and the Page 277 of 619 .7. This form is Ānānda Shaktī. This face is Shiva’s function as the creative force and is associated with Manipura chakra. muladhara chakra and is considered beneficial for increasing focus.25: You are self effulgent. This is the preserving energy of Shiva. Sadyojāta is associated with Manomaya Kosha—the sheath covering the soul that consists of mind. This face is associated with the earth element.29: sadyojAta etc five vedic mantras are represented by your five faces [1]. We will try to correlate five faces or forms of Siva with different analogies. (2) aghora. BP 8. Several traditions believe that mantra to Vāmadeva has considerable healing benefit. (3) sadyojAta. humans. There is no creation which is not you (i. in the lower manifestation it is the concealing power of Shiva.7.viShNu and caturbhuja viShNu BP 8. dissolution. the power of bliss. tatpurusha in its higher manifestation is bliss. Vāmadeva is associated with the Vijῆānamaya Kosha. though you are one. By various types of energies (Sakti-s) you are manifested as this world. respectively. the form of the universal consciousness limited to the individual mind. and (5) ISAna Note: The five faces or forms of Shiva represent the five functions or acts (panchakrityas) – creation.24: O prabhu! (O lord) with the help of your own illusive power which consists of three guNa-s.7. and is connected with the air element as well as the Ānahata Chakra. sustenance. you are everybody's AtmA. The five forms or faces of Shiva also correspond to the five syllables in the holy pentasyllabic mantra – namah-shi-vā-ya. you creation.7. You are the life giver of all devatA-s. (4) vAmadeva. the reason for this [being self effulgent] is that you are the deeply mysterious brahma-tatva. concealing grace and revealing grace. preserve and destroy this world. ISAna is the upper or skyward face. [1] Five vedic mantra-s are (1) puruSa. It is the Citta Shaktī or power of the individual consciousness to realize the universal consciousness. because you are ISvara and are all-powerful.

It gives full consciousness. Sa) and is in the eight petal lotus and is normally surrounded by air. Source Following is the summary form of panca-brahma upanishad. It hides the Pancha Brahmas within itself and exists as itself and shines beyond the Pancha Brahmas by its light. It is worshipped by brahmA and viShNu etc. This is the total energy of Shiva encompassing all attributes of Shiva. personification of the fifty consonants. It is Aa and occupies the headship of vowels. Ya. It is the philosophy from which all others originate. Goddess ParvatI. Tha. It shines in the beginning. It is beyond peace. Ahwaneeyagni. destruction. Saptha Swaras (seven notes) and yellow colour. upkeep. It gives all that is wished for. It has five fires. All those devas who are all under stupor by the illusion of Sambhu would not understand properly that Mahadeva who is the teacher of the universe. It is peaceful. power of knowledge. has the form of Atharva Veda. It is the form of Pancha Brahma which is everywhere and activates the five actions of creation. has the shape which is extremely big. The knowledge that the Para Brhaman is oneself and the rise of Sathyo Jatam (birth of truth) is Para Brahman. Ka. Brahma. is the cause of all causes.Siva as supreme brahman says bhAgavat purANa Vishuddha chakra. gives whatever is asked for. You should understand that Ishana is the witness for intelligence and is the activator of the brain. the letter Om. Garhapathyagni (Household fire). It is beyond sound. Tatpurusha is with eight letters (Aa. blue colour of the cloud. middle and end without any causative reason. Sama Veda. Rig Veda. Aghora is the aspect of water and is moon. mantras. His shape does not appear before the eye. Sathyojatha is the aspect of earth and is the Sun. Cha. destroys all that is evil and grants riches. It is the basis of all strengths. The upanishad later on says that Page 278 of 619 .Understanding Advaita . red coloured. Yajur Veda. It drives away all sins. Vamadeva gives great knowledge and destroys all sins. disappearance and blessing. spread over all the three worlds and grants all sort of luck and results for the action performed. Whichever is seen or heard is the soul of Para Brahman. protects effects of mantras. Dakshinagni (the fire of the south) and fifty letters (basic sanskrit alphabets). That Ishana aspect is the Para Brahman which is the upper boundary of peace. is the chief of several crores of Ganas. Ta. It merges in him. rules over all the three worlds. It is the turiyA which is beyond the three common states and is the thing called Brahman. It is the aspect of fire. as they are forms of eternal brahman. This is the face of Shiva that is the revealing power and is associated with the Anandamaya kosha. eight type of songs. This world is shining because of that Parathpara Purusha in whom the world exists. It has the shape of all devas. is lights of crores of suns. It is decorated by the sound of “Om”. It is the aspect of sky and cannot be seen. courageous tone. which represents five forms of sadASiva collectively called as 'panca-brahma'. Sthithi (upkeep) and Laya(merging). medicine for worry and diseases and the root of Srishti (creation). power to destroy and slightly blackish white colour. Goddess Lakshmi. Pa.

with the crescent moon of wisdom in His hair. which is the resting place of brahman.e. also known as punDarika i. The verse ends with The cause of universe consisting of moving and non-moving or living and non-living is pure consciousness and is advaita only.we have to take viShNu as deity of perservation as brahman can only be one. all fit for a supreme sovereign. the wise man experiences and understands that “It is me” and becomes Brahman as well as deathless. 4. fire and a bell. brightened by a crest of tawny tresses rolled upwards. After understanding Brahma Karya. 158-164a) in the form of instructions to temple priests: "After thus constructing mentally the throne of Siva. having the brilliance of ten million suns. a serpent. (P. one should meditate on Siva's body sitting in the lotus posture.e. with steady mind and controlled senses. which depends upon indestructible brahman. Up. Ishana is appreciated. each face having three radiant eyes. that which liberates from samsAra. of new full-blown youth. as brahman is worshipped by brahmA ji and viShNu ji [deity of preservation] . His right hands holding the no-fear posture.B." In his commentary on Mrigendra Agama. this heart is called as the emancipator i. In this way heart is called as Siva-svarUpa. there is a dahara (heart).Understanding Advaita . After putting the fact all that is originating from Para Brahman in ones soul.B. i. moksha) should search sat-cit-Anand Siva in this heart-space. 38-39) Last two verses of panca-brahma-upanishad says: P. with smiling faces.e. the cause of all causes. endowed with five heads. nothing exists that is not Siva. [brahman] is established in this heart-space. having beautiful garlands and an ointment of sandalwood paste. It says. in radiant raiments. if any thing or activity is seen as not different from the cause (Siva). Upanishad also explains there is no second one. attractive. a trident. serene. an axe. with ten arms. holding a handful of flowers.viShNu and caturbhuja viShNu The existence in five shapes is called Brahma Karya (activity). endowed with every auspicious mark. or shaktis. an elephant goad. Siva is brahman. shining with the color of pure crystal. His left hands holding a noose. but if seen as different. 2. Up. then it is wrong or illusion (mruShA). kamala (lotus). then it is always truth. Siva is always established in heart A description of Panchabrahma is given in the ajita Agama (20. Five forms of sadASiva are his own manifestations and are not literally born 3. He does not actually possess these Page 279 of 619 . adorned with ample ornaments. Whose who wish to get liberated (moxa. Siva is always seated in heart and is a witness of all [activities]. From above verses we conclude that: 1. Siva. Aghorasivacharya (12th century) is careful to point out that while we speak of Siva with five faces and many limbs. 40-41): In the body. a sword and a thunderbolt. There is no doubt that the one who understands this Brahman becomes freed (emancipated).

para-brahman. there is also an interesting interpretaion of natarAja form of Siva in connection with five faces or five actions Siva naTarAja form and five actions Siva Nataraja. held in ardha-chandra mudra. is represented by His upper right hand holding the drum upon which He beats Paranada. or emanation (srishti)." 4. the Primal Sound.Understanding Advaita . Lord of Dance. 2.Siva as supreme brahman says bhAgavat purANa features. growth and eventual fulfillment of destiny. Source (The website gives good information about Siva linga and Saiva-siddhanta paddhati) Conclusion From bhAgavat purANa. which grants knowledge and severs the soul's bonds. knowing bhagavAn [and other similar words] one can transcend three guNa-s. abhaya mudra. paramAtmA. we also come to know that the real nature of bhagavAn. indicating "fear not. It is due to GYAna or consciousness that one can become aware of anything and can gain knowledge. who symbolizes the principle of ignorance. clearly depicts these five actions. is symbolized by Siva's raised left foot. 1. thereby permitting experience. is represented by His right foot upon the prostrate person. "half-moon gesture. 5. Destruction (samhara). Whenever brahman is described as to be meditated as 'AtmasvarUpa' or 'GYAnasaRupa' residing in Page 280 of 619 . Revealing grace (anugraha). Hence brahman is GYAna-svarUpa. and by His lower left hand. the power which hides the truth from souls." 3. a well-known murti (worshipful icon). held in the gesture of blessing. inviting approach. is symbolized by the fire in His upper left hand. from which issue forth the rhythms and cycles of creation. or anava. Obscuring grace (tirodhana). This visualization in only for the sake of meditation and adoration. Preservation (sthiti) is represented by His lower right hand. viShNu purANa and from the analysis of commentaries on bhagavat gItA by various revered AcArya-s. we can conclude that viShNu is not always caturbhUja viShNu. dissolution or absorption. Apart from this. held in gajahasta or "elephant trunk" mudra. etc all is GYAnasvarUpa. GYana has ability or nature to give knowledge. Creation. apasmarapurusha.

एष्यधस thou shalt come. Since jIva is formless and genderless. 'I' or 'Me' in Gita can be taken as 'Brahman' [beta] Taking above analysis further. मतपरयायणन taking Me as the Supreme Goal. मयामत to Me. the same principle applies. मयामत unto Me. आतमयानमत the self. Even if we take that jIva is qualitatively same but quantititatively different. viShNu is not always caturbhUja viShNu and puruSa is not always a person.34 मनमनयान with mind filled with Me. Page 281 of 619 . still.34 मनमनया भव मद्भिकरो मदयाजम मयाश नमस्कभर। मयामकववैष्यधस यभक्तववैवमयातमयानश मतपरयायणन।।9.34।। manmanā bhava madbhaktō madyājī māṅ namaskuru. मदयाजम sacrificing unto Me. नमस्कभर bow down. it points to nirguNa brahman i.34 Word-to-word Translation: 9. hence brahman also cannot have any form. laxyArtha is always nirguNa brahman. मद्भिकन My devotee. we can study some verses from bhagavad gItA which point to kruShNa talking from Atma-bhAva.e. In this context. In this context.viShNu and caturbhuja viShNu our heart. भव be thou. यभक्तवया having united. lets understand that whenever bhagavAn kruShNa used the words 'I' or 'Me' it does not necessarily mean the our beloved mAdhava. māmēvais ḥ yasi yuktvaivamātmānaṅ matparāyan ḥ ah ḥ . murlidhara kruShNa. it could mean 'ISvara' or 'Brahman'. एवमत thus. एव alone.Understanding Advaita . and there is no difference jIva and brahman. lets study Sankara bhASya on BG 9. This does not mean kruShNa is inferior to brahman. When taken in proper context. hence yOgI-s meditate on him. It simply means that kruShNa is not always to be taken as person.9. viShNu is also at times taken as power of brahman and hence viShNu in this context is a feminine form (Sakti).. We have also known that viShNu is the nearest form of manifested brahman or saguNa brahman.

Madyaji . OR 9. the word. Opinion is that I am the AtmA of all bhUta-s (all bodies) and paramgati. 'paramAtmA'. be devoted to Me. māmēvais ḥ yasi yuktvaivamātmānaṅ matparāyan ḥ ah ḥ .9. you shall surely attain Me who am thus the Self. taking Me as the supreme goal. Page 282 of 619 .34।। manmanā bhava madbhaktō madyājī māṅ namaskuru.devoted to Me. etc. the parameSvara. In this way. you will gain me. Hence lets put the verse again with important verses explained by Sankara bhagavapAda in bold green . the former word 'mAma' i. bow down to Me. Full sanskrit commentary and translation are provided for those who wish to study the full verse. by fixing your mind in Me (yuktvA).m' 'Self'. In this way. Here Adi Sankara connects two words mA. Me is connected to the later word 'AtmAna. 'Me' (mAm) is to be taken as AtmasrvarUpa or Brahman or AtmA and not our beloved prankster.m मनमनया भव मद्भिकरो मदयाजम मयाश नमस्कभर। मयामकववैष्यधस यभक् तववै व मयातमयानश मतपरयायणन।।9. have your mind fixed on Me.. by surrendering me and accepting me as the final goal.e.'I' or 'Me' in Gita can be taken as 'Brahman' 9.m and AtmAna.Understanding Advaita . In simple words.34 Shankara Bhasya in brief 9. From the analysis of the words 'bhagavAn'. Please skip upto 'Summary'. madbhakah . sacrifice to Me. param sthAna (final destination). By concentrating your mind and accepting Me as the supreme Goal. bansidhar kruShNa. the person. This can be skipped.34 Manmana -. Here the word यभक्तववैवमयातमयानश yuktvaivamātmānaṅ is split into yuktvA-evam-AtmanAm. having thus united thy whole self to Me. by devoted to Me. murlidhar. Note: Here Adi SankarAcArya explains the meaning of certain important words. and bow down to Me.34 Having your mind fixed on Me. we can now know that Adi SAnkara said what purANa-s say.34 Fix thy mind on Me. who am thus the Self (AtmasvarUpa) that you shall attain. sacrifice unto Me. thou shalt come unto Me.One who worships me and bows down to Me. Real nature is GYAnasvarUpa and not a person.

adds the word vasudeva.) तभ मनमनया -. and am also the supreme Goal. only mam. मतपरयायणन सनत इतयथिर न।।इशत शममतपरमहशसपररवयाजकयाचयायर स्य शमररोवनदभरवतपभजयपयादशशष्यस्य शममच्छश करभरवतन ककतरौ शममद्भिरवद्रमतयाभयाष्यकनवमरोतोऽध्ययायन।। ।।9. by accepting Me as the supreme Goal. Page 283 of 619 . to Me. Here Ast.मकरया हम पभजन करनकवयालया हरो और मभझक हम नमस्कयार शकयया कर। इस पकयार शचत्तकरो मभझमम लरयाकर मकरक परयायण -. and am also the supreme Goal. esyasi eva.मशय वयासभदकवक मनन यस्य स तवश मनमनयान भव तथिया मद्भिकन भव मदयाजम मदजनशमलन भव। मयामत एव च नमस्कभ र। मयामत एव ईशवरमत एष्यधस आरशमष्यधस यभक्तवया समयाधयाय शचत्तमत। एवमत आतमयानमत. This is the purport. This is the purport. mam. परया च रशतन.मभझमम हम मनवयालया हरो। मद्भिक -. sacrifice to Me. who am thus the Self: I indeed am the Self of all the beings. In this way. Summary: Bhagavan. तश मयामत एवशभभतमत.मकरया हम भक हरो। मदयाजम -. English translation by Swami Commentary) . be engaged in sacrificing to Me. You shall attain Me who am such. the word atmanam (Self) is to be connected with the preceding word mam (Me). You shall attain Me who am thus the Self. Yuktva. You shall attain Me who am such. Madyaji. परमत अयनमत.शरण हह आ तभ मभझ परमकशवरकरो हम पयाप हरो जयायरया। अशभपयाय यह शक मह हम सब भभतयोंकया आतमया और परमरशत -.Understanding Advaita . Bhakta will attain 'me'. sacrifice to Me. I indeed am the Self of all the beings.viShNu and caturbhuja viShNu Sanskrit commentary by Sri Sankaracharya -. ऐसया जरो मह आतमरप हह भाँ उसमकरो तभ पयाप हरो जयायरया। इस पकयार पहलक कक 'मयामत' शब्दसक 'आतमयानमत' शब्दकया समबनध हवै ।।9. have your mind fixed on Me. bow down. In this way. by concentrating your mind and by accepting Me as the supreme Goal you shall surely attain Me who am God. devoted to Me. And bow down only to Me. be engaged in sacrificing to Me.34 Manmana bhava.34।। Simplified English Translation 9. has to be meditated upon with steadfast devotion.34।। Hindi translation by Sri Harikrishandas Goenka (on Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary) शकस पकयार ( भजन-सकवया करम सरो कहया जयातया हवै -. and matparayanah. Me who am God. अहश शह सवरषयाश भभतयानयामत आतमया.34 have your mind fixed on Me ( 'vasudeva') and also be devoted to Me. you shall surely attain. You shall attain Me evam atmanam. एष्यधस इशत अतमतकन सशबनधन.-Tr and also be madbhakah.परम स्थियान हह भाँ . by concentrating your mind. the word 'aatmaanaam' (Self) is to be connected with the preceding word 'maam' (Me). And namaskuru. who is the Self of all beings.Can be Skipped Gambhirananda (on Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit 9.

Dhananjaya (Arjuna). Slokas (verses) in which Krishna talks about himself and vasudeva वकष्णमनयाश वयासभदकवरोतोऽनस्म पयाणडवयानयाश धनशजयन। मभनमनयामप्यहश व्ययासन कवमनयामभशनया कशवन।।10. सवर धमयारनपररतयजय मयामककश शरणश वज। अहश तवया सवर पयापकभ्यरो मरोकशयष्ययाशम मया शभचन।।18.66।। 18.. the poet. Bhagavan in Gita 18. Ashrama and ordinary dharma). And of the wise. go to my refuge only and I will make you free from all sins and grant you moksha.37 Of the vrsnis (The clan to which Sri krishna belonged..'I' or 'Me' in Gita can be taken as 'Brahman' There are more examples in Gita in which we understand that kruShNa is talking as Brahman and not as a person. munīnāmapyahaṅ vyāsah ḥ kavīnāmuśanā kavih ḥ . but most people translate it as 'come' So the translation will be: 18:66. 10. Guru of asuras). KavinAma and the words 'seer of Page 284 of 619 . the word 'वज '। can be translated as 'go'. of the Pandavas.66 says.37।। vrḥḥ sḥnīnāṅ vāsudēvō.10.. grieve not.66 Abandoning all duties. the omniscient Usanas. known otherwise as the Yadavas). Note: Usanas is translated by both Swami Sivananda (of divine life society) and Adi Shankaracharya in their commentaries as Sukracharya. the seer of past present and future (Sukracharya. of the omniscient. I am Vasudeva. take refuge in Me alone: I will liberate thee from all sins.Understanding Advaita .37. Here. Leaving all dharma (varNa. I am Vyasa. Meaning of 'Vrsnis' is taken from translation by Swami Ghambhirananda (of Advaita Ashram).smi pān ḥ ḥ davānāṅ dhanaṅjayah ḥ .

the man of Knowledge. jnanavan.Understanding Advaita . Adi Shankaracharya's commentary will make it more clear Sanskrit commentary: -. vāsudēvah ḥ sarvamiti sa mahātmā sudurlabhah ḥ . which becme the repository for accumulating Ast. Vasudeva is sarvam. all. thus as the Self of all is mahatma..viShNu and caturbhuja viShNu past. Vasudeva is Page 285 of 619 . directly prapadyate. (realizing)-in what way? that. such a great soul (Mahatma) is very hard to find.. births. Though both are one. न ततसमन अनयन अनस्त.7.बहह नयाश जनमनयाश जयानयाथिर सशस्कयारयाशययाणयामत अनतक समयापरौ जयानवयानत पयापपररपयाकजयानन मयाश वयासभदकव श पतयरयातमयानश पतयकतन पपदतक। कथिमत ? वयासभदकवन सवर मत इशत। यन एवश सवयारतमयानश मयाश नयारयायणश पशतपदतक. सन महयातमया. who am the inmost Self. realising that all this is Vasudeva (the innermost Self). kruShNa has used both words 'I' and 'vAsudeva'. the Self. yet they are different. attains. The reason why one does not realize that all this is verily Vasudeva. who realizes Me Here adds the word Narayana. as it has been said (in verse 3. a high-souled one. janmanam.19. who has got hiis Knowledge matured. after the completion of many births. Me. which become the repository for accumulating the tendencies leading to Knowledge. of many. (realizing)-in what way?-iti. that.19।। Simplified English Translation: 7. such a one. who am the inmost Self.19 Ante. अधधकरो वया। अतन सभदल भ र भन. after the completion. the tendencies leading to Knowledge. present and future' are taken from Adi Shankaracharya's commentary Here. 7.19 At the end of many births the wise man comes to Me. बहह नयाश जनमनयामनतक जयानवयानमयाश पपदतक। सभदकवन सवर शमशत स महयातमया सभदल भ र भन।।7. omits this word. the man of Knowledge.-Tr. Hence it is clear that Krishna. mam. chapter 7). at the end. who has got this Knowledge matured directly attains Me.।।7. 'मनभष्ययाणयाश सहसकषभ' इशत शह उकमत।।आतमवैव सवर्थो वयासभदकव इतयकवमपशतपत्तरौ कयारणमभच्यतक -... There is none else who can equal or excel him.19 At the end. Vasudeva. English Translation of Swami Gambhirananda (Can be skipped) 7.19।। bahūnāṅ janmanāmantē jñānavānmāṅ prapadyatē. Therefore he is very rare among thousands of men. supreme brahman is different from vAsudeva. bahunam. Vasudeva. Hence taking 'I' or 'Me' said by bhagavan as 'Atma-bhava' will not be wrong.

all. Bhagavan in Gita says मनभष्ययाणयाश सहसकषभ कनशचदतशत धसध्दयक। यततयामशप धसध्दयानयाश कनशचनमयाश वकधत्त तत्त्वतन।।7. 7.26।। māṅ ca yō..vyabhicārēn ḥ a bhaktiyōgēna sēvatē. only one perchance knows Me in essence (tatva). is being stated: vAsudeva.26...7. the Self. as it has been said (in verse 3). GYAna is the true nature and hence it is said here 'to know' and not 'to see'. a high-souled one.Therefore he is su-durlabhah. here is taken as Self. Bhagavan says. adds the word Narayana. English translation by Swami Gambhirananda 14. मयाश च यरोतोऽव्यशभचयारकण भशकयरोरकन सकवतक। स रभणयानसमतमतयवैतयानत ब्रहभभययाय कलपतक।।14.Understanding Advaita .-Tr.14. Note: Here. thus as the Self of all. is mahatma.3. bhagavan says 'knows' and not 'sees'.'I' or 'Me' in Gita can be taken as 'Brahman' sarvam.26 And he who serves Me through the unswerving Yoga of Devotion. who realizes Me Here Ast. having gone beyond Page 286 of 619 . sa gun ḥ ānsamatītyaitān brahmabhūyāya kalpatē. Also note that knows 'Me' in essence (tatva).The reason why one does not realize that all this is verily Vasudeva. There is none else who can equal or excel him. he. very rare among thousands of men.3।। manus ḥ yān ḥ āṅ sahasrēs ḥ u kaścidyatati sidhdayē.26. Atman. such a one. yatatāmapi sidhdānāṅ kaścinmāṅ vētti tattvatah ḥ . Sah. In BG 14. one perchance strives for perfection.3 Among thousands of men. even among those successful strivers..

English translation by Swami Gambhirananda 14. Adi Shankaracharya ji comments on this verse is: Sanskrit commentary by Sri Sankaracharya -.27।। brahman ḥ ō hi pratis ḥ ḥ thā. qualifies for becoming Brahman.शनशवर कयार. धमर स्वरप -. śāśvatasya ca dharmasya sukhasyaikāntikasya ca.Understanding Advaita . शयाशवतस्य च शनतयस्य धमर स्य जयानशनष्ठयालकणस्य सभखिस्य तजजशनतस्य ऐकयाननतकस्य एकयानतशनयतस्य च. In the next sloka. 'पशतष्ठया अहमत' इशत वतर तक।।इशत शममतपरमहशसपररवयाजकयाचयायर स्य शमररोशवनदभरवतपभजयपयादशशष्यस्य शममच्छश करभरवतन ककतरौ शममद्भिरवद्रमतयाभयाष्यकचतभदरशरोतोऽध्ययायन। ।।14.जयानयरोररप धमर दयारया पयापव्य और ऐकयाननतक सभखिस्वरप अथियारतत व्यशभचयाररशहत आननदमय हवै उस ब्रहकक मह पशतष्ठया हह भाँ। अमकत आशद स्वभयाववयालक परमयातमयाकक पशतष्ठया अनतरयातमया हम हवै ..परमयातमयाकक पशतष्ठया मह हह भाँ। धजसमम पशतशष्ठत हरो वह पशतष्ठया हवै. शयाशवत -. ब्रहणरो शह पशतष्ठयातोऽहममकतस्ययाव्ययस्य च। शयाशवतस्य च धमर स्य सभखिस्यवैकयाननतकस्य च।।14.) जरो अमकत -. क्ययोंशक यथियाथिर जयानसक वहम परमयातमयारपसक शननशचत हरोतया हवै। यहम बयात 'ब्रहभभययाय Page 287 of 619 . the eternal.14.ब्रहणन परमयातमनन शह यस्मयातत पशतष्ठया अहश पशतशतष्ठशत अनस्मनत इशत पशतष्ठया अहश पतयरयातमया। ककदृशस्य ब्रहणन? अमकतस्य अशवनयाशशनन अव्ययस्य अशवकयाररणन शयाशवतस्य च शनतयस्य धमर स्य धमर जयानस्य जयानयरोरधमर पयाप्यस्य सभखिस्य आननदरपस्य ऐकयाननतकस्य अव्यशभचयाररणन अमकतयाशदस्वभयावस्य परमयाननदरपस्य परमयातमनन पतयरयातमया पशतष्ठया. समयग्जयानकन परमयातमतयया शनशचमयतक। तदकततत 'ब्रहभभययाय कलपतक (रमतया 14। 26)' इशत उकमत। ययया च ईशवरशक्तयया भकयानभग्रहयाशदपयरोजनयाय ब्रह पशतष्ठतक पवतर तक.viShNu and caturbhuja viShNu these qualities.27.hamamrḥtasyāvyayasya ca. अव्यय -.27।। Hindi translation by Sri Harikrishandas Goenka (on Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary) ऐसया क्ययों हरोतया हवै? सरो बतलयातक हह -.अशवनयाशम. ब्रहशब्दवयाच्यतवयातत सशवकलपकश ब्रह। तस्य ब्रहणरो शनशवर कलपकन अहमकव नयानयन पशतष्ठया आशयन। शकशशवशशषस्य? अमकतस्य अमरणधमर कस्य अव्ययस्य व्ययरशहतस्य। शकश च.शनतय.27 For I am the Abode of Brahman-the indestructible and immutable. Bhagavan says. सया शशकन ब्रहवैव अहमत.क्ययोंशक ब्रह -. the Dharma and absolute Bliss. इस व्यभतपधत्तकक अनभसयार मह अनतरयातमया ( ब्रहकक ) पशतष्ठया हह भाँ। कवैसक ब्रहकक? ( सरो कहतक हह -. शशकशशकमतरोन अननयतवयातत इतयशभपयायन। अथिवया..

For.-'I am the Abode' is understood. of that which is indestructible. that power which is Brahman Itself. Since the inmost Self is the abode of the supreme Self-which by nature is immortal etc. of that which is immutable. am I. 'he qualifies for becoming Brahman'. and aikantikasya sukhasya. through perfect Knowledge it (the former) is realized with certainty to be the supreme Self. am I. Of Brahman of what kind? of that which is indestructible.'I' or 'Me' in Gita can be taken as 'Brahman' कलपतक' इस पदसक कहम रयम हवै। अशभपयाय यह हवै शक धजस ईशवरमय शशकसक भकयोंपर अनभग्रह आशद करनककक धलयक ब्रह पवशतर त हरोतया हवै .27 Hi. avyayasya. unquestionably certain Bliss born of that (steadfastness). for the purpose of favouring the devotees. through perfect Knowledge it (the former) is realized with certainty to be the supreme Self. that power of God through which Brahman sets out. of that which is the Dharma. English translation by Swami Commentary) . eternal and dharma having the characteristics of steadfastness in Knowledge. Or. realizable through the Yoga of Jnana which is called dharma (virtue).Since the inmost Self is the abode of the supreme Self-which by nature is immortal etc.Understanding Advaita . unfailing Bliss by nature. for the purpose of favouring the devotees. 'he qualifies for becoming Brahman'. Of Brahman of what kind? Amrtasya.The purport is this: Indeed. of that which is immutable. a power and the possesser of that power are non- Page 288 of 619 .. of that which is the Dharma. the inmost Self am the Abode-that in which something abides is pratistha-of Brahman which is the supreme Self. realizable through the Yoga of Jnana which is called dharma (virtue). Abode-that in which something abides is pratistha-of Brahman which is the supreme Self.-. for. unfailing Bliss by nature.) is referred to by that word.27 for. the unconditioned Brahman-and none else-am the Abode. comes forth. brahman means the conditioned Brahman.Can be Skipped Gambhirananda (on Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit 14. For. I. therefore. 'Of that Brahman. उस सरभण ब्रहकया मह शनशवर कलप -. मह हम आशय हह भाँ। 'अहश पशतष्ठया' यह पद यहयाभाँ अनभवकधत्तसक धलयया रयया हवै ।।14. etc. therefore. This has been stated in. वह शशक. and sasvatasya. I.. aham. and eternal. of that which has the quality of deathlessness. I Myself. of that which is the absolute. etc. of that which is the absolute. dharmasya. क्ययोंशक शशक और शशकमयानमम भकद नहहीं हरोतया। अथिवया ( ऐसया समझनया चयाशहयक शक ) ब्रहशब्दकया वयाच्य हरोनककक कयारण यहयाभाँ सरभण ब्रहकया ग्रहण हवै.आशय हह भाँ. comes forth. am the pratistha brahmanah.The purport is this: Indeed. the inmost Self. since It (too. immutable. that power which is Brahman Itself. a power and the possesser of that power are non-different. and of that which is the absolute.शनरभरण ब्रह हम पशतष्ठया -. that power of God through which Brahman sets out.'(The abode of Brahman) of what qualities? Of that which is immortal. of that which is eternal. मह ब्रह हम हह भाँ.27।। Simplified English Translation of commentary: 14. दस भ रया करोई नहहीं। शकन शवशकषणयोंसक यभक सरभण ब्रहकया? जरो अमकत अथियारतत मरण-धमर सक रशहत हवै और अशवनयाशम अथियारतत कय हरोनकसक रशहत हवै . This has been stated in. उसकया। तथिया जयानशनष्ठयारप शयाशवत-शनतय धमर कया और उससक हरोनकवयालक ऐकयाननतक एकमयात्रि शननशचत परम आननदकया भम.

paramgati and does not use the word 'vaikunTha'. then what to say about the knower of Atmatatva (Brahman) through Direct Experience? . Hence those bhakta-s (devotees).26 and BG14. brahman means the conditioned Brahman. Hence 'My Adobe' can be taken as Brahman. Or. nirguNa brahman is dhAma. This is an indirect path. Note: In this Intro. It should be noted that Krishna ParamAtmAn uses the word 'knows' and not 'sees'. while the direct path. the final destination. by one-pointed devotion to Krishna ParamAtmAn (SaguNa Brahman) can become qualified for attaining Brahman. 'I' in the verses describing PAramAtmAn can be taken as 'NirguNa Brahman'. the unconditioned Brahman-and none else-am the Abode.Understanding Advaita .viShNu and caturbhuja viShNu different. unquestionably certain Bliss born of that (steadfastness). This supreme adobe is to be taken as nirguNa brahman. transcend three guNa-s attains moksha through the path of Knowledge (Jnana). by my grace. Because those doing karma (action). Brahman can be realized.-'I am the Abode' is understood. so also. our acharya says that even Bhakta-s who worship saguNa Brahman (Ishvara).27: The above two verses indicate that Ishvara (SaguNa Brahman) and Brahman are not different. and is also supreme. A bhakta. transcend 3 guNa-s by Lord Grace and then attain Moksha by path of Knowledge. 'Of that Brahman. sAguNa Brahman manifests through his mAyA and becomes active for showing his grace. This is said in the intro of chapter 15 by Adi Sankara BhagavadpAda... Krishna ParamAtmAn and Brahman are not different. which is the dharma having the characteristics of steadfastness in Knowledge. 'I' am paramdhAma. he says.) is referred to by that word. the supreme adobe.'(The abode of Brahman) of what qualities? Of that which is immortal. I Myself. giving the intro of chapter 15. Hence it is knowledge that gives Moksha. of that which is the eternal. bhakti to his beloved devotees. of that which is the absolute. It should be further noted that bhagavAn always says that. which is the Self of all. It is a state of consciousness (super-consciousness) Advaita bhakti preached by Adi Sankara bhagavapAda Our Acharya continues from Chapter 14. is the path of Advaita or Jnana marg. Summary of two verses BG 14. of that which is immutable. So bhagavAn himself is param-dhAma. of that which has the quality of deathlessness. since It (too. who separates one self from 3 guNa-s and abides in his own Self. the fruits of karma and Jnani's fruit which is Jnana is under my control. Through knowledge. who worship me. Our acharya says that though the bhakta may not initially do not have goal of Moksha and may Page 289 of 619 .

nothing is made without the help of mAyA.3. Bhagavan uses 'Me' as 'Brahman' एवश धजजयासययापरोह्य नयानयातव्भममयातमशन । उपयारमकत शवरजश तमनरो मय्यप्यर सवर रक ॥ २१ ॥ 6.Understanding Advaita . putting on the form of the entire universe. one should cease from activities. यदनमशरो धयारशयतभश नमरो ब्रहशण शनशचलमत । मशय सवयारशण कमर शण शनरपककन समयाचर ॥ २२ ॥ Page 290 of 619 . Do not suppose that this is My true nature' (M.. Jnani or an Advaitin uses his discriminative power while bhakta entirely depends upon God to transcend 3 guNa-s My adobe has to be taken as Brahman. Ishvara uses 3 guNa-s and mAyA. Rajas and tamas). Only with knowledge. to transcend 3 guNa-s means to abide in NirguNa brahman. Mksha Dharma 339. whereby you see Me associated with the attributes of all creatures. SaguNa Brahman is not different from NirguNa Brahman. Lord explains why he is called as PuruSSottama. page 45) In Uddhava Gita.ii.17 (Source: Method of Vedanta. MAyA has 3 guNa-s. Ishvara is called as mAyApatI i. Sutra. With the weapon called detachment (a-sanga Sastra). he still transcends them. Later in BG 15. but is not affected by it. Bh. The real nature of Ishvara is Brahman. NArAyaNa. II. one can attain Moksha. the chitta becomes pure sattvik. 'O nArada. the peepal tree. the Omnipresent One. spoke to NArada and said. holding the purified mind on Me. By striking means to disassociate with 3 guNa-s and be free from dualities.Advaita bhakti preached by Adi Sankara bhagavapAda not attentively and consciously separate 'I' from the 3 guNa-s or diassociates himself with 3 guNa-s. So a person transforms his negative qualities and other guNa-s into sattva guNa or in other words. This is because. he transcends them. Bh.and knowing to attaining his adobe means to Realize NirguNa Brahman. control of mAyA.e.45) explained in Br. In Mahabharat Moksha Dharma. Only in ignorance it appears. Later in 15.16-20. which is inverted is imagined. increases sattva guNa as a predominant guNa. this is a mere illusion (mAyA) projected by myself. unknowingly and naturally by the grace of Ishvara (Krishna PAramAtmAn) and qualifies for Jnana. Hence by transcending 3 guNas. Satva GuNa has tendency of Renunciation. Later on by grace of God. as the adobe of God is not different from him and God. Without mAyA Ishvara is NirguNa Brahman. Adi Shankara explains that the peepal tree is just an imagination and does not really exist. In chapter 15.21 Removing the delusion (illusion) of manifoldness in the Atman through such discrimination. mAyA is tri-guNAtmikA meaning consisting of 3 guNa-s (Satva. one has to strike the tree (of Ignorance).

