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Fundamentals of Electronic Circuit Design
Contents 1- Structure of an Atom 1.1 Material Photo effective 2- Material types (Conductor, and Semiconductor, Insulator) 3- Intrinsic semiconductor 3.1 Extrinsic semiconductor (P-type and N-type) 4- P-N Junction (Diode) 4.1 Diode Equivalent cct. 4.2 Diode DC analysis 5- Diode AC applications 5.1 Rectifier 5.2 Clipper circuits 5.3 Clamper circuits 6- Zener Diode 7- Bipolar junction transistor (BJT) 8- Field Effect Transistor FET 8.1 Junction Field Effect Transistor ( JFET) 8.2 Metal Oxide Semiconductor field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) Reference 1-Thomas L .Floyd “Electronsic Devices” 2005. 2-U.A Bakshi “ Electronics Engineering “ First Edition ,2008 3-Jacob Millman”Microelectronics “ second Edition 1987
1.Structure of an Atom
Dr.Ekbal Hussian Ali
1 The nature of the Atom The atom consists of a central nucleus surrounded by orbiting electrons . 1-2 The Number of Electron in Each orbit(or shell) Dr.Ekbal Hussian Ali .1 The nucleus consists of positively charged particles called protons and uncharged particles called neutron. The basic particles of negative charege are called electrons In a normal atom the number of protons is equal to the number electrons .as shown in the Fig. The fource of the the attraction between electron and proton follows by Columb's Law. Electron + Nucleus Fig.1 Atom structure Orbital The charge of proton ( inside the nucleus) equal to the electrons charge.1.While the atomic weight is approximately equal to the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.The number of protons in an atom is called as its atomic number .
do not move in same orbit . that lead to Dr. There are two attractive Forces FP : Potential Force FK : Kinetic Force.The first orbit can occupy electrons ( 2 ×12 =2) The maximum number of electrons that can exist in the second shell is Ne=2 (2) 2 =8 The maximum number of electrons that can exist in the third shell Ne=2 (3) 2 =8 All shells in a given atom must be completely filled with electrons except the outer (Valence )shell 1-3 Bohr Atom The hydrogen contain one electron in his orbital call (Bohr Atom). FP = FK = q2 4πε0 r 2 (1) FK FP r + m v2 r (2) where q: electron Charge = 1.859 *10-12 F/m )+Fig.n is the number of orbil.11*10-31 Kg ε0 : permittivity of air = 8.602 *10-19 C m : electron mass = 9.Ekbal Hussian Ali . (2) Bohr Atom (H v : velocity of electron (m/sec) r : radius of the orbit (m) The condition for equilibrium the two force is equal.The electrons which are revolving round the nucleus .The electrons are arranged in the different orbits at an orbit can contain maximum number of electrons (Ne)can be calculated by the formula Ne= 2n 2 .
(3) by Eq.(6) the r by q2 v = 1 2 h ε0 n (7) 1-4Atomic Energy There are two types of energy at the atom.q2 4πε0 r 2 v2 = = m v2 r (3) q 2 4πε0 m r The stationary state is determined by the condition. (5) the result is h 2ε r = 0 π m q2 n2 (6) by using Eq.Ekbal Hussian Ali . the angular momentum of electron in this state be integral multiple of nh 2π h /( 2π ) as mvr= (4) where h : Plank'c constant = 6.626 * 10-34 J.sec n : orbital number nh 2π m r v = (5) by using Eq. iPotential Energy EP of electron at distance from the nucleus Dr.(3) with Eq.
6 (ev) n2 For the First energy level n=1 Dr.we have ET = − 13. Example Determine the first three allowed electron energies in the hydrogen atom and draw the energy level diagram ET = −13. h 2 in equation (10) for electron inhydrogenatom .q. εo .EP = − q2 4πε 0 r (8 ii.6 (ev) n2 ev : the electron volt unit.Ekbal Hussian Ali . Kinetic Energy EK for the electron moving around the nucleus m v2 2 EK = (9) therefore the total Energy are ET = Ek+Ep ET = Ek + Ep = ET = − q4 8πε 0 r = − q2 m v2 + 2 4πε 0 r 2 2 2 − m q4 1 8h ε 0 n (Joule) (10) Putting values of m .
6 12 (ev) = −13.The concept of energy level is shown in the Fig.0E= T 3= n ve 65.51ev (n = ∞ (Ionization Level ET = 0 ev 4= n ve 78.Ekbal Hussian Ali .G) 1=n ) ve 6.39ev For the third energy level n=3 ET = − 13.(3) Energy level increases from first shell to valence shell as the distance from the nucleus the increases Dr.1E= T 2=n ve 14.6 32 (ev) = −1.6 22 (ev) = −3.3E= T S.ET = − 13.More energy level indicates that the electrons of that shell are loosely bound to the nucleus as having highest energy level .Nucl (Ground Level ) (+Fig. The Energy levels of Bohr atom (H 1-5 Atomic Energy Levels The energy level of shell one is lowermost while the energy level of valence shell is highest .31ET = .6ev For the second energy level n=2 ET = − 13.
More the number of free electrons . if the photon transfer from upper state to lower state radiate photons this case call photon emission.(3) Concept of energy level The Ionization level is the level of number n =∝ .Lowest energy level Valence shell highest energy level Fig. The photon Energy EPh calculated by hC EPh = h f = λ (11) where f : Photon frequency (Hz) λ : Photon wavelength (m) C=3*108 (m/sec) Hint: Angistrom (A0) = 10-10 m Dr. An electron which is not subjected to the force of attraction of the the nucleus is called a free electron .Ekbal Hussian Ali .better is the conductivity of the metal 1.S) absorbed an light (Photon) then transfer to upper state this case call photon absorbsion. The atom by ionize is absorbed energy equal to the level energy.6Photo Affective The electron in ground state (G.
the atom in this case call Ionize and this phenomena call Photo ionization see Fig..(6) Emission Dr.(4) Absorbsion If photon Energy greater or equal to the Energy level then the electron transfer to level n= Inf. this phenomena called (Emission).(5) Photo Ionization E1 b- Emission In this case the electron loss the amount of energy as photon (Light). (5).(4).a- Absorbsion The electron absorb energy when it excite from lower energy level to higher energy level .It jump from higher energy level to lower energy . =n EPh >=E1 Fig.Ekbal Hussian Ali .(13) E2 EPh E1 Fig. Fig. The energy of final orbital can calculate his energy by E 1 − E 2 = hf (12) E2 EPh E1 Fig. The Photon energy calculated by E 2 − E1 = hf ….
Semiconductors and insulators (on the basic of band diagram) The different electrical behavior of materials can be explained qualitatively in terms of their energy band diagrams because each solid has its own Ec characteristics energy band structure as shownband in Fig(7). iii. its know as group of orbital have the same performance.1 Metals.B) and Conduction Band (C. (14) 2. this electrons cause conducing in material. Semiconductor is subtended material between conductor and Insolate material. There are two type of Bands.(two types intrinsic and Extrinsic semiconductor) Energy Band.B). the energy gap between valance band and conduction band small. ii. Energy Gap (E.2 Material Types There are three type of material : i. The electron in C.EV …. Valance Band (V. As shown Fig. Conduction Conduction band Eg Valence band E ev Ev Dr.Ekbal Hussian Ali E E(ev) ev Forbidden gap Valence band Valence Eg >=3ev band Ec x x Metals Semicoducors Conductors Ev Conduction band Insulