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Text Reading: Ch 10 & 11
Learning Objectives • Explain the two major points of Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution. • Describe how natural selection is more a process of editing than a process of creation. • Explain how biological classification, the fossil record, biogeography, comparative anatomy, comparative embryology, vestigial structures, and DNA similarities provide evidence of common descent.
• Discuss the evidence that humans and great apes share a recent common ancestor.
What is Evolution?
Evolution: Change in the ____________________ ___________________of organisms that occurs over the course of generations. • Evolutionary changes are inherited via genes. • Other changes may take place because of environmental changes and are not necessarily evolutionary.
Persistent Pests: DDT-resistant mosquitoes
• 1960s, the WHO began a campaign to eradicate the mosquitoes that transmit malaria.
• Used DDT, to which some mosquitoes have evolved resistance.
The Process of Evolution
• Populations evolve, NOT individuals. • The genetic makeup of a population ____________ _________________________________________. • Mosquitoes and DDT example:
• Individuals without a gene for resistance died • Over time, the population changed to mostly resistant individuals • Initially, the frequency of the DDT-resistant allele was low. Over time, it became more frequent.
Natural Selection Natural selection: in a population. over time the frequency of the favorable traits _____________ in the population. – Individuals with these traits leave _______ offspring than others. – Thus. individuals with certain heritable traits can _______________ ___________better than other individuals without these traits. – The offspring tend to have these traits that are favorable for that environment. .
– Antibiotic resistance in infectious bacteria – Drug-resistant strains of HIV .Evolution by Natural Selection • Examples of natural selection include – Pesticide resistance in cropeating insects.
Evolutionary Adaptation • The result of natural selection is evolutionary adaptation. . Adaptation: an inherited characteristic that _______________ an organism’s ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment.
The Peppered Moth .Evolutionary Adaptation • The result of natural selection is evolutionary adaptation.
Microevolution vs Macroevolution • Microevolution: changes that occur within a species and the characteristics of a population. . over long periods of time and result in the origin of new species. Controversial among non-biologists. Easily observed. as a result of microevolution. • Macroevolution: changes that occur. relatively non-controversial.
Organisms observed today Time (thousands of generations) Evolution Evolution Common ancestor . • All species represent the product of millions of years of accumulated evolutionary changes.The Theory of Common Descent • All species present on earth today are descendents of a single common ancestor.
he did not “invent” the idea.Early Views of Evolution • Charles Darwin is considered to be the father of modern evolution.000 yrs old – Anaximander (611-546 B. – Aristotle (384-322 B. do not evolve – Judeo-Christian culture: fortified idea. • Early philosophers debated whether species were fixed or changed over time.C.C.): species fixed. However. Earth ~6.): humans evolved from fish that had moved onto land .
inner drive for perfectionism that led them to develop new characteristics – Acquired characteristics could be passed on to offspring .Early Views of Evolution (cont’d) • Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1809): Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics – Organisms evolve by the process of adaptation – All organisms had an innate.
Charles Darwin • Father of modern evolution (Darwinism) • Ideas shaped by – Voyage of the HMS Beagle • Employed as ship’s naturalist • Collected thousands of specimens • Observed various adaptations in organisms – Principles of Geology by Charles Lyell. • Postulated Earth was old and changes occurred over long periods of time .
Darwin and the Voyage of the Beagle • December 1831. Darwin left Great Britain on the HMS Beagle .
– Galápagos organisms resembled those in South America. ~600 mi .The Voyage of the Beagle (cont’d) • Darwin intrigued by – Geographic distribution of organisms on the Galápagos Islands.
Galapagos Islands tortoises vary with their environments. but each island had a different type. Each island had tortoises. .
yet they had similarity to each other and to the ones on the mainland. . Each island had its own type.He noted a similar pattern with iguanas.
Contemporary species were not created in their present form but evolved from ancestral species by modification over time (ie decent with modification). Proposed a mechanism for evolution: NATURAL SELECTION .Darwin and The Origin of Species • 1836. Returned to Great Britain but did not publish his ideas immediately. 2. • 1859. Published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection 1.
– Much of this variation is heritable. – This leads to a struggle for existence. • Observation 2: Individual variation – Variation exists among individuals in a population. .Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection • Based his theory of natural selection on 2 key observations: • Observation 1: Overproduction – All species tend to produce excessive numbers.
and new species can arise. Difference in form Time (d) Common descent Species do change over time. Time (c) Separate types Species do change over time. Difference in form Time Difference in form Time Difference in form . and new species can arise.Hypotheses on the Origin of Modern Organisms (a) Static model Species arise separately and do not change over time. but each group of species derives from a separate ancestor that arose independently. All species derive from a common ancestor. (b) Transformation Species arise separately but do change over time in order to adapt to the changing environment.