O best of the supporters of piety! listen to all that I say. without entertaining any misgivings. (Now) listen. And the recollection (of it) now again is not possible (to me). about piety in (its true) form. and he was (duly) honored by us. Really. a person. giving them up unto me. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! O son of Prithâ! to what he said on being interrogated by us according to heavenly rules. represents the omnipresent. Conclusion From the above analysis.viShNu and caturbhuja viShNu 6. (Once). (9-15) Just like national flag. we can assert that whenever supreme brahman is described by the use of words like Page 291 of 619 . then perform all actions without caring for the results. For that doctrine was perfectly adequate for understanding the seat. a part of Mahabharata. similarly. It is excessively disagreeable to me.22 If thou art unable to hold the mind steady on the Brahman. though only a small piece of cloth. you may attain the highest goal. brahman and guru. It is not possible for me to state it again in full in that way. O son of Pându! you are devoid of faith and of a bad intellect. For then accompanied by my mystic power. represents the entire country. as person. kruShNa. of the Brahman. clarifies this stand that Bhagavan Krishna established himself in Brahman and then sung Gita Arjun requests Bhagavan Krishna to repeat the discourse of Bhagavad Gita. is symbolic representation of nirguNa brahman says aNu gItA Anu Gita. and about all the everlasting worlds. O son of Prithâ! you heard a mystery. But I shall relate an ancient story upon that subject. I declared to you the Supreme Brahman. that you should not have grasped it through want of intelligence. and learnt about the eternal (principle). And. as it is discussion between brahman and siddha. Krishna. (Adhyaya 16-19 Ashvamedhika) also known as Brahman Gita. O restrainer of foes! there came from the heavenly world and the world of Brahman. a Brâhmana difficult to withstand.Understanding Advaita . to which BhagavAn replied: Vâsudeva said: From me. nirguNa brahman. O Dhanañjaya! it is not possible for me to repeat in full (what I said before). kruShNa is bhagavAn. so that adhering to this knowledge.

it is always the stuti (praise) of nirguNa brahman. brahman. parabrahman. the substratum of entire creation and from which trinity manifests or that viShNu takes form of brahmA. param-gati. We also conclude that viShNu. Adi SAnkarAcArya ji has consistently linked the final destination as nirguNa brahman. Siva or guru does not necessarily mean the person and whenever their names are used to describe the all powerful. paramAtmA.Understanding Advaita . it is the description of nirguNa brahman only. viShNu and maheSa for creation. state. who is the substratum of entire creation and also of the trinity. nArAyaNa. puruSa is the first manifestation of brahman. param-dhAma. preservation and destruction.Conclusion bhagavAn. Page 292 of 619 . We can also conclude that against the regular convention. by the grace of ISvara. 'Me'. where Adi Sankara's philosophy is viewed that supporting purely GYAna mArga. param-pada. 'I'. where one can worship a form of ISvara and can still cross this ocean of samsAra. we can safely say that Adi Sankara had a big heart and he also preached advaita bhakti.

Aitreya Upanishad 3.8. ततवमधस Tattvamasi (That thou art) . Thou That art.10 3.7 4. The four mahAvAkyA (mahaavaakyaas) of 4 vedas are 1. bruhadAraNyaka (BrihadAraNyaka) Upanishad .Rig Veda.Jiva Brahma aikya There are more mahavakyas indicating jiva-brahma aikya and there are 100's of mahavakyas. Yajnavalkya replied: Thou art That..4. III-1-2. More mahAvAkyas Page 293 of 619 . lists 4 mahAvAkya-s. अहश ब्रहयानस्म Aham brahmāsmi (I am Brahman) . अयमयातमया ब्रह Ayamātmā brahma (This Atman is Brahman) . Thou Brahman art.2 in Gaudpada Karika) These 4 mahavakyas talk about the unity and oneness Atman (Jiva) and brahman.Sama Veda.3 2. but 4 mahavakyas selected from 4 vedas. Chandogya Upanishad .Atharva Veda.Yajur Veda. पजयानमत ब्रह Prajñānam brahma (Consciousness is Brahman) .1.6. Mandukya Upanishad 2 or 1. paingala upanishad which is cited by Adi Sankara.Understanding Advaita . I am Brahman – One should meditate thus. स हरोवयाच ययाजवलक्यस्तत्त्वमधस तवश तदधस तवश ब्रहयास्यहश ब्रहयास्ममतयनभसनधयानश कभययारतत . अथि हवैनश पवैङलन पपच्छ ययाजवलक्यश महयावयाक्यशववरणमनभब्रभहमशत .Advaita in Shastras Advaita in Shastras Four mahAvAkyAs . Then Paingala said to Yajnavalkya: Set forth the explanation of the major text(s) [Maha-vakyas].

14.28) Brahman (the Absolute) is alone real. the Jiva or the individual soul is nondifferent from Brahman.nirAlambopaniShada . 5. नकह नयानयातोऽनस्त शकश चन।neha nānāsti kiñcana (There is nothing else anywhere.4.28 (Niraalamba Upanishad .) Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 4. but only few are popular. ब्रह सतयश जरननमथ्यया Brahma Satyam Jagan Mithya .1) Everything 'else' is (also) brahman OR All this is Brahman 7. Chandogya Upanishad 3.Four mahAvAkyAs . 6.Jiva Brahma aikya Each Upanishad has it's own mahavakyas.Understanding Advaita .19 Arjuna asks for the proof of Jiva-Brahma aikya in Uttara Gita CHAPTER-II अजभरन उवयाच जयातवया स्र्वरतश ब्रह सवर जश पपरमकशवरमत । अहश ब्रहरोशत शनदरषभश पमयाणश तत्रि शकश भवकतत ॥ १ ॥ Arjuna asked: अजभरन उवयाच जयातवया स्र्वरतश ब्रह सवर जश पपरमकशवरमत । अहश ब्रहरोशत शनदरषभश पमयाणश तत्रि शकश भवकतत ॥ १ ॥ Arjuna asked: Page 294 of 619 . सवर खिलवत इदश ब्रह Sarvam Khau-idam Brahma . this world is unreal.Sama Veda.

Realizing the omniscient and omnipotent Brahman as the Supreme Lord by what means of proof can he (the jiva) define himself as 'I am Brahman'? शम भरवयानभवयाच यथिया जलश जलक शकपश कमरक कमरश घकतक घकतमत । अशवशकषरो भवकत्तदजजमवयातमपरमयातमनरो: ॥ २ ॥ Sri Bhagavan said: 2. Almost all Principle Upanishads and many Minor Upanishads describe OM and advice us to meditate on OM. the Purusha. As there is no distinction between water mixed with water. (This state of the Jiva) remains as the first effulgent being. How can he who knows thus (the true nature of the Pranava) set forth difference (between the Jiva and Brahman) ? He realizes that the Jiva is Brahman (alone).e. OM is connected with Shiva. Bhagavan in Gita has accepted OM. The importance of OM is evident from the fact that an entire Upanishad Mandukya Upanishad is dedicated to explain OM. this like a flower of a plantain tree (ever rubbing against the stem and attaining the state of a blossom) succeeds (in attaining perfection). similar is the non-differentiation of the Individual Self (jivatman) with the Supreme Self (paramatman) Para-Brahma Upanishad does not accept the union of Jiva-Shiva (Supreme Brahman). but talks about Ajaata vaada that only Self (as Para Brahman) exists and sadhaka realizes that Jiva is actually Brahman. milk when mixed with milk. he (the ascetic) is not tainted by (accidental) good or bad actions. The Pranava is the Self (Jiva). Mahanaraya Upanishad which has many Gayatri mantras of different deities and then eulogizes Vishnu and Rudra also advises us to to renounce all karma kand and meditate on OM. The juncture of the individual and supreme consciousness is rejected as there is a tinge of distinction involved in it. 2. of the scripture) then one shall resort to the eight-limbed Yoga. (When distinctionlessness alone exists) it is the highest (i. as the source of the Veda (as Parameshvara). etc. the Hamsa of the Pranava. Ganesha and NirguNa Brahman. Even though OM is Page 295 of 619 . Brahman) and there is nothing other than that.Understanding Advaita . the supreme Brahman.Advaita in Shastras 1. (When Self-realization does not result by the study. the ‘internal check’ of the form of unattached pure consciousness. That which remains as the source of Indra (Ishvara) is ever awake there. Vishnu / Krishna. butter mixed with butter.. There is no deity named OM and so we do not find any temple dedicated to 'deity' OM. It is not the chief Prana (vital breath). OM OM represents nirAkAra tatva. This effulgent Being is the (bestower of) favour on other gods (like the god Brahma). Beyond (the bonds of) good and bad. There is no duality.

Infact it is said that adding OM to any mantra increases it's potency.Understanding Advaita . the exalted ones who have attained the highest perfection do not get rebirth which is an abode of sorrows and which is impermanent. impermanent) मयामभपकतय पभनजर नम दनभ खियालयमशयाशवतमत। नयाप्नभवननत महयातमयानन सशधसशदश परमयाश रतयान।।8. as a tortoise wholly (withdraws) the limbs.58 And when this one fully withdraws the senses from the objects of the senses.17।। Page 296 of 619 .15।। 8. Nothing more needs to be said. Prajna also means buddhi.58।। 2. अशवभकश च भभतकषभ शवभकशमव च नस्थितमत। भभतभतकर च तजजकयश ग्रधसष्णभ पभशवष्णभ च।।13. talks about 4 qualities of sthita prajna. पजहयाशत यदया कयामयानत सवयारनत पयाथिर मनरोरतयानत। आतमनयकवयातमनया तभषन नस्थितपजस्तदरोच्यतक।।2. it is not found in our glorious history that by mere chanting of OM (and nothing else). The intelligent which is firmly established in Brahman is called sthita prajna (Prajñānam brahma).OM connected with Ishvara. then he is called a man of steady wisdom ( sthita prajna). Bhagavan in Gita says that this world is transient (temporary. यदया सशहरतक चयायश कभमर्थोतोऽङयानमव सवर शन। इननदययाणमननदययाथिरभ्यस्तस्य पजया पशतशष्ठतया।।2. when one fully renounces all the desires that have entered the mind. one gets darshan of his beloved deity. then his wisdom remains established. Advaita in Bhagavad Gita Bhagavan in Gita (2:55 to 2:59). this proof is more than enough. and remains satisfied in the Self alone by the Self.55।। 2:55 O Partha.15 As a result of reaching Me. For Advaitin Vedantins.

3 "Aksharam Brahma Paramam" .17 And the Knowable.6 But. brahma vidyayam.77. Since is the essence of Upanishads. Knowledge remains covered Page 297 of 619 . space and causation. and It is the sustainer of all beings as also the devourer and originator. though undivided. Sri Krishna Arjuna Samvade.Advaita in Shastras 13. upnishad su. Source: http://202. The meditative man equipped with yoga attains Brahman without delay. अकरश ब्रह परमश स्वभयावरोतोऽध्ययातममभच्यतक। भभतभयावरोद्भिवकररो शवसरर न कमर सधश जतन।।8. upanishads will also contain verses on advaita.The imperishable is Brahman.15 The Omnipresent neither accepts anybody's sin nor even virtue.102/acquia/?q=node/20 Brahman in Bhagavad Gita Krushna also uses the word Brahman in Gita सशनययासस्तभ महयाबयाहरो दनभ खिमयापभमयरोरतन। यरोरयभकरो मभशनब्ररह नशचरकणयाधधरच्छशत।।5. Similarly many verses alone from Gita can be given.3।। 8.6।। 5.15।। 5. O mighty-armed one. the Supreme. End of any chapter in Gita is: Iti srimad bhagawat Gita su. Neutrality of Ishwara / Brahman in Gita नयादत्तक कस्यशचतपयापश न चवैव सभककतश शवभभन। अजयानकनयावकतश जयानश तकन मभह्यननत जनतवन।।5. It is supremely above time. renunciation is hard to attain without (Karma-) yoga. yog Shastre.Understanding Advaita . Atma Sayyam Yogo naama Sastodhyayah. appears to be existing as divided in all beings.3.

8।। 7. all 12 verses explain OM and it’s transcendental nature. Refer Advaita in Mandukya Upanishad Bhagavan in Uttara Gita says Chapter I Page 298 of 619 . which bhagavan himself has accepted.61 The Lord dwells in the hearts of all beings.8: O son of Kunti. Thereby the creatures become deluded. the sound in space. (the letter) Om in all the Vedas. Bhagavan Krishna explains OM in Bhagavad Gita and Uttara Gita Bhagavan in Gita says रसरोतोऽहमप्सभ करौनतकय पभयानस्म शशशसभयरयरोन। पणवन सवर वकदकषभ शब्दन खिक परौरषश नकषभ।।7.61।। 18. The chandra bindu refers the fourth turiya state. by His illusive power. I am the taste of water. OM (AUM) represents niraakaara brahman. and manhood in men.Understanding Advaita . O Arjuna. Krushna says in Gita that I am OM. I am the effulgence of the moon and the sun. Mandukya Upanishad also begins with ‘Hari OM’. Bhagavan talks of this world as Mechanical ईशवरन सवर भभतयानयाश हृदकशकतोऽजभरन शतष्ठशत। भयामयनसवर भभतयाशन यनत्रियारढयाशन मयाययया।।18.Neutrality of Ishwara / Brahman in Gita by ignorance. to revolve as if mounted on a machine. causing all beings.

That which remains merely a passive witness between the Hamsa and Non-Hamsa. Ha.. i. 17. when their destructibility is apparent on their very face? SRI BHAGAVAN SAID: 49. which is neither vowel nor consonant.e. unites Prakrti with its Own Self. The syllable (Aum) with which the Vedas begin. who. which is beyond the eight places of pronunciation. therefore. Krushna also says that maya is a-sat (not -real = false. When the knower finds and sees this Akara Purusa in him.Understanding Advaita . which figures in the middle of the Vedas..Advaita in Shastras 5. which is quoted later. devoid of all desires. i. and which is thoroughly devoid of the Usma Varnas (i. and by the process of Yoga. S’a. the Paramatman and the destructible portion of the human being. is considered the highest jnana. lips. the four letters.22 Page 299 of 619 . etc. Krishna talks about Advaita and Maya in Srimad Bhagavatam There are verses in which Krushna says about prakruti (maya) and talks about his transcendental nature in chapter 7 beginning verses (7:1 . with no real existence in Srimad Bhagavatam 10:14. palate. That letter is called indestructible which is self-pronunciation. Also note that OM is mentioned in Mandukya and Prasna Upanishad. and with which the Vedas end. called Usma on account of their pronunciation depending greatly on the help of Vayu or air – meaning. Through direct experience. Sa. It is evident that the letters are pronounced by means of the teeth. therefore how can they (letters) be termed indestructible (Nitya). which is not subject to long or short accents. is the Aksara Purusa in the form of Kutasha-Caitanya (Atma-Buddhi). Krushna also says that Maya is his illusionary power. he is saved from all future troubles of birth and death in this world. throat.e.e. i. sits in that state of meditation in which he assimilates his own Self-mantra (Pranava or Aum) with the Hamsa (Paramatma).e. For the human being. subject to no air or breath).e. but that which is beyond this Prakrti-united-Pranava is Mahesvara. the attainment of the state of Hamsa (I am He). ARJUNA ASKED: 48. within his own limits. 6. without the effort of any pronunciation.. He is called Brahman.7:15) and says that one can attain it not by just reading shastras but by meditating on me i. Sa.

Thus understanding Your original personality. Even Ishwara has six upAdhis (strength. is always in communion with Brahman as it is the manifestation of this Brahman and can return to it’s nirguna state at will. nevertheless appears real. This universe appears real because it is manifested by the potency of illusion emanating from You. You are the indestructible nectar of immortality. the Absolute Truth — self-manifested. Sri). vairagya.com/10/14/22/en In the verses pointed above in Gita. whose unlimited transcendental forms are full of eternal happiness and knowledge. You are eternal and infallible. nor have You any connection with material contamination. the Supersoul of everyone's own self. and thus it covers one's consciousness and assails one with repeated miseries. nevertheless appears real. the primeval Supreme Personality. as the very Soul of all souls.14. SB 10. In the same way.14.14. Indeed. perfect and complete. whose unlimited transcendental forms are full of eternal happiness and knowledge. great beauty and detachment or (sarva-shaktiman. Krushna is also talking about mAyA.Krishna talks about Advaita and Maya in Srimad Bhagavatam tasmād idam ḥ am asat-svarūpam m jagad aśes m svapnābham asta-dhis ḥ an ḥ am ḥ kha-duh ḥ kham m puru-duh tvayy eva nitya-sukha-bodha-tanāv anante māyāta udyad api yat sad ivāvabhāti Therefore this entire universe. SB 10. which like a dream is by nature unreal. Is Krushna talking about mAyAvAd or BrahmanvAd? Ishwara. in advaita. tyaaga. who is mAyA-pati (controller or master of mAyA). endless and beginningless. brahman is the laxyartha and mAyA is used to explain why we do not see brahman. More Verses from Srimad Bhagavatam / Bhagavat Purana of Advaita Nature SB 10. aishvarya.Understanding Advaita . in the sense that it is real or that mAyA is supreme. Krushna in Gita does not talk about mAyA. Brahman or vasudev is always the laxyaartha. which like a dream is by nature unreal. fame. they are able to cross over the ocean of illusory material existence. Page 300 of 619 . but the center or the laxyArtha is not mAyA but Brahman. wealth.24: Those who have received the clear vision of knowledge from the sunlike spiritual master can see You in this way. knowledge. without any rival and free from all material designations.22: Therefore this entire universe.23: You are the one Supreme Soul. source: http://srimadbhagavatam. Your happiness can never be obstructed. sarvajna. and thus it covers one's consciousness and assails one with repeated miseries. This universe appears real because it is manifested by the potency of illusion emanating from You.

32. this brahman. At that time bondage and liberation no longer have any significance.28: GYAnameka.e. there is a character in Srimad Bhagavat called Jada Bharat. etc Page 301 of 619 .32. who lived an advaita life. the expansive illusory material existence arises. SB 10.28: Gyana i.25: A person who mistakes a rope for a snake becomes fearful. due to extrovert senses.11: tatvavetta-s (the knowers of truth). the same bhagavAn is himself jIva. for those who fail to recognize You as the Supreme Soul of all souls.32. it is nirguNa.28: O unlimited Lord. the saintly devotees seek You out within their own bodies by rejecting everything separate from You.14. Being outside the scope of true knowledge. but still. but he then gives up his fear upon realizing that the so-called snake does not exist. but knowledge of You at once causes it to subside. calls advaita-GYAna as tatva. parameSvara / paramAtma. how can discriminating persons appreciate the real nature of a rope lying before them until they refute the illusion that it is a snake. it is experienced (Abhasa) in the form of different forms / objects (vibhinna padArtha-s) of the nature of word (Sabda). Source: http://srimadbhagavatam.m Translation of full verses: BP 3. some paramAtmA or some 'bhagavAna'. Isvara. which is actually You. SarIra.Understanding Advaita . senses. Some call this tatva as brahma. SB 10.com/10/14/en Likewise. to be something else. Indeed. BP 3. Such fools conclude that the supreme soul is to be searched for somewhere outside Your supreme personality.27: Just see the foolishness of those ignorant persons who consider You to be some separated manifestation of illusion and who consider the self. SB 10.26: It is GYAna that is pra-brahma.26: GYAnamAtra para.14. Similarly. etc that is manifested is different forms.m parAcInairindriyairbrahma nirguNa. Brahman is one [without a second].26: The conception of material bondage and the conception of liberation are both manifestations of ignorance. the material body. More verses BP 1. bhAgavat purANa says. puruSa. BP 3. due to illusion.2. they cease to exist when one correctly understands that the pure spirit soul is distinct from matter and always fully conscious.14. viShaya-s.32.Advaita in Shastras SB 10. just as day and night have no significance from the perspective of the sun.m brahma BP 3.14.

OR BP 11. it will remain in bondage of three gunas. Non Duality in Bhagavat Purana BP 11.Krishna talks about Advaita and Maya in Srimad Bhagavatam i.e. the one without a second. atman keeps experiencing this multiplicity of 3 gunas. i. there is a character in Srimad Bhagavat called Jada Bharat. atman will have to take birth in many forms. without the second the Brahman.10.32: As long as atman experiences separate existence among three gunas. is experienced in different forms or objects which can be known by the 5 senses via qualities like words (Sabda). though nirguNa. due to extrovert senses and due to illusion. Sabda represents all 5 senses and their GYAnedriya-s like Sabda (words) → ears rUpa (form) → eyes rasa (taste) → tongue sparSa (touch) → skin and gandha (smell) → nose In other words.10. – BP 11. rajas and tamas). etc.e.Understanding Advaita .e. As long as there is dependence on these gunas i.32: There is multiplicity of atma so long as there is inequality among the three Gunas and while this multiplicity of atma doesn't get vanished from the mind . and so inconceivable is wrongly conceived with the help of mind and 5 senses and GYAnendriya-s. without guNa-s (attributes. the Jeeva remains in bondage forever. due to extrovert senses (extrovert mind).32 Likewise. Brahman. Here Sabda means speech. who lived an advaita life. the one.10. beyond sattva. which is knowledge. Page 302 of 619 .

there is a discussion between mother devAhuti.14: As her mind remained absorbed in the Truth. having renounced all others. the jiva-hood that goes from this world to the other. and who meditate on My peaceful form.23-24: I take such devotees across death who.Understanding Advaita . her allictions were destroyed and she attained total peace. KG 2. never perish as unwinking time has no power over them. and her son. the PuruSa was the beginningless Self.3: Before creation.Kapila Gita 2. Guru.Kapila Gita 1. Advaita devotees never perish KG 1. the very subject and Self-shining. a disciple. and the mind firmly abiding in th Reality. the Lord.22 Jiva is renounced KG 1. attributeless. Kapila Gita 1. she transcended the delusion of the qualities of prakriti and.Advaita in Shastras Advaita in Bhagavat Purana . the other world. Guru.22: Those for whom I am the supreme beloved. and even now it alone pervades the world . and dear Lord (ISTa deva). worship Me alone of universal form with single pointed devotion . PuruSa was attribuless before creation KG 2. well-wisher. the body. beyond prakriti.13: Due to the elemination of jIva-hood.Kapila Gita Bhagavat Purana has many sloka-s that support advaita. animals.Nirvikalp Samadhi KG 3. the Self. We have listed a few verses here. friend. this world. and houses. did not even remember her body like the one who awakes (does not remember) objects seen in the dream. Lord Kapila Muni. son. In the 3rd skandha. at that time.23-24 Jiva is destroyed . and all that relates to it like prosperity.3 Swami Tejomayananda further explains the meaning of AtmA (Self) from viShNu purANa as - Page 303 of 619 . who is the support of all jIva-s.

.Kapila Gita 2.Advaita in Bhagavat Purana . Kapila Gita 2. the samsAra does not seem to end. by chance alone. even though objects do not exist really.9: The puruSa. takes back (the universe at the time of dissolution). even though dwelling in prakriti.4: The same infinite Lord. does not get affected by the qualities of prakriti. in the same way there is mutual dependence and coexistence of the mind (prakriti) and the Supreme (puruSa) KG 2. . even in the dream.16: Therefore.Understanding Advaita .5 PuruSa does not get affected by prakriti KG 2. and has eternal existence. Kapila Gita 2. PuruSa manifested as Prakriti KG 2.15: Just as smell cannot exist without earth. enjoys (as the illuminator or experiencer of) objects here (in the world).Kapila Gita AtmA is that which pervades (the universe). sapidity without water. non-doer.5: Prakriti with its qualities creates a variety of being like itlsef.14: O Lord! What if the prakriti does not leave the puruSa due to mutual interdependence and eternal coexistence? Devahuti gives an example to support her point. has doubts as how can one get rid of prakriti KG 2. as he is immutable. and attributeless like the sun in water. how can there be freedom in the presence of the qualities of prakriti? Page 304 of 619 .9 Objects do not exist in reality KG 2. KG 2.4 KG 2. The Lord/Self having seen the creation got (as it were) completely deluded through the veiling of knowledge. in sport.12 How can there be freedom in the presence of qualities of Prakriti? DevAhuti. became manifested as the subtle prakriti with qualities.12 Indeed. Just as one who broads on objects meets with disaster alone.Kapila Gita 2.

prakriti never harms him who knows the Truth and who revels in the Self.22: Just as a dream causes a lot of sorrow to one who has not awaken. devahuti concludes KG: 2. he realizes that everything was illusion and not a reality. The above statement is explained further with the help of example. but the same does not delude one who has woken up.23: In the same way. nourished by constant listening. knowledge with clear vision of Truth. then discarded. by the discrimination of truth. strong dispassion. like the fuel by the fire in the cup of the araNi. the Lord replies. The practices are causeless ("choiceless) performance of one's duties.21: That prakriti which has been completely enjoyed. Reply Kapila Muni.Understanding Advaita .18-20: The bondage of puruSa by prakriti is burnt up by spiritual practices performed day and night by prakriti (body-mind) itself. KG 2. purity of mind. it may come back again. jIva does not get deluded when - KG 2. Page 305 of 619 .17: Sometimes. KG: 2. and absorption of the mind. A person when asleep dreams and takes a role where he enjoys. whose evil effects are seen constantly. intense meditation accompanied by austerity. can cause no harm to one who abides in the glory of one's own Self. Earlier. it was said that puruSa was formless and attributeless (without qualities) prior to creation. intense devotion to Me. KG 2. Further bhagavAn says. Finally. as his mind is always united with Me. the terrible fear (on bondage) is removed. suffers but on awakening.Advaita in Shastras (For prakriti) causes the bondage in action to the puruSa who is a non-doer. But since it's cause is not removed.

the Itihasas etc. the unmanifest. Puranas.Sat-Chit-Ananda Atman. Guru Tatva and Brahman in Guru Gita अशचनतययाव्यकरपयाय शनरभरणयाय रभणयातमनक | समस्त जरदयाधयारमभतरयक ब्रहणक नमन|| Prostrations to Brahman.Kapila Gita Our journey too is to go back to this state where there is no one else other than Self. Uchatana etc.all these become a mere waste without understanding the Guru Tattva. Shakta.Advaita in Bhagavat Purana . 20. who is the Real Guru . Japa austerities. Guru Gita talks that Brahman. the unthinkable. Yantras Mohana. pilgrimage sacrifice. etc.. 21) Page 306 of 619 .Rajas & Tamas qualities of Nature) yet the Self of Gunas. the science of Mantras. Guru and Shiva are not different. beyond the three Gunas(Sattva.. Advaita in Guru Gita To add to it. cults like the Shaiva. Agama. (19.(1) वकद्शयास्त्रपभरयाणयाशन चकशतहयासयाशदकयाशन च | मशत्रियशत्रिशवदयाशदशनमरोहनरोच्चयाटनयाशदकमत || शवैवशयाकयारमयाशदशन ह्यनयक च बहवरो मतयान | अपभशशयान समस्तयानयाश जमवयानयाश भयाशतचकतसयामत || जपस्तपरोवतश तमथिर यजरो दयानश तथिवैव च | रभर ततवश अशवजयाय सवर व्यथिर भवकतत शपयक || The Vedas. to whom even Lord Shiva salutes.Understanding Advaita . charity . the Substratum behind the whole universe. and other cults existing in the world today are merely false theories expressed in corrupted words which confuse the ignorant and deluded Jivas. the Shastras. observances. Guru Gita (part of Skanda PurANA) also talks about the glories of Brahman..

the body are all caused by ignorance (Ajnana). (22) रभढयाशवदया जरनमयायया दकहशचयाजयानसमभवन | शवजयानश यतपसयादकन रभरशब्दकन कथियतक || The hidden ignorance.he is known by the name Guru. the Knowledge of the Self dawns in the Page 307 of 619 . (24) शनतयश ब्रह शनरयाकयारश शनरभरणश बरोधयकतत परमत | भयासयनत ब्रहभयावश च दमपरो दमपयानतरश यथिया || The Guru is one who instructs the disciple about attributeless. by the practice of introspection within and by the Grace of the Guru.Advaita in Shastras रभरबभध्ययातमनरो नयानयतत सतयश सतयश वरयाननक | तलभयाथिर पयतनस्तभ कत्तरवयशच मनमशषशभन || The Guru is not different from the conscious Self. (75) रभरपयादतन स्वयातमनययातमयारयामशनररकणयातत | समतया मभशकमररण स्वयातमजयानश पवतर तक || By steadiness in the path to liberation.Understanding Advaita . and there by reveals the Brahmanbhava (feeling of being Brahman) in his heart just like one lamp kindles another lamp is the Guru. Without doubt. (23) दकहम ब्रह भवकदस्मयातत तवतककपयाथिरवदयाशम ततत | सवर पयापशवशभदयातमया शमरभररोन पयादसकवनयातत || Out of compassion for you. having been purified of all sins by serving the feet of the Guru. I shall tell you how the embodied soul becomes Brahman. this is the truth. by seeing one’s own Self in oneself. the world.Maya. By whose grace one attains direct Knowledge of the Self. absence of the Knowledge of Self. therefore wise men should make an effort to seek knowledge of Atman from Him. eternal Brahman.

He is the remover of the disease of this mundane world. then one should leave that place. one should take refuge in the Guru. if one meditates with firm determination on the principle of “I am one without duality” need not resort to forest for penances. Tattvamasi (Thou are that) etc. O Parvati. and the constant practice of the above principle brings about samadhi and his sins are burnt instantaneously. (72) Page 308 of 619 . (94 & 95) तस्मयातसवर पयतनकन सवर सर श शववधजर तन | शवहयाय शयास्त्रजयालयाशन रभरमकव समयाशयकतत || Therefore discarding all kinds of contacts with people.Understanding Advaita . (103) ततवमस्ययाशदवयाक्ययानयामभपदकषया तभ पयावर शत | कयारणयाख्यरो रभरन परोकरो भवररोरशनवयारकन || The Guru who initiates the disciple into Mahavakya. giving up all conflicts of the scriptures. by all possible means. if one is not able to cut his tongue.Guru Tatva and Brahman in Guru Gita Sadhaka. he is called the Karanakhya Guru. If the person lives there. (76) एक एवयाशदतमयरोतोऽहश रभरवयाक्यकन शननशचतन || एवमभ्ययास्तया शनतयश न सकव्यश ववै वनयानतरमत || अभ्ययासयाशन्नशमषणवैव समयाधधमधधरच्छशत | आजनमजशनतश पयापश ततकणयादकव नशयशत || On the advice of the Guru. (171) रभरशननदयाकरश दृष्टया धयावयकदथि वयासयकतत | स्थियानश वया ततपररतययाजयश धजहयाच्छक दयाकमरो यशद || On seeing a person speaking ill of the Guru. one should drive out that person from that place.

Understanding Advaita .Advaita in Shastras Glories of Param Guru मरोहयाशदरशहतन शयानतरो शनतयतकपरो शनरयाशयन | तकणमककतब्रहशवष्णभववैभवन परमरो रभरन || A Param Guru is free from attachment. (180) सवर कयालशवदकशकषभ स्वतशत्रिरो शनशचलस्सभखिम | अखिणडवैकरसयास्वयादतकपरो शह परमरो रभरन || One who is independent at all times and places. who possess an unshakable mind and always blissful. (182) यस्य दशर नमयात्रिकण मनसन स्ययातत पसन्नतया | स्वयश भभययातत धकशतशशयाननतन स भवकतत परमरो रभरन || By whose mere Darshan (look with devotion). peaceful. etc. and peace and steadfastness. who experiences the homogenous essence of the Self. (181) दवैतयादवैतशवशनमभरकन स्वयानभभभशतपकयाशवयानत | अजयानयानधमशछक त्तया सवर ज परमरो रभरन || One who is free from the feeling of duality and non-duality. who shines by the light of His selfrealization. (183) स्वशरमरश शवश पशयनत तथिया स्वयातमयानमदयमत | यन स्त्रमकनकमरोहघ्नन स भवकतत परमरो रभरन || One who looks upon his own body as a corpse. and is omniscient. independent. and peace of mind. and his Self as the non-dual Brahman. cheerfulness. who is able to destroy the deep darkness of ignorance. one attains calmness. always contented in Himself. such a one is Param Guru. He is a Param Guru. and one who considers the status of Brahma and Vishnu like a blade of grass. and who Page 309 of 619 . such a one is the Param Guru.

Shakti and Guru are one and same says Guru Gita ममत रपयाधस दकशव तवमतस्ततकथिययाशम तक | लरोकरोपकयारकन पशनरो न ककनयाशप ककतन पभरया || O Devi.Glories of Param Guru has killed the infatuation for wealth and women. penances. (16) यरो रभर स शशवन परोकरो. so declare the scriptures.Understanding Advaita . preservation. etc. Therefore I shall narrate this to you. such a person is a Param Guru.creation. you are my own Self in another form.japas. No one else has put me this question. and dissolution. everything becomes like the prattling of a child. (184) Guru is above Brahma. O Devi. Vishnu and Shiva रभररोन ककपयापसयादकन ब्रहशवष्णभशशवयादयन | सयामथ्यर मभजनत सवर सकशषनस्थितयशतकमर शण || It is by the Guru’s grace and blessings that Brahma. Page 310 of 619 . (213) Fruitlessness of sadhana done without the knowledge of Self स्वरपजयानशभनयकन ककतमप्यककतश भवकतत | तपरो जपयाशदकश दकशव सकलश बयालजलपवतत || Without the Knowledge of the Self whatever Sadhana is done is fruitless. and the fact that Shiva is the Guru.. यन शशवन स रभरस्मकतन | शवकलपश यस्तभ कभवर्वीत स नररो रभरतलपरन || He who is the Guru is Shiva Himself. Vishnu and Shiva become capable of performing their respective duties. This question of yours will benefit the whole world. (190) Shiva.

Hence they are supposed to be dropped. there is no (concept of) nonduality either. who have experienced detachment.Understanding Advaita . Having essence of shastras. can live with bare minimum necessities and whose mind does not go in samsaara i. These upadeshas are only for matured sadhakas. be of the certitude that there is no non-Self." a seer is also there. as shastras are just pointers. Shastras and their study has to be dropped. Avadhut Gita and Ribhu Gita also talk about supreme Nirguna Brahman. These Upadeshas are not for common masses and beginners. If there is an interior. as they are also aavalamban (support). neither this nor that. if there be no interior. Bhakta. if there is not a little-nothing whatsoever of anything at anytime--nothing arises.Advaita in Shastras is reminded to us in all the Smritis. in the absence of duality. The aim is to meditate and realize and not just be contented with the knowledge (information) obtained from scriptures. it implies something of incompleteness. 28. but by meditating one can rise above duality and enter into infinite non-dual brahman.e. Sri Ramakrishna says. they are of no more use. etc has to be taken from vyavahaarika (practical) standpoint. when one obtains dhyeya siddhi. there is (a concept of) nonduality. it becomes all in no time. If there be (a concept of) completeness. He. there surely is an exterior. If there is duality. It means not by mearing scriptures. Yogvasistha and Ashtavakra Gita also talk about Advait and Ajaat vaad (ajati vad) Advaita in Ribhu Gita 26. duality-non-duality. Hence these Page 311 of 619 . one has to just meditate to reach the ultimate state. Therefore. Hence any such statements like rise beyond duality of knowledge-ignorance. is guilty of the crime of uniting with his own Guru’s wife. there is also no exterior. in the absence of anything to see. Hanumad Gita. After certain maturity. Purpose of shastras is fulfilled. 29. who makes any distinction between the two. 27. If there is a little that can be thought of. There being only Brahman alone. there is no seer at all either. (18) You will find many such verses in Guru Gita that are of Advaita Origin. Note: Please note that the knowledge referred in an shastras when they are talking about rise above knowledge and ignorance means scriptural knowledge. it's 100 % introvert. Similarly other lesser known Gita's like Rama Gita. all this does not exist in the least at any time: neither you nor I. If there is something to be "seen. Bhagavan and Bhagavat are one and the same.

