Plant Lay-out

Overall objective – to design a physical arrangement which meets Required output Required quality Required quantity Most economically .Plant Lay-out Definition -It refers to physical arrangement of production facilities . • Operating equipments. • Material handling equipments • All other support services.It is the configuration of Departments-Work centers –equipments in the conversion process According to Moore. • Storage space.It is a plan of : • Arrangement of facilities including personnel.

Material. Change in the product design / new product introduction Volume of product change for the company’s product Increased accident frequency in existing layout Outdated plant machines. To be replaced by new ones Poor working environment affecting workers efficiency & productivity Change in the location or the market Minimising the unit manufacturing cost thru’ effective facility location Principles of Plant Layout: 1 Principle of Integration – One which integrates Men.e. i. 6.Plant Lay-out : contd Layout changes arise due to: 1.e utilise horizontal & vertical space in stores & production shop both . 4. Machines. 3. straight line movement 3 Principle of Cubic Space Utilisation – i. 7. 2. as far as possible. supporting services 7 others 2 Principle of Minimum Distance – It is concerned with minimum travel (movement). of men & material by arrangement of facilities to ensure – minimum distance travelled by men & material. 5.

Security & Satisfaction . mass production 3 Scale of production 4 Availability of total area 5 Arrangement of material handling system 6 Type of building. no back tracking 5 Principle of Maximum flexibility. Process industry 2 Production system: job shop.e.A good layout is one which can be altered without much cost & time’ i. future requirements should be taken in to account while designing the present layout.Plant Lay-out : contd 4 Principle of Flow .dedicated or general purpose.single or multi-story 7 Future expansion plan 8 Type of production facilities. batch production .A good layout is one that reduces the material handling to minimum.A good layout is one that gives due consideration to workers safety. Factors influencing Plant layout 1 Type of production: Engineering industry.. .e. theft etc. & Satisfaction & Safeguards the plant & machinery against fire. 7 Principle of Minimum Handling .. 6 Principle of Safety.A good layout is one that makes the material to move in forward direction towards completion stage i.

Plant Lay-out : contd Advantages of plant layout: 1 Advantages to workers: Good layout will reduce efforts of the workers & minimise the manual material handling. 4 Advantages to production control: It facilitates production through uniform & uninterrupted flow of materials & helps to carry out production activities within the predetermined time period & with effectiveness. 2 Advantages to the management: Reduces labour cost. This gives enhanced competitiveness in mfg. Reduces accidents & provides bettr working conditions. 3 Advantages to Manufacturing: Minimizes movement between work centers & also results in reduced manufacturing cycle. enhances productivity thus reduces unit cost. .

Plant Lay-out : contd Type of manufacturing system High Job Type Variety Batch Low Mass Production Low Volume High .

.Thus in process layout the arrangement of facilities are grouped together according to their functions.g all lathes. Milling m/c Lathes Assembly Welding Grinder Inspection Shipping Painting & receiving The flow paths of material thru’ the facilities from one function to another vary from product to product Usually paths are long & there will be possibility of back tracking Process Layout . milling machines.Plant Lay-out : contd Types of Layout 1 Functional Layout ( Process layout) – Recommended for batch production. etc are groupes in the shop will be clustered in like groups .All machines performing similar type of operations are grouped at one location in the process layout e.

2 Material handling cannot be mechanised which adds to cost. 6 Supervisors will become highly knowledgeable about the functions under their department. 6 Lowered productivity due to number of set-ups. 3 Higher utilisation of production facilities. Disadvantages1 Backtracking & long movements may occur in the handling of materials thus reducing material handling efficiency. 5 Variety of job makes the job challenging & interesting. 3 Process time is prolonged which reduces the inventory turnover & increases investment in inventories. 2 Lower investment on account of less number of machines & lower cost of general purpose machines. 4 Production planning & control is difficult 5 More space is required. 4 Greater flexibility with regards to work distribution to machineries & workers.Plant Lay-out : contd Functional Layout ( Process layout) : contd Advantages – 1 Flexibility of equipment & personnel. .

Special purpose machines are used which perform the required function quickly & reliably.Plant Lay-out : contd Product Layout (line Layout) In this type of layout the machines are arranged in the sequence as required by the product If the volume of production of one or more products is large. The equipment is closely placed along the sequence in which the item is processed. the facilities can be arranged to achieve efficient flow of materials & lower cost per unit. A typical product type layout is shown belowTurning operation Milling operation Drilling operation Assembly Inspection Package dispatch Product Layout .