Evidence of Evolution • Several lines of biological evidence point to a common ancestor: – Biological classification – Anatomical similarities between organism – Shared developmental pathways – Useless traits in modern species – DNA and protein similarities – Distribution of organisms on Earth (biogeography) – Fossil evidence .
Biological Classification • Organisms classified into a hierarchy according to biological similarities • Linnean classification: Most inclusive groups (share general characteristics) Least inclusive groups (share many detailed characteristics) .
Anatomical Similarities between Organisms • Comparative anatomy: comparison of body structure ___________________________________________. The underlying structure is similar despite the very different functions. • Homology: similarity in structures due to common ancestry. Humerus Radius and ulna Carpals Metacarpals Phalanges Bat Sea lion Lion Chimpanzee Human . • Example: Mammalian forelimbs have the same set of bones.
• Example: comparative embryology of vertebrates Snake Chicken Possum Cat Bat Human Pharyngeal slits Tail Early embryo Intermediate embryo Late embryo .Shared Developmental Pathways • Comparative embryology: comparison of structures that appear during _______________________________ ___________________________________________.
Useless Traits in Modern Species • Vestigial structures: rudimentary structures that do not have a function in modern species but were functioning in ancestral species. • Examples: Boa-constrictors grow tiny hind legs Duckbill platypuses grow and re-absorb teeth before birth Human coccyx and prenatal tail Human appendix Human wisdom teeth .
.DNA and Protein Similarities • Evolutionary relationships can be determined by comparing ________________________________ of different organisms. • More closely related species have more similarity in DNA and protein sequences than more distantly related species.
Biogeography • Biogeography: the study of the _____________ _______________________________ of species. . • Example: Different species of mockingbird found on Galapagos Islands all resemble another species found on the mainland. • Related species should be close to each other.
Biogeography • Continents were once all united .
The Fossil Record • Fossils: preserved remnants or impressions left by organisms that lived in the past. – Are often found in sedimentary rocks. .
Equus Merychippus 1 toe Hyracotherium (Eohippus) 4 toes Mesohippus 3 toes 3 toes Horse ancestor 55 Modern horse 40 17 Millions of years ago 4 . • Contains transitional forms that link past and present. • Reveals the appearance of organisms in a historical sequence.Fossil Evidence • Fossil record: ordered sequence of fossils as they appear in rock layers.
• Are humans related to apes? .Humans and Apes Share a Common Ancestor • The same lines of evidence that support common descent can be used to look for the closest relatives of humans.
Biological Classification of Humans Linnaean classification Domain (Eukarya) Kingdom (Animalia) Phylum (Chordata) Class (Mammalia) Order (Primates) Family (Hominidae) Genus (Homo) Species (Homo sapiens) .
Biological Classification of Humans Shared characteristics of humans and apes Order Primates Family Hominidae Subfamily Homininae Squirrel monkey Orangutan Gorilla Common chimpanzee Bonobo Human increase in size of genital structures delayed sexual maturity broad incisors shortened canine teeth enlarged brow ridges elongated skull reduced hairiness large brain no tail more erect posture increased flexibility of thumb Mammal ancestor .
66% Gorilla 98.90% Chimpanzee 99.9% .DNA Similarities • The DNA sequences of humans and great apes are highly similar African monkey 96.01% Human 99.
• Appendix • Wisdom teeth/ canine teeth .Anatomical and Developmental Similarities • Tail: Great apes and humans have tailbone (coccyx) but no tail • Goose bumps: Arrector pili muscles at base of body hair cause hair to stand up when tensed.
Chimpanzee Human Foramen magnum Base of skull Back of skull Pelvis Accommodate four-legged stance Modified for upright stance Larger arms Limbs relative to body Larger legs Feet Grasping Weight bearing .Anatomical Differences between Humans & Chimps • Differences in the mode of locomotion explain many of the skeletal differences between humans and chimpanzees.
Biogeography and Fossil Evidence • Darwin predicted that fossils of early human ancestors would be found in Africa. . • Early hominin fossils such as “Lucy” provide evidence that the earliest human ancestors arose in Africa. the home of modern great apes.
. Correlates with molecular evidence of when chimps and humans diverged.Evolutionary Relationship between Fossil Hominins • Radiometric dating of fossils can be used to estimate the age of fossils. • Fossils of oldest human ancestors 5-6 million years old.
smaller teeth Australopithecus afarensis Australopithecus africanus Homo habilis Homo sapiens Age of fossil as Ancient hominin determined by radiometric dating 3.Trends in Human Evolution from the Fossil Record • Larger brains • Flatter face • Reduced jaw size.8 1.5 (million years ago) Modern hominin 2.7 0 .
• Important to understand it because it helps scientists grapple with modern issues.Evolution Unites All of Biology • Evolutionary theory impacts all aspects of modern biology. – Identifying function of human genes – Understanding species interactions – Predicting biological consequences of climate change .
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