The world exists like a mirage within me. By the grace of God the Brahmins above all men are inspired with the disposition to non-duality (unity of the Self with God). 2. That God who is the Self in all. "It is" nor "It is not. This is the reason why Gita's such as Ribhu Gita.Advaita in Ribhu Gita type of upadeshas are not popular to public. verily. How can I salute the Self. and which is inseparable from Itself? 3. infinite. like unto space. by nature impersonal and all-pervasive. whom can they Page 312 of 619 . 6. I alone am. which is all Bliss. this is the essence of all knowledge. by nature purity itself. verily. which in Itself and by Itself pervades everything. Verily the one Self is all. imperishable. which is indestructible.Understanding Advaita . that I am. theoretical and intuitional. Neither can it be said. 1. Advaita in Other Gitas Following are external links dedicated to Advaita Advaita in Avadhuta (Avadhoot) Gita Avadhuta Gita Avadhuta Gita contains many verses of Advaita origin. For more verses in Ribhu Gita. which relieves them of the great fear. Ashtavakra Gita and Yoga Vasistha are less popular. 7. I know neither joy nor pain. 5. please visit wiki and Sivanandaonline. I am the Atman. please visit Brahman / Atman is not Shunya says Ribhu Gita To know what is Ribhu Gita. free from differentiation and non-differentiation. To whom shall I bow? 4. I am pure knowledge." What a great mystery. Caution: Avadhuta Gita is not for the masses. ever free from all taint. This is the whole substance of Vedanta. Caution: Ribhu Gita is not for the masses. impersonal and changeless.

and so on. All that is attributed to him as though he did it are all my creations. Through vibrations of these reflections. these are potencies of the Lord of mine. rajas. I become one with him. I have no purpose to exist at all unless and until or as long as this. enveloped by my gross power. Therefore. as well as the very vibrations themselves. samvit. As soon as he no longer needs me. I am the Yoga Maya.” Hanumanji looked up and began constantly looking humbly to Sitaji as a child looks at his mother when she is teaching him some important point of life. I am so pleased with you that I would like to introduce you to ourselves.” Sitaji said and became quiet. except his love.Advaita in Shastras touch? Advaita in Sri Rama Gita also called as sruti-sara-sangraha Link 1. And that power I am. “Imposed by me. I’ve no meaning of me for myself at all. conceivable world is my sporty adventure. “He is motionless. He is beyond the reach of thought and action. His existence is not possible without me. Sri Rama is beginning less. From these comes forth the world. Goloka. Again. Link 2 Advaita in Hanumad Gita “Dear son Hanuman. I am alive. Page 313 of 619 . doing nothing he just exists. Completely non-different from him. When the rays of their dazzle travel far below. “Death. Vaikuntha. in appearance only as long as my lord needs me. and bliss reflect back upon me and I shine as sandhini. he is indicated as Satchidanandamaya. keeps looking at me.Understanding Advaita . consciousness. existence and worn out life in them all. and lhadini. endless. I am his eternal power. and destroyer of karma. Appearance of this phenomenal world is my luxury. my beloved. I introduce the transcendental worlds of Saketa. Millions and billions of cosmic universes emanate from me. They are my performances. and imperishable. Thus the entire visible. look at me. He is inconceivable and indescribable. The appearance of this mundane world is a vibration in power. eternal. Even his appearance in this form has taken place because of me. I am the giver of birth and all creation. Listen. “I am not outside him. the preserver and the nourisher of all good creation. my pleasure. misunderstanding and afflictions do not reach my husband. I submerge into him. And I am the power of this Sri Rama. and tamas. upon this Lord of my heart. “But. they transform as satva. the Truth. The purpose of my existence is to entertain him. imaginable.

O Nilakan ḥ ḥ tha. through that sheer māyā of Yours. Brahman after associating with mAyA becomes Ishwara. I am convinced now about this. similarly is the universe too taking shape in You. One single atom cannot support the Vindhyā mountains. 27 Brahman + mAyA. Shiva is a person (personal deity). Thou art wholly the nature of Consciousness and Bliss. 29-40 Some verses: Dvaita: Shiva as a person Great things do not rest on flimsy support. This universe rests on Your person through Your māyā alone. that itself is seen to be certainly due to my ignorance.e. Please visit the link here. Shiva-tatva i. 28 When it is enquired as to Your body assuming the nature of being. who is none other than Brahman. If one remembers. nor exists. lord of the universe. illusionary power of God = Ishwara.Advaita in Hanumad Gita source Advaita in Shiva Gita from Padma Purana Shiva Gita is a part of Padma Purana. so is Shiva Gita Also note that Shiva shows the virATa svarupa to Rama after giving Rama the divine eyes. Please refer slokas: 24-25. preserver and destroyer) and is also NirGuna Brahman. the very basis for the world of manifestation. nor undergoes destruction. Just as a fear-causing snake appearing in the rope has not really come into being. it is the same purana from which a verse is taken to defame Advaita and Adi Shankara. Shiva showed both duality and non-duality. 29 Page 314 of 619 .Understanding Advaita . which is a discourse between Bhagavan Rama as disciple and Bhagavan Shiva as Guru. So if Padma Purana is authentic. creator.

through these five sense-organs. Apart from the mind can there be a world? Everything including heaven is a dream Page 315 of 619 . art (variously) reflected in different minds. Except by turning the mind inward and fixing it in the Divine. But even this statement is not fully true because there is nothing different from You at all. as they are all inside mAyA O Supreme Lord! Even the sovereignty of all the three worlds. the infinite and the eternal.Advaita in Shastras Jagat is Brahma svarupa: Sarvam khalu-idam brahma O Destroyer of Tripura. 30 Thinking of formless God is difficult The Sages declare those as deluded by ignorance who mistakenly think that Śiva. Since. 6. secondless. You bestow as a reward on those people who offer You a leaf or a little water. performance of Vedic sacrifices and charitable acts. being praised. so Thou. O Lord. 33 Same Brahman gives light (power) to many minds and mind reflects it as if it it thy own Just as the one. is pleased by external acts of worship and services. Thou art the universe. 34 The same is said in Sri Ramana Maharshi's 40 verses on reality 22. 32 Jnana-svarupa Atman / Brahman does not die You pervade all the quarters and the intermediate directions. there is no other way to know Him through the mind. bestow upon the enjoyers the fruits of the eminently meritorious acts. single Sun in the sky gets its many reflections in various vessels of water. I deem it all as the work of ignorance. Thou alone. Atman gives light to the mind and shines within it. Lord of the Himālayas. there is no loss to You. the world is nothing but the mind. The world is nothing more than an embodiment of the objects perceived by the five senseorgans. just as there is no detriment to space (within a pot). Even when this universe become extinct. when the pot is broken.Understanding Advaita . a single mind perceives the world. How can there be any desire for pleasure for one who is formless? 31 Even fruits of karma are nothing but illusion.

Chapter 10. the scriptures. speak of pleasure and pain experienced through Your reflection in them. O Swan in the ocean of Existence and Consciousness. Page 316 of 619 . is the Aksara Purusa in the form of Kutasha-Caitanya (Atma-Buddhi). 36 Unity of Dvaita and Advaita Prostrations to Thee. prostrations to Thee. Consciousness is nothing but Self O Śambhu! For the two inert bodies. which after all is illusory. Even then. For the human being. That which remains merely a passive witness between the Hamsa and Non-Hamsa. Advaita in Uttara Gita Uttara Gita Lord Krishna’s second discourse to Arjuna.e. Initiation of Arjuna into Yoga and Jnana 5. jiva-swarupa kathan deals with jiva-brahma aikya i. 37 Shiva Gita ends with the verse which says. the Paramatman and the destructible portion of the human being.Understanding Advaita - There is nothing to be done by You even when the world is created. is considered the highest jnana. he is saved from all future troubles of birth and death in this world. It all happens as in a dream. within his own limits. protected and dissolved. the Destroyer of all sins. on the souls beginninglessly embodied according to their mortal fruits. devoid of all desires. sits in that state of meditation in which he assimilates his own Self-mantra (Pranava or Aum) with the Hamsa (Paramatma).. Likewise.e. Jiva and Brahman are one and the same. the subtle (sūks ḥ ma) and the gross (sthūla) there could be no consciousness without the Self. He is called Brahman. prostrations to Thee. prostrations to Thee. O enemy of Tripura. You bestow heaven etc. and a yoga śāstra occurring in the Padma Purān ṣ a. who. the very form of Time. Shiva Gita imparts Brahma-vidya Thus ends the seventh chapter called the Vision of the Cosmic Form in the form of a dialogue between Śiva and Rāma in the Śiva-Gītā an upanisṣad delivering Brahma-vidyā. 6. and by the process of Yoga. the attainment of the state of Hamsa (I am He). O Blue-Throated One. the one (witness) experiencer of the functions of the mind. When the knower finds and sees this Akara Purusa in him. Chapter 10 consists of 63 slokas. Therefore. 35 Experience is because we are conscious. i.

Page 317 of 619 . there remains only the K. should hold fast the support of unchangeable Jnana. [ another name of Arjuna. The word “Kakin” is the compound of ka + aka + in. and the third In denotes possessing: therefore one that possesses happiness and misery – the Jiva – is called “Kakin”. ] and meditate upon the All-Supreme Isvara. Buddhi-less. 13. the second Aka means misery. O Partha. pure but without lustre (Prabha). and think of the One Indivisible Brahman in the inner and outer Akasa. and into which the life-breath merges. therefore when this a disappears. Again the vowel a at the end of the syllable Ka is the conscious manifestation of Mula-Prakrti or the Jiva form of the Brahman. that exists at the end of the nose. and shutting himself out of all objective knowledge (Ajnana).Advaita in Shastras 7. as devoid of all conditions of life. 11.. Think of the Siva. which is the One great indivisible Bliss – Brahman. 10. in the heart) fix thy mind. Freed from both nostrils where the life-breath disappears. The signs of Samadhi are the negation of all positive conditions of life and the complete enthralment or subjugation of all objective thoughts. 12. after fixing his mind as aforesaid.Understanding Advaita . there.e. there (i. mindless. The first syllable Ka means happiness. Such a seeker of Brahman.

e. As a husbandman throws away the husks.e. (That is Niralamba. (which produces a nasal sound). yet he is to consider that the Paramatma is immovable.Advaita in Uttara Gita 14.e... the different phases of this sound. He that has acquired Vijnana. Anusvara. 33. his state is called the state of Samadhi. Although the body of the meditator may now and hen become somewhat unsteady at the time of meditation. 19. the voice that rises from the throat. The syllable (Aum) with which the Vedas begin. (Point) i. ARJUNA ASKED: 34. This is the sign of the Samadhi. 18. and no meditation for further conception.. unites Prakrti with its Own Self. when the mind is unable to think upon that which it has never seen. but when a man once crosses the stream. and No-thing all round. the knowledge derived from books of Philosophy and instruction from a Guru. non-supported or self-supported samadhi) The Yogi who thus realizes the No-thingness of the Atman becomes free from all virtues and vice. which figures in the middle of the Vedas.Understanding Advaita .. such a person requires no Yoga for further practice.. He that considers the Paramatman as without Matra. unconnected with vowels. but that which is beyond this Prakrti-united-Pranava is Mahesvara. O Kesava. 16. 17. the boat is no longer necessary for his purpose. No-thing in the middle. and with which the Vedas end. beyond the Nada. No-thing below. is the real knower of the Vedas. soundless. and he that has acquired peace of mind.. and beyond the Bindu.e. and beyond the Kalas. etc. and consequently subject to destruction (change)? SRI BHAGAVAN SAID: Page 318 of 619 . how Yogis should meditate upon the colourless and formless Brahman. and that which can be seen is material.. He that contemplates the Atman as No-thing above. (the Supreme Knowledge) by the aid of Jnana. Tell me. neither short nor long in metre. i.e. after thrashing out the corn. 15. A boat is necessary until one gets to the other side of the river. so does also an intelligent person give up the study of books after he has attained knowledge from them. i. i. i. and has learned to place the object of this knowledge in his heart.

is said to be in the state of Samadhi. (Meaning. how the Yogi is to practise meditation when the Salamba which thou has just described is unreal and that which is Niralamba means No-thingness? SRI BHAGAVAN SAID: 37. O Krishna. material intelligence) dies away. That which is full above. so long it is necessary for him to practise concentration of mind by shutting out external senses. he becomes spiritual). This Akasa has the quality of Sound.e.Advaita in Shastras 35. but that which takes a body (Jivatman) is purity itself. SRI BHAGAVAN SAID: 47. ] (i. full in the middle. his Buddhi [ Students must distinguish between the Vedantic use of this term and the significance assigned to it in the Esoteric Philosophy. is the unknown and unknowable Brahman. is the Allfull Atman and he that contemplates the Atman thus. 53. ARJUNA ASKED: 36. the waters of knowledge always pass out. absolute freedom from every kind of bondage)? SRI BHAGAVAN SAID: 51.) 54. Tell me. consequently one cannot know the Brahman unless he becomes as pure as the Brahman Itself. Page 319 of 619 . after purifying his mind. He who. but once the thoroughly attains the knowledge of the Tattvas he identifies himself with the Universal Soul. 52.Understanding Advaita . full below. for such a person when he leaves his body. the powers of mind should be concentrated within. thought Itself Soundless. how. contemplates the pure Paramatman. and full all round. the Akasa is called Sunya (vacuum). by closing their external senses and knowing that Brahman. which lies concealed in every matter and every substance. O Arjuna.e. the Yogins realize Nirvana Mukti (i. The Yogins see the Atman within (them: this they do) when they shut out all their external senses (not by any physical action). O Kesava.e. As long as the Tattvas are not known to a person.. From the nine openings (portals) of the body. Thy body itself is exceedingly impure.. but that which gives it the power of Sound (as emptiness cannot produce any sound). and with the death of his Buddhi his ignorance also dies away (i. because it means the want or absence of things or anything. and looks unto his own Self as he one vast undivided whole of the manifested universe. becomes happy by knowing the Brahman. ARJUNA ASKED: 50. and not allowed to dwell upon external objects through the nine openings. Tell me.

and therefore it cannot be seen by the eyes. so the Jivatman and Paramatman become one in union without any distinction and difference. even as the Akasa in the pot becomes one with its parent Akasa when the pot is broken.. lives in it (i. Wherever a Jnanin may die. for. O Keshava. 6. but he who has been able to fix his InnerAtman by the Niralamba Samadhi.. by the realization of the Paramatman that is pure as the spotless Akasa and without a second. knowing the Brahman as the allpervading and all-knowing Paramesvara. 9.Understanding Advaita .Advaita in Uttara Gita he that has known the difference of the real nature of these two never troubles himself with the question of purity. and with the fire of supreme knowledge he is able to burn down the bonds of Karma.e. 3. the knower becomes the object of knowledge itself. Atman is Suksma like Akasa . Rsis) to him the all-pervading and universal Light shows itself in due time. as water enters into water. 7.) CHAPTER-II ARJUNA ASKED: 1. Paramatman) without any Upadhi (i. Such a knower of the Tattvas.e. As water in water. and what need is there for practice of Yoga or meditation? SRI BHAGAVAN SAID: 5. milk in milk and (clarified) butter in butter. which is like the Vayu (air) bee seen either. When. and has learned to direct the course of his external senses inward. then he frees himself from all bondage by the virtue of his knowledge. what is the evidence when one. can know the unity of the Atman and Antaratman (Inner Soul or Mind). Know by the process of Anvaya and Vyatireka that the Atman which pervades the whole body is beyond the three states of consciousness – waking. 8. ARJUNA ASKED: 4. Tell me. He. in whom the light of knowledge always shines forth. nor can the inner Atman.. He who with undivided attention endeavours to unite the Jivatman with the Paramatman according to the manner prescribed by the Sastras (i. has his Buddhi constantly fixed on the Brahman. by acquiring knowledge. matters not where nor how it breaks. dreaming and dreamless Page 320 of 619 . he becomes one with Atman when he leases his body.e. being free from all attributes). believes himself to be one with It? SRI BHAGAVAN SAID: 2. whose purity. and in whatever manner his death may happen. should he search after? (The Jivatman is always pure.

who is self-controlled. abandoning each previous (element). standing on one leg only. The Yogins who contemplate me with one mind as "I am he" are saved from the sins collected during a hundred millions of Kalpas. 36. becomes undoubtedly free from the chain of ignorance. 39. pure. too. and goes into the sphere of the Light of Supreme Knowledge and Wisdom. 35. and (what is) agreeable and odious. and who is self-possessed. may become absorbed in the one receptacle. he is. Source Chapter III teaches Jiva-Brahma Aikya Advaita in Anu Gita Anu Gita Refreshes Teachings of Vedas and Upanishads. so also the ignorance-bound Jivatman is absorbed in the Paramatman when ignorance is destroyed. He Page 321 of 619 .Advaita in Shastras sleep. free from vanity and egoism. A man who is a friend of all. And he. Atman and becomes one with it. from Yoga standpoint. 34. At the time when the body oscillates backward and forward. As the Akasa of the pot is absorbed in the Mahakasa when the pot is broken. It also teaches that Jiva merges with Brahman. He who moves among all beings as if they were like himself. is released. even if he be conversant with the four Vedas. is released who is equable towards both life and death. It talks about Yog and meditation. final union of Jiva and Brahman Chapter 4 He who becoming placid. and likewise pleasure and pain. he cannot realize one-sixteenth part of the benefit gained by Dhyana Yoga (meditation). who endures all. 37. and gain and loss. even as the Akasa of the Pot is absorbed in the Mahakasa. and thinking of naught. he will cross beyond (all) bonds. If a man practise asceticism and severe austerity for a thousand years. released from everything. and from whom fear and wrath have departed. He who has been able to acquire the knowledge of the Tattvas that the Jivatman is absorbed in the Paramatman. the Braahmana who hesitates to believe that he is Brahman fails to understand the great subtle Atman. which state that Attributeless Brahman is supreme and the last state is non-duality. who is devoted to tranquility. who has subdued his senses. indeed. There are many verses.Understanding Advaita .

The body is called the Muñga. searching for his own faults. seeing the self in the self by means of the mind. void of color. without belongings. and having his senses subjugated. indestructible. like fire devoid of fuel. And as one may show the soft fibers. Being self-restrained and self-possessed. who has abandoned piety. As a person having seen one in a dream. This is the excellent illustration propounded by those who understand concentration of mind. so does a devotee see the self extracted from the body. one should fix the mind on the self. He who is free from all impressions. void of taste. and unknowable. I will impart instruction regarding it accurately. and always concentrating his mind. Having his understanding always (fixed) upon indifference to worldly objects. who is constantly practicing concentration of mind. being habituated to exclusive meditation. since he is the lord of the triple world.Understanding Advaita . He who sees the enjoyer of the qualities. always full of birth. perceives the self in the self. and lust altogether. released in every way. (and which teaches) how devotees concentrating (their minds) perceive the perfect self. and having no cause. death. Learn from me the paths by which one directing the self within the self perceives the eternal (principle). ‘This is he. he attains to the eternal Supreme Brahman. creates for himself even the divinity of the gods. he procures the release of his self from bonds in no long time.. and casting aside old age and death. recognizes him (afterwards). Seeing the self void of smell. then there is no ruler over him. and who is free from the pairs of opposites. Restraining the senses. he who has achieved proper concentration of mind sees the self in the self. he is Page 322 of 619 . void of sound. who has no child. when (all) beings are afflicted. he is released. When an embodied (self) properly perceives the self concentrated. devoid of the qualities of the five elements. The man who has acquired concentration of mind. If such a good man is able to concentrate the self on the self. is released. like an Aswattha tree. and who has no desire. One who does no action. free from the pairs of opposites. He who is not pious and not impious. and whose self is free from affections. is released. devoid of form. looks on this universe as transient. who is free from the pairs of opposites. who has no kinsmen. After this I shall explain the science of concentration of mind. He who has no enemy. Abandoning by the understanding all fancies bodily and mental. unmoving. he grieves not and exults not. who casts off (the merit or sin) previously accumulated. the soft fibers stand for the self. Then the talented Brâhmana. he gradually obtains tranquility. saying. he is indeed released. void of belongings. and who is self-restrained. indeed. devoid of qualities. he attains to the inexhaustible Brahman. and old age. who contemns no one. constant. and abandoning the transient body. he should practice concentration of mind for final emancipation. than which there is nothing higher. and having first performed rigorous penance. then he. he is. and who has no desire. He obtains various bodies as he pleases.’ so does one who has achieved proper concentration of mind perceive the self. should act on (the precepts of) the science of concentration of mind. and who moves among the collection of organs with penance. is released.Advaita in Anu Gita who is not attached to any one. Then freed from all impressions. who has practiced penance. When (all) beings are destroyed. after extracting them from the Muñga. he has no fear. void of touch. wealth. whose self is tranquillized by the exhaustion of the primary elements of the body. tranquil.

eyes. Weapons do not pierce him. who have raised their semen upward. Only by the mind (used) as a lamp is the great self perceived. One whose consciousness is bewildered by illusion perceives many differences in value and meaning among material objects. ears and other senses is an illusory creation that one imagines to be real due to the influence of maya.– with. Now you should completely give up all attachment to your personal friends and relatives and fix your mind on Me. he has eyes. O Krishna! that pupil. is not shaken by the fearful effects of attachment and affection. 6. O best of Brâhmanas! I will now take my leave. a mental smile. and freed from old age and grief. nor by any of the senses. the material universe that you perceive through your mind. there is. you should observe all things with equal vision and wander throughout the earth. he attains in a short time to that Brahman. he remains steady to the self. Properly concentrating his self. then he forthwith ceases to feel any attachment to Indra himself. he attains final emancipation in me. and abandoning his body. he has cars on all sides. he perceives the self. attain the spiritual abode called Brahman. And then depending upon it thus. But one who is practicing concentration should never become despondent. 47. after perceiving which he understands the Pradhâna.–holding it to be the immaculate Brahman. He has hands and feet on all sides. you should know that all of the objects of the material senses are temporary. he assumes bodies at pleasure. 7. Thus one engages constantly on the platform of material good Page 323 of 619 . which consist in pain and grief. 8. Naked sages who seriously endeavor in spiritual practice. he stands pervading everything in the world. heads. In fact. Leaving this human frame. Final Emancipation (Liberation): Being thus always assiduous and pleased in the self. He whose self is concentrated. he sleeps at ease. and do you (too) go away. O Brâhmana! according to your pleasure. The soul sees the self come out from the body.Advaita in Shastras not afflicted by anything. and of a tranquil mind.’ Thus addressed by me. Source: Advaita in Uddhava Gita Uddhava Gita is the Final Teachings of Lord Krishna to his faithful disciple Uddhava. This whole mystery I have declared to you. I will go away. who are peaceful and sinless members of the renounced order. speech. and faces on all sides. possessed of great penance. Thus being always conscious of Me. who is free from attachment. as it were.–went away as he pleased.Understanding Advaita . nothing can be seen anywhere in the world happier than he. My dear Uddhava.–that Brâhmana of rigid vows. no death for him. He is not to be grasped by the eye. When one who has properly achieved concentration perceives the self in the self.

11. It is of the form of *chit*. and you will never be hampered by any disturbance in life. headed by the demigods. In AdhyAtma rAmAyaNa shrI rAma says that this world is and illusion and is seen because of eho only. nonperformance of such duties and performance of forbidden activities.com/bhagavatam11b-2. such a person contemplates the performance of compulsory duties. and thus your mind will be satisfied. and not because he is thinking in terms of material good and evil. you will be able to perceive the pure self. which free from delusion. source Page 324 of 619 .Understanding Advaita . 10. The self-realized person does this spontaneously. The only truth is the supreme (param) nirAkAra brahman (nirAmayE brahmaNi kEvalE parE). One who has transcended material good and evil automatically acts in accordance with religious injunctions and avoids forbidden activities. Source: http://www. At that time you will become dear to all living beings.Advaita in Uddhava Gita and evil and is bound by such conceptions. Absorbed in material duality. like an innocent child. And all this tamAsha (drama) is being displayed by this ahaM only. The prathama-prakalpa in the form of *ahaM* which is superimposed on this vikalpa-rahita (changeless) brahma vastu is called *adhyAsa*.htm Note: It is interesting to note that Anu Gita and Uddhav Gita are a part of Srimad Bhagavatam Advaita in AdhyAtma rAmAyaNa and tArA gItA AdhyAtma rAmAyaNa is a discourse between rAma and laxmaNa vikalpa mAyArahitE chidAtmakE *ahaMkAra* Esha prathamaH prakalpitaH *adhyAsa* EvAtmani sarvakAraNE nirAmayE brahmaNi kEvalE parE The brahma vastu is free from all the vikalpAs and mAyA. Being fully endowed with conclusive knowledge of the Vedas and having realized the ultimate purpose of such knowledge in practice.astrojyoti.

free from any dualism. anything external or internal is false. 12.) anAdyavidyAsaMbandhAttatkAryAhaMkR^itestathA | saMsAro . Know ‘I am the one pure awareness. Meditate on yourself as motionless awareness. exists even though it is meaningless. self-illuminating and spotless already. that joy.’ With such ashes now be happy. at peace.api syAdrAgadveShAdisaN^kulaH || By the relation (association) with beginningless avidyA (ajnAna.apArthako . the saMsAra. 15. the all-pervading witness – unattached to anything. It is illusion that you seem to be involved in any other matter. 10.ahaMkAra (ego). You are really unbound and actionless. free from distress. The cause of your bondage is that you are still resorting to stilling the mind. Burn down the forest of ignorance with the fire of understanding. Your real nature is one perfect. supreme knowledge and awareness is what you are. and actionless consciousness. 13. characterized by attractions and aversions. This samsAra is just like a dream which too does not end on its own (but ends when one wakes up.Understanding Advaita .Advaita in Shastras tArA gItA mithyAropitasaMsAro na svayaM vinivartate | viShayA dhyAyamAnasya svapne mithyAgamo yathA || This saMsAra is falsely superimposed (on the Self) and does not go away on its own for a person who broods over the objects of the senses. free. Further reading Advaita and Ajaata Vaad in Ashtavakra Gita Chapter 1 9. Source. giving up the mistaken idea that you are just a derivative consciousness. Page 325 of 619 . That in which all this appears is but imagined like the snake in a rope. desireless. now be happy. ignorance) and with the effect of avidyA .

produced out of me. Just as one and the same all-pervading space exists within and without a jar. everlasting Being exists in the totality of things. 17. is no other than oneself. the world appears. Just as waves. All of this is really filled by you and strung out in you. so do I enlighten the world. 19. Just as a mirror exists as part and apart from its reflected images. Just as the sugar produced from the juice of the sugarcane is permeated with the same taste. for what you consist of is pure awareness – so don’t be small-minded. so all this. formless and immovable. 4. All this time I have been afflicted by delusion. Page 326 of 619 . As a result the whole world is mine. so when all this is analysed it is found to be no other than oneself. and by knowledge of oneself it appears no longer. so the Supreme Lord exists as part and apart from this body. and by knowledge of the rope the snake appears no longer. is completely permeated with me. 8. 5.Understanding Advaita . 7.Advaita and Ajaata Vaad in Ashtavakra Gita 16. When the world shines forth. 2. foam and bubbles are not different from water. and I am nothing over and beyond that. alternatively. You are unconditioned and changeless. Chapter 2 Janaka said: 1. unfathomable awareness. From ignorance of the rope a snake appears. 3. suddenly somehow my true self becomes apparent. Recognise that the apparent is unreal. while the unmanifest is abiding.such consciousness is unclinging. Truly I am spotless and at peace. the awareness beyond natural causality. 20. Through this initiation into truth you will escape falling into unreality again. As I alone give light to this body. nothing is. and. Just as cloth when examined is found to be just thread. it is simply me that is shining forth. Shining is my essential nature. So now abandoning the body and everything else. 18. From ignorance of oneself. so the eternal. 6. so all this which has emanated from oneself. imperturbable.

12. without even touching it with my body! 14. just as a snake appears in the rope. Many people after reading Ashtavakra Gita have stopped practicing Meditation. for whom there is no destruction. due to ignorance. Advaita in Yoga Vasistha Yog Vasistha or Vasistha Gita is the discourse between Lord Ram and his Guru Vasistha. It is of advaita nature. forever. remaining even beyond the destruction of the world from Brahma down to the last blade of grass. Salutations to that calm effulgence which is endless and unlimited by space. just as the mirage of water in the sunlight.Advaita in Shastras 9.Understanding Advaita . All this appears in me. How wonderful I am! Glory to me. Some verses from Yog Vasistha sara: Chapter One Dispassion 1. yagna. Glory to Thy Self 11. Page 327 of 619 . and just as silver in mother of pearl. rituals. filling all that is. 13. Yog Vasistha Sara can be found here Caution: Yoga Vasistha is not for the masses. stopped visiting temples. imagined. How wonderful I am! Glory to me! There is no one so clever as me! I have borne all that is. Caution: Ashtavakra Gita is not for the masses. I am neither going or coming anywhere. and alternatively possess everything to which speech and mind can refer. How wonderful I am! Glory to me. solitary! Even though with a body. time etc. the pure consciousness which can be known by experience only. I abide forever. How wonderful I am! Glory to me! I possess nothing at all..

Advaita in Yoga Vasistha 5.Understanding Advaita . On the dissolution of the body. O good soul. It is not other than Brahman. 12. eye of Brahman is Brahman itself. Even the slightest thought immerses a man in sorrow. Jagat in reality is brahman itself 23. so also we experience the sport of maya in our waking state. Pure awareness results solely from the clarity of the disciple's understanding. are broken the space within them becomes unlimited. Page 328 of 619 .' which entirely cures it. when devoid of all thoughts he enjoys imperishable bliss. That which is imparted. Everything is a dream 18. The Lord cannot be seen with the help of the sacred texts or the Guru. to whom does this samsara belong?. the ether (consciousness) limited by the heart (hridayam) alone ceases to exist. Following the customary method of teaching is only for preserving the tradition. Purport of sacred texts 10. anywhere at any time. People lament needlessly that the Self is extinct. So also when bodies cease to exist the Self remains eternal and unattached. 'Who am I?. Jiva-Brahma-aikya: Jiva and Brahman are one and are not different 22. The great remedy for the long-lasting disease of samsara is the enquiry. is the real wisdom. When pots. but not the way we see it. It is Brahman alone Note: The jagat is satya. 11. The self is seen by the Self alone with the pure intellect. Similarly the body of Brahman is Brahman itself. to a worthy disciple who has become dispassionate. Self does not die or is not shunya 21. Nothing whatever is born or dies appearing illusory in the form of the world. etc. it is the real purport of the sacred texts and is also the comprehensive wisdom. Just as we experience the delusion of hundreds of years in a dream lasting an hour. Samadhi is thoughtlessness 17.

18.Advaita in Shastras Brahman or Atman does not know anything else than Brahman / Atman says Sri Ramana Maharshi in 40 verses on Reality 17. therefore. even so the illusion of samsara comes to an end when the mind is stilled. 4. 2. The idea of a (live) snake in a picture of a snake ceases to be entertained when the truth is known. the word 'I' refers to the body. 12. like the delusion of a snake in a rope (when there is ignorance) and comes to an end when there is right knowledge. Truth is adapted to the measure of the world. That which is not seen. whereas to those that have. 13. 7. 8. 10. But to those who have not realized. though within us. wonderful indeed is this maya which deludes the entire world. even if it continues to appear. Similarly samsara ceases to exist (when the Truth is realized). that for those who have not realized. Dear boy. It is like the mythical city of Gandharvas (fata morgana) or a mirage. To those who have not realized the Self. Like waves rising up from the ocean the unstable mind rises out of the vast and stable expanse of the Supreme Self. Truth shines as the Formless Perfection. 11. Whatever is seen does not truly exist. by controlling the breath and the latent desires (vasanas). This worthless (lit. This is all the difference between them. is called the eternal and indestructible Self. so also all these varied objects are reflected in the vast mirror of our consciousness. It is certain that it is absolutely unsubstantial. Chapter Two Unreality of the World 1. To those who have not realized (the Self) as well as to those who have the world is real. It is on account of it that the Self is not perceived even though it pervades all the limbs of the body. Page 329 of 619 . but with this difference. Still the mind. 3. Just as the great ocean of milk became still when the Mandara Mountain (with which it was churned by the Devas and the Asuras) became still.Understanding Advaita . when this desire subsides bondage becomes weak. and as the Substratum of the world. Even though bondage does not really exist. Samsara rises when the mind becomes active and ceases when it is still. rises up. 9. Just as the trees on the bank of a lake are reflected in the water. which is a mere play of consciousness. it becomes strong through desire for worldly enjoyments. as well as to those who have. This creation. burnt out) samsara is born of one's imagination and vanishes in the absence of imagination. the 'I' is confined to the body whereas for those who have realized the Self within the body the 'I' shines as the limitless Self.

separate objects. which is Knowledge. Advaita in 10 (ten) mukhya (major) Upanishads Advaita sthiti. This world. The bliss of a man of discrimination. though unreal. appears to exist and is the cause of life-long suffering to an ignorant person. 16. The variety of gold ornaments is unreal. is the only Reality. mountains. serpents. Atman and Brahman ar supreme and Atman is Brahman are found in Major Upanishads which teach Advaita Vedanta.Understanding Advaita . cannot exist apart from the Self. One who has no idea of gold sees only the bracelet. From the absolute point of view. transient impermanent nature of this world. 19. This false knowledge. Knowledge of multiplicity is false knowledge. since none of them can exist without the gold of which they are all made. renunciation of desires. which is Knowledge-Reality. are all in the eyes of the ignorant man. He does not at all have the idea that it is merely gold. The Self. Similarly towns. it is not separate (from the Self). and objects of this world (from mind). 108 Upanishads are listed in Muktika Upanishad (quoted later). houses. this objective (world) is the subject (the Self) itself. 15. out of which Mandukya is considered as alone capable of giving Kaivalya Advaita Jnana.Advaita in Yoga Vasistha 14. just as a (non-existent) ghost (is the cause of fear) to a boy. who has rejected samsara and discarded all mental concepts. It is because of that which always. which is really ignorance. 17. imagines (everything) quickly and freely that this magical show (of the world) is projected in the waking state. of its own accord. Sri Ramana Maharshi's 40 verses on Reality 13. The world is full of misery to an ignorant man and full of bliss to a wise man. Ten mukhya upanishads or dasopanishads listed are Legends: RV: Rig Veda or Rik Veda or Rug Veda or RRiga veda SV: Sama Veda SYV: Shukla Yajur Veda Page 330 of 619 . etc. The world is dark to a blind man and bright to one who has eyes. 18. constantly increases.

Peace! Peace! Peace! OR Om. (AV) "The Breath of Life" 5. Prasna. completeness comes forth. MAndUkya (AV) "Consciousness and its phases" 7. Katha (KYV) "Death as Teacher" 4. Kena (SV) "Who moves the world?" 3. TaittirIya (KYV) "From Food to Joy" 8. Aitareya. completeness alone remains. Mundaka (AV) "Two modes of Knowing" 6. from completeness. completeness is this. That is the whole. completeness to completeness added. Completeness is that. Page 331 of 619 . ChAndogya (SV) "Song and Sacrifice" 10. Om. Completeness from completeness taken away. (R ḥ V) "The Microcosm of Man" 9. Isa or Isha or IshavAshya (ŚYV) "The Inner Ruler" 2.Understanding Advaita . this is the whole.Advaita in Shastras KYV: Krishna Yajur Veda AV: Atharva Veda 1.BrhadAranyaka (ŚYV) Advaita Vedanta IshAvAsya Upanishad ॐ पभणरमदन पभणरशमदश पभणयारतपभणरमभदच्यतक पभणरशय पभणरमयादयाय पभणरमकवयावशशष्यतक ॥ ॐ शयाननतन शयाननतन शयाननतन ॥ Om Puurnnam-Adah Puurnnam-Idam Puurnnaat-Purnnam-Udacyate Puurnnashya Puurnnam-Aadaaya Puurnnam-Eva-Avashissyate || Om Shaantih Shaantih Shaantih || Om.

That (Self) did allot in proper order to the eternal Prajapatis known as samvalsara (year) their duties.fruits of worship of both Page 332 of 619 . Matarsiva (the wind) conducts the activities of beings. It is without all. It moves not. is substratum of everything. they say. without sinews. Everything moves within Brahman 4. Do not desire eagerly the riches of any others.Understanding Advaita . radiant. they say. 9. the lord of the mind. It is one. untainted by sin. does not entertain any hatred on account of that perception. Brahman is immovable. for It proceeds ahead. is the result (attained) by vidya and different indeed. Remaining static It overtakes others that run. It is near. Peace! Peace! Peace! First sloka (verse) says: 1. Om. the whole remains. 7. It is far. what grief. 5. bodiless. faster than the mind. the all-seer. 11. transcendent and self-existent. He who knows both vidya and avidya together. Those who worship avidya (karma born of ignorance) go to pitch darkness. On account of Its presence. Different indeed. When a man realises that all beings are but the Self. the whole becomes manifest. 6. and the Self in all beings. soreless. That (Self) is all-pervading. Unmoving. but to a greater darkness than this go those who are devoted to Vidya (knowledge of the Devatas). is the result (attained) by avidya. He who perceives all beings in the Self alone. pure.Advaita Vedanta IshAvAsya Upanishad from the whole. to that perceiver of oneness? Self is All-pervading 8. taking away the whole from the whole. Thus have we heard from the wise who had explained it to us. It is within all. The senses cannot reach It. what delusion is there. It moves. All that is in this transient world is covered by the Lord. Enjoy yourself with an attitude of self-resignation. transcends mortality through avidya and reaches immortality through vidya. Manifested (SaguNa) and unmanifested (NirguNa) Brahman . 10.

has dispassion in society. Thus have we heard from the wise who had explained it to us. vital energy. subtle intellect. He who knows both the Unmanifested and the destructible (Hiranyagarbha) together. Brahma Sutra is said to clear this doubts.Understanding Advaita . May the qualities proclaimed in the Upanishads be in me as I am a devotee of the Atman. transcends death by the (worship of) the destructible and attains immortality by the (worship of ) the Unmanifested. Brahma Sutra is only for some elite group of sadhakas who would like to get more clarity after reading all upanishads and are confused about different upanishads saying different things. eyes. Katha Upanishad and other Advaita Shastras that teach about Brahma-vidya are taught by only one who is established in Brahman and imparted to disciples who is free of worldly desires. It also says that I am a devotee of Atman. Let my speech. ears. Guru Gita.I may not deny Brahman and Brahman do not deny me. Let there be no rejection or denial of Brahman by me. Prasna Upanishad. Advaita Vedanta in Kena Upanishad . 14. pure minded. Let my limbs grow strong.Advaita in Shastras 12. To pitch darkness they go who worship the Unmanifested (Prakriti). May I not deny Brahman and may Brahman not deny me. is the result (attained) by the worship of the Unmanifested. vitality become more powerful. Different indeed. Kena Upanishad starts with a question about Who Am I and says taht May I not deny Brahman and that Brahman do not deny me. 13. they say. indicating that Brahman and Atman are one and the same. Yog VAsistha. All that is Page 333 of 619 . Bhagavad Gita. CAUTION: Upanishads are not for the masses. Kena Upanishad ends with Chapter 4 saying that He who has this knowledge is established in It. they say. is the result (attained) by the worship of the Manifested and different indeed. To a greater darkness than this go those who are devoted to the Manifested (Hiranyagarbha).