3 Manufacturing cycle is short due to uninterrupted flow of materials 4 Simplified production planning & control 5 Small amount of work in process inventory 6 Unskilled workers can learn & manage the production Disadvantages 1 Lack of flexibility.Plant Lay-out : contd Product Layout (line Layout).contd Advantages 1 Reduced material handling cost due to mechanised handling system & straight flow 2 Perfect line balancing which eliminates bottlenecks & idle capacity. 4 Dependence of the whole activity on each part .a change in product may require the facility modification. 2 Large capital investment 3 Dedicated or special purpose machines. Breakdown of any one machine in the sequence may result in stoppage of production. .

material.Plant Lay-out : contd Combination Layout. machinery.Also called Hybrid or mixed type of layout. 2) The workers identify themselves with a product in which they take interest & pride in doing the job. The cost of transportation of these parts are very high The major advantage of this type of layout are1) Helps in job enlargement & upgrades the skill of the operators.Also called project type of layout In this type of layout. It is usually a process layout combined with product layout For manufacturing various component parts process layout is used & for assembly product layout is used. 3) Greater flexibility with this type of layout 4) Layout capital investment is lower . Fixed Position layout. men & other materials are brought to this location This is suitable when one or few pieces of identical heavy products are to be manufactured & when the assembly consists of large number of heavy parts . or major components remain in a fixed location & tools.

i) to determine component families or groups.Plant Lay-out : contd Group LayoutThe current trend now is to bring an element of flexibility in to manufacturing system as regards to variation in batch sizes & sequence of operations. & ii) In applying GT is to arrange plant equipments used to process a particular family of components This represents a plant within the plants GT reduces production planning time for jobs It reduces the set up time . A grouping of equipment for for performing a sequence of operations on family of similar components or products has become all important Group Technology (GT) is the analysis & comparison of items to group them in to families with similar characteristics . This technique is very useful for companies that produce variety of parts in small batches to enable them to take advantage & economics of flow line layout. GT can be used to develop a hybrid between pure process layout & pure flow line (Product) layout. Application of GT involve two basic steps.

low. high .C. V. same sequence of operations for all product Flow predictable & systematic can be easily automated High turnover of RM & WIP BD In any one m/c stops Prodn Simple Low Efficient F.C high . stable output rate Straight line.C.C low Process Layout All similar facilities are grouped together. Low volume high variety Diversified products using common Operations Variable flow for each product type Cannot be automated as flow Depends upon product type. Low turnover of both RM & WIP Can tolerate Break Down Complex High Low F. V.Plant Lay-out : contd Comparison between Process & Product Layout Characteristics Product Layout 1 Nature 2Application 3 Product 4 Work flow 5 Material Handling 6 Inventory 7 Breakdowns 8 Production centre 9 Flexibility 10 Space utilisation 11 Product Cost A sequence of facilities as per processing requirement High volume few products Standardised.

7 More frequent accidents 8 Difficult to supervise & control 9 Spoilage of products during handling 10 Production line bottlenecks. 5 Long production cycles 6 Excessive handling of materials.Plant Lay-out : contd Symptoms of poor layout: 1 Long material flow lines & backtracking (re-handling) 2 Poor space utilisation 3 Congestion for movement of material & men 4 Large amount of work in process. .

d) There is small or intermittent demand for the products. standardised product & high volume c) Study demand for the product d) Balanced operations & continuity of material flow 3 Fixed position layout is used when – a) The operation requires only hand tools or single machine b) Making only one or a few pieces of product c) The cost of moving material is very high d) The skill of workmanship lies in the abilities of workers . b) Variety of products is high & ‘make to order’ production c) There is a wide variation in cycle time of operations of products. Product & Fixed Position Layout 1 Process layout is used when – a) Machinery is highly expensive & not easily moved. 2 Product layout is used when – a) Production is “make to stock” or mass production system b) Limited variety.Plant Lay-out : contd When to use Process.

The data is to be collected regarding the various processes. material flow. activities & their relationships The following tools & techniques are used to analyse the data 1) Process charts – operation process chart. space requirements. frequency of travel. flow process chart 2) Travel chart 3) Diagrams . sequence of operations.Flow diagram & & string diagram 4) REL – Relationship chart 5) Templates 6) Scaled Models .Plant Lay-out : contd Tools & Techniques of making plant layout The quality & quantity of the data on various factors is required to develop a good layout.

3 Select the general flow pattern for the materials 4 Design the individual work stations. & record the data systematically. 5 Assemble the initial layout in accordance with the general flow pattern & the building facilities. 2 Analyse the data using various techniques of analysis. 6 Coordinate the plan with plan for handling materials 7 Complete the plant layout. etc. 8 Convert the plant layout in to floor plans that is to be used by the plant engineer for installation of equipment.Plant Lay-out : contd Plant Layout Procedure1 Collect the detailed information about the product. . processes.

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