2. There is no other way than being taught by one of unparalleled ability and it transcends all arguments and is subtlest of subtle. Brahma Jnana is difficult to grasp and teach 1.2-4.8 This principle (Brahman) is not understood by pondering in different ways or being taught by one of low ability.2. Kena Upanishad also says that Indra and other demi Gods like Agni and Vayu excelled than other Gods as they were very near to knowing Brahman. Only after examining Nachiketas and repeatedly tempting for another boon which gives worldly pleasures.Advaita Vedanta in Kena Upanishad . and rejection by Nachikeyas. Brahman is beyond speech and arguments i. 1. Meditate to realize Truth and go beyond joy and sorrow (Duality) Page 334 of 619 . Blind Leading Blind 1.2.e.7 It is not possible for many to hear about it (Brahman) and even having heard many do not understand.9 This knowledge is not attainable by argumentation. mind and intellect 1. The teacher must be a skilful one and the pupil should be sharp in grasp.2. Indra excelled than other Gods as he was the first to know that 'I am Brahman' (4.3) Advaita Vedanta in Katha Upanishad (kathopanishad) Katha Upanishad is a discourse between Nachiketas and Yamadev. and blissful rests in Brahman.I may not deny Brahman and Brahman do not deny me. Lord of Death.5 The deluded staying in illusion thinking themselves to be enlightened go in circles faltering and floundering like sightless-men led by a sightless one. The knower is a wonderful person instructed by the adept. rests in Brahman . Yamadev finally gives instructions on Brahma Jnana. infinite. It is of easy comprehension only when instructed by another.Understanding Advaita . O! Dearest one! O! Nachiketa! let there be seekers like you! You are truly resolved in your desire. Yamadev offers Nachiketas to ask 3 boons out of which 2 are for his father and one is Tatva Jnana. It belongs to Krishna Yajur Veda.

Note: Similar verse is found in Bhagavad Gita where Bhagavan says that even by killing all you will not kill anything. 1. deep-seated and immanent. Page 335 of 619 . 1.2. realises the glory of Atman through cleansing of mind and senses. one is adored in the world of Brahma (Hiranyagarbha loka) Consciousness is beyond birth and death 1.18 The consciousness (soul ) is neither born nor is it subject to death. as all are Atman [citation needed] About Atman .Meditation on OM gives one all the fruits that is obtained by rituals and one reaches truth which is proclaimed by shastras and the end result of Self Enquiry 1. This one is unborn. Rise above deha-bhava or sarira bhava (body consciousness).2. by meditating on it .Advaita in Shastras 1. which is said to be the end effect of all rituals and for which enquiry into the ultimate reality is undertaken. this is the supreme support and upon realising this. got that which is difficult to realise.19 If the slayer thinks he stays. dwelling in the cave of the heart transcends both joy and sorrow. everlasting. and transcends from sorrow.2.15 That which is proclaimed by all the scriptures. Glory of OM . always existing. effulgent. 1. It has not manifested from anything nor has it given rise to a new entity.2. I shall tell you about it briefly as "OM". greater than the greatest is the Atman that dwells in the cave of the heart of beings.17 This (syllable OM) is the best support.2. and slain thinks that he is slain.Upadeshas similar to Bhagavad Gita 1. This (Knower) neither slays nor is slain.16 This syllable (OM) is the highest (Brahman) .20 Smaller than the smallest.12 The wise man having. neither of them knows the truth.Understanding Advaita . indeterminable in antiquity and is not destroyed when the body (container) is destroyed.2. this alone is ever-lasting and whoever realises this attains whatever he desires. He who is desireless.2.

is attainable that realisation about It. else it will be like blind leading blind. Page 336 of 619 . etc is also found.21 While seated. Who can know other than me that Shining One. limited efforts cannot produce limited results. lying down he goes all-over. 1.Advaita Vedanta in Katha Upanishad (kathopanishad) Similarly we can find many verses which are of advaitic nature. who revels and revels. this Atman cannot be realised. and Atman is beyond mind and intellect. stable amidst the unstable.2.2. but others cannot see the face of lantern holder. By meditating on OM. In dark place. They can only see his face if the lantern holder throws light upon himself. he travels far . nothing except atman is permanent. which emphasize on renunciation.2. Sri Ramakrishna says same thing. lecturing one's own intellectual enquiries or by wide learning or listening. Atman is beyond duality.Jnani is the one who does not do any karam even tough he does and vice versa [citation needed] 1. who is bodiless within the bodies. It also says that only a realized teacher can teach to a capable disciple.22 Having realised the all-pervading Supreme Atman. it chooses alone. the wise one grieves no more. [citation needed] Similar verse is also found in Ashtavakra Gita . transient nature of things.Understanding Advaita . 1. which relieves them of the great fear. one can Self Realize. By the grace of God the Brahmins above all men are inspired with the disposition to non-duality (unity of the Self with God). as It reveals Its own nature to him.23 By study of the scriptures. Note: Similar verse in Bhagavad Gita says that one who has no eyes but sees. the one holding lantern can guide others in dark and can see their face. or one who is an eye of an eye. Note: Similar is said in first verse of Avadhut Gita. Atman cannot be realized without the grace of Atman. Whomsoever. 1.

the son of Katya. approached Pippalada. Page 337 of 619 . the Purusa. (i. 4. whose emotions are not harmonised.3. hears. Bhargava of Vidharbha. son of Bharadvaja.. hoping that he would tell them about all That.4 The Samana takes with it the two oblations of inhaling and exhaling evenly into the system. smellless. Kabandhi. Katha Upanishad contains many verses which concur teachings of Bhagavan in Bhagavad Gita.Understanding Advaita . he is the one who acts. distinct from ahamkara) and changelessly constant…. feels. greater than the greatest.e. the grandson of Surya of the Garga clan. the intelligent soul. immortal. distinct from intelligence. (infinite).9 It is indeed the dweller who sees. son of Asvala.Advaita in Shastras Impure mind cannot attain Atman 1. whose senses are not controlled . whose mind is not at peace. cannot attain this Atman by any means of knowledge. tastes. It (Udana) causes the sacrificer to attain Brahman every day. He is established in the supreme indestructible Atman. son of Sibi. with sacrificial fuel in hand..7 O ! Pleasant looking one ! just as birds stay put in trees .15 . beginningless. 4. Link 2 Advaita Vedanta in Prashna Upanishad Prashna Upanishad is listed fourth in Muktika Upanishad and belongs to Atharveda. Satyakama. imperishable. so it is said that all these stay in the superior self. Kausalya. all of them devoted to and rooted in Brahman.“That which is soundless. endless.1 Sukesa. 4. The Samana is said to be the priest officiating at the sacrifice i.24 He who is not free from evil conduct. but that said in Upanishads by Rishis and is imparting Brahma-Vidya Brahman is beyond attributes 1. the hota . The mind is indeed the sacrificer and Udana is the desired end of the sacrifice (liberation). 1.” Source: Link 1. formless. which is not surprising as Bhagavan has himself said that he is not giving what is new. Sauryanin. undecaying.e. knows. internal. smells. touchless. tasteless.2. thinks.

the gross elements and the vital airs. the Guru says 6. erudition.Advaita Vedanta in Prashna Upanishad 4.2 O ! Satyakama ! Om is really the higher and the lower Brahman.there is nothing greater than this.' Advaita Vedanta in Mundaka Upanishad नयायमयातमया पवचनकन लभ्यरो न मकधयया न बहह नया शभतकन। यमकववैष वकणभतक तकन लभ्यस्तस्यवैष आतमया शववकणभतक तनभश स्वयामत॥ ३॥ nāyamātmā pravacanena labhyo na medhayā na bahunā śrutena | yamevaisṣa vrṣnṣute tena labhyastasyaisṣa ātmā vivrṣnṣute tanūṁ svām || 3|| You cannot have the knowledge of the Supreme Soul by means of reasoning. the one who knows begets one of these two by this method. Thus.10 One of pleasant looks! He who realises that imperishable one into which lapse the mind. undying and rid of all fear . undiminishing. or studying of the Vedas. In Second last verse of chapter 6 Pippalada.the greatest is attained by means of this OM. it's 4 states.7 Through the first syllable is attained this human world. Only through causeless mercy does He reveal His own Page 338 of 619 . the sense organs.Understanding Advaita . 5. That which is tranquil.Brahman . contemplating on any of the single letter and finally concludes 5. becomes all-knowing and enters into everything.3 He said to them : 'As far as I know the Supreme are . Chapter 5 goes on to explain OM. by the second is obtained the lunar world and by the third that obtained only by the wise.

The Fourth is thought of as that which is not conscious of the internal world.7 – “ That ( i. 3.3 OR This Atman cannot be attained through study of the Vedas. in which all phenomena come to a cessation. which is unseen. the auspicious and the non-dual. near at hand in this body. and non-dual. actionless. 3. nor conscious of both the worlds. Hari OM. (i. nor conscious of the external world. present and future) is in reality OM. beyond apprehension through ordinary means. as the consciousness behind the ahamkara)”. nor unconsciousness.Understanding Advaita .. Bhagavan in Gita says that 'I am OM' (BG: 7:8) 7. formless. nor dense with consciousness. One that is past and future that is noting but in reality OM.Advaita in Shastras person unto him whom He does accept as His own. Thus Om is certainly the Self. incomprehensible. All 12 verses of Mandukya Upanishad explain glories and true nature of OM Advaita Vedanta in Taittiriya Upanishad Taittiriya Upanishad forms the seventh. uninferable. nor through much learning. It is available to be recognized in one’s very heart. subtler than the subtlest. OM is everything. at the same time.2. He who is chosen by Atman—by him alone is Atman attained. Advaita Vedanta in Mandukya Upanishad हररन ओमत । ओशमतयकतदकरशमदश सवर तस्यरोपव्ययाख्ययानश भभतश भवदत भशवष्यशदशत सवर मरोङयार एव । यच्चयानयतत शत्रिकयालयातमतश तदप्यरोड़त कयार (तदप्यत ओङयार) एव ॥ १ ॥ 1. the cessation of the phenomenal world. It is.i. He who knows thus enters the Self by the Self. nor through intelligence.e.e. 12.3 III.. That is the Self. farther than the farthest. nor simple consciousness. Brahman) is infinite. It is Atman that reveals to the seeker Its true nature. effulgent. and which is unchanging. indescribable. not accessible to thought. past.2. auspicious. that is to be known. The one which is above 3 kALa (tenses of time. whose proof consists in the identity of the Self (in all states). eighth and ninth chapters of the Taittiriya Aranyaka of the Page 339 of 619 . unthinkable. That which is without letters (parts) is the Fourth.

1 One should contemplate thus : Om is Brahman. an approach similar to that Adopted by Shri GaudpadAcharya in Mandukya Karika prakaraNa 4.Advaita Vedanta in Taittiriya Upanishad Krishna Yajur Veda. all come from that ultimate Brahman. Within the infinite. Brahman alone can destroy ignorance and one who knows brahman becomes brahman.3 From that very Atman (Brahman) ether came to be. alAta Santi. and yet remained extending everywhere beyond it.2 One who realises Brahman attains the Supreme. the Hotr priests who recite the Rig Veda. May our joint work and study be vigorous and effective. O Vayu.1.Understanding Advaita . and from food came man. may we not enter into dispute. be propitious unto us! Salutation to Brahman! Salutation to Thee. Thee indeed. May there be peace. filled it.1 Om. For it is declared that Brahman is existence.1. and yet remained the ultimate and the entire Reality. from air came fire.1 He who knows the bliss of Brahman which is beyond the reach of the word and the mind he does not fear anything. Ananda Valli and Bhrigu Valli. peace. and all the universe. and finally the Brahmana who prays to attain Brahman. O Vayu! Thou indeed art the visible Brahman. May Mitra be propitious unto us! May Varuna be propitious unto us! May Aryaman be propitious unto us! May Indra and Brihaspati be propitious unto us! May Vishnu. starting with the Adhvaryu or the supervising priest. This man. 2. from water came the earth. he became the defined. 2. I shall proclaim as the right! Thee indeed. The entire hierarchy of priests at the sacrifice initiate their respective roles by or responding with reciting 'Om'. Ananda Valli teaches that Brahman is supreme.8. knowledge and Infinite. from ether came air. All this is further explained here. from herbs came food.6. Thus by performance in unison alone is Brahman attained. peace. the Udgatr who chants the hymns of the Sama Veda. of wide strides. He who finds Brahman within the secret recesses of his own heart will have no further want as he will have attained everything. perceived or imagined is Om. within the undefined.1. from fire came water. Om. I shall proclaim as the true! May It protect me! May It protect the teacher! May It protect me! May It protect the teacher! or May He (Brahman) protect and nourish us. his head. respectively.4. These chapters are known as Siksha Valli. Page 340 of 619 . 2. he became the finite.4 The one Atman decided to project Himself into the many and thus created the manifold universe of existence. his body and every part of him. 2. from the earth came herbs. 2. Siksha Valli teaches on different types of Meditation. Brigu Valli is a further discussion where 5 sheaths are discussed and Atman is the innermost core. Also note that second and third valli starts with Shanti Mantra. 1.

air. of a womb. It is consciousness. memory. soared from this world and having obtained all desires in yonder heavenly world. steadfastness. purpose. sorrow. wisdom. thoughtfulness. He is Prajapati. Chapter 1. thinking: "This is the Self"? Which one is the Self? Is it He by whom one sees form. human beings. He is Indra. He is all these small creatures and the others which are mixed. 4 He. He is the five great elements— earth.Advaita in Shastras Advaita Vedanta in Aitareya Upanishad Part 1. became immortal—yea. of sweat and of a sprout. having realized oneness with Pure Consciousness. He is all these gods. desire. water. retentive power of mind. life. आतमतन पयाण आतमत आशया आतमतन स्मरआतमत आकयाश आतमतस्तकज आतमत आपनआतमत Page 341 of 619 . knowledge. became immortal. concepts. by whom one hears sound and by whom one tastes the sweet and the unsweet? 2 Is it the heart and the mind. The basis is Consciousness. 3 He is Brahman. whether moving on legs or flying in the air or unmoving. akasa. longing: all these are but various names of Consciousness (Prajnanam). willed the creation of Cosmos … Part Three Chapter I—Concerning the Self 1 Who is He whom we worship. He is the origin—those born of an egg. sense knowledge. All this is guided by Consciousness. elephants—whatever breathes here. though. is supported by Consciousness. That one and only Consciousness. Consciousness is Brahman (Prajnanam Brahma). cows. light. lordship. the Atman. Section 1 From itself. He is horses.Understanding Advaita . Advaita Vedanta Chandogya Upanishad Chandogya Upanishad begins with the explanation on OM Chapter 1 and beginning verses of chapter 2 talk about OM.

‘Revered sir. who knows thus.’ thus saying Narada approached Sanatkumara. There is this verse about it. That is the Atman. That thou art. even if one. do not know.’ Page 342 of 619 . the bees make honey by collecting juices from different trees and reduce them into one essence. VII-i-1: Om. and there. O Svetaketu.1." 7.” VI-ix-4: ‘That Being which is this subtle essence (cause).26. from the Self is ether. Atmatah prana atmata asa atmatah smaraAtmata akasa atmatasteja atmata apahAtmata avirbhavatirobhavavatmatonnam. please explain it further to me’. from the Self is light. the Sama-Veda and the Atharvanas the fourth. dear boy. dear boy. the science of the stars. etymology. from the Self is love.’ ‘Revered sir. from the Self is appearance and disappearance. ‘So be it. What is beyond that I shall tell you. I know the Rig-Veda. "From the Self is life. as these juices have no such discrimination as “I am the juice of this tree. from the Self are the waters. teach me. mathematics.Understanding Advaita .1. the rules for the worship of the ancestors. the physical sciences. the science of treasures. ‘What you already know. the Itihasa-Purana as the fifth. the science related to serpents. offers the remnant of his food to a Chandala.Advaita Vedanta Chandogya Upanishad आशवभयारवशतररोभयावयावयातमतरोतोऽन्नमत।।7. said (the father).9. all these creatures having merged into Being.26. VI-ix-1-2: ‘As. I am the juice of that tree”. and the fine arts – all this I know. the ancillary knowledge of the Vedas. even so. the science of ethics. from the Self is food. Connection with BG 13:31 by Shri Adi Shankaracharya V-xxiv-4: Therefore. then also that food becomes his offering to the Vaisvanara Atman only.’ Narada said: VII-i-2: ‘Revered sir. be my disciple. dear boy’. logic. “We have merged into Being. the science of war. revered sir.3 teach advaita Narada approaches Sanata Kumara for Atma Jnana. even That all this world has for its self. the Yajur-Veda. verses from 6. the science of portents.15. from the Self is desire. That is the true. grammar. declaring that to me. Sanatkumara said to him.4 to 6.

will. for in that case one thing would be established in another. Only he who understands declares the truth. hears something else.’ ‘Revered sir. Brahman is beyond understanding and senses VII-xxiv-1: ‘In which one sees nothing else. then alone does one declare the truth. May your revered self take me across it. understands nothing else. But one must desire to understand happiness’. then alone does one act. hears nothing else. Without understanding. The infinite alone is happiness. Only on obtaining happiness does one act. ‘Revered sir. VII-xvii-1: ‘When one understands. That which is infinite.’ Whatsoever you have studied here.Understanding Advaita . ‘Revered sir. understanding. Without obtaining happiness one does not act. I desire to understand understanding’. I desire to understand the infinite’. “greatness”. But one must desire to understand understanding. But still Narada is not satisfied with this and asks that there must be something greater than the one explained. understands something else. Indeed I have heard from persons like your revered self that a knower of Atman goes beyond grief. I desire to understand the truth’. air. What I do say is thus: Brahman is Infinite Page 343 of 619 . But one must desire to understand the infinite’. ‘Revered sir. being such. I do not speak thus (of greatness).’ Here one goes from gross to subtle to treat each and everything as Brahman like water. and that which is finite. that is infinite. I would speak surpassingly with truth’. is mortal’. is the finite. ‘But one must desire to understand the truth’. There is no happiness in anything finite. ‘Revered sir. VII-xxiv-2: ‘Here in this world people call cows and horses. ‘Revered sir. VII-xvi-1: ‘But he really speaks surpassingly who speaks surpassingly with truth’. I am in such a state of grief. elephants and gold. one does not declare the truth. in what is that infinite established ?’ ‘On its own greatness or not even on its own greatness’.’ Sanatkumara replied to him. Real Happiness (Ananda) is infinite VII-xxii-1: ‘When one obtains happiness’. But that in which one sees something else. I am only a knower of verbal texts. fire. etc is considered as Brahman.Advaita in Shastras VII-i-3: ‘Revered sir. fields and houses. mind. akash. VII-xxiii-1: That which is infinite. I desire to understand happiness’. not a knower of Atman. is alone immortal. servants and wives. however. is alone happiness. really it is only a name.

and understands thus. he becomes free to act as he wishes in all the worlds. ‘’When nourishment is pure. memory becomes strong. VIII-i-2-3: If the disciples should say to him. hymns from Atman. both the sun and the moon. I am in front. in this city of Brahman. Atman is to the north. they are not free to act as they wish in all the worlds. appearance and disappearances from Atman. The revered Sanatkumara showed to Narada. I am to the south. memory from Atman. contemplation from Atman.’ Page 344 of 619 .Understanding Advaita . after his impurities had been washed off. has pleasure in Atman. for him alone. speech from Atman. one should desire to understand. name from Atman. He who sees this sees all things and obtains all things in all ways. sevenfold and also ninefold. Atman alone is all this. that should be sought. What is within that. aspiration from Atman. intelligence from Atman. Now. VII-xxv-2: ‘So now is the teaching through Atman. there is a mansion in the shape of a small lotus. joy in Atman. Atman is behind. also a hundred-and-ten-fold and also a thousand-and twenty-fold. rites from Atman. which one should desire to understand ?’ – he should say in reply. he it is who sees thus. That is to the north. water from Atman. they call him Skanda. food from Atman. That is in front. That is behind. reflection and higher understanding become pure. will from Atman. delight in Atman. all that is contained within it. indeed. Then again he is called the elevenfold. But those who know otherwise than this are ruled by others and live in perishable worlds. are contained both heaven and earth. Akasa from Atman. Whatever there is of him in this world and whatever is not. ‘In this city of Brahman in which is a small mansion in the shape of a lotus and in the small inner Akasa within – what is it that lies there which should be sought. Prana springs from Atman. that indeed. That alone is all this. strength from Atman. He becomes Selfsovereign. I am behind. Everything is inside Brahman VIII-i-1: Om. both fire and air. so large is that Akasa in the heart. Atman is above. VII-xxvi-2: ‘There is this verse about it: “He who sees this does not see death nor illness nor any sorrow. the further shore of darkness. Atman is to the south. People call Sanatkumara as Skanda – yea. becomes threefold. understanding from Atman. reflects thus and understands thus. Atman alone is below. I alone am all this. mind from Atman.” ‘He is one. VII-xxvi-1: Verily. Within it. I alone am below. When reflection and higher understanding are pure. union in Atman. That is to the south. I am above. there is release from all the knots of the heart.Advaita Vedanta Chandogya Upanishad VII-xxv-1: ‘That infinite alone is below. fire from Atman. in it is a small inner Akasa. lightning and the stars. So next is the teaching in regard to the self-sense. ‘As large indeed as is this Akasa. fivefold. Atman is in front. who sees thus. I am to the north. When memory becomes strong. all this (springs) from Atman alone. Verily. That is above.

This is the immortal. if one was blind he ceases to be blind. if wounded. that is the immortal.Advaita in Shastras Heart is Atman. Thus spoke Prajapati. What is ‘sa’. the fearless. neither the day nor the night crosses. hence it is the heart.he ceases to be afflicted. He who has found out and who understands that Atman attains all the worlds and all the desires. VIII-iii-5: These are indeed the three syllables. said the teacher. ‘sa’.Understanding Advaita . therefore it is ‘yam’. he ceases to be wounded. nor old age nor death nor sorrow. Atman is Brahman VIII-iii-3: This Atman verily is in the heart. This dyke. All evils turn back from it. free from sorrow. and what is ‘yam’. with it one holds the two together. this Atman is the dyke. This is Brahman. he should be sought. and what is ‘ti’. nor merit nor demerit. even night becomes day. for this Brahman-world is free from evil. ‘ti’. Verily. whose desire is of the truth. if afflicted. He who knows thus indeed goes daily into the heavenly world. verily. the name of this Brahman is the True. whose resolve is of the truth. appears in his own true form.’ Atman is beyond everything VIII-iv-1: Now. for this Brahman-world is ever illumined. the embankment for the safety of these worlds. on reaching this dyke. that is the mortal. verily. Therefore. free from death. free from old age. on reaching this dyke. free from hunger and thirst. he who knows thus goes to the heavenly world. ‘yam’. rising out of this body and reaching the highest light. He who attains Atman attains everything VIII-vii-1: The Atman which is free from evil. Because with it one holds the two together. VIII-iv-2: Therefore. Verily. Its etymological explanation is this. This is the Atman. Advaita Vedanta BrihadAraNya Upanishad Brihad-araNya Upanishad begins with Shanti Mantra (Peace Chant) which is of Advaita Nature ॐ असतरो मया सद्रमय । तमसरो मया जयरोशतरर मय । Page 345 of 619 . VIII-iii-4: Now that serene and happy being. him one should desire to understand. This (Atman) is in the heart.

who in this world. neither red colour nor oiliness. Now therefore the description (of Brahman): ‘Not this. without the vital force or mouth. unattached. and without interior or exterior. Peace.Advaita Vedanta BrihadAraNya Upanishad मकतयरोमयार अमकतश रमय । ॐ शयाननतन शयाननतन शयाननतन ॥ Om Asato Maa Sad-Gamaya | Tamaso Maa Jyotir-Gamaya | Mrtyor-Maa Amrtam Gamaya | Om Shaantih Shaantih Shaantih || Meaning: Om. Now Its name: ‘The Truth of truth’. neither savour nor odour. without knowing this Immutable. It remains as the infinite (Brahman) alone. Om ! Peace ! Peace ! Peace ! Brahman can only be described by negation II-iii-6: The form of that ‘being’ is as follows: like a cloth dyed with turmeric. He who knows it as such attains splendour like a flash of lightning. without the vocal organ or mind. Om Peace. Another Shanti Mantra Om ! That (Brahman) is infinite.Understanding Advaita . Definition of Brahman III-viii-8: He said: O Gargi. Lead us from the Darkness (of Ignorance) to the Light (of Spiritual Knowledge). neither shadow nor darkness. Because there is no other and more appropriate description than this ‘Not this’. or like grey sheep’s wool. Lead us from the Fear of Death to the Knowledge of Immortality. and It is the Truth of that. (Then) taking the infinitude of the infinite (universe). Peace. offers oblations in the Page 346 of 619 . The infinite proceeds from the infinite. without eyes or ears. neither air nor ether. It is neither gross nor minute. neither short nor long. or like a flash of lightning. this Immutable (Brahman) is that. or like a white lotus. Lead us from Unreality (of Transitory Existence) to the Reality (of Self). not this’. O Gargi. or like a tongue of fire. III-viii-10: He. non-luminous. It does not eat anything. not a measure. The vital force is truth. the knowers of Brahman say. or like the (scarlet) insect called Indragopa. nor is It eaten by anybody. and this (universe) is infinite.

versed in the AtharvaVeda. It is never known. ‘(He) transformed Himself in accordance with each form. that form of His was for the sake of making Him known. no other knower but This. O Gargi. but is the Thinker. so are all beings. II-v-19: This is that meditation on things mutually helpful which Dadhyac. O Gargi.Understanding Advaita . is a knower of Brahman. is the (Unmanifested) ether pervaded. That Brahman is without prior or posterior. But he.Advaita in Shastras fire. the perceiver of everything. performs sacrifices and undergoes austerities even for many thousand years. who departs from this world after knowing this Immutable. for to Him are yoked ten organs. but is the Hearer. all organs and all these (individual) selves fixed in this Self. Page 347 of 619 . finds all such acts but perishable. The Lord on account of Maya (notions superimposed by ignorance) is perceived as manifold. Svetashvatara or Shvetashvatara Upanishad is considered an an important and often clubbed with other 10 major Upanishads. he. This is the teaching. By this Immutable. It belongs to Krishna Yajur Veda. Atman is Brahman II-v-15: This Self. This self. who departs from this world without knowing this Immutable. all gods. Just as all the spokes are fixed in the nave and the felloe of a chariot-wheel. without interior or exterior. all worlds. It belongs to Krishna Yajur Veda. is Brahman. There is no other witness but This. already mentioned. some saying that there are 11 major upanishads. It is never thought. Perceiving this the Rishi said. no other thinker but This. Advaita in other Upanishads Svetashvatara Upanishad on Brahman as Ishwara Svetashvatara or Shvetashvatara Upanishad is considered an an important and often clubbed with other 10 major Upanishads. He is ten and thousands – many and infinite. is never seen but is the Witness. is miserable. taught the Asvins. O Gargi. no other hearer but This. is the ruler of all beings. Brahman is Witness III-viii-11: This Immutable. some saying that there are 11 major upanishads. He is the organs. and the king of all beings. but is the Knower. O Gargi. hundreds of them. nay. It is never heard.

Understanding Advaita - I-15-16: As oil in sesame seeds. naught greater or more minute than Him. He it is that protects all the worlds and controls all the various forces working therein. as fire in wood. which was stained by dust before. even so this Self is perceived in the self. as water in underground springs. By that Being the whole universe is filled. the destroyer of ignorance. then. one without a second and immovable. Those who realize this Being becomes immortal. III-1: It is the self-same One who exists alone at the time of creation and dissolution of the universe. envelops the whole universe. eternal and free from all the modifications of Prakriti. II-15: When the Yogin realizes the truth of Brahman. NirguNa Brahman III-7: Higher than this Personal Brahman is the infinite Supreme Brahman. and who. and that which is yet to be – all this is nothing but this Page 348 of 619 . realizes oneness. They who know this become immortal. III-10: That Being is far beyond this world. that assumes manifold powers and appears as the Divine Lord by virtue of His inscrutable power of Maya. shines brilliantly when cleaned. III-15: That which is. by means of truthfulness. He who. III-9: There is naught higher than or different from Him. III-12: This Self is indeed the mighty Lord. attains the goal and becomes sorrowless. he is freed from all sins. though remaining single. Knowing him to be the Lord. and which is rooted in self-knowledge and meditation – he becomes that Supreme Brahman. He guides the intellect of all beings so as to enable them to gain that extremely pure state (of Mukti). one becomes immortal. seeing the truth of Atman. knowing the Divinity as unborn. who is concealed in all beings according to their bodies. Rooted in His own glory He stands like a tree. looks again and again for this Self. so the embodied being. through the perception of the truth of Atman in this body as a self-luminous entity. is formless and free from misery. that which was. But all others have indeed to suffer misery alone. as butter in curds. He is the imperishable (internal) light that controls everything. self-control and concentration. which is all-pervading like butter contained in milk. II-14: Just as the same metal disc.

The same is called Salokya and Sarupya. Maheshvara will utter the Taraka-mantra in his right ear. which occurs when Rama was about to leave this world and return to Vaikuntha. and then realizes Him as the great Lord. Anybody even though leading a wicked life.Understanding Advaita . On dying anywhere (else) in Kashi. the great Infinite Being. IV-1: May that Divine Being. who. III-20: Subtler than even the subtlest and greater than the greatest. Sarupya and Samipya. By the grace of the Creator. he will get the Taraka-mantra and also liberation. will and imagination. He still remains the lord of immortality. without rebirth. one becomes free from sorrows and desires. and whom the expounders of Brahman declare to be eternally free from birth. not other worlds. attains Salokya. Though He grows beyond His own nature into the form of the objective universe. intellect. by worshipping my name. without eyes He sees. Dying in the sacred Brahmanala in Kashi. III-17: They realize Him as shining by the functions of all the senses yet without the senses as the lord of all. the twice-born gets nearer to me – This is called the three forms of liberation. III-19: Without hands and feet He goes fast and grasps. who created the universe and who pervades everything. and who dissolves the whole world in Himself in the end – may He endow us with good thoughts ! IV-17: This Divinity. for His own inscrutable purpose. Those who realize this become immortal. yet there is none who knows Him. being finitized by emotions. the Atman is concealed in the heart of the creature. Salokya. But the only real type is Kaivalya. though Himself colourless. He gets Sarupya with me as his sins are washed away. with mind fixed upon me. the ruler of all. Page 349 of 619 . They say He is the foremost. who is omnipresent because of His all-pervasiveness. I-i-18-23. He knows whatever is to be known. the refuge of all and the friend of all. Persevering in good conduct. III-21: I know this undecaying primeval Immanent Self of all. loving me as the Self of all. Rama: Liberation is of four kinds: Salokya etc. always dwells in the hearts of creatures. gives rise to various colours in different ways with the help of His own power. without ears He hears. Advaita in Muktika Upanishad (Muktikopanishad) Muktika Upanishad is a discource between Bhagavan Rama and Rama Bhakta Hanuman ji.Advaita in Shastras Infinite Being.

Avyakta in Akshara. Akshara in Tamas. head. There is oneness – how can there be duality – No mortality – how immortality ? Not cognisant inwardly or outwardly. beyond description. touch. water in fire. All these four kinds of Mukti will be got by worshipping Me. nor atomic. unestablished.Understanding Advaita . measurability. not open. radiance. they in subtle elements. Meditating on my eternal form as prescribed by the Teacher. ears. meditating upon the Atman which has no birth. neither knowing nor not knowing.. air in ether. study the 32 Upanishads and stop. shoreless. decay nor any thing bigger. he burned (destroyed) all creatures – earth was absorbed in water. Then there is neither existent nor non-existent. nor setting. you will reach my abode. At the end.Advaita in Muktika Upanishad (Muktikopanishad) I-i-24-25. But by what means is the Kaivalya kind of Moksha got ? The Mandukya is enough. read the 108 Upanishads. This alone is the liberation of identity (Sayujya) yielding the bliss of Brahman. mind. Prakriti in Mahat. fire in air. Source Advaita Vedanta in subAla Upanishad (cited by rAmAnuja) 1. 3. if knowledge is not got from it. or both ways – not a mass of knowledge. Without vital breath. smell. taste. 3. The man of wisdom does grow. one will surely achieve identity with me like the insects changing into the bee. If certainty is not got even then. eyes.15.4.1. Mahat in Avyakta. In the beginning. Page 350 of 619 . having no sound. nor closed. neither long.2. this was non-existent. without inside or outside. lineage. they in Prakriti. name. then study the Ten Upanishads. form. becoming Vaisvanara (fire). face. no rising. ether in sense organs. nor illuminable. smoothness. hands or feet. it neither eats nor is eaten 5. If desiring Moksha without the body. it in God. blood. short nor gross. This is the doctrine of dissolution (as given in) Vedas. I-i-26-29. Getting knowledge very soon. speech.

beyond reason and analogy.Understanding Advaita .5/31 मयाययाकयाययारशदकश नयानस्त मयायया नयानस्त भयश नशह . 8.२८) "Brahma Satyam Jagan Mithya Jivo Brahmaiva Na Aparah" . 9. Realising “I am that Brahman” one becomes the immutable Brahman.5/31 This jagat-rupi (like) prapancha is not there. beyond all proofs and causeless knowing which the wise one becomes free.m naasti mAyA nAsti bhaya. One should duly practise concentration on Om (first) through the means of its letters.Advaita in Shastras Advaita in nirAlambopaniShad ब्रह सतयश जरननमथ्यया जमवरो ब्रहवैव नयापर (शनरयालमबरोपशनषद .m naasti maya's karya (work -result).5/33 Advaita in Amrit Bindu Upanishad 7. Page 351 of 619 . without component parts. the idea of the non-entity is attained as entity. maya is not there (present) and so there is no fear . endless. (Brahman is) without doubt.m prapachcha.nirAlambopaniShada .५/३१ ida.m notthita. then meditate on Om without regard to its letters. without doubt and without taint.28) tejobindu Advaita and Ajaata vAda in tejobindu Upanishad इदश पपच्चश नयास्तयकव नरोतपन्नश नरोनतथितश जरतत . did not get created and was never there .m jagata .m naastyeva notpanna.28 (Niraalamba Upanishad . jagata etc is not there (non-existent). Finally on the realisation with this latter form of meditation on Om.५/३३ mAyAkAryAdika. That alone is Brahman.

For verily without intelligence the eye would not make any form whatsoever known. For verily without intelligence breath would not make any odour whatsoever known. Page 352 of 619 . He should say. You are this world-all. and calm. that is the sat (what is) As for the gods and the vital breaths. That ought to be constantly churned out by the churning rod of the mind. ‘My mind was elsewhere’ one says. thus it is thought of. ‘I did not cognise that odour’. The highest Truth is that (pure consciousness) which realises. nor one-who has attained liberation”. “There is neither control of the mind. This very thing has been expressed by a Rig verse: Having Yajus as her belly.. one should bring out. 20. Like the butter hidden in milk. I am that Soul of the Universe. 22. it is the Self of all and is Brahman. ‘The Real’. I am that Brahman indivisible. the Supreme Being. Thus then he speaks to him. This is expressed by the word satyam. III-7. nor am I a worshipper. 19. ‘I did not cognise that name’. nor its coming into play”. source: Advaita Vedanta in Kaushitaki Brahmana Upanishad I-6. and the many-branched Vedas as the cows. Is Brahman – thus is he to be known. Self as Truth. the Supreme Being. like fire. the Real ?’ What is other than the gods (sense-organs) and the vital breaths. In Whom reside all beings. viz. For verily without intelligence speech would not make any name whatsoever known. ‘What is that. ‘My mind was elsewhere’ one says. ‘I did not cognise that form’. The great seen consists on the Vedas. and Who resides in all beings by virtue of His being the giver of grace to all – I am that Soul of the Universe. ‘My mind was elsewhere’ one says.Understanding Advaita . the Supreme Brahman. (the intelligent one) regards Jnana as the milk. “Neither am I bound. having the Saman as his head Having the Rik as his form imperishable. It is as extensive as all this. Taking hold of the rope of knowledge.Advaita in Amrit Bindu Upanishad 10. 21. they are the tvam (the you). immutable. the Pure Consciousness resides in every being. neither am I a seeker after liberation. Of cows which are of diverse colours the milk is of the same colour.

Taste of food is not what one should seek to know. For verily without intelligence the two hands would not make any action whatsoever known. Speech is not what one should seek to know. one should know the thinker. there would be no elements of existence. one should know the doer. For verily without intelligence the tongue would not make any taste of food whatsoever known. But as of a chariot. ‘I did not cognise that action’. For verily without intelligence the body would not make known any pleasure or pain whatsoever. verily. one should know the discerner of bliss. III-8. Smell is not what one should seek to know. Form is not what one should seek to know. ‘I did not cognise the sound’. Mind is not what one should seek to know. ‘My mind was elsewhere’ one says. Sound is not what one should seek to know. ‘My mind was elsewhere’ one says. ‘My mind was elsewhere’ one says. nothing cognisable would be cognized. one should know the speaker. no form whatever would be possible. Verily if there were no elements of intelligence. Deed is not what one should seek to know. Pleasure and pain are not what one should seek to know. Bliss. delight and procreation. ‘I did not cognise that going’. one should know the goer. delight and procreation’. delight and procreation whatsoever. there would be no elements of intelligence. These ten essential elements. even so these elements of existence are fixed on the elements of intelligence. delight and procreation are not what one should seek to know. One has to win the pure knowledge of the unity of Brahman and Atman. ‘I did not cognise that taste of food’. ‘My mind was elsewhere’ one says. one should know the discerner of pleasure and pain. ‘My mind was elsewhere’ one says. one should know the hearer. are with reference to intelligence.Understanding Advaita . For verily without intelligence no thought whatever would be effected. the felly is fixed on the spokes and the spokes are fixed on the hub. Page 353 of 619 . For verily without intelligence the generative organ would not make known any bliss. Truly from either alone. Verily if there were no elements of existence. ‘I did not cognise that bliss. Going is not what one should seek to know. the elements of intelligence are fixed on the vital breath. ‘I did not cognise that pleasure and pain’. These ten intelligential elements are with reference to existence. ‘My mind was elsewhere’ one says.Advaita in Shastras For verily without intelligence the ear would not make any sound whatsoever known. And this (the Self of intelligence) is not diverse. one should know the knower of the taste of food. one should know the seer. For verily without intelligence the two feet would not make known any going whatsoever. one should know the smeller.

Understanding Advaita - Advaita Vedanta in Kaushitaki Brahmana Upanishad

This vital breath, truly, is the Self of intelligence: (it is) bliss, ageless, immortal. He does not
become greater with good action nor indeed lesser with bad action. This one truly indeed causes
him whom he wishes to lead up from this world to perform good action. This one also indeed
causes him whom he wishes to lead downwards to perform bad action. He is the protector of the
world; he is the sovereign of the world; he is the Lord of all. ‘He is myself’ – this one should know.
‘He is my Self’ – This one should know.
Note: Kaushitaki Upanishad is referred by Shri Chandrashekhar Saraswati, Shankaracharya of
Kanchi Kamkoti Peetha, in the book 'The Vedas'

Advaita Vedanta in Brahma Upanishad
The reference of Brahma-Upanishad is given in Chandogya Upanishad
1. Om ! Shaunaka, householder of fame, once asked Bhagavan Pippalada of Angira’s
family: In this body, the divine city of Brahman, installed, how do they create ? Whose
glory does this constitute ? Who is he who became all this glory ?
2. Unto him (Shaunaka) he (Pippalada) imparted the supreme Wisdom of
Brahman: That is Prana, the Atman. He constitutes the glory of the Atman, the life of
the Devas. He represents both the life and the death of the Devas. That Brahman who
shines within the divine Brahmapura (or body) as the faultless One, devoid of
manifested effects, self-effulgent, all-pervading, He (it is who) controls (the Jiva), like a
spider controlling the king of bees. Just as spiders by means of one thread project and
withdraw the web, so also the Prana, (who) retires drawing back his creation. Prana belongs to
the Nadis or subtle nerve-chords as their Devata or indwelling deity. One in dreamless sleep goes
through that state to one’s own Abode, like a falcon and the sky – just as a falcon goes (to its
nest) borne on the sky. He states: — Just as this Devadatta (in dreamless sleep) runs not away
even when struck with a stick, even so he does not also attach himself to good or evil
consequences of the life’s ordained activities; just as a child enjoys itself (spontaneously) without
motive or desiring fruit, even so this Devadatta (the subject of dreamless sleep) enjoys happiness
in that state. He knows being the Light Supreme. Desiring Light he enjoys the Light. So also he
returns by the same way to the dream-state, like a leech: just as a leech carries itself on to the
other points in front – (first) fixing upon the next point. And that state which he does not give up
for a next one is called the waking state. (He carries all these states within himself) just as a
(Vedic) deity bears the eight sacrificial cups simultaneously. It is from Him that the source of
the Vedas and the Devas hang like breasts. In this waking state particularly good and
evil obtain for the shining being (i.e. man’s Self) as ordained. This being or Self is fully
self-extended (into world-forms), he is the indwelling controller of things and beings,
he is the Bird, the Crab, the Lotus, he is the Purusha, the Prana, the destroyer, the

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Understanding Advaita - Advaita in Shastras
cause and the effect, the Brahman and the Atman, he is the Devata making everything
known. Whoever knows all this attains to the transcendent Brahman, the underlying
support, the subjective principle.
3. Now this Purusha has four seats, the navel, the heart, the throat, and the head. In these shines
forth the Brahman with four aspects: the state of wakefulness, of dream, of dreamless sleep, and
the fourth or transcendental state. In the wakeful state, He is Brahma; in the dreaming
state, He is Vishnu; in dreamless sleep He is Rudra; and the fourth state is the Supreme
Indestructible One; and He again is the Sun, the Vishnu, the Ishwara, He is the Purusha,
He the Prana, He the Jive or the animate being, He the Fire, The Ishwara, and the
Resplendent; (yea) that Brahman which is transcendent shines within all these ! In
Itself, It is devoid of mind, of ears, of hands and feet, of light. There neither are the
worlds existing nor non-existing, neither are the Vedas or the Devas or the sacrifices
existing nor non-existing, neither is the mother or father or daughter-in-law existing
nor non-existing, neither is Chandala’s son or Pulkasa’s son existing nor non-existing,
neither is the mendicant existing nor non-existing, so neither all the creatures or the
ascetics; and thus only the One Highest Brahman shines there. Within the recess of the
heart is that Akasa of consciousness – that with many openings, the aim of knowledge,
within the space of the heart – in which all this (universe outside) evolves and moves
about, in which all this is warped and woofed (as it were). (Who knows this), knows
fully all creation. There the Devas, the Rishis, the Pitris have no control, for being fully
awakened, one becomes the knower of all truth.
4. In the heart the Devas live, in the heart the Pranas are installed, in the heart exist the supreme
Prana and Light as also the immanent Cause with threefold constituents and the Mahat principle.
5. It exists within this heart, that is, in the consciousness. “Put on the sacrificial thread
which is supremely sacred, which became manifest of yore with Prajapati (the first created Being)
Himself, which embodies longevity, eminence and purity, and may it be strength and puissance to
you
!”
6. The enlightened one should discard the external thread putting it off with the sacred tuft of hair
on the head; the Supreme Brahman as the all-pervading one is the thread, and he should put this
on.
7. The Sutra (or thread) is so called because of its having pierced through and started (the
process of becoming). This Sutra verily constitutes the Supreme State. By whom this Sutra is
known, he is the Vipra (sage), he has reached beyond the Vedas.
8. By It all this (universe) is transfixed, as a collection of gems is stringed together on a thread.
The Yogi who is the knower of all Yogas and the seer of truth should put on this thread.
9. Established in the state of highest Yoga, the wise one should put off the external thread. One
who is really self-conscious must put on the thread constituted by awareness of Brahman.
10. On account of wearing this Sutra or thread, they can neither become contaminated nor
unclean, those (namely) who have this thread existing within them – those, with this sacrificial
thread of knowledge.
11. They, among men, (really) know the Sutra, they (really) wear the sacrificial thread (on
themselves), who are devoted to Jnana (the highest knowledge), who have this Jnana for their

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sacred hair-tuft, this Jnana for their sacred thread.
12. For them Jnana is the greatest purifier – Jnana, that is the best as such. Those who have this
Jnana for their tufted hair are as non-different from it as is fire from its flame. This wise one is
(really) said to be a Shikhi (or wearer of the tufted hair), while others are mere growers of hair
(on the head).
13. But those belonging to the three castes (Brahmanas, Kshatriyas and Vaisyas) who have the
right of performing Vedic works have to put on this (i.e. the common) sacred thread, as surely
this thread is ordained to be part of such works.
14. One who has the Jnana for his tufted hair, and the same for his sacred thread, has everything
about him characterised by Brahmanahood – so know the knowers of the Vedas !
15. This sacred thread (of Yajna, i.e. of the all-pervading Reality) is, again, the purification (itself)
and that which is the end-all (of Vedic works); and the wearer of this thread is the wise one – is
Yajna himself as well as the knower of Yajna.
16. The One Lord (self-effulgent) in all beings remaining hidden, all-pervading and the Self of all
beings, controlling and watching over all works (good or bad), living in all creatures and the
Witness (i.e. neither the doer of any acts nor the enjoyer), the Supreme Intelligence, the One
without a second, having no attributes.
17. The one Intelligent (active) Being among the many inactive, He who makes the many from
what is one – the wise men who find out this Self, theirs is the eternal peace, not of others.
18. Having made oneself the Arani, and the Pranava the upper Arani and rubbing them together
through the practice of meditation, see the Lord in His hidden reality.
19. As in the oil in the sesamum seed, the butter in the curd, water in the flowing waves, and fire
in the Shami wood, so is the Atman in one’s self to be discovered by one who searches for It
through truth and austere practice.
20. As the spider weaves out the web and again withdraws it, so the Jiva comes out to and goes
back again to the wakeful and dreaming states respectively.
21. The heart (i.e. the inner chamber of heart) resembles the calyx of a lotus, full of cavities and
also with its face turned downwards. Know that to be the great habitat of the whole universe.
22. Know the wakeful state to have for its centre the eyes; the dreaming state should be assigned
to the throat; the state of dreamless sleep is in the heart; and the transcendental state is in the
crown of the head.
23. From the fact of an individual holding his self by means of Prajna or spiritual understanding in
the Supreme Self, we have what is called Sandhya and Dhyana, as also the worshipping
associated with Sandhya.
24. The Sandhya by meditation is devoid of any offering of liquids and so also of any exertion of
body and speech; it is the unifying principle for all creatures, and this is really the Sandhya for
Ekadandis.
26. From which without reaching It, the speech falls back with the mind, that is the
transcendental Bliss of this embodied being, knowing which the wise one is released (from all

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bondage).
26. (And this Bliss is verily) the Self which pervades the whole universe, as the butter diffused
within the milk.
This is the Brahmopanishad, or the supreme wisdom of Brahman, in the form of a unity
of the Atman of all, founded on the spiritual discipline (Tapas) which is (nothing but)
the Vidya or science of the Atman.

Advaita Vedanta in Maha Upanishad
V-44-49. The visible cosmos of un-moving and moving things melts away like dream in a
(dreamless) sleep. The wise people have attributed, for empirical purposes, names for the
supreme Being, such as, Rita Atma, Para Brahma, Truth etc. Just as armlets etc., are
only words and meanings, not different from gold, so also is the magical illusion of the
cosmos extended by the supreme being.
The perceived being inside the visible world is called bondage, in the absence
(dissolution) of the visible, he is realized. What is called the visible is the projection
like, ‘The universe is you, and I’. The illusion of the world is spread only by the mind –
as long as it happens, this is no liberation.

Advaita Vedanta in MahAnArAyaNa Upanishad
Referred By Shri Adi Shankaracharya in his Brahmasutra Bhasya
I-2: That in which all this universe exists together and into which it dissolves. That in which all the
gods remain enjoying their respective powers – That certainly is whatever that has been in the
past
and
whatever
indeed
is
to
come
in
the
future.
This
cause
of
the universe, Prajapati, is supported by His own imperishable nature described as absolute ether.
I-3: He by whom the space between heaven and earth as well as the heaven and the earth are
enveloped. He by whom the sun burns with heat and gives light, and He whom the sages bind in
the ether of their hearts (with the string of meditation), in whom – The Imperishable One – all
creatures abide.
I-4-5: From whom the creatrix of the world, Prakriti, was born, who created in the world creatures
out of elements such as water, who entered beings consisting of herbs, quadrupeds and men as
the inner controller, who is greater than the greatest, who is one without a second, who is
imperishable, who is of unlimited forms, who is the universe, who is ancient, who remains beyond
darkness or Prakriti and who is higher than the highest – nothing else exists other than, or subtler
than, Him.

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I-6: Sages declare: That alone is right and That alone is true: That alone is the
venerable Brahman contemplated by the wise. Acts of worship and social utility also are that
Reality. That alone being the navel of the universe, sustains manifoldly the universe which arose
in the past and which springs to existence at present.
I-7: That alone is Fire: That is Air; That is Sun; That verily is Moon; That alone is shining Stars
and Ambrosia. That is Food; That is Water and He is the Lord of creatures.
I-8-9: All nimesas, kalas, muhurtas, kasthas, days, half-months, months, and seasons, were born
from the self-luminous Person. The year also was born from Him. He milked water and also these
two, the firmament and the heaven.
I-10: No person ever grasped by his understanding the upward limit of this Paramatman, nor His
limit across, nor His middle portion. His name is ‘great glory’ for no one limits His nature by
definition.
I-11: His form is not to be beheld; none whosoever beholds Him with the eye. Those
who meditate on Him with their minds undistracted and fixed in the heart know Him;
they become immortal.

Advaita Vedanta in jAbAla Upanishad
Referred By Shri Adi Shankaracharya in his Brahmasutra Bhasya
I-1. Brihaspati (the preceptor of the gods) asked (the sage) Yajnavalkya: (Which is) the
Kurukshetra, (the famous holy place that destroys sins and protects the good, (the place) where
the gods perform sacrifices and which is the abode of Brahman in all beings ? (Yajnavalkya
replied): Avimukta is the Kurukshetra, (the place) where the gods perform sacrifices to deities and
which is the abode of Brahman in all beings (i.e. the middle of the eye-brows). Hence wherever
one goes one shall think thus: This is the Kurukshetra, the place where the gods perform
sacrifices to the deities and which is the abode of Brahman in all beings. This is the spot where,
when the vital airs depart from the living person, Rudra imparts the mantra (Taraka Brahman) to
him by which, becoming immortal, he attains liberation (final beatitude). Hence one shall resort to
the Avimukta; shall not desert the Avimukta. (Brihaspati approved of the statement saying): ‘So it
is, Yajnavalkya’, verily it is so, O, revered one ! ‘It is so Yajnavalkya’.
II-1. Thereafter the sage Atri (son of the creator Brahma) asked of Yajnavalkya: ‘How am I to
realize the Self which is infinite and unmanifest ?’ (To this) Yajnavalkya replied: That Avimukta
(Lord Siva as the redeemer) is to be worshipped; the Self which is infinite and unmanifest, is
established in (i.e., is non-different from) the Avimukta (in Ishvara, possessed of attributes)’.

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I-2. ‘Which is that (place) where Avimukta is established ?’ ‘He is established in between varana
and nasi’. ‘What is (meant by) varana and what (by) nasi ?’ ‘The varana is so called as it wards off
all the faults committed by the (ten) organs (of perception and action). The nasi is so named as it
destroys all sins committed by the (ten) organs. (The place between the varana and the nasi is
the meeting place of the upper part of the nose and the centre of the eye brows). ‘Which is the
seat of that (Avimukta) ?’ ‘That, which is the (well known) juncture of the eye brows and the
nose, is the juncture of heaven (in the form of the crown of the head) and this world (in the form
at the end of the chin). The knowers of the Veda worship indeed this juncture (Samadhi) as
Sandhya (in their daily worship). That Avimukta is to be worshipped. He who knows this thus (the
true nature of the Avimukta), imparts the wisdom of the Avimukta (that the individual Self is no
other than the attributeless Brahman, to his disciples).
IV-4. ... The mantra of liberation (namely ‘Om’) is (the essence of) the three Vedas; this
he shall realize. It is Brahman and It is to be worshipped. Indeed, so it is, O revered
Yajnavalkya (said Janaka).
VI-2. Discarding all these, namely the threefold staff (of bamboo), the water pot, the sling (to
carry personal effects), the (alms-)bowl, the cloth for purifying water (tied to the staff), tuft of
hair and sacred thread in water (i.e. a reservoir) by reciting ‘Bhuh Svaha’, the Paramahamsa shall
seek the Atman.
VI-3. Possessing a form as one just born (i.e. unclad), unaffected by the pairs (of opposites, such
as heat and cold, pleasure and pain), accepting nothing (except bare sustenance), well
established in the path of the truth of Brahman, of pure mind, receiving alms into the mouth
(literally into the vessel of the belly) at the prescribed hour in order to sustain life, becoming
equanimous at gain or loss (of alms), sheltering himself, without an abode (of his own), in an
unoccupied house, a temple, a clump of (tall) grass (or a heap of straw), an anthill, the shade of a
tree, a potter’s hut, a cottage where sacred fire is kept, sandy bank of a river, a mountain thicket
or cavity, a hollow in a tree, the vicinity of a water fall or a piece of clean ground; making no
efforts (in any kind of gainful activity), free from ‘mineness’ (i.e. a sense of possessiveness), ever
meditating on Brahman, devoted to the Self, ever intent on eradication of the good and bad
karman, (the sage) finally gives up his body in the state of renunciation – (such a sage) is indeed
a Paramahamsa. Thus (ends) the Upanishad.

Advaita Vedanta in Mudgala Upanishad
(cited by rAmAnuja)
III
The single God becoming many; unborn, is born as many. The Adhvaryus worship him as Agni.
This as Yajus unites everything. The Samavedins worship as Saman. All is established in him. The

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serpents meditate on his as poison. The knowers of snake-lore as snake, gods as energy, men as
wealth, Demons as Magic, the manes as sustenance. The knowers of the superhuman as
superhuman. Gandharvas as beauty, Apsarases as perfume. He becomes whatever he is
worshipped as; so, one should think ‘I am the supreme being’ and will become that
(who knows this).
IV. ONLY BRAHMAN WITH THE THREEFOLD MISSING IS JIVA

Beyond the threefold misery, free from layers devoid of the six waves, other than the five sheaths,
unaffected by the six transformations is the Brahman. The three miseries are Adhyatmika (body
disease), Adhibhautika (robbers, wild animals etc.,) and Adhidaivika (rains etc.,). They relate to
agents, action and effect; knower, knowledge and the known; experiencer, experience and the
experienced. The six layers are skin, flesh, blood, bones, tendons and morrow. The six enemies
are lust etc. The five sheaths are those of food, vital airs, mind cognition and bliss. The six
transformations are: being, birth, growth, change, decline and destruction. The six waves are
hunger, thirst, sorrow, delusion, old age and death. The six delusions are about family, lineage,
class, caste, stations (ashrama) and forms. Through contact with the supreme spirit becomes the
Jiva – he is none other.

Advaita Vedanta in Aruni (Aruneyi) Upanishad
(Commentary by Bhaskararaya, Commentary by Lakshmidhara (Laxmidhara), dipikA by nArAyaNa
tIrtha)
3. Verily I am Brahman, the Sutra; the Sutra is Brahman for It originates (the cosmos); I myself
am the sutra because I am a man of realisation – the wise one who has realised this should give
up his triple holy thread. “I have renounced, I have renounced, I have renounced” – uttering this
thrice he should declare – “From me there is no fear (in word, thought, or deed) to any being, for
from me everything has proceeded”. Uttering the Mantra – “That art my friend, so protect me
(from cows, serpents, etc.), thou art strength and my friend, in all seen and unseen danger thou
art the Thunder of the Lord of the Universe”, etc., he should hold up high the bamboo staff and
put on the loin-cloth. He should take food as if it were medicine, aye, as if it were medicine.
Carefully guard (oh, ye all who are concerned) your chastity (in thought, word and deed), noninjury, non-acceptance of (superfluous) gifts, non-thieving and truthfulness – guard them by all
means, aye, do guard !

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Advaita Vedanta in Atma Upanishad
(dipikA by nArAyaNa tIrtha)
I-4. Next the supreme Self, the imperishable, He is to meditated on with (the help of) the Yogic
steps, breath control, withdrawal (of sense organs), fixation (of mind), contemplation and
concentration, He is to be inferred by the thinkers on the Self as like unto the seed of the Banyan
tree or a grain of millet or a hundredth part of a split hair. (Thus) is He won and not known. He is
not born, does not die, does not dry, is not wetted, not burnt, does not tremble, is not split, does
not sweat. He is beyond the gunas, is spectator, is pure, partless, alone, subtle, owning naught,
blemishless, immutable, devoid of sound, touch, colour, taste, smell, is indubitable, non-grasping,
omnipresent. He is unthinkable and invisible. He purifies the impure, the unhallowed. He acts not.
He is not subject to empirical existence.
II-1. The good named the Atman is pure, one and non-dual always, in the form of
Brahman. Brahman alone shines forth.
II-2. Even as the world with its distinctions like affirmation, negation, etc., Brahman alone shines
forth.
II-3. With distinctions like teacher and disciples (also), Brahman alone appears. From the point of
view of truth, pure Brahman alone is.
II-4. Neither knowledge nor ignorance, neither the world nor aught else (is there).
What sets empirical life afoot is the appearance of the world as real.
II-5(a). What winds up empirical life is (its) appearance as unreal.
II-5(b)-6. What discipline is required to know, ‘this is a pot’, except the adequacy of the means of
right knowledge ? Once it is given, the knowledge of the object (supervenes). The ever present
Self shines when the means of Its cognition (is present).
II-7. Neither place nor time nor purity is required. The knowledge ‘I am Devadatta’ depends on
nothing else.
II-8. Similarly, the knowledge ‘I am Brahman’ of the Knower of Brahman (is independent). Just as
the whole world by the sun, by the splendour of the Knowledge of Brahman is everything
illumined.
II-9-10(a). What can illumine the non-existent, and illusory, non-Self ? That which endows the
Vedas, Shastras, Puranas and all other beings with import – that Knower what will illumine ?

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II-10(b)-11. The child ignores hunger and bodily pain and plays with things. In the same way, the
happy Brahman-Knower delights (in himself) without the sense of ‘mine’ and ‘I’. Thus the silent
sage, alive and alone, the embodiment of desirelessness, treats the objects of desire.
II-12. Existing as the Self of all, he is ever content abiding in his Self. Free from all wealth, he
rejoices always: though companionless, he is mighty.
II-13. Though not eating, he is ever content, peerless he looks on all alike: though acting, he does
nothing: though partaking of fruit, yet, he is no experiencer thereof.
II-14-17. Living in a body, he is still disembodied; though determinate, he is omnipresent; never
is this Brahman-Knower, disembodied and ever existent, affected by the pleasant and the
unpleasant or by the good and the evil. Because it appears to be encompassed by Rahu (the
darkness), the unencompassed sun is said to be encompassed by deluded men, not knowing the
truth. Similarly, deluded folk behold the best of Brahman-Knowers, liberated from the bondage of
body, etc., as though he is embodied, since he appears to have a body. The body of the liberated
one remains like the shed Slough of the snake.
II-18. Moved a little, hither and thither, by the vital breath, (that body) is borne like a piece of
timber, up and down, by the flood waters.
II-19-20. By fate is the body borne into contexts of experiences at appropriate times. (On the
contrary) he who, giving up all migrations, both knowledge and unknowable, stays as the pure
unqualified Self, is himself the manifest Shiva. He is the best of all Brahman-Knowers. In life itself
the foremost Brahman-Knower is the ever free, he has accomplished his End.
II-21. All adjuncts having perished, being Brahman he is assimilated to the non-dual Brahman,
like a man who, with (appropriate) apparels, is an actor and without them (resumes his natural
state),
II-22(a). In the same way the best of Brahman-Knowers is always Brahman alone and none else.
II-22(b)-23. Just as space becomes space itself when the (enclosing) pot perishes, so, when
particular cognitions are dissolved, the Brahman-Knower himself becomes nothing but Brahman,
as milk poured into milk, oil into oil, and water into water become (milk, oil and water).
II-24(a). Just as, combined, they become one, so does the Atman-knowing sage in the Atman.
II-24(b). Thus disembodied liberation is the infinite status of Being.

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II-25. Having won the status of Brahman, no longer is the Yogin reborn, for his ignorance-born
bodies have all been consumed by the experimental knowledge of Being as the Self.
II-26-27(a). Because that Yogin has become Brahman, how can Brahman be reborn ? Bondage
and liberation, set up by Maya, are not real in themselves in relation to the Self, just as the
appearance and disappearance of the snake are not in relation to the stirless rope.
II-27(b). Bondage and liberation may be described as real and unreal and as due to the nescience
(concealment of truth).
II-28-29. Brahman suffers from no concealment whatsoever. It is uncovered, there being nothing
other than It (to cover It). The ideas, ‘it is’ and ‘it is not’, as regards Reality, are only ideas in the
intellect. They do not pertain to the eternal Reality. So bondage and liberation are set up by Maya
and do not pertain to the Self.
II-30. In the supreme Truth as in the sky, impartite, inactive, quiescent, flawless, unstained and
non-dual where is room for (mental) construction ?
II-31. Neither suppression nor generation, neither the bond nor the striving: neither the liberty
seeking nor the liberated – this is the metaphysical truth.

Advaita Vedanta in Sarvasara (Sarva-sara) Upanishad
(dipikA by nArAyaNa tIrtha)
1. Om. What is Bandha (bondage of the Soul) ? What is Moksha (liberation) ? What is Avidya
(nescience) ? What is Vidya (knowledge) ? What are the states of Jagrat (waking), Svapna
(dreaming) , Sushupti (Dreamless sleep), and the fourth, Turiya (Absolute) ? What are the
Annamaya, Pranamaya, Manomaya, Vijnanamaya and Anandamaya Koshas (vestures or sheaths
of the soul) ? What is the Karta (agent), what the Jiva (individual self), the Kshetrajna (knower of
the body), the Sakshi (Witness), the Kutastha, the Antaryamin (Internal Ruler) ? What is the
Pratyagatman (Inner Self), what the Paramatman (Supreme Self), the Atman, and also Maya ? —
the master of Self looks upon the body and such like things other than the Self as Itself: this
egoism is the bondage of the soul. The cessation of that (egoism) is Moksha, liberation. That
which causes that egoism is Avidya, nescience. That by which this egoism is completely turned
back is Vidya, knowledge. When the self, by means of its four and ten organs of sense beginning
with the mind and benignly influenced by the sun and the rest which appear outside, perceives
gross objects such as sound etc., then it is the Atman’s Jagrat (wakeful) state. When, even in the
absence of sound etc., (the self) not divested of desire for them, experiences, by means of the
four organs, sound and the rest in the form of desires – then it is the Atman’s state of Svapna
(dream). When the four and ten organs cease from activity, and there is the absence of
differentiated knowledge, then is the Atman’s state of Sushupti (dreamless sleep).

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2. When the essence of consciousness which manifests itself as the three states, is a
witness of the states, (but is) itself devoid of states, positive or negative, and remains
in the state of non-separation and oneness, then it is spoken of as the Turiya, the
fourth. The aggregate of the six sheaths, which are the products of food, is called the Annamayakosha, alimentary sheath. When the fourteen kinds of Vayus beginning with the Prana, are in the
alimentary sheath, then it is spoken of as the Pranamaya-kosha, vesture of the vital airs. When
the Atman united with these two sheaths performs, by means of the four organs beginning with
the mind, the functions of desire, etc., which have for their objects sound and the rest, then it
(this state) is called the Manomaya-kosha, mental sheath. When the soul shines being united with
these three sheaths, and cognisant of the differences and non-differences thereof then it is called
the Vijnanamaya-kosha, sheath of intelligence. When these four sheaths remain in their own
cause which is Knowledge (Brahman), in the same way as the latent Banyan tree remains in the
Banyan seed, then it is spoken of as the Anandamaya-kosha, causal frame of the Soul. When it
dwells in the body, as the seat of the idea of pleasure and pain, then it is the Karta, agent. The
idea of pleasure is that which pertains to wished-for objects, and the idea of pain is that which
pertains to undesirable objects. Sound, touch, sight, taste, and smell are the causes of pleasure
and pain. When the soul, conforming itself to good and bad actions, has made a link of the
present body (with its past body), and is seen to be effecting a union, a connection as it were,
with the body not yet received, then it is called the Jiva, individual soul, on account of its being
limited by Upadhis. The five groups are those beginning with the mind, those beginning with the
Prana, those beginning with the Sattva, those beginning with the will, and those beginning with
merit. The ego possessing the attributes of these five groups, does not die out without the
knowledge of the ever-attained Self. That which, owing to its proximity to the Self, appears as
imperishable and is attributed to Atman, is called the Linga-sharira (subtle body), and the “heart’s
knot”. The Consciousness which manifests itself therein is called the Kshetrajna, Knower of the
Kshetra (body).
3. He who is the cogniser of the manifestation and disappearance of the knower,
knowledge, and the knowable, but is himself devoid of such manifestation and
disappearance, and is self-luminous, is called the Sakshi, Witness. When being
perceived in an undifferentiated manner in the intelligence of all beings, from Brahma
(the Creator) down to an ant, it resides in the intelligence of all beings, then it is called
the Kutastha. When, standing as the means of realising the real nature of the Kutastha and
others, which are differentiations by virtue of possessing limiting adjuncts, the Atman manifests
itself as inter-woven in all bodies, like the thread through a string of jewels, then it is called the
Antaryamin, Internal Ruler. When the Atman shines forth – absolutely free from all limiting
adjuncts, brilliant, as a homogeneous mass of consciousness in its nature of pure Intelligence,
independent – then, it is spoken of as the Entity of “Thou” (Tvam), and as the Pratyagatman,
Inner-Self. (That which is) Satya (the Reality), Jnana (Knowledge), Ananta (the Infinite), Ananda
(Bliss), is Brahman. The Reality is the indestructible; That which, when name, space, time,
substance, and causation are destroyed, dies not, is the indestructible; and that is called Satya,
the Reality. And Jnana – that essence of Intelligence which has no beginning and no end, spoken
of as Jnana.
4. And Ananta, the Infinite, (remaining in the same manner) as (does) clay in modifications of
clay, as gold in modifications of gold, as thread in fabrics of thread, the antecedent, all-pervading
Consciousness, that is in all phenomena of creation beginning with the Unmanifested, is called the
Infinite. And Ananda, Bliss – the essence of the consciousness of happiness, the ocean of

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Understanding Advaita - Advaita in Shastras
measureless bliss, and the state of undifferentiated happiness is called Bliss. That, of which the
above fourfold nature is an indication, and which is permanent in all space, time, substance, and
causation, is called the Entity of “That” (Tat) Paramatman, Supreme Self, and Para-Brahman, or
the Highest Brahman. Distinguished from the Entity of “Thou” (when it appears to be) possessed
of attributes, as well as from the Entity of “That” (when it appears to be) possessed of attributes,
that which is all-pervading like the sky, subtle, whole by itself, pure Existence, the Entity of “Art”
(Asi). Self-luminous, is spoken of as the Atman; the Entity of “not-That”, also is spoken of as
Atman. That which is beginningless, fruitful, open to both proof and disproof, neither real nor
unreal, nor real-unreal – non-existent, when, because of the immutability of its own substratum,
the cause of change is ascertained; — existent when it is not so ascertained – (thus that) which is
undefinable, is called Maya.
5. I am neither the body nor the ten senses, Buddhi, Mind, Ego. Without Prana and mind, pure, I
am always the witness, pure consciousness, surely. I am neither the doer nor the enjoyer, only a
witness to Prakriti. By my presence body etc., function as alive, still, eternal, ever joy, pure. I am
Brahman to be known from all Vedanta, yet unknowable like sky and air. I am neither form nor
action, only Brahman.
6. I am not body; birth, death do not come to me. I am not Prana – have no hunger and thirst; I
am not mind – have no grief or delusion. I am not the doer – have no bondage or release.

Advaita Vedanta in Paramhansa Upanishad
(dipikA by nArAyaNa tIrtha)
1. “What is the path of the Paramahamsa Yogis, and what are their duties ?” – was the question
Narada asked on approaching the Lord Brahma (the Creator). To him the Lord replied: The path
of the Paramahamsas that you ask of is accessible with the greatest difficulty by
people; they have not many exponents, and it is enough if there be one such. Verily,
such a one rests in the ever-pure Brahman; he is verily the Brahman inculcated in the
Vedas – this is what the knowers of Truth hold; he is the great one, for he rests his
whole mind always in Me; and I, too, for that reason, reside in him. Having renounced his
sons, friends, wife, and relations, etc., and having done away with the Shikha, the holy thread,
the study of the Vedas, and all works, as well as this universe, he should use the Kaupina, the
staff, and just enough clothes, etc., for the bare maintenance of his body, and for the good of all.
And that is not final. If it is asked what this final is, it is as follows:
2. The Paramahamsa carries neither the staff, nor the hair-tuft, nor the holy thread nor any
covering. He feels neither cold, nor heat, neither happiness nor misery, neither honour, nor
contempt etc. It is meet that he should be beyond the reach of the six billows of this world-ocean.
Having given up all thought of calumny, conceit, jealousy, ostentation, arrogance, attachment or
antipathy to objects, joy and sorrow, lust, anger, covetousness, self-delusion, elation, envy,
egoism, and the like, he regards his body as a corpse, as he has thoroughly destroyed the bodyidea. Being eternally free from the cause of doubt, and of misconceived and false
knowledge, realising the Eternal Brahman, he lives in that himself, with the
consciousness “I myself am He, I am That which is ever calm, immutable, undivided, of
the essence of knowledge-bliss, That alone is my real nature.” That (Jnana) alone is his

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all pervasive. 3. he makes himself a killer of the Atman. immortal. and is devoid of Jnana. and who holds the staff of knowledge. Page 366 of 619 . the great support of the universe. (the reply is) yes. He who carries a mere wooden staff. the distinction between them is wholly gone too. and eternal – that is thyself. and has no longing for happiness. free from beginning middle and end. unmanifested. all pervasive. many-formed (in association with thoughts). That which is the Supreme Brahman. because if he takes gold with longing. That (Jnana) alone is his holy thread. praises none – the Sannyasin is ever of independent will. For him there is no invocation to God.” 16. pure. no Mantra. many-formed (in association with thoughts). tranquil. he sees neither duality nor does he perceive unity. who takes to all sorts of sense-objects.“Brahman which is the source of all. no worship. nor touch nor take gold. (and consequently) he is not agitated by grief. tranquil. He who relinquishing all desires has his supreme rest in the One without a second. free from beginning middle and end. (consequently) he neither hates nor is elated. beyond thoughts. no meditation. Because if the Sannyasin looks at gold with longing. non-dual.“Brahman which is the source of all. Knowing the distinction between these two. The outgoing tendency of all the sense-organs subsides in him who rests in the Atman alone. with longing. or accept wealth. The quarters are his clothing.” 6 . 4.Understanding Advaita . Realising “I am that Brahman who is the One Infinite Knowledge-Bliss” he reaches the end of his desires. auspicious. goes to horrible hells known as the Maharauravas. to him is neither the phenomenal world nor That which is unknowable. immortal. blames none. and he is everywhere unattached in good or evil. Through the knowledge of the unity of the Jivatman with the Paramatman. subtler than the subtle. beyond thoughts. The Sannyasin has no home. Advaita Vedanta in Kaivalya Upanishad (cited by Adi Sankara. there is harm in doing so. he offers no oblation to the Pitris (manes). renunciation of attachment to sensepleasures comes. he prostrates himself before none. and thou art That. free from sorrow. formless and wonderful and which is consciousness and ananda. he should not have a body of disciples. All desires of the mind cease to exist. no valedictory ceremony to him. is the true Ekadandi. he makes himself a killer of Brahman. He sees neither “I” nor ‘thou”. unmanifested. auspicious. This (unification) is his Sandhya ceremony. verily he reaches the end of his desires. he becomes degraded into a Chandala.Advaita Vedanta in Paramhansa Upanishad Shikha. free from sorrow. If it be asked what harm there is in accepting them. He should not accept anything made of gold or the like. vidyAraNya svAmI. he becomes a Paramahamsa. the soul of all. formless and wonderful and which is consciousness and ananda. pure. Therefore. because if the Sannyasin touches gold with longing. dipikA by nArAyaNa tIrtha) 6 . non-dual. the Sannyasin must neither look at. nor all this.

etc. I am the manifold universe. as its status is no better than that of an outcast. Distinct from the. in the three abodes – different from them all am I. gossip. Vishnu. Knowing oneself to be the subject. meditate on the Self in the self. and the enjoyment. the Pure Consciousness. there is nothing. that one is the Self of all beings. Rejecting conformity with the world. 5. etc. such as the states of wakefulness. “That which manifests the phenomena.. reject the idea of the Self being other than the subject. 2.Advaita in Shastras 17. Without arms and legs am I. 21. other than this Self. I am likewise the greatest of all. The mind of the Yogin perishes as he stays without intermission in the Self alone. of unthinkable power. the enjoyer. I am always the Intelligence. and experience. O sage ! 10. the Purusha and the Ruler. the witness of intellect and its operations. Page 367 of 619 . Indra and Shiva. I am that Brahman” – realising thus one is liberated from all bonds. 7. I am minuter than the minute. O sinless one ! 19. see one's Self existing as the immutable plenum. Dissolve the self in the supreme Self as the pot-space is dissolved in infinite space. I am that Brahman. Superimposition is the thought. and the All-good. the Eternal Good. and becoming Brahman. and I hear without ears. I see without eyes. knowing. 19. Casting the body far aside. and am different from all. In me alone is everything born. which are all other than the Self. the secondless. find fulfillment. Advaita Vedanta in AdhyAtma Upanishad 1. One's Self is Brahma. as the Infinite be silent for ever. 'I am and mine are the body. Shruti. remove superimposition on the Self. the Witness. and the Shastras. 6. the offspring of parental exudations. and self-forgetfulness. Knowing 'I am that Brahman' in which this world appearance (exists) like a city reflected in a mirror. dream and profound sleep. I am the Ancient One. 20. I am the Effulgent One. 3. the wise man should repudiate it. this entire world is one's Self. I know all. through reasoning.Understanding Advaita . in me does everything rest. seek fulfillment. 20. verbal exchanges. None can know me. Through devotion to Brahman. All things from Brahma down to clumps of grass are nothing but unreal adjuncts. the body. identifying the 'I' with that (the subject). the senses. 18. 4.. then. and in me is everything dissolved. What constitute the enjoyable. Without granting for a moment even a toe-hold for sleep.

only Brahman exists as the basis of the world. purity. there the person attains immortality – Om Namah. god and soul. without old age and decay. beginningless. I am the expansive Bliss. unborn. like sugar pervaded by the taste of the sugarcane. so even a little knowledge destroys big ignorance. I am the witness. kula and gotra. I am subtle without any attributes. getting all desires in the other world becomes immortal.. attractive to all the worlds. desire etc. so also for an ignorant person there is darkness in Brahman . Dullness.Understanding Advaita . beyond reason and action. Even a small lamp can remove big darkness. reality unbounded. without positive and negative rules. Just as Amrita. departs from this world with this knowledge. Page 368 of 619 . I am like a rich-man not desiring poverty. exerting in my greatness. I am without three qualities. He. Where there is always light and value. the ocean of liberation. In the middle of the heart-lotus It (Brahman) exists with knowledge as the eye. Hunger. belong only to the Karana-deha. from the bubble to the wave. so has the difference between world. pure knowledge. thirst. Just as to an owl the sun is dark. auspicious. Even then Bondage and Liberation are experienced. my ego has gone down. faultless. the changeless consciousness. These belong to the gross body. pure reality. I have ascertained the highest Truth. etc. with discrimination. All the three worlds. therefore the world does not exist. ever shining. I have no parts. I am the inner-self. A wise person abandons poison favouring Amrita. I have no bondage nor liberation. from Brahma to the smallest worm are imagined in me. no Guru. Ignorance has run away somewhere – I have no doership nor duty. I have gone beyond Maya – let life go away or let the mind be attacked – I have no misery as I am filled with joy. The world has gone away that appears to be real like serpent and rope. blindness. I am endless knowledge. the world. The Maya has gone away from me. not to me different from it. no Shastra. so also the spirit is not destroyed with the body. I know myself. knowledge are established in Brahman. I have no desire for things of the world. I am to be known by Agamas. opposing sides. In the ocean there are many things. I do not touch the defects of Inertia.Advaita Vedanta in Atma Bodh Upanishad Advaita Vedanta in Atma Bodh Upanishad I-6-8. indivisible. sole. independent. Just as there is no serpent in the rope at any time. but the ocean does not desire these – So also. belong to the Lingadeha only. I am the pure vision. the seeker. I am pervaded by Bliss. The sun which makes the pot shine is not destroyed along with the pot. When vision is blocked by clouds he thinks there is no sun. II-1-10.. all worlds exists in my belly. I am pure joy. different from poison is not affected by its defects. I know myself without a second. there is no world in me.

Understanding Advaita . Advaita Vedanta in NirvANa Upanishad 53. pride. How did that which is the seat of Paramatman. shame.H. greed. A bubble arose in it as in water and in this (bubble) arose Ahankara. giddiness. ambition. 11. swoon. In truth. thirst. Know that to be Jiva which is associated with happiness and misery and hence is the term Jiva applied to Paramatman which is pure. delusion. This is the secret wisdom. death. 12-13. That Jiva is considered to be the Kevala (alone) which is freed from the stains of passion. Sri Abhinava Vidyateertha Mahaswami) 68. They are not real – who knows this. grief and gladness. is eternal and above the state of all existing things and is of the form of wisdom and without stains attain the state of Jiva ? 10. the supreme God – These notions are to Me imputed. fright. lust. heart-burning.Advaita in Shastras Advaita Vedanta in SarasvatI hradaya Upanishad (accepted by advaitins. referred by H. To it arose a ball (of body) made of the five (elements) and bound by Dhatus. birth. When the reality of Brahman shines in the self there is the annihilation of the phenomenal world which is enveloped by the power of Shiva (Maya). fear. subtle and gross bodies. anger. hunger. is free – doubt is there none. A finite soul. Advaita Vedanta in Yog Tatva Upanishad 9. Page 369 of 619 . miserliness. similarly the burning of the existence or non-existence of the aggregate of the causal.

google. while attributeless Brahman is glorified at other places.Understanding Advaita .com/site/advaitaenquiry/#trad scroll down to 'The Upanishads' .webs. the more you will find the description and glories of both Saguna and Nirguna Brahman. starting from "Amritabindu Upanishad. After carefully studying shastras. you touch whole person. An insult to National Flag is an insult to country.vedantaadvaita. verses 12-15:" Conclusion The more you dig into shastras. Just like by touching any one part of body. a small piece of cloth represents entire country.e. God with attributes represents Nirguna brahman just like national flag.htm Please visit this link https://sites. Shastras teach us the unity of both.External Links External Links Verses and incidents from Chandogya Upanishad. 537 k) Also read interpreting upanishads for further details Another link which has lots of verses from many upanishads is http://akwri. so by having darshan of God Ishwara (Saguna Brahman). you are actually touching Nirguna Brahman.org/AdvaitaVedanta_3. click on 'From the Upanishads' (279 pages. but we humans fight over trivial differences. Shvetashvatara Upanishad and Aitareya Upanishad For more scriptural evidances.com/G102Adv. i. one can come to only conclusion that God is both with form and formless and that Saguna and Nirguna Brahman are not different from each other. At some places Ishwara is glorified. shrutis (upanishads) and Smrutis (Gitas).htm You will need to scroll down until you see verses from Upanishads. Mundaka Upanishad. which in reality Page 370 of 619 . please refer: http://www.

diligently. I felt that I am sinking and these thoughts eat up time in meditation. If someone believes that Krishna is the greatest. time is will wait for anyone. then so be it. Let us not waste more time in reading shastras to collect more proofs with an intention to wage a war.Self Realization. now I am relieved and can meditate freely without disturbance. now I am 31). Aum Indiaspirituality Miscellaneous: A request to respected readers Earlier. Param Gurus. sincerely and regularly make attempts for our salvation with full faith and with total surrender. May we all move beyond vaada-vivaada into the realm of truth is my humble prayer. Let's read. Let us advaitins keep thinking on brahman. but for the very sake of our beloved Bhagavan. Not for our sake. My koti-koti pranams and prostrations to Ishwara.Advaita in Shastras are not present. devotees and seekers of truth. I took time to search to prove something or to refute something. which is a saara (essence) of Upanishads. The winner of debate is only one EGO. let us selflessly. My request is that please do not waste time in refuting or arguing. It will only increase ego. which is not a good sign. mainly from Gita.Understanding Advaita . Days are passing very fast. But recently. Had somebody attacked me. let him spend more and more time with him. unconditional surrender is my humble prayer. Let not this very purpose of getting birth in human body be defeated. the destination for which we have been given a rare human birth. Lets make a proper use of invaluable time and dedicate our selves to the first and the foremost duty after getting human body . understand. it hurts. to all disciples. Ultimately. A Devotee of devotee. So I have with evidence from Shastras. You deserve Self Realization. You deserve to be free from cycle of births & deaths and attain Moksha. Time is very short. I do not want others to spend time in neutralizing their mind. Yesterday will not return. as after years of practice (I started when I was 18. After writing all these. who have decided and declared by giving us birth in human body that . digest and apply them in day-2-day life and in meditation and attain moksha. It will be the defeat of our beloved Lord. I would not have bothered or would have quickly come out of it the next day. I am the loser. I have always studied shastras for my personal progress.You deserve to be one with me. Brahman. The last thoughts are the first thoughts in meditation. But since it attacks the very philosophy that I practice with full devotion. So the future is in our hands. If you find inconsistencies in various Page 371 of 619 .

It can also be defined as one which is not present everywhere at all times. अननय = अ + अनय ananya = a + anya Page 372 of 619 . some translate as you fool. Just ignore it. another word is ananya (अननय). specially the ones which are available on net sucks. who was not a vaishnav or maybe even not a hindu.Understanding Advaita .A request to respected readers puranas and contradicting views. dream world. please ignore them. water in desert. Waking state is true and real only in waking state and not when you are in sleep and deep sleep.g. not present at all times (like horn of rabbit) mithya = illusion. present at all times asatya = false. one which is not true. A request to Indians Please read in your mother tongue or in indian languages. For personal progress. temporary. there is no need to destroy. make your line bigger than first one. Purely for explanation: Srimad Bhagavad has 22 / 24 avatars. which appears in Gita. some as mithyaa satya = true. All you have to do is. All paths are created by God to cover men of different prakruti. It is not needed for personal spiritual growth. Probably. I do not know where to fit 'unreal'.g. All are right in their place. without touching the first line. Many times english translations. my english is very weak :) In Bhaja Govindam. there is a word mudha (मभढ) used Mudha is often translated as fool. or walk over other lines to make you line superior. It has buddha. e. but is experienced like (sea-shell as silver). The actual meaning of Mudha is the one whose consciousness is strongly embedded in physical body. It has Balrama but not Laxman. you rascal. delete. e. Some take Unreal as asatya.

an example of "nahi ninda nyaya". though the person representing may not be authentic.. which have indepth meaning..(Padi konda keerthi. I do not intend to hurt any faith or belief system. Bhagavan (Ishwara) is endowed with 6 upadhis.Understanding Advaita .) source Page 373 of 619 . Everything was written from right spirituality with positive and calm mind. Tarka Sastra (science of dialectics. almost all contradictions can be neutralized. Srimath Ramayanam is considered most authentic by our Poorvacharyas and only out of 'Nahi Ninda Nyaya' Srimath Ramayana was compared against Trivaimozhi in Acharya Hrudayam by Sri Azagiya Perumal Nayanar. however. logic and reasoning) proposes “nahi ninda nyay” to support one’s theory. The underlying idea is that a person who worships his chosen god has unflinching faith in him and becomes totally devoted to him.Advaita in Shastras anya means different So ananya means not different Words like 'Supreme personality of Godhead' and 'past times of Krishna' do not do justice to the words Bhagavan and Lila. In Ramanuja Noortrandhadi. Such exclusive devotion is called "ananyabhakti". but that doesn’t mean that the other view is flawed. Glorify your view. so my views are personal views. Srimad Ramayana was considered even more authentic. even Ramanujas also at times adopt this nyaya Some quotes from Ramanujas. Ramayanam ennum. is not to regard other devatas as inferior to one's own chosen deity. You mentioned about Simad Ramayana and Sri Ramanuja. A Humble Request: Adopt Nahi Ninda Nyaya Paramacharya asks us to adopt Nani Ninda Nyaya The purpose of exalting a particular deity over the another is not to depreciate the latter. Please accept my apologies if I unintentionally did it. it reflects the peace loving nature adn wish to neutralize contradictions and doubts. With this nyaya. I am not an authority on spirituality. It is mentioned that Sri Ramanuja took to his heart the inner meanings of Srimath Ramayana. Sri Pillai Lokacharya consisred "Srimad Ramayana" and Mahabharatha" as more authentic than Puranas and between the 2. Further. The idea here.

O Lokacharya who is best amongst acharyas.A Humble Request: Adopt Nahi Ninda Nyaya Lokacharya Panchasat Shloka 33 tvayi vilasati ra~Nge sheShatalpena pumsA jagati guruvara shrIdR^iShTipUrAbhiShikte | kathamiva bhuvanArya tvAm vinAnyam bhajante sati dinakarabimbe ke pradIpam vahanti || Meaning: bhuvanArya guruvara . Azhvar is called "vakuLa bhUShaNa bhAskara". Thirumangai Azhvar is called "loka divAkara".When you are shining ra~Nge . Desikan says that with this Sun present. tvAm vinA . Ramanuja is called "rAmAnuja divAkara:". Page 374 of 619 .When Sunlight is there ke pradIpam vahanti . why seek anyone else? Vedanta Desikan Thiruvadigale Sharanam Pillai Lokacharyar Thiruvadigale Sharanam Azhvar Emberumanar Jeeyar Thiruvadigale Sharanam source Sri Parasara Bhatta used to say that if one must seek refuge of our Lord. shrIdR^iShTipUra abhiShikte . Again. just as the Sun removes the external darkness.leaving you kathamiva (janA:) bhajante . they were born and removed the internal darkness.of the Lord who rests on the bed of Adisesha.in Srirangam.how will (people) seek anyam . tvayi vilasati .will anyone carry a lamp? Vyakhyana Saram: In this shloka.another? dinakarabimbe sati . our Azhvars and Acharyas have been called the Sun. Desikan states that Pillai Lokacharyar is like a Sun compared to others. Vamana took over the three worlds by stratagem of showing tiny feet and then growing to gigantic proportions.Varaha is the most perfect choice. because. Based on the "nahi ninda nyaya" (not denigrating others) he is reported to have said: Matsya avathara is sea bound so it cant extricate us from the sea of samsara. among the dasavathara. Nrisimha is different above and below the neck so not to be resorted to. Koorma is itself pushed down into the sea by a mountain.washed by the merciful flood from the eyes sheShatalpena pumsA . In our sampradhayam. but to praise Lokacharyar ("nahi nindA nyAya"). this is not to put down other acharyas.Understanding Advaita .

and take him to the highest abode. offering pure flowers. Rama(Bhattar's favourite in fact!) lost His wife for ten months. devotee.Understanding Advaita . is the one to be resorted to. She repeated it to us when She took birth as Periazhwar's daughter. pay obeisance. source 1. We haven't seen Kalki yet." It was this very Varaha who taught the easiest way to attain Him to Bhudevi. So Varaha. Dr..S. vayinaal padi manthinaal chinthithu pozha piyaiyum pukuthurvan ninavaiyum thiyinil thoosaakum ".. Similarly He will extricate us from the "bheemabhavaarnavodare" the belly of the deep and dangerous ocean of existence. I will remember my bhakta. His wife Andal says. Sri Ambujavalli sametha Sri Bhoovarahaswamy Parabrahmane namo namah. source 2 Let us all live in peace and harmony adopting Nahi Ninda Nyaya Hari OM Page 375 of 619 . "Ye men if you realise and remember with all your humors in harmony. Krishna.Sundar Rajan MS ortho Trichy 22 Sep 2010. Balarama was too fond of drinking. then when death is iminent and you are like wood and stone. who without any shame(manam illa panri) took on the form of a boar and jumped into the dirty sludge and brought out Bhuma devi. Varaha charma sloka Stiththe manasi suswasthe sharire sathiyo narah. was always lying. It must be remembered that it was Varaha Perumal who gave the first guarantee that He would safely steer the prapanna to safety.Advaita in Shastras Parasurama was rage personified. the past transgressions and those that still stand will disappear like cotton in a fire. If we come sanctfied. "Thoozhomai vandhu toomalar thoovi thozhudu. paramapada. that I am the Cosmos and Unborn when you are "mens sana in corpore sana". sing with our mouths and think in our minds.

that is endless bliss and that is secondless. and the many-branched Vedas as the cows. Page 376 of 619 . Everything else is the destroyer of happiness. the Pure Consciousness resides in every being. that is described by the word Kala (time).Understanding Advaita . Of cows which are of diverse colours the milk is of the same colour. 20. whereas the knowers of Brahman have it (silence) but without words. (the intelligent one) regards Jnana as the milk. It is ‘That’ which is (really) called silence and which is naturally understood (as such). source Tejo Bindu Upanishad 22. There is silence in children. This page also contains personal notes on various advaita topic which are not connected to each other. The illusion of Brahma and all other beings takes place within one twinkling (of His eye). 24-25. Like the butter hidden in milk. Amrit Bindu Upanishad 19. Quotes from SAstra-s Quotes from SAstra-s. That should be known as Asana (posture). in which one has with ease and without fatigue (uninterrupted) meditation of Brahman. but with words (latent). That ought to be constantly churned out by the churning rod of the mind.Random Quotes and Thoughts Random Quotes and Thoughts A Collection of Interesting Quotes for personal references and connecting shastras.

Internal and External 3. The wearing of externally visible tuft and sacred thread (is necessary) for the householders engaged in rituals.6 One’s present status of material pleasure. then.Understanding Advaita . peace is the fruit of withdrawal. Dissolve the self in the supreme Self as the pot-space is dissolved in infinite space. even for a moment. Distinct from the. both externally and internally. again. O sage ! 15. it is the union with reality inwardly. see one's Self existing as the immutable plenum. Yoga Chudamani Upanishad explains OM / AUM and Brahman (Part of the SamaVeda) Page 377 of 619 . Then to this realized person reality (i.e. The characteristic of the inward sacred thread is not clearly visible like external thread. Of detachment the fruit is knowledge: of knowledge the fruit is withdrawal. To the Brahmana desirous of liberation is (allowed) the state of the inward tuft and sacred thread.1. Experience of Self as bliss leads to peace. Similarly. although by executing pious activities one will be elevated to a higher status in the next life. Just as a pulled-up water-reed stays not still. so does Maya (ceaselessly) envelop even a wise man if he averts his face (from the Truth). will eventually be vanquished by time.Random Quotes and Thoughts AdhyAtma Upanishad 7. the result of one’s previous work. 28. (Refer Vivek Chudamani) 27. Para Brahma Upanishad explains inner meaning of sacred thread Upnayana Brahmin wearing sacred Thread . Chandogya Upanishad 8. All things from Brahma down to clumps of grass are nothing but unreal adjuncts. that future situation will also be vanquished. as the Infinite be silent for ever. Upon realizing the Self that is impartite bliss as one's own essence (there follows) the savoring of the timeless bliss that is the Self. true wisdom) constitutes the inner tuft and sacred thread. 19.

They are thus with three different properties. men and those in between them. Those purushas who reside in our body and control these states are Viswa. Pranava is the Para Brahma (ultimate god). These five elements are ruled by the five Godheads viz. the five body airs and the micro aspect of mind and intellect are called Linga sareera. From him arose those things which do not move. downward looking. things related to wisdom. the five body airs (prana. decision making power and the feeling of self and are called macro body (Sthoola sareeram). which is one and only one. In case of men. sleep and Thuriya (exalted spiritual state). Rudra also came out of it. Thus all people have three bodies. intellect. 74 The letter Aa exists in the egg state as Viswa and Pinda state as Virat Purusha. Vishnu and Rudra would do the job of creation. which exists in things of past. Vishnu the one who upkeeps and Lord Rudra. Pranava would be upward looking and among ignorant people Pranava would be looking downward. The letter Uu has Sathvika qualities and its form is that of white Vishnu. the destroyer. three worlds. which is without stains. From that Para Brahman emerges Para Shakthi (the female aspect). Thus Pranava shines. which is full of wisdom. Rudra. which does not have beginning or end. is that which exists. three Vedas. 72 The Atma which is of the form of “Om”. The Letter Uu exists as Thaijasa and Hiranya Garbha in the micro state. the organs of action. That is the soul which is self resplendent. The organs of wisdom.1 Among devas Brahma arose first. when you are dreaming the letter Uu exists in the neck of all beings and the letter Ma exists in the heart of all beings when they are asleep. Vishnu and Brahma. apana etc) are taught by the macro portion of mind. Easwara. Viswa will always have macro experiences. 73 In the three letters Aa. There are four states of the body viz wakeful state. the body is the unified form of Pancha Boothas (five elements). At all other times it would be pretty and downward face. Thaijasa. (jnanendriyas).Yoga Chudamani Upanishad explains OM / AUM and Brahman Para Brahman is Om. When you are awake. From fire arose water and from water arose the earth. The letter Ma exists as the causal state and as Pragna.Understanding Advaita . Brahma took birth from Pranava. Among them Brahma. From that soul arose the ether. Sadasiva. the letter Aa exists in the eyes of all beings. 72. upkeep and destruction. The organs of wisdom. Brahma became the creator. those activities related to wisdom. Different from that is Thaijasa who has micro experiences. Brahma is Rajasic. the organs of action (karmendriyas). 75-78 Page 378 of 619 . Uu and Ma. From ether arose wind. which cannot be described. which is clean. Vishnu also came out of it. Pragna has pleasant experiences. three letters and three sounds shine. Pragna and Atma. dream. three characteristics. will be in all beings and at the time of passion. which does not have any draw backs. Vishnu merges with letter Uu and Rudra merges with the letter Ma. Brahma merges with the letter Aa. Among them from Brahma arose worlds. From wind arose fire. The letter Aa has Rajasa qualities is red and its form is that of Lord Brahma. Athma is a witness to all these. Among those who arose first. The body has three types of properties. which is thuriya. The letter Ma has Thamasic qualities and its form is that of black Rudra. present and future and which will never get divided at any time. Vishnu Sathvic and Rudra Thamasic. In people with wisdom. devas.

83 The living being is tied up by his organs but Paramatma is not so tied. shines in the middle of the two eyes. 103 source Page 379 of 619 . 80 That peak would be lit so brilliantly. Sun and fire reside.“desire” which is the power of Rudra and “wisdom” which is the power of Vishnu. 86 Because Om is the ethereal light. It has been decided that it is the word “Twam (you)” in the famous Vedic saying. The one who knows that. is that Atma in whose aspects stand “work” which is the power of Brahma. Its peak is Brahman.Random Quotes and Thoughts Pranava exists like this. is considered as one who knows Vedas.Understanding Advaita . We have to meditate that the letter “Sa” as the soul traveling between birth and death and the letter “Ha” as the stable God. it has to be pronounced by words. The great savants find it out using their sharp intellect. 87 The one who goes on chanting Pranava whether he is clean or unclean will not be attached to the sins he does. 81 The “Hamsa (swan) mantra”. 82 It has been decided that the letter “Ha” which is the Lord of all universe is the word “Tat (that)” in the above Vedic saying. The letter Sa is known as Kechari which means “that which travels in the sky”. The one who knows this knows the Vedas. 79 The sound Pranava is continuous like the flow of oil. that it cannot be described by words. it grows upwards in case of wise people. practiced by the body and meditated upon by the mind.] Twelve repetitions of “Om” which is called is a pooraka followed by sixteen repetitions of “Om” which is called is the Kumbhaka and then ten repetitions of “Om” which is called Rechaka. 84 The ethereal light which is “om” is that Athma in whose aspects stand the three worlds Bhu. similar to the lotus leaf which never gets wet. and like the long sound of the bell. 88 [Slokas 89-102 are not available. “Tat Tvam Asi (You are That)”. In the anahatha sound form. 85 The ethereal light which is “Om”. Bhuva and Suva and also the place where three gods moon. is called Pranayama. The living being is egoistic and the soul is not tied by egoism and is independent.

Brahman is the universe. The universe is a myth. Even after knowing it. What does it signify? The universe is conceived to be apart from Brahman and that perception is wrong. The phenomena are real as the self and are myths apart from Page 380 of 619 . Another way to understand Adi Shankara Sri Ramana Maharshi .g.Yoga Chudamani Upanishad explains OM / AUM and Brahman Random thoughts Personal notes. yet to whom does it appear. He does not stop at the second statement but continues to supplement it with the third. The antagonists point to his illustration of rajju sarpa (rope snake). This is unconditioned superimposition.Understanding Advaita . also into consideration. will the world appear in the absence of the congnising self? Therefore the self is the reality. How it is so? Maharshi: The tantrikas and others of the kind condemn Sri Shankara's philosophy as maya vada without understanding him aright. e. Brahman is real. 1. What does he say? He says. But they should take the unconditioned superimposition marumarichika or mrigatrishna(Water of mirage).Talk 315 One of the attendants asked: Sri Bhagavan has said:'Reality and myth are both the same'. If the world appears. 2. Sri Shankara must be understood in the light of both the illustrations. The world is a myth. What is your reply? You must say the self. If not. After the truth of the rope is known. That is his conclusion. It must be known to be Brahman and not apart. The mirage does not disappear even after knowing to be a mirage. the illussion of snake is removed once for all. he asks. The vision is there but the man does not run to it for water. it continues to appear. 3.

..Random Quotes and Thoughts the self.. the thing must ever be real and not real for a short time and unreal at other times.. say? They say that the phenomena are real because they are part of the reality in which they appear. the phenomenon of wate in mirage is purely illusory because that water cannot be used for any purpose.. do karma with SAxI bhAva 2.' http://groups. They appear real and are yet illusory. etc all require our imagination and creativity. The dream water quenches dream thirst. What is not continuous cannot be real. This conversation proves the saying 'Only a jnani can understand another jnani.Understanding Advaita .. The antagonists continue: With the conditioned as well as the unconditioned illusions considered.. do karma for Isvara. then it is ok. If things are done spontaneously without planning. what do the tantriks etc. Take a dream for example. Are not these two statements the same? That is what i meant by reality and falsehood being one and the same.. Skilful in action would mean 1. Now. The dream creations are purposesful: They serve the dream-purpose. If real.com/group/advaitin/message/31951 Notes on karma As I understand. to create or conceive a new idea --> mind becomes active. Since it is you who is creating. Whereas the phenomenon of the world is different. apart from the underlying reality. Similarly the universe cannot be real of itself-that is to say. Initiative means to think of something. Hence this type of karma becomes kAmya karma.. Page 381 of 619 . what makes difference is the initiative to start a new work and not the work itself.... it means the karma done is sakAma. How then does the latter stand on a par with the former? A phenomenon cannot be a reality simply because it serves a purpose or purposes. for it is purposeful. The dream creation is however contradicted in the other two states. So it is with magical creations. but creative thinking like a web designer does nor an engineer designing a new mechanical part for a machine.yahoo.

Page 382 of 619 . etc. But each time the bounce reduces until ball becomes still. as human beings. until we are able to remain calm. What matters is our planning and if things do not work according to our plan. So we move from sakAma karma to niSkAma karma.r. ISvara sruShTi is pruthvI. It is like hitting your axe on your own leg. tArA. It is intention or motive behind any karma that is important and not the karma itself. The problem begins (from advaita POV). A ball when dropped from a height does not become motionless. Hence creating new work is not advised. atleast mental. what makes one attached to the fruits is the ichchA. With constant practice. graha. What matters is our own initiation. then we get upset and analysis starts. etc. Earning for survival is ok and should not be taken as hindrance. etc. but bounces back upwards. The goal is life decides our direction and also the type and direction of sadhana. Hence we should not compare them with karma that we do to fulfill our desire like earning more and more money and keep satisfying demands. an observer cannot act. Mind does not hanker for any sense object or for any person. Moksha is the first thing that is needed. niSkama karma means that you are doing karma without any fruits or with SAkxI bhAva. bonds with objects and persons. moha. When one is in SAxI bhAva. In short anything that strengthens jIva bhAva is to be avoided as much as possible. one can achieve success. etc.Notes on karma I am more tilted towards SAxi bhAva. ASA. some say think that all thoughts like creativity also comes from ISvara. parvata.t mind). Skilful is not to be taken in literal sense that we refer to an art of doing a particular work. These things and acts necessary for survival of body do not disturb. we must try to apply as much as possible. nadI (river). In case of surrendering work to ISvara. desires. Routine karmas like eating. etc do not hinder in meditation. Sri vidyAraNya svAmI in PanchadaSI (dhyAnadIpa prakaraNa) and Sri Ramakrishna both give an example of a women who does all the work in house sincerely. karma is jaDa. niSkAma karma and akarma. which is called as jIva sruShTi. Advaita begins with renunciation of actions. as karma is (comparatively) jaDa (w. Here there is no creativity. Mind is peaceful. You just do the work. For practical application. Both cannot be done at a time. krodha. hetu. ISvara srushTi helps us. So repetition of any karma (due to rAga) and criticizing and staying away. then one is witness. naxatra. In all this our ego swells like balloon. sleeping. but her mind is always longing for her lover. bath. Later this bhAva gets strong. failure analysis (due to dveSa) gives rise to kAma.Understanding Advaita .

while aGYAnI. so as to make meditation continuous (AjyadhArayA says Sri Ramana Maharshi. Here chanting is done in mind. we feel hurt in chest and not head. Since. hence there is no fatigue and bordom. as an observer. Here there is an effort to chant. but emotions are connected to anAhata.Random Quotes and Thoughts But still there is an observer. From effort to effortless But this is just initial state. in Atma-sthiti. another word is saral chintanam) Now.Understanding Advaita . In niSkAma karma there is still avaraNa of aGYAna. initially one may chant verbally in low tone. spandan (gap between two OMs). a way to find mind is to be aware from where thoughts are coming. but source. then there is actual maun. both quantity and quality of meditation increases. vairAGYa means absence of bhOgya padArtha (in mind). you clearly know that 'I am not the doer AND ISvara is the doer'. So when one is hurt. Later on. there is no stress and hence no saturation point. inside him. From another angle. Hence a GYAnI's actions are inactions (akarma). Where is mind? Mind (and hence thoughts) are connected to sahasrahAra chakra. termination and intonation. So in meditation. So. and then one becomes observer. while GYAnI's mind even while working (acting) is calm. It is the mental calmness that is important. from verbal to mental to auto chanting (ajapA japa) is the path. maun is vacika then mAnasika and later on it is said that the true maun is the maun of vAsanA-s. exactly in that place you becomes aware and starts chanting OM and thoughts fade away. one can be aware of beginning. it influences head. but later it shifts to mental chanting. keeps thinking and hence his maun is just vAcika maun. do not make efforts. someone is controlling his acts. but it is not necessary ot have this experience. while meditating on OM. Page 383 of 619 . not physical heart. chanting shifts from mind to heart. OM continues by itself. there is too much turbulence. Now. GYAnI acts on intuitions or say. When there is no desire. AS this period of effortless chanting increases. while too many thoughts move with great speed. you. In akarma sthiti. akarma does not generate any fruits. pitch. Some also experience it in center of chest (anAhata chakra). who's mind is not calm.

close relatives. then we will accept all 'as it is ' and accept none accept all 'as it is' with positive and negative qualities. Accept all. in meditation. and with the habit of being aware (acquired in meditation by the grace of gurU and ISvara). and one begins to forget (vismriti / vismruti) of day-2-day life and does not remember what he had done yesterday. He now finds it hard to think. Page 384 of 619 . life is a happening. 100 % application of all these words is not there. Until we are attached to our family. If we become neutral and do not get attached to our relatives. so that neutralizes dveSa accept none (this neutralizes rAga) Do not value things or person too much to make you mOhAnda (blinded by attachment) that you cannot see the truth. Only you are present. fully concentrating in work allotted to s/he and his/her action becomes inaction. one can become sAxI. what we talk of universal or say unconditional love comes when we are not attached with any one. Life is a happening. one has to renounce our own family (from mind). With repeated practice. but we can sure try to apply them as much as possible. as if I will have to make efforts to think. there will be bias and hence we will give priority to our family members. Time is also a concept of mind. One moves beyond space and time. we move from effort to effortless. meditation continuous even when one is working in day time. by being aware of udbhava sthAna of OM (tUrIyA). I am not able ot explain it properly. accept none It is said that to embrace all or to have this world as family (vAsudeva kutumba).Understanding Advaita . life just flows. Our journey from doer to sAxI to Atma sthiti is sakAma --> niSkAma --> akarma --> nirvikalp samAdhi --> moxa (sva-svarUpa sthiti becomes sahaj sthiti ==> jIvanamukti). but it happens. OM will automatically rest in it's source. then our heart is purified and love for God blossoms in us. Until one is in this phase. So. With such practice. If this happens then we are on a spiritual journey.Notes on karma Here too. friends and loved ones.

so do not get surprised or get angry. you can forgive and forget.Understanding Advaita . keep distance from such people. of a lady with an affair will do all work honestly but her mind will always be longing for her lover. but work gets done 2. Suppose anyone has said or done something that hurts you. 2. Even your body is not your own.Random Quotes and Thoughts 1. Ofcourse you can talk from sarvAtma bhAva. Be indifferent. accepting none means non-attachment So. be alert and prepared. If they are tricking you. in short do not loose your mental balance either by being negative or upset or being too much attracted (in opposite case.no attachment.g. Longing for lover (Isvara) So 'accepting as it is' and accepting 'one' would mean to accept each one with +ve and -ve qualities and do not think about their behaviour. accept none (this neutralizes rAga) Both are said from vyavahArika plane and increase aprigraha (dispassion) One can apply them in day-2-day life. accept all 'as it is' with positive and negative qualities. Accept none. To add to it. Just avoid being negative and turn your face towards God. at the same time. But we still know that scorpion always bites and biting is his nature. so why I shouldn't accept s/he? So accept s/he. or being insensitive. s/he is not going to change and I cannot change anyone. Since we are living in samsAra (society). then we can counter. No interest in work . BUT. You start to think negative of s/he. Let them take first step. Two things 1. do not take their behaviour on your mind. God accepts s/he with her negative and positive qualities. But if you accept s/he's nature 'as it is' meaning s/he is like this only. Page 385 of 619 . if you have rAga). But this does not mean that you will have to maintain contact or relation with him/her. Our heart and hence sentiments are surrendered and dedicated to ISvara. so that you can renounce world (for him). Do not take in mind whatever s/he does. This does not mean heart of stone. This is what I mean accept 'as it is'. hence we will have to take precautionary steps like avoid s/he. This directly means vairAGYA. I am more interested in applying it in my daily life and this is the way I apply it. yes *first* ISvara has to be there. so that neutralizes dveSa 2. Like I gave e.

accept none accept all . chanting his name. in a way that one can apply in practical life. This behavior is a sing of neutral.Accept all. So it is but natural to have rAga and dveSa. As I have said.Understanding Advaita . Later statement accepting one' is more subtle. my heart longs only for Isvara. Moksha has to be THE goal. chants his name. Accepting people's *all* qualities means to neutralize mind. ISvara establishes mind in heart. then you do not need to accept anyone in a sense of attachment.no dveSa accept none . purified mind. accepting none --> introvert mind surrenders to ISvara. Just let go and mind will turn inwards immediately. due to our extrovert nature. unconditional surrender and love) Page 386 of 619 . then first not needed. and as you have pointed out former is subset of later.no rAga both from vyavahAraika plane. But in real life. first one has to accept a person 'as it is'. they are pulled back) and mind doe not think much. accepting all --> making extrovert mind introvert by making it calm. When there is no expectation from others. Once introvert. To repeat (sorry for repetition) From ISvara --> jiva bhAva --> ego / mind / buddhi --> body --> senses --> external objects Our journey --> return to source Withdraw senses from external objects --> introvert mind turns towards ISvara --> jiva bhAva (mind and ego) surrendered to ISvara --> jIva merges in ISvara (toal surrendr. we are attached to something or someone. This is followed by surrender to ISvara. calm and less-demanding. Mind calms down.e. Both environment (spiritual & geographical) and people influence us. which implies being neutral (not negative) is developed within. Hence the first step is not to let anything inside us. The association with others is issue based. Senses returns to their golaka sthAna i. That makes one neutral and peaceful. Move one step further. there is no need to think of anyone after the issue / incident is over. So. This is not the end. If later (accepting none). There is no need to reject or select anything.

unlimited and undefined is this being that is in the right eye. And to this day whoever in like manner knows It as. Om ! Peace ! Peace ! Peace ! Brahman and Creation BrihadAraNyaka Upanishad: I-iv-9: They say: Men think. He is like an animal to the gods. Bhagavad Gita . and the same with sages and men. knew. it causes anguish. and this (universe) is infinite. It knew only Itself as. भभतग्रयामन स एवयायश भभतवया भभतवया पलमयतक। Page 387 of 619 . It is buddhi that makes it look internal and external w. As many animals serve a man. there is no external and internal. While he who worships another god thinking. there is no internal and external. ‘He is one. while realising this (self) as That. Remove buddhi then within AtmA. does not know. Well. and the sun’. what did that Brahman know by which It became all ? I-iv-10: This (self) was indeed Brahman in the beginning. ‘I was Manu.Undescructive Brahman and Creation of Universe. It remains as the infinite (Brahman) alone. The essence of that which is subtle. The sage Vamadeva. for this is the essence of the undefined. immortal.Understanding Advaita . ‘Through the knowledge of Brahman we shall become all’. becomes all this (universe). for he becomes their self. And whoever among the gods knew It also became That. Even the gods cannot prevail against him. It is immortal. ‘I am Brahman’. Even if one animal is taken away. and I am another’. it is unlimited.r.Random Quotes and Thoughts Everything internal and external objects are due to buddhi attached to body.t or say relative to physical body Brahman in Upanishads Om ! That (Brahman) is infinite. (Then) taking the infinitude of the infinite (universe). and it is undefined. withbody. so does each man serve the gods. Therefore It became all. ‘I am Brahman’. what should one say of many animals ? Therefore it is not liked by them that men should know this. II-iii-5: Now the subtle – it is (the corporeal) air and the ether that is in the body. The infinite proceeds from the infinite.

'He who departs by leaving the body while uttering the single syllable. 8. तस्य पयाप्तयभपयायरो शनशदर षन 'ओशमतयककयाकरश ब्रह (रमतया 8।13)' इतययाशदनया। अथि इदयानममत अकरस्यवैव स्वरपशनशदर शदकयया इदमत उच्यतक. bhutagramah. it comes to life. वहम -दस भ रया नहहीं -.19।। English translation by Swami Gambhirananda 8.यह स्थियावर-जङमरप भभतयोंकया समभदयाय ब्रहयाकक शदनकक आरमभमम . which is Brahman.19।। English translation by Swami Gambhirananda (on Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary) 8.जरो पहलक कलपमम थिया. praliyate. bhutva. with a vies to indicating the real nature of that very Immutable. consisting of the moving and the nonmoving objects that existed in the earlier cycle of creation. at the close of the day. sah eva. पभवशत जयायतक अवश एव अहरयारमक।।यतत उपनयस्तमत अकरमत .The means for the attainment of that Immutable which was introduced has been pointed out in. avasah. हक पयाथिर .19 O son of Prtha. Prabhavati. ' etc. For they are impelled by their own defects without any independence whatever. बनधन और मभशककया मयारर बतलयानकवयालक शयास्त्रवयाक्ययोंकक सफलतया शदखियानककक धलयक और 'अशवदयाशद पञ्च-क्लकशमभलक कमर सशस्कयारयोंकक वशमम पड़कर परयाधमन हह आ पयाणम-समभदयाय बयारशबयार उतपन्न हरो-हरोकर लय हरो जयातया हवै' -. after being born again and again.।।8.19।। Hindi translation by Sri Harikrishandas Goenka (on Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary) न शकयक कमर्थोक श या फल शमलनया और शकयक हह ए कमर्थोक श या फल न शमलनया. Now. in spinte of itself. इस दरोषकया पररहयार करनककक धलयक . that very-not any other.19 O son of Prtha. (13). It comes to life at the approach of day. verily in spite of itself. disappears repeatedly.Brahman and Creation रयात्र्ययारमकतोऽवशन पयाथिर पभवतयहरयारमक।।8. at the approach of day.20 Page 388 of 619 . ahar-agame. at the approach of night. this is being said-that It is to be reached through this path of yoga: Also Refer B. बयारशबयार उतपन्न हरो-हरोकर शदनकक समयाशप और रयाशत्रिकया पवकश हरोनकपर परयाधमन हह आ हम बयारशबयार लय हरोतया जयातया हवै और शफर उसम पकयार शववश हरोकर शदनकक पवकशकयालमम पभनन उतपन्न हरोतया जयातया हवै ।।8. that very multitude of beings disappears in spite of itself at the approach of night. after being born again and again at the approach of day. Sanskrit commentary by Sri Sankaracharya -. ratri-agame. viz Om. multitude of beings. अनकन यरोरमयाररण इदश रनतव्यशमशत -.Understanding Advaita .भभतग्रयामन भभतसमभदयायन स्थियावरजङमलकणन यन पभवरनस्मनत कलपक आसमतत स एव अयश नयानयन। भभतवया भभतवया अहरयारमक . पलमयतक पभनन पभनन रयात्र्ययारमक अह्नन कयक अवशन अस्वतनत्रि एव.इस पकयारकक कथिनसक सशसयारमम ववैरयाग्य शदखिलयानककक धलयक यह कहतक हह -.G.

limited and defined is the sun that shines. It is mortal. It is their Saman (common feature). It is their Saman (common feature). and it is defined. immortal. or Page 389 of 619 . unlimited and undefined is the being that is in the sun. It is their Brahman (self). it is limited. for all forms spring from it. or like a tongue of fire. II-iii-5: Now the subtle – it is (the corporeal) air and the ether that is in the body. for it is the essence of the defined. It is mortal. I-vi-2: Now of forms the eye (anything visible) is the Uktha (source). defined and undefined. it is unlimited. immortal. limited and defined is the eye. mortal. The essence of that which is subtle. or like grey sheep’s wool. mortal. it is limited and it is defined. II-iii-6: The form of that ‘being’ is as follows: like a cloth dyed with turmeric. It is immortal. It is immortal. II-iii-4: Now with reference to the body: the gross form is but this – what is other than (the corporeal) air and the ether that is in the body. for it is common to all names. for that is the essence of the undefined. Different Levels of Truths BrihadAraNyaka Upanishad: II-iii-1: Brahman has but two forms – gross and subtle. for this is the essence of the undefined. Of those names. for it sustains all forms. limited and unlimited. The essence of that which is gross. and it is undefined. It is their Brahman (self). speech (sound in general) is the Uktha (source).Brahman in Upanishads Brahman as substratum of all BrihadAraNyaka Upanishad: I-vi-1: This (universe) indeed consists of three things: name. for all names spring from it. it is unlimited. form and action. and it is undefined. or like the (scarlet) insect called Indragopa. for it is the essence of the defined. II-iii-3: Now the subtle – it is air and the ether. unlimited and undefined is this being that is in the right eye.Understanding Advaita . for it sustains all names. II-iii-2: The gross (form) is that which is other than air and the ether. The essence of that which is subtle. mortal and immortal. or like a white lotus. This is with reference to the gods. for it is common to all forms. The essence of that which is gross.

(The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this water. this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all. what should one know and through what ? Through what should one know That owing to which all this is known – through what. (These four) are but this Self. immortal being identified with the organ of speech in the body. and It is the Truth of that. The vital force is truth. this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all. what should one speak and through what. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality. and all beings are (like) honey to this earth. and all beings are (like) honey to this air. II-v-5: This sun is (like) honey to all beings. this (underlying unity) is Brahman. (These four) are but this Self. this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all. immortal being identified with the seed in the body. (The same Page 390 of 619 . Now therefore the description (of Brahman): ‘Not this. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality. He who knows it as such attains splendour like a flash of lightning. and all beings are (like) honey to this water.Different Levels of Truths like a flash of lightning. II-v-4: This air is (like) honey to all beings. this (underlying unity) is Brahman. what should one hear and through what. and the shining. Because there is no other and more appropriate description than this ‘Not this’. one sees something. this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all. one thinks something. and the shining. immortal. and the shining. one hears something. Now Its name: ‘The Truth of truth’. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this fire. II-v-3: This fire is (like) honey to all beings. should one know the Knower ? II-v-1: This earth is (like) honey to all beings. (These four) are but this Self. as it were. O Maitreyi. Brahman as All BrihadAraNyaka Upanishad: II-iv-14: Because when there is duality. this (underlying unity) is Brahman. and all beings are (like) honey to this sun. (These four) are but this Self. corporeal being in the body. and all beings are (like) honey to this fire. II-v-2: This water is (like) honey to all beings. one knows something. immortal being who is the vital force in the body. one speaks something. and the shining. then what should one smell and through what. what should one see and through what. (But) when to the knower of Brahman everything has become the self. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality.Understanding Advaita . (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this earth. not this’. what should one think and through what. this (underlying unity) is Brahman. then one smells something. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this air.

this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all. this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.Understanding Advaita . (These four) are but this Self. and the shining. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this truth. II-v-8: This lightning is (like) honey to all beings. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this ether. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is these quarters. and the shining. and all beings are (like) honey to this moon. immortal being identified with light in the body. this (underlying unity) is Brahman. II-v-10: This ether is (like) honey to all beings. II-v-7: This moon is (like) honey to all beings.Brahman in Upanishads with) the shining immortal being who is in this sun. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this righteousness. this (underlying unity) is Brahman. this (underlying unity) is Brahman. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality. and all beings are (like) honey to this lightning. this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all. (These four) are but this Self. Page 391 of 619 . this (underlying unity) is Brahman. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality. immortal being identified with the ear and with the time of hearing in the body. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality. and all beings are (like) honey to this cloud. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this cloud. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality. and all beings are (like) honey to this ether. This (Selfknowledge) is (the means of) immortality. this (underlying unity) is Brahman. this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all. immortal being identified with the mind in the body. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality. immortal being identified with the eye in the body. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this lightning. immortal being identified with righteousness in the body. and all beings are (like) honey to this truth. immortal being identified with truth in the body. and the shining. II-v-12: This truth is (like) honey to all beings. this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all. (These four) are but this Self. (These four) are but this Self. (These four) are but this Self. II-v-11: This righteousness (Dharma) is (like) honey to all beings. and the shining. and all beings are (like) honey to these quarters. immortal being identified with the ether in the heart. and the shining. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this moon. this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all. immortal being identified with sound and voice in the body. and the shining. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality. (These four) are but this Self. and all beings are (like) honey to this righteousness. II-v-9: This cloud is (like) honey to all beings. this (underlying unity) is Brahman. II-v-6: These quarters is (like) honey to all beings. in the body. (These four) are but this Self. this (underlying unity) is Brahman. this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all. this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all. and the shining. this (underlying unity) is Brahman. (These four) are but this Self. and the shining.

(The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this human species. ‘He made bodies with two feet and bodies with four feet. already mentioned.’ On account of his dwelling in all bodies.18।। Page 392 of 619 .Brahman as All II-v-13: This human species is (like) honey to all beings. and all beings are (like) honey to this (cosmic) body. and the shining. nothing that is not pervaded by Him. all worlds. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this (cosmic) body. all gods. this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all. versed in the AtharvaVeda. immortal being who is this (individual) self. this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all. all organs and all these (individual) selves fixed in this Self. Just as all the spokes are fixed in the nave and the felloe of a chariot-wheel. II-v-14: This (cosmic) body is (like) honey to all beings. This (Selfknowledge) is (the means of) immortality. That supreme Being first entered the bodies as a bird (the subtle body). this (underlying unity) is Brahman. Perceiving this the Rishi said. NirguNa Brahman as Ishvara Bhagavad Gita अव्यकयाद्व्यकयन सवयारन पभवनतयहरयारमक। रयात्र्ययारमक पलमयनतक तत्रिवैवयाव्यकसशजकक।।8. so are all beings. (These four) are but this Self. II-v-15: This Self. (These four) are but this Self. There is nothing that is not covered by Him. He is called the Purusha. this (underlying unity) is Brahman. and the king of all beings. taught the Asvins. Definition of Purusha BrihadAraNyaka Upanishad: II-v-18: This is that meditation on things mutually helpful which Dadhyac. is the ruler of all beings. immortal being identified with the human species in the body. and the shining. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality.Understanding Advaita . and all beings are (like) honey to this human species.

when night comes. which is called the Unmanifested referred to above. aversion and clinging to life. they. praliyante. Y.स्थियावर-जङमरप समस्त पजयाएभाँ उतपन्न हरोतम हह -. the Lord says this: Page 393 of 619 . for pointing out the meaningfulness of the scriptures For the earlier reason the scriptures do not lose their validity. all things that get manifested. all the manifested things. 2. and there-fore these two defects do not arise. sarvah vyaktayah. Similarly.Understanding Advaita . at the time when Brahma wakes. बनधमरोकशयास्त्रपवकधत्तसयाफलयपदशर नयाथिर मत अशवदयाशदक्लकशमभलकमयारशयवशयाच्च अवशन भभतग्रयामन भभतवया भभतवया पलमयतक इतयतन सशसयारक ववैरयाग्यपदशर नयाथिर च इदमयाह -. from the Unmanifested-avyakta (Unmanifested) is the state of sleep of Prajapati.पकट हरोतम हह। जरो व्यक-पकट हरोतम हवै. avyakta-sanjnake. (See P. The five evils are: ignorance. The following verse says that the very same multitude of beings continues in the different cycles of creation. tatra eva. Su. all creatures characterized as moving and nonmoving.शदनकक आरमभकयालकया नयाम 'अहरयारम' हवै.18।। English translation by Swami Gambhirananda (on Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary) 8. become manifested.18 Ahar-agame. from that avyakta. egoism.In order to obviate the defect of the emergence of some unmerited result and the destruction of merited results. उसकया नयाम व्यशक हवै। तथिया रयाशत्रिकक आनकपर -.पजयापशतकक शनदयावस्थियासक समस्त व्यशकययाभाँ -. with the coming of day.Brahman in Upanishads English translation by Swami Gambhirananda 8. prabhavanti. Sanskrit commentary by Sri Sankaracharya -.अव्यकयातत अव्यकश पजयापतकन स्वयापयावस्थिया तस्मयातत अव्यकयातत व्यकयन व्यजयनत इशत व्यकयन स्थियावरजङमलकणयान सवयारन पजयान पभवननत अशभव्यजयनतक.18 With the coming of day all manifested things emerge from the Unmanifest and when night comes they merge in that itself which is called the Unmanifested. ratri-agame.3). all manifested things. in that itself. dealing with bondage and Liberation. at the time when Brahma sleeps.ब्रहयाकक शयन करनककक समस्त उस पभवर्थोक अव्यक नयामक पजयापशतकक शनदयावस्थियामम हम समस्त पयाणम लमन हरो जयातक हह ।।8. ब्रहयाकक शदनकक आरमभकयालमम अथियारतत ब्रहयाकक पबरोधकयालमम अव्यकसक -. अह्नन आरमन अहरयारमन तनस्मनत अहरयारमक कयालक ब्रह्मणन पबरोधकयालक। तथिया रयात्र्ययारमक ब्रहणन स्वयापकयालक पलमयनतक सवयारन व्यकयन तत्रिवैव पभवर्थोकक अव्यकसशजकक।।अककतयाभ्ययारमककतशवपणयाशदरोषपररहयारयाथिर मत. merge.18।। Hindi translation by Sri Harikrishandas Goenka (on Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary) पजयापशतकक शदनमम और रयाशत्रिमम जरो कभछ हरोतया हवै उसकया वणर न शकयया जयातया हवै -. and with a view to propounding detachment from the world on the ground that the helpless multitude of beings perishes after being born again and again under the influence of accumulated results of actions that have for their origin such evils as ignorance etc. avyaktat. emerge. attachment.।।8.

is the ruler of all beings. who does not get destroyed when all beings get destroyed. Up. is Brahman. all organs and all these (individual) selves fixed in this Self.20 But distinct from that Unmanifested is the other eternal unmainfest Reality. so are all beings. He is ten and thousands – many and infinite. versed in the AtharvaVeda. II-iii-6 Bhagavad Gita परस्तस्मयात्तभ भयावरोतोऽनयरोतोऽव्यकरोतोऽव्यकयातसनयातनन। यन स सवरषभ भभतकषभ नशयतसभ न शवनशयशत।।8. That Brahman is without prior or posterior. This is the teaching.20।। English translation by Swami Gambhirananda 8. taught the Asvins. all gods.Self is Brahman Self is Brahman BrihadAraNyaka Upanishad: II-v-15: This Self. that form of His was for the sake of making Him known. already mentioned.परन व्यशतररकन शभन्नन. II-v-19: This is that meditation on things mutually helpful which Dadhyac. The Lord on account of Maya (notions superimposed by ignorance) is perceived as manifold. कस्मयातत पभनन परन? पभवर्थोकयातत भभतग्रयामबमजभभतयातत अशवदयालकणयातत अव्यकयातत। अनयन शवलकणन भयावन इतयशभपयायन। Page 394 of 619 . Perceiving this the Rishi said. Sanskrit commentary by Sri Sankaracharya -. ‘(He) transformed Himself in accordance with each form. without interior or exterior. for to Him are yoked ten organs. He is the organs. Just as all the spokes are fixed in the nave and the felloe of a chariot-wheel.अनयन इशत। अनयन शवलकणन। स च अव्यकन अशनननदयररोचरन। 'परस्तस्मयातत' इतयभकमत. कभतन? तस्मयातत पभवर्थोकयातत। तभ-शब्दन अकरस्य शववशकतस्य अव्यकयातत ववैलकणयशवशकषणयाथिर न। भयावन अकरयाख्यश परश ब्रह। व्यशतररकतवक सतयशप सयालकणयपसङरोतोऽस्तमशत तशदशनवकत्त्यथिर मत आह -. hundreds of them.Understanding Advaita . 2 Brahmans | Two Brahmans | Two levels of the unmanifested Refer Br. all worlds. and the king of all beings. the perceiver of everything. nay. This self.

Brahman in Upanishads सनयातनन शचरनतनन यन सन भयावन सवरषभ भभतकषभ ब्रहयाशदषभ नशयतसभ न शवनशयशत। ।।8.G.Understanding Advaita . adds. He is sanatnah. Hence. na. eternal. and He is the Immutable which is beyond the range of the organs.20।। English translation by Swami Gambhirananda (on Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary) 8. Please refer B. yah sah. different. but.20।। Hindi translation by Sri Harikrishandas Goenka (on Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary) धजस अकरकया पहलक पशतपयादन शकयया थिया उसकक पयाशपकया उपयाय 'ओशमतयककयाकरश ब्रह' इतययाशद कथिनसक बतलया शदयया। अब उसम अकरकक स्वरपकया शनदरश करनककक इच्छयासक यह बतलयायया जयातया हवै शक 'इस यरोरमयारर दयारया अमभक वस्तभ शमलतम हवै' -. सरो शकससक पर हवै? वह उस पभवर्थोक भभत-समभदयायकक बमजभभत अशवदयारप अव्यकसक परक हवै। ऐसया जरो सनयातन भयाव अथियारतत सदयासक हरोनकवयालया भयाव हवै . get destroyed.Tr.'तभ' शब्द यहयाभाँ आरक वणर न शकयक जयानकवयालक अकरकक उस पभवर्थोक अव्यकसक शवलकणतया शदखिलयानककक धलयक हवै। ( वह अव्यक ) भयाव ययानम अकरनयामक परब्रह परमयातमया अतयनत शभन्न हवै। शकससक ? उस पहलक कहक हह ए अव्यक सक। शभन्न हरोनकपर भम शकसम पकयार समयानतया हरो सकतम हवै ? इस शशकयाकक शनवकधत्तकक धलयक कहतक हह शक वह इननदययोंसक पतयक न हरोनकवयालया अव्यकभयाव अनय -. again is He distinct? Avyaktat.The word tu. the Reality. from that aforesaid (Unmanifested). from the Unmaifested spoken of earlier. of a different characteristic. distinct. get destroyed. all beings. when sarvesu bhutesu. Even though different. which is the seed of the multitude of beings. the Reality. the other. nasyatsu. and which is characterized as ignorance (avidya) Ast. वह ब्रहयाशद समस्त पयाशणययोंकया नयाश हरोनकपर भम नष नहहीं हरोतया ।।8. 'anyah vilaksanah.20 He is parah. is meant for showing the distinction of the Immutable that is going to be spoken of from the Unmanifested.He is bhavah.18-20 to understand process of creation. the supreme Brahman called the Immutable. From what. 8.दस भ रया हवै अथियारतत सवर थिया शवलकण हवै। उससक पर हवै ऐसया कहया. vinasyati. for obviating this the Lord says: anyah. beginning from Brahma. does not. bhavah ityabhiprayah: The meaning is that the Reality is different and distinct (form that Unmanifested). Page 395 of 619 .Bhavah. who is such. there is the possibility of similarlity of characteristics.-From what?-tasmat. It has been said that He is distinct from that.

"This Self is not-this“ (Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad 3. and It is the Truth of that.22.).2.).). "Without the vital force and the mind“ (Mundaka Upanishad 2. “Existence-Knowledge-Infinite“ (Taittiriya Upanishad 2.Understanding Advaita .). "Knowledge-Bliss” (Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad sloka 7.27.4. devoid of sins” (Chhandogya Upanishad 8.1.11. Now therefore the description (of Brahman): ‘Not this.).8.19). comprising the interior and exterior“ (Mundaka Upanishad 2. Now Its name: ‘The Truth of truth’. not-this” (Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad 2. “Neither gross nor subtle“ (Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad 3. or like a flash of lightning.).5. or like a white lotus.4.).1. “It is the Seer Itself unseen“ (Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad 3.5.12.8.1.1. "Unborn. Page 396 of 619 .8. Because there is no other and more appropriate description than this ‘Not this’.7. He who knows it as such attains splendour like a flash of lightning.9. or like the (scarlet) insect called Indragopa. "Not-this.). not this’. The self. “That which is beyond hunger and thirst“ (Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad 3.1.9. The vital force is truth. "Imperceptible. unter 3.3.). "Without interior or exterior“ (Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad 2.II-iii-6: The form of that ‘being’ is as follows: like a cloth dyed with turmeric. Up . "Consisting of knowledge only“ (Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad 2.4.7. or like grey sheep’s wool.26.). bodiless“ (Taittiriya Upanishad 2.).2. or like a tongue of fire.Concepts of Advaita in Shastras Concepts of Advaita in Shastras Brahman Br. “The Brahman that is immediate and direct” (Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad 3.).).).6. "That great unborn Self” (Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad 4.1.

). I see without eyes. "It is not affected by anybody's sins“ (Bhagavad Gita 5.). Without arms and legs am I.). 20. and also through such Smrti texts as the following: "It neither born nor dies“ (Bhagavad Gita 2. I am the Ancient One. None can know me.15.). and I hear without ears. and the All-good Kaivalya Up-20 21. and am different from all.). I am the manifold universe.). "Just as air is always in the ether“ Bhagavad Gita 9.). "The individual Self should be regarded as the universal one“ (Bhagavad Gita 13.3.).Concepts of Advaita in Shastras "It is verily beyond what is known as also what is unknown“ (Kena Upanishad 1. of unthinkable power.27.20. the Purusha and the Ruler.17) Source: Upadesha Sahasri of Sri Adi Shankara.14. I know all. and „Called Akasa (the self-effulgent one)” (Chhandogya Upanishad 8. "It is called neither existent nor nonexistent“ (Bhagavad Gita 13. I am minuter than the minute.31.Understanding Advaita . I am the Effulgent One.12.1. "The same in all beings” (Bhagavad Gita 13. I am likewise the greatest of all. and "The Supreme Being is different” (Bhagavad Gita 15. I am always the Intelligence Kaivalya Up-21 nirguNa Brahman is higher than saguNa Brahman Page 397 of 619 .6.).2. "As the Self is beginningless and devoid of qualities“ (Bhagavad Gita 13. Brahman is nirAkAra Kaivalya Upanishad says.

nirguNa Brahman is higher than saguNa Brahman Svetasvatara Upanishads says: III-7: Higher than this Personal Brahman is the infinite Supreme Brahman. are not real in themselves in relation to the Self. This does not mean that other upanishads are of little authority or of no use. .Atma Upanishad V. how can Brahman be reborn ? Bondage and liberation. they are gems in their own right. Because that Yogin has become Brahman. Knowing him to be the Lord.7 nirguNa Brahman peaceful Svetasvatara Upanishads says: IV-14: One attains infinite peace when one realizes that Blissful One who is subtler than the subtlest. and who. but it is found in many minor upanishads and in bhAgavat PUrANa (Srimad Bhagavatam) Snake-rope analogy in Minor Upanishads II. just as the appearance and disappearance of the snake are not in relation to the stir-less rope.76-98. who assumes various forms. Snake Rope example is not found in 10 principle upanishad. when a man is bitten by (the Page 398 of 619 . and who is the only one that encompasses the universe. Emphasis is principle upanishads. Sincere seekers will surely benefit from them.Understanding Advaita .26-27(a).Sv. When the silver in mother-of pearl can be used in making an ornament. though remaining single. 3. When the blueness of the sky really exists in it. Up 4. who is concealed in all beings according to their bodies.Up. However. then the universe really is. there are many upanishads within 108 upanishads. who creates the world in the midst of chaos. set up by Maya. . Sv . Lets study some verses from 108 upanishads.14 Snake-rope example in Minor upanishads It is always good to quote from Upanishads commented by Adi shankara and other pUrvAcArya-s. these are accepted by Kanchi Math and Shrigeri Math. one becomes immortal. envelops the whole universe. however the study is optional and left to individual.

all-pervasive and non-dual.e. women. (The whole world) is superimposed on the supreme Reality. (lower) animals and gods. Indeed. (47-48) . as the snake is on the rope. No curiosity is aroused as regards these superimposed wonders. The power of projection creates from lingadeha i. When the reflection of consciousness falls on Prakriti as the material cause. Jeeva’s body to the whole universe. mankind. MAyA and Unreality of the world How Jeeva is created by association of Prakriti with Brahman : “Satyam bhaati chichhaayaa darpaNe prativimbavat.Concepts of Advaita in Shastras conception of) a snake in a rope. the Ground. viz. tena chitprativimbena trividhaa bhaati saa punah” As reflected image is perceived as real in a mirror.NirAlamba upanishad Snake-rope analogy in BhAgavat PUrANa SB 10. the immobiles. castes. The aavaraNa power covers (puts veil upon) the difference between seer and seen and also the difference between Brahman and the world..Sarasvati Rahasya Upanishad : Vikshepa (powr of projection ) and aavarana (veiling power) are two powers of MAyA. .e. Like the conception of the snake in a rope. then in this world the vyaavhaarik Jeeva comes into being. the saintly devotees seek You out within their own bodies by rejecting everything separate from You.. Because it is imposed on consciousness." . ignorance (state when reality is Page 399 of 619 .28: O unlimited Lord. (25) Ignorance is the illusory knowledge – like that of the snake in the rope – of Brahman that is All in all. so the idea of the release from life and Samsara is the delusion of time. in the same way reflection of consciousness in Prakriti is perceived as real.14. men.Tejo Bindu Upanishad IV-10.Yoga Kundalini Upanishad 14.Annapurna Upanishad 79.. (This illusory knowledge) is associated with a plurality of selves based on the plurality of the adjuncts of bondage and liberation. it is also perceived as the witness..Understanding Advaita . how can discriminating persons appreciate the real nature of a rope lying before them until they refute the illusion that it is a snake. . stations in life. When the aavarana (veiling power of MAyA) i..

the Jeeva made of Consciousness is none but Ishavra itself. then what should one see and through what. one touches something. then one sees something. one sees another …but when all has become just his Ātman. one smells something. for It is never perceived. Saying this Yajnavalkya left. and never suffers injury.Understanding Advaita . unattached. what should one speak and through what. It is imperceptible. the samsAra does not seem to end. .12. for It is never attached. Maitreyi.MAyA and Unreality of the world covered) is removed.12 Indeed. Up. In reality. O Maitreyi. the reality of difference is known and the state of Jeevahood is destroyed. Not this’. Rudra Hridayopanishad Objects do not exist in reality KG 2.Sarasvati Rahasya Upanishad : 42-45 The difference between Jeeva and Ishvara (God) is imagined due to MAyA. what should one taste and through what. undecaying. my dear. The non-difference of consciousness is a proven fact by logic and by (experiential) proof. what should one think and through what. as it were. Kapila Gita 2. what should one smell and through what. as it were.. skandha 3 Two Levels of Truth For. even in the dream. In reality. Just as one who broads on objects meets with disaster alone. If there were real difference between the two then consciousness forms of the both would get violated. Therefore.Br. (But) when to the knower of Brahman everything has become the Self. one speaks something. one thinks something. for It never decays. 4.15 Full verse is IV-v-15: Because when there is duality. bhAgavat purANa. there is no difference between the two. what should one hear and through what. The difference seen between one consciousness (Ishvara) and the other (Jeeva) is due to delusion. one hears something. This much indeed is (the means of) immortality. by knowing the non-difference in consciousness man becomes free from delusion and sufferings and is established as non-dual blissful Shiva alone. The difference between Jeeva and Ishvara is perceived due to differences in names and forms. even though objects do not exist really. when there is duality. Page 400 of 619 . unfettered – it never feels pain. should one know the Knower ? So you have got the instruction. what could one see and through what? . what should one touch and through what.5. one tastes something. one knows something. what should one know and through what ? Through what should one know that owing to which all this is known ? This self is That which has been described as ‘Not this. Through what.

2. though undivided.22 Though the object of experience becomes unreal to him who has reached the state of liberation. Two Levels of Truth in Yoga School Two levels of truths is not only accepted by Shruti-s. or they do not exist.Understanding Advaita .S. but for whom? .17 And the Knowable. krta = done arthan = purpose.Y. due to commonality. universality Page 401 of 619 . appears to be existing as divided in all beings. by Swami Prabhavananda of Ramakrishna Ashram. and It is the sustainer of all beings as also the devourer and originator. P. but it is accepted by dualist schools like Patanjali Yoga Sutra ककतयाथिर पशत नषमऊयनष तदनयसयाधयारणतवयातत* ॥ २२ ॥ 2.22 For the one who has attained the goal [of liberation. the seen] is not destroyed because of it's common universality.the one who is rooted in Brahman.17।। 13. for naSta = destroyed api = even though anaSTam = not destroyed tad = that anya = other sAdhAraNatvAt = because of. Sure the levels are imaginary. it remains real to all other beings. goal prati = towards. Page 90 Another translation. the seen] disappears [yet.Concepts of Advaita in Shastras Source Bhagavan in Gita says अशवभकश च भभतकषभ शवभकशमव च नस्थितमत। भभतभतकर च तजजकयश ग्रधसष्णभ पभशवष्णभ च।।13.

The one which has birth. indeed. eternal. If we accept that Brahman BECOMEs JIVA then we violate shruti. न जयायतक शम्रियतक वया कदयाशचन्नयायश भभतवया भशवतया वया न भभयन। अजरो शनतयन शयाशवतरोतोऽयश पभरयाणरो न हनयतक हनयमयानक शरमरक।।2. the world is created and hence jiva-s were once created? Page 402 of 619 . Again. But the nature of both these. They are given by Bhagavan in BG 2.20.20 into context. one is educated that you wrongly think of yourself as 'Jiva'. Satya Now the definition of satya and asatya is also not mine. then theory of the world being created would means that once there was no creation and then it is created. 86 The author has also connected it with Thirumandiram. but at the same time.16 Of the unreal there is no being. the real has no non-existence.16 नयासतरो शवदतक भयावरो नयाभयावरो शवदतक सतन। उभयरोरशप दृषरोतोऽनतस्तवनयरोस्तत्त्वदशशर शभ ।।2. It is not killed when the body is killed. ancient. This One is birthless.16।। 2. also has death. BG 2.20 Never is this One born. If we take BG 2. So which is true.Understanding Advaita . Jiva is accepted at empirical level. nor is it that having come to exist. undecaying. It will again cease to be. which says. and never does It die.Two Levels of Truth Kriya Yoga Sutras of Patanjali and the Siddhas by Marshal Govindan. Page. Brahman is not deluded. it APPEARS TO BE deluded.20।। 2. has been realized by the seers of Truth.

for that which is constant cannot be reached by things which are not constant. Hence we have to tag this experience as something different than the two. It voids the definition of satya. which constantly change. Gita herself says that same about the world in BG 8. Jivan Mukta and Videha Mukta in Tejo Bindu Upanishad Chapter 4 of Tejo Bindu Upanishad is dedicated to Jivan mukta and Videha mukta Jivan Mukta Kumara asked the great Lord: “Please explain to me the nature of Jivanmukti (embodied salvation) and Videhamukti (disembodied salvation). which constantly change as satya. satya is defined as the one which has NO NON-EXISTENCE is permanent. undecaying.Understanding Advaita .1) At no cost we can afford to violate the definitions of real and unreal.15 The only thing is we take everything that is changing. Says 1-II-10. hence even subtle worlds like heaven. 2. according Advaita tenet.Tai. Further Katha Up.” To which the great Shiva replied: Page 403 of 619 . which in simple words can mean – Temporary. hence the only thing that qualifies to be called as real (satya) is Brahman ( Satyam Jnanam anantam Brahma . moving. etc also fall under this category. In plain words. I know that the treasure is impermanent. Adi Shankara called this mithyA. The truth is one.Concepts of Advaita in Shastras For time being. etc … asatya means that which has NO EXISTENCE AT ANY TIME Hence we cannot take this world. unchanging. this body. we can overlook the commentaries by acharya-s. etc as mithyA. Up.1.

no Rudra. no flesh. neither increase nor decrease. no gain. He who realises: ‘I am beyond the three bodies. no wealth. no Mans. no auspiciousness. no meditator. no secrecy. no foe. no vice. no past. no quietude. no heat. no Agni. no Brahma. no duality. no Pranas. who has Atman left over in all. enjoyed or remembered. 4-6. no nose. nothing to be said or heard in the least. neither Adhyaropa (illusory attribution) nor Apavada (withdrawal of that conception) . who realises: ‘All this is not mind. no sacred places. no thirst. no victory. no bondage. none of the seven Dhatus. no knowledge. no hunger.’ 11(b)-30(a). no moon. 2. no earth. no excess. no Vedas. no dullness. no instant joy. no clan. no joy. who has got no other thought (than Itself) and who is devoid of the thought of the existence of anything. no duty. no distance. no Sandhyas( junction-period ceremonies). nothing to be contemplated. no relative. present. no heat. I am the great. no garrulity. and I have neither body nor any other thing except the certitude ‘I am Brahman’ only. no hand. no friend. no thought. “I am Chidatma. no Vishnu. I am Para-Atma. no spiritual wisdom. no speech. whose Atman is of the nature of pure consciousness. who is only of the nature of Chinmatra. or future. greater than the great. no characteristics. who has unconditioned bliss. no eye. no lymph. whose Atman is of the nature of the all-full. no Lakshya (object aimed at). no Akasa. no redness. who realises: ‘I am of the nature of the blissful and of the supreme bliss. no skin. no Jiva. no sense. no mundane existence. He is said to be a Jivanmukta who has not at all got the ‘I’ in myself. no seat. no water. no illusion. no blueness. no object of meditation. no dreaming. neither length nor shortness. no salvation. no love. no smallness. 3. no manyness. no quarters. whose interior is consciousness alone. no deity. One who will simply stay in Atman is called a Jivanmukta. no desire. whose Atman is tranquil. no ear.Understanding Advaita . no Manas. but who stays in Chinmatra (absolute consciousness) alone. no absorption. no body at any time. no worship. no enjoyment. no hugeness. who is undifferentiated. He is said to be a Jivanmukta. no Snana (bathing). He is said to be a Jivanmukta who realises: ‘I have no Chitta. no oneness. no whiteness. no cold. no blindness. no Ahamkara. no tongue. no object. no marrow.Jivan Mukta and Videha Mukta in Tejo Bindu Upanishad 1. no mandatory rules. neither Page 404 of 619 . no virtue. no diminution. or causal state in the least or the fourth state. no Guru. who is all-full of the nature of consciousness. no skin. no disciple. no skill. no place. no passion and no anger. I have no time. no Vayu. who has given up all affinities (for objects). no waking. no Yoga. who is devoted to bliss. I am the Nirguna. He is said to be a Jivanmukta. I am the pure consciousness and I am Brahman’. no bone. no Maya. no Buddhi. no proximity. no birth. 7-11(a). nothing to be gone to (or attained). not even the three worlds. no blood. no space. I have nothing of these objects or of the world and I have no sin. is said to be a Jivanmukta.

nothing to be abandoned or received. I reign happy in the kingdom of Atman and enjoy in myself the bliss of my own Atman’. the non-dual. no delusion. 32. no Self. the pure. whose Atman is without inertness and within every one. the blissful. He is a Jivanmukta who is himself. nothing to be laughed at. He is a Videhamukta who having given up the certainty of the existence or nonexistence of all objects is pure Chidananda (the consciousness-bliss). no mystery. 34-37. but I am certainly Brahman.’ and regards all as void. and neither old age nor youth nor manhood. who is ever silent with the silence of Satya. I am the supreme’. the great and the purifier of the elements. Page 405 of 619 . who does not see (the difference of) ‘I’. I am Chit. I am Chit alone. I am simply Paramatman. the silent.Concepts of Advaita in Shastras importance nor non-importance. ‘thou’. no perseverance. without one. whose Atman is divine and yet without Devas. whose Atman has attained quiescence. the self only. whose Atman has become the All. who thinks always: ‘I am Chinmatra. the sporting. the foremost and the one undaunted person who is himself the lord and rests in his own Self. whose Atman is void. ‘I am certainly Brahman. who being of the nature of time is yet without it. who is of the nature of Brahmic bliss. no race. I am afraid of nothing in this world’. the birthless and the deathless – I am myself the undecaying Atman that is object aimed at. but yet without (them). no happiness. the beloved and the bondless salvation am Brahman alone – I am Chit alone’. neither knower nor knowledge nor the knowable. whose Atman is measurable and yet without measure. who is happy. He is a Videhamukta who has become Brahman. no policy. no fault. place. who does not cognise the change of time. or ‘that’. am the the – I 38. himself or other differences. I can see myself through myself. the Atman that is equal (or the same) in all. matter. He is a Videhamukta who remains in Chinmatra alone without (even) thinking thus: ‘I all Atman. I am only of the nature of Sat. ‘All this is consciousness. who is of a pure nature and who is a great Mouni (observer of silence). who having abandoned (the thought): ‘I am Brahman’ (or) ‘I am not Brahman’ does not mingle his Atman with anything. 30(b)-31. Vedas and sciences. Videha Mukta 33. nothing belonging to you or to me. I remain of my own will. and who is without the conception of Devas. neither you nor I. ‘I am Hamsa itself. no bewailments. who does nothing. etc. subtle and universal.Understanding Advaita .. 39-47(a). anywhere or at any time. I am only of the nature of spiritual wisdom. No doubt need be entertained about this. all. no religious vow. I am Chit’. He is a Videhamukta who having abandoned the thought: ‘I alone am the Brahman’ is filled with bliss. ‘this’. whose Atman is devoid of any Sankalpa. who has gone beyond Gunas. He is said to be a Jivanmukta who cognises: ‘I am Brahman alone.

has mounted the car of Brahmic bliss. who is remaining at ease in the pleasure-garden of his own Atman. who is free from bondage or freedom. I am the all-contented and the permanent Atman. whose Atman is of the nature of the emancipated and the non-emancipated. all is Atman. He who thinks: ‘My nature is full. In that case. the great Atman. who is immersed in that juice. who cognises the Shiva bliss in Brahmic bliss. but which has no Atman.. whose Atman is associated with Yoga. who has the nectar of Brahman as medicine. who realises Brahmic bliss. He is a Videhamukta whose external Atman invisible to others is the supreme bliss aiming at the highest Vedanta. the supreme Atman and Atman of the form of bliss’. being full of it. who lives in the household of Brahmic bliss. I am the quiescent Atman. he is neither embodied nor disembodied. but without duality and non-duality. I am the Atman pervading the heart of all.Understanding Advaita . etc. whose Atman is of the nature of the All and the non-All. 49-53(a). who finds bliss in himself. He is a Videhamukta whose Atman is nameless and formless. who has Yoga as his Atman. 53(b)-54. time. there is nothing else beside Atman. who is without conception of the small and the great and who is the fourth of the fourth state and the supreme bliss. I am Atman. who drinks of the juice of the nectar of Brahman. without the small or the great and without the cognition of the universe or even the cognition of the nature of Brahman. for a moment. who has become one with it. who stays in Atman having that bliss and who thinks: ‘All this is of the nature of Atman. but without it. but who finds his spiritual effulgence in his own nature. He is said to be a Videhamukta who has gone beyond (or mastered quite) the modifications of Chitta. without the witnessable and the witness. 55-62. who is the great spiritual wisdom of the nature of bliss and of the nature of the state beyond Turya.Jivan Mukta and Videha Mukta in Tejo Bindu Upanishad 47(b)-48. then he is surrounded (in thought) by all. who has the effulgence of the essence of Brahmic bliss. whose Atman is of the nature of the happiness arising from objects obtained and enjoyed. who is supporting (all). who has the beneficent worship of the Brahmic bliss. whose bliss is beyond the scope of words and mind and whose thought is beyond the beyond. I am the great Atman. I am the Atman whose nature is changeless. whose Atman is of the nature of the dual and the non-dual one. He is a Videhamukta who has realised himself to be Chaitanya alone. which is not stained by anything. who associates with me having it. and I am the many Atman’. Page 406 of 619 . If such a thought is entertained (even). who is neither auspicious nor inauspicious. but without them. He who does not think this is Jivatma and that is Paramatma. but without emancipation or bondage. without Guna or non-Guna. whose Atman is of an illimitable nature. and who is devoid of any Sankalpa – such a man is a Videhamukta. who has an imponderable Chit being one with it. who is not satiated with the juice of the nectar of Brahman. without space. who illumines such modifications and whose Atman is without any modifications at all. who is devoted to the juice of the nectar of Brahman. 63-68(a).

no seat. whose Atman is of the nature of the secondless. be wandering in your own Atman and be enjoying your own Atman. no sacred places. no proximity. He is said to be a Jivanmukta. no redness. no enjoyment. no relative. no blueness. or future. whose Atman cannot be measured by Vidya and Avidya but without them. no desire. but without five sheaths. but without them. Purusha. no skill.Understanding Advaita . no diminution. owing to unceasing Samadhi. 80-81. Thus ends the fourth chapter. no virtue. who is the self-shining one without a second. no mundane existence. being subject to proof though without proof. none of the seven Dhatus. whose Atman is of the nature of Nirvikalpa. Enjoy your Atman yourself and stay in peace. or end. present. O six-faced one. no hunger. no vice. whose Atman is without conditionedness or unconditionedness. no skin. no object. no smallness. no wealth. I have no time. not even the three worlds. no space. whose Atman is the eternal and the witness. enjoyed or remembered. no bone. no object of meditation. no duality. who is without this or the higher worlds. etc. no Agni. no clan. no garrulity. no Rudra. no cold. no Sandhyas( junction-period ceremonies). no victory. no birth. no knowledge. neither increase nor decrease. no whiteness. no Mans. no skin. He whose Atman is partless. no oneness. without bliss. no lymph. neither length nor shortness. no past. whose Atman is of the nature of Ananda (bliss) sheath. Prana. no Vayu. whose Atman is devoid of that which is described by Om. no Vishnu. no quarters. no duty. no Akasa. of the nature of the three periods of time. nothing to be gone to (or attained). no water. who is without the thought ‘this is Atman’. no Yoga. Manas and Vijnana sheaths. no disciple. subtle. no Brahma. stainless. no heat. no thought. no quietude. know It as your own. whose Atman is devoid of the word Prajnana. no excess. no meditator. no auspiciousness. no manyness. is devoid of Sankalpa. no marrow. who is without the idea ‘I am Brahman’. who is without the qualifications of the aspirant after salvation. no instant joy. no mandatory rules. no flesh. be content in your own Atman. causal and the fourth bodies and without the Anna. no bondage. Then you will attain Videhamukti”. enlightened. whose Atman is without the six things beginning with Sama. no gain. no Vedas. no thirst. no Jiva.Concepts of Advaita in Shastras 68(b)-79. whose Atman is not the one which can be known by Atman and whose Atman has neither light nor darkness. no speech. nothing to be said or heard in the least. no blood. no illusion. neither Adhyaropa (illusory attribution) nor Apavada (withdrawal of that conception) . no foe. no joy. no place. who is above the reach of any speech or the three states and is the indestructible and the Chidatma. Look only upon Atman. no Lakshya (object aimed at). no heat. no dullness. no spiritual wisdom. who is without beginning. no hugeness. of the nature of the nectar. nothing to be contemplated. no love. no earth. adhyAropa apavAda in tejo bindu upanishad 11(b)-30(a). no deity. no salvation. no blindness. no worship. whose Atman is entire and non-measurable. but without eternality and witness. whose Atman is devoid (of the thought) of ‘thou art’. middle. no secrecy. no friend. Such a personage is a Videhamukta. no Snana (bathing). no absorption. no distance. whose Atman is without gross. who realises: ‘All this is not mind. neither Page 407 of 619 . no Guru.. no moon. without the characteristics of the visible or the audible and of the nature of void.

at that time. nothing belonging to you or to me. no mystery.Nirvikalp Samadhi KG 3. worship Me alone of universal form with single pointed devotion . beyond prakriti. the other world. the PuruSa was the beginningless Self. the Lord. and houses. no race. attributeless. her allictions were destroyed and she attained total peace. having renounced all others. the very subject and Self-shining.Kapila Gita 1. animals. and even now it alone pervades the world .adhyAropa apavAda in tejo bindu upanishad importance nor non-importance. no fault. enjoys (as the illuminator or experiencer of) objects here (in the world). no delusion. who is the support of all jIva-s.3: Before creation. nothing to be abandoned or received. no perseverance. and neither old age nor youth nor manhood. no happiness. no Self. Concepts on puruSa PuruSa was attribuless before creation KG 2. did not even remember her body like the one who awakes (does not remember) objects seen in the dream. no policy. takes back (the universe at the time of dissolution). I am Chit. neither knower nor knowledge nor the knowable. but I am certainly Brahman.Understanding Advaita . nothing to be laughed at. no bewailments. I am Chit’. ‘I am certainly Brahman. this world. neither you nor I. she transcended the delusion of the qualities of prakriti and. and all that relates to it like prosperity.23-24: I take such devotees across death who. the jiva-hood that goes from this world to the other. and has eternal Page 408 of 619 .14: As her mind remained absorbed in the Truth. KG 2.Kapila Gita 2. the body. no religious vow. Jiva is destroyed Jiva is renounced KG 1.13: Due to the elemination of jIva-hood. and the mind firmly abiding in th Reality.23-24 Jiva is destroyed .3 Swami Tejomayananda further explains the meaning of AtmA (Self) from viShNu purANa as AtmA is that which pervades (the universe).

21: That prakriti which has been completely enjoyed.Concepts of Advaita in Shastras existence.Understanding Advaita .16: Therefore. . Kapila Gita 2. purity of mind. like the fuel by the fire in the cup of the araNi. intense devotion to Me. and absorption of the mind.17: Sometimes. sapidity without water. . PuruSa manifested as Prakriti KG 2. by the discrimination of truth. But since it's cause is not removed.18-20: The bondage of puruSa by prakriti is burnt up by spiritual practices performed day and night by prakriti (body-mind) itself. in sport. strong dispassion. nourished by constant listening.5 PuruSa does not get affected by prakriti KG 2. even though dwelling in prakriti.15: Just as smell cannot exist without earth. devahuti concludes KG: 2. non-doer. and attributeless like the sun in water.4 KG 2. intense meditation accompanied by austerity.9: The puruSa. as he is immutable. whose evil Page 409 of 619 . jIva does not get deluded when KG 2. The Lord/Self having seen the creation got (as it were) completely deluded through the veiling of knowledge. by chance alone. how can there be freedom in the presence of the qualities of prakriti? (For prakriti) causes the bondage in action to the puruSa who is a non-doer. KG 2. the Lord replies. knowledge with clear vision of Truth.5: Prakriti with its qualities creates a variety of being like itlsef. Finally. it may come back again. became manifested as the subtle prakriti with qualities.Kapila Gita 2. Reply Kapila Muni.9 nirvikalp samAdhi in bhAgavat purANa How can there be freedom in the presence of qualities of Prakriti? DevAhuti.14: O Lord! What if the prakriti does not leave the puruSa due to mutual interdependence and eternal coexistence? Devahuti gives an example to support her point. has doubts as how can one get rid of prakriti KG 2. The practices are causeless ("choiceless) performance of one's duties. the terrible fear (on bondage) is removed. then discarded. KG 2.4: The same infinite Lord. does not get affected by the qualities of prakriti.Kapila Gita 2. in the same way there is mutual dependence and coexistence of the mind (prakriti) and the Supreme (puruSa) KG 2.

nirvikalp samAdhi in bhAgavat purANa effects are seen constantly. KG 2. Aum Om Shri Ganeshaya Namah || Om Shri Guru Sharanam || Om Shri Ramakrishna Sharanam || Om Shri Ramana Maharshi Sharanam || Om Shri Adi Shankara Sharanam || Om Shri Paramatmane Namah Page 410 of 619 . but the same does not delude one who has woken up. The above statement is explained further with the help of example. it was said that puruSa was formless and attributeless (without qualities) prior to creation. KG: 2. he realizes that everything was illusion and not a reality.22: Just as a dream causes a lot of sorrow to one who has not awaken.Understanding Advaita . Earlier. prakriti never harms him who knows the Truth and who revels in the Self. as his mind is always united with Me. Our journey too is to go back to this state where there is no one else other than Self. can cause no harm to one who abides in the glory of one's own Self. A person when asleep dreams and takes a role where he enjoys.23: In the same way. Further bhagavAn says. suffers but on awakening.

when the intention itself is not noble. This is the first time in 400 years that such literature has been produced which gives the true vision of authentic Hinduism and details its continuous history of trillions of years with scientific evidences. D. the enquiry and the direction of thinking cannot be. specially bhArtiya brothers and sisters. Wilson. Swami Prakashanand Saraswati (Read more about author) This is a *must read* book for every sincere seeker. The extracts are taken from the book "The True History and the Religion of India: An Encyclopedia of Authentic Hinduism" by dharm Chakravarti H. This page is intended to expose their evil intentions. But certain people have elephant teeths. our purANas. We should not follow their guidelines no matter how much impressive they seem to be. smritis and grihya sUtra. No matter how much they are skilled. selfless intentions can yield good results. I will try to give some info about their actual 'opinion' about our shastra-s. Swami ji has given authentic proofs along with excerpts of letters and publications published by westerners portraying our dharma and shastras in a demeaning way. Max Muller.Conspiracies by East India Co. Jones and others Namaste vedAntins. This was not the work of one man or a few bunch of ontologists. Max Muller. Page 411 of 619 . This work was well planned strategy of British East India Company. our dev bhASa sanskrit. There is a lot of talk which was initiated by (so-called) western scholars with evil intention to demean our shastras.Understanding Advaita . Just want to expose them as many take their opinions as genuine. Disclaimer: I am not of the opinion that ALL westerners are biased against India and our shastras. There are good people and bad people everywhere. Only noble. This book exposes the evil intentions by westerners. Wilson. Jones and others Conspiracies by East India Co.

Sir William Jones J.Conspiracies by East India Company. Asiatic Society and Max Muller Conspiracies by East India Company. Other members of Asiatic Society were Max Muller . Wilford H.H. They influenced Hindu writers like Surendradas Gupta Page 412 of 619 .E.Understanding Advaita .Critical analysis of purANas and veda-s in demeaning way Sir Monier-Williams Colonel Colin Mackenzie Franz Bopp Pandit Taranath (Indian writer hired to write on Hinduism in derogatory way) (the list extends to 34 names). MAx Muller was also one of them who purposefully interpreted our shastra-s in derogatory way. To carry out their plan.spirituality. bhArata varSha. imaginative and full of superstitions. primitive. Wilson . Britishers realized that our culture and spiritual base was so strong that it is not possible to convert people just by giving lectures on Bible. who added Hindu words and explained their meanings in demeaning way. a german philologist. who is often credited of interpreting veda-s and bringing them to west and general public. cultural. economic and religious systems. supporting animal and human sacrifice. they created Asiatic society and hired many professionals who were send to India with sole purpose of demeaning and denigrate our religious philosophy as inferior.Translation of rg veda in demeaning way and other articles targeting our shastras to degrade them. Peterson F. They concluded that the only way to push our way of life. also known as Aryavart is the whole land beginning from foot of himAlaya-s to indian ocean. Partiger . The list also includes Britannica encyclopedia. D.Translation of Vishnu PurANa in demeaning way F. mythology. Asiatic Society and Max Muller Britishers in a quest to rule us have done a lot of conspiracies to damage our social. and rule them was to demean their backbone . They also paidlofty amount to Max Muller. Then began a period of collecting manuscripts and then interpret them in derogatory way.

by adding Jesus. According to this theory.whose works are used for post graduation in History and religion of India All these writers never wrote anything on Christianity. No one keeps studying and publishing foreign religion throughout their life and not study and publish something about their own religion.Conspiracies by East India Co. they also pushed date of Lord Buddha and made him younger by 1500-2000 years. our culture and left of opportunity to project us. who as of 1999. One such revered Pundit was srI Narayana Sastry. • Demean our holy deva-bhASa. should have been born 2500 years ago. changing date of Chandragupta Maurya calling him a contemporary of Alexander. Jones and others Dr. destroyed our faith. Taranath Shastry's 20 Years of research and collection of authentic manuscripts There were some Indian Pundits who were genuinely interested in fact-finding. Max Muller. sanskrit speaking people of high intelligence) migrated to India and they taught us everything. • They destroyed our historic records and evidences. So they created a fake proto-indo-european language. sleeping with animals for carnal pleasure and other prohibited acts are actually approved by our shastra-s • They forged fake coins of Chandragupta Maurya to support their claims. kalpa sutras and our vedA-s also. grihya sutra-s. Bhandarkar . He did 20 years of research. Disappearance of Pt. bhArtiya-s as poors chaps of inferior intelligence. which is the root of all. • They forged our shastras which include bhaviSya purANa. R. Wilson. • Created fake Aryan Invasion theory to make us feel homeless. Since he did not had enough finding. Why? If one is interested in studying religions of others. he split his research in 8 volumes. In 1916. • They also changed and interpolated dharma smriti-s. This shows the wicked mentality of the then Britishers.highly influenced by Max Muller's works and his research Bal Gandhar Tilak .Understanding Advaita . sanskrit. • Compared our devatA-s with greek and other mythologies and equating them with nature spirits. Radhakrishnan . purANa-s. They did this to endorse animal killing. Initially they could not find any concrete evidence of any language prior to sanskrit.G. To maintain consistency. They saw the truth was different then that is propagated. The first volume was Page 413 of 619 . • Calling our purANa-s are mythology. refuted false claims by Britishers and attempted to publish them.who dated vedas to 1500-200 BC S. Germans (Aryans. they also study their first religion. and of superstitious and primitive nature. This also resulted in postponement of date of our beloved AcArya Adi Sankara.

his entire 20 years of hard work mysteriously disappeared and long with his written books and manuscripts and a year after that he died. Pt. Refuted the arguments of the European writers and established the correct dates of the kings of Magadha from Brihadrath dynasty up to the Gupt dynasty according to the purANa-s ad also the inscriptions and the coins.Understanding Advaita . his other book. The facts he brought were 1. coins and the inscriptions to align it with Ashokvardhan of Maurya dynasty (which in fact was related to Ashokaditya of Gupt dynasty) 9. which comes to 509-477 BC. Refuted the Identity of Chandragupta Maurya with Sandracottus (Sandrocottus) by Jones 6. Refuted the arguments of western writers and correctly proved the date of mahAbhArat as 3139 BC 3. Taranath Shastry's 20 Years of research and collection of authentic manuscripts published under the title. In the introduction of this book. Established date of SankarAcArya 2593 of kaliyug to 2625.. Page 414 of 619 . Narayana Sastry wrote contents of full 800 pages book which he was going to publish in future. Gave full date-wise list of the king of lunar dynasties (chandra vanSa) and also of solar dynasties (sUrya vanSa) . 2. while refuting arguments of western writers and gave a full history of all five maths (including kamakoti math) of SankarAcArya with his discipline successions. Points of deliberate misinterpretations by European writers in the Rajtarangini and fixed the correct chronology of the kings of Kashmir 5. 'The Kings of Magadha' was published in which he extensively quoted from bhaviSya purANa.. In 1917. Produced unbroken list of historic dates of the kings of Nepal from the end of dvapAra yUga up to the 20th century 7. 'The Age of Shankra'. etc 8.Disappearance of Pt. Pointed out fabrications of European writers how have they manipulated the interpretations of edicts. Established date of Lord Buddha in 19th century BC 4. but that valuable work was all destroyed as a piece of their simple diplomatic game. (Kaliyug Rajvrittant) But immediately after that.

However their real intention behind translation our SAStra-s was to present them in a demeaning way. Interpolations and fabrications were not difficult in those days. Instead of copy pasting articles. the reasons behind fact-finding are not always good. but does not harm in any way to the contents of book. Partiger et al and Britannica Encyclopedia Many eastern and western scholars have appraised the work of Max Muller and H. It is published by Macmillan Publications. swami ji enters into in-depth analysis.H. E. William Jones. dvArkA. F. Max Muller.Conspiracies by East India Co. even today (March 2014). To know more about such conspiracies. finally settled in Braj and practised Chaitanya bhakti'. Sometimes a tinge of his philosophy comes. Source: "The True History and the Religion of India: An Encyclopedia of Authentic Hinduism". Wilson. Note: First few chapters may not sound interesting. one *must* read a book titled "The True History and the Religion of India: An Encyclopedia of Authentic Hinduism" Swami Prakashanand Saraswati (titled dharm chakravarti. ? Unfortunately.H> Wilson.Understanding Advaita . Page 322 shows above 9 points. but later left to jungle and spend 20 years in roaming. Max Muller. The above facts were presented so that we can understand that. but later on after chapter 9 or so. It is needless to say that we should have complete faith in our scriptures. Jones and others Even now. the records of pUrI. Page 415 of 619 . Wilson. Swami was disciple of Swami Brahmananda Saraswati of Jyoti MAth. Swami ji provides authentic proofs and scientific evidences for all his claims and gives correct pictures of our glorious bhArat varSa.477 BC. it is better to redirect readers to the original content. H. An intro is given here and few list of articles are given here. The book is also available at Flipkart and Motilal Banarsidass and Sons. A website is created to expose their real intention and spread the truth. kAmakotI and GauDa sArasvat (GAuDapadAcArya's lineage) math-s shows that the actual birth of our gurU Adi Sankara was 509 . our kids are taught history as fabricated by East India Company and sadly this wrong teach extends to the post graduation in Indian History and Religion. after this work). We should be proud of our culture and rich history and of course of our scriptures.

H. and the suppression of Sanskrit language. Major falsehoods as promoted by the British How did the British fabricate and destroy the historic records of India and misguide the whole world? There are many more links. H. introduction of English language. please visit the original website for further details. E. Wilson F. List of all Articles Published | Sitemap Page 416 of 619 . Wilson.H. and mutilate our history First effort of Jones (1784) and the secret planning The fiction of Aryan invasion. Radhakrishnan Organized efforts of the British to destroy our culture and religion. and H. F. Pargiter S. E.Understanding Advaita .Max Muller. William Jones. Partiger et al and Britannica Encyclopedia Max Muller Asiatic Researches group of people.

tantra. etc. smriti-s and purANa-s and blends all into one harmonious system. Shakta. Lets examine what makes one a jagadguru. Saiva. nyAya. we come to know that 1. Smriti-s (Dharmashastra-s) . He didn't interpret them only from Symbolic. Agamic. bhArat is soaked in spirituality. In this context. AcArya also commented on 1. There are many traditions.For cultivating bhakti 2. non-different.A Jagadguru There are many explanations given for one to become jagadguru.A Jagadguru Updated 23rd July 2015 Adi Sankara .For instilling Bhakti.Ethical and Moral Laws for universal well-being and harmony. It is only a 28 verse hymn. Adi Shankara in his commentaries has cited references of 1. Our AcArya Adi Sankara possessed those qualities of a jagadguru. do not contradict veda-s. while some say the one who spreads nAma sankirtan. the yuga dharma. Hence only an avatar can be a jagadguru. it is almost impossible for human being to have this knowledge. 2. some say by touring India and winning debates make one jagadguru.Karma Kand. Vishnu Sahasranama explaining meaning of various names (attributes) of Vishnu and indicated Brahma-Vishnu-Shiva abheda i. Also represents Practical life. ItihAsa (MahabhArata and RAmAyaNa) . who are manifestation of brahman. and his extant works. Mephoric or esoteric point of view.A Jagadguru Adi Sankara .Understanding Advaita . He has cited as many as 12 PurANa-s including upapurANa-s. harmonizes all paths. he took stories as literal. corrects flaws in practice like removing weed gathered over a period of time. From his biographies. Some say that by writing commentaries on prasthAntrayI. A jagadguru in my opinion is the one who teaches all paths. A jagadguru removes misconceptions.Adi Sankara . 3. a jagadguru must have mastery over not only one siddhAnta. but they have pluralistic approach in a way that many forms of God are given. is a jagadguru. refines it. vAmcAra mArg (left hand path). Shruti-s (veda-s and Upanishads) . 4. but many siddhanta-s. but considered as very Page 417 of 619 . thereby indicating their importance. one becomes a jagadguru. and offers in pure distilled form.e. Patanjali Yoga Sutra-s . PurANa-s .AcArya wrote Sub commentary on Patanjali Yoga Sutra-s by the name Yoga tArAvalI. MimAmsA 2. vaiSnav. Obviously. cArvAka. yOga. Our scriptures are monotheists.

often recommended to be read first). but he established one of the amnaya peetha (math) right there. Was a master of mantra sAdhanA. Hence he created independent grantha-s. Page 418 of 619 . The famous Jagannatha Puri Temple was once deserted and the idol was missing. To manage temple. Acharya reconsecrated Sri Yantra at Kamakshi Temple in Kanchi thereby reviving temple worship and riving Sakta tradition. Attempt for Universal Harmony . section or chapter of a book) 3. Adi Shankara also composed devotional hyms to various deities. viShNu and sUrya as different manifestations of same brahman. Shiva PancAkshara Stotra. Atma Bodh. travelled length and breath of India and knew that it would be difficult for many to understand Advaita. AcArya composed PrakaraNa Grantha-s. This math is known by the name PurI math. Vivek CuDAmaNi (though basic. Saundarya lahiri. gave Idol's location and ordered him to install the Idol. The Lord appeared in his dream. prabodh sudhAkara (talk about both saguNa and nirguNa brahman and two path. AparokshAnubhUti. Siva. SivAnanda lahiri. naturally agama-s and Vedic Karma Kand are necessary. PrakaraNa Grantha-s are the basic texts that teach basics of Advaita Vedanta. Sakti. Popular ones are . He revived srI yantra upAsanA by re-consecrating srI yantra at kAmAkhyA devI temple at kamakoti (Kanchi) and other temples. Adi Shankara. contains very profound knowledge).Adi Shankara propagated smArta sampradAya. etc 7. Important PrakaraNa Grantha-s are . 8. with the name AdhyAtma-paTala-vivaraNa (आध्ययातम-पटल-शववरण). 5. 4. AcArya composed an essence of tantra in his work prapancasAra tantra and saundarya lahiri. He added sixth deity skanda for universal harmony. 9.DakshinAmurtI Stotra. Adi Shankara reconstructed and repaired many temples.Understanding Advaita . Upadesha Sahasri. 6. On parts of Apastamba Dharma Sutra (sub-commentary on the chapter about inner atman). worship for gaNeSa. Guru pAdukA stotram.Adi Sankara . (paTala means part. He also composed many Independent hymns for instilling devotion. bhakti and GYAna). Tatva Bodh (very basic. Guru aShTakam. Apart from this.A Jagadguru important and is highly revered by Yogi-s 3. Adi Shankara not only installed Idol. Hence he supported them too. Veda SAra Shiva Stavan.

Smriti-s are typically called as 'notes from memory'. Apastamba Dharma Smriti. Smriti-s are also called as dharma Shastra-s (laws code. etc. Base of mountain is very broad. upAsanA. There are 18 smriti-s. Shankha. Adi SankarAcArya has quoted many smriti-s in his bhashya-s. Sakti. Which means that he himself gave importance to them.A Jagadguru All advaitins earlier were smArta-s. viShNu and sUrya). Gautam. just as the sea is the destination of all the waters" Akashat patitam toyam sagaram prati gacchati. smArta-s are the ones who follow smriti-s and worship pancha-devatA (gaNeSa. permit us to take sword for self protection and also allow Brahmins who are starving to take up occupations like trading and even take up the dharma of sword as a last resort. Hence even shruti-s are also important to smArta-s. Critics are of the opinion that devotional compositions praising more than one form of God like kruSNa / govindA or Siva or tripurAsundari cannot be composed by Adi Sankara as they do not match with his core philosophy of advaita. which provide moral and ethical laws. you will have to do nitya karma and carry out your duties.Adi Sankara . Daksha. sarva deva namaskaram Keshavam prati gacchati" Page 419 of 619 . but peak is only one. yOga. until you attain inner purity.Understanding Advaita . Sakta. dharma SAstra-s. they do not take into account many factors which are explained in detail in the article 'Questioning Authenticity of works attributed to Adi Sankara'. some of them are Manu Smriti. but was a vaiShNava are replied in relevant sections viz Authenticity of purANa-s. Siva. Howeve. If we stick to 'Brahma Satya Jagat Mithya'. karma. Our AchArya says. Yagnavalkya. upa-purANa-s and sthala purANa-s and Adi Sankara preached smArta dharma There are famous SubhASitA-s which sum-up his teachings are: Ruchinam vaichitryad rijukutil nana path jusham. while ways to reach them are many. but you are the only destination of all of them. then dharma shastra-s are also useless and everything is illusion which is not true. code of conduct) and are created for universal well being and harmony. Agama-s etc are the foundation on which advaita rests. Atri. nrinam ekogamyastvamasi pyasamarnavmiti" "Due to the differences in individual dispositions. Other objections like authenticity of non-sAttvika purANa-s and Adi Sankara did not preached smArta dharma. people follow different paths. as evident from his commentaries. Advaita is the mountain peak. Great Rishi-s what had mastered Veda-s wrote smriti-s in accordance with Veda-s (shturi-s).

So he asks us to rise above them after you attain inner purity. salutations to all the gods reaches to the KeSava" Note: Here keSava is not kriShNa. prabOdha sudhAkara. his biography and his bhashya-s. He had only 4 disciples. specially the first 40 verses (out of total 100) are said to be very potent. saundarya lahiri is also considered as very powerful composition on Devi bhavAnI. those verses are interpolations. found them incomplete and asked us to rise above them. Shiva Panchakshara stotra and Veda Sara Shiva Stotra is also attributed to him. (ref here for explanation) There is no shortcoming or incompleteness in his teachings. his gurU gOvindpAdaa is considered as incarnation of Shesha Naaga and the same shesha Naaga in earlier incarnation was Maharshi Patanjali. To practice advaita vedAnta. a person. AcArya goes on to praise bhakti towards kruShNa Page 420 of 619 . nothing more needs to be known proclaims shruti. he also composed hymns for various deities . According to our AcArya. karma kand (mimAmsA). and represents highest philosophical truth after knowing this truth. repaired temples. AcArya did not demean any form of God. shakta-s tantra (in pure form). reconsecrated sri yantra-s. as some say. all considered authentic atleast by Kanchi Paramacharya. without knowledge (direct experience of Self). formless Brahman under it's sway trinity works. For masses. but the supreme Self. He also cited tamasic and rajasic puranas which means that unlike Vaishnava-s he did not considered them as leading to hell. is corrupted and hence rejected by rivals. nor advaita is an incomplete philosophy.A Jagadguru "All the water fallen from the sky goes to the sea. Adi Shankaracharya only established advaita as highest philosophical truth. but he did not consider them as the supreme goal. It is the crest jewel of vedAnta. Hence he even propagated bhakti. He himself did not gave Jnana to any grihastha and gave utmost importance to sanyAsa for attaining brahma-vidyA. or in other words. In his lesser known work. They show all harmonious attitude of our AcArya. liberation is not possible. and only his prasthAntrayI Bhashya is considered as authentic and are undoubtedly attributed to Adi Shankaracharya. Citing 12 purANa-s which includes 3 up-purANa-s in his Vishnu Sahasranam Bhashya shows that he was in full support of purANa-s and he did not devised symbolic meaning. Unfortunately some parts of his biography. Our AcArya accepted them upto a certain point. as one can fully devote all 24 hours to God. nor did condemn or opposed any philosophy. Then there is Dakshinamurti stotra.Understanding Advaita . If we blend even some of his hymns. vairAgya and burning desire for liberation are extremely important. that too after walking the length and breadth of India.Adi Sankara . we can understand why he is called as Jagat Guru. This shows that he did not teach advaita to all. According to mAdhaviya shankara Digvijay (written by VidyaraNya Svami). This means he encouraged deity worship.

Our AcArya blended yOga. Narasimha's form disappeared 5. upAsanA kAnDa. etc. tantra (Sakta). GYAna kAnDa. He touches the snake. he saw a snake loosely coiled round his neck. He meditated on Lord Shiva with Dhyana sloka of Dakshinamurthy stotra (some consider it as not authored by Adi Sankara. Guru of current Sringeri Shankaracharya SrI bhArtI tirtha (current SankarAcArya as in 2015) shows us that paramAcArya AV had been passed through many types of sAdhanA-s including haTha yoga. su 240. vedAnta (advaita). Meditative journey of AV will help us to understand why SankarACarya-s are called as 'jagadguru'. an example is sarasvatI rahasya upanishad. in false. Snake seemed to have liked his touched and rested his fin on his right cheek.Understanding Advaita . kundalini and Nadis like ida.Adi Sankara . kundalini yoga. he got so much intimate to him that he experienced that every thing is an offering to Narasimha like bathing. bhagavAn viShNu can be said to be our AcArya's ISTa devatA. AV then meditated on Lord shiva with Snake as his ornament (thats what the verse was). After an hour. Amba gave her knowledge of chakras. these are the reasons why our AchArya is reverentially called as Jagadguru. A book. karma kANDa. fake SAstra-s. From the book we can conclude that Sringeri AcArya-s consider all 108 upanishands as authentic even though they are not quoted by any pUrvAcArya-s. there is no need to liberation. Enlightenment and Perfection of Sri Abhinava Vidyatirtha Mahaswami (AV)'. AcArya goes into ecstasy and claims that for the ones socked in pure bhakti. When he experienced Narasimha as an antar yamin. He could even hear the voice saying that this is anahat chakra 3. narasihma and SArdAmbA upAsanA. Life of Sringeri AcArya SrI Abhinava vidyAtirthA mahAsvAmI There are and were many AcArya-s who were actively engaged in polemical debates to defend advaita. Lord Shiva himself taught Hatha Yoga and some kriyas in a series of 7 consecutive dreams 2. When he was meditating on Narasimha. We will have to understand that a guru will never instruct his beloved disciple who is also chosen by ambA / SArdAmbA herself as the next successor to the peetham. 'Yoga. pingala. but he never denigrated any other form of God like Siva or Sakti. who the guru has already announced a shis successor when he gave sanyasa at the age of 13 1/2 years). (pra. Adi Sankara also recalls many lilA-s of kruShNa bhagavAn. 250). Amba gave him her darshan 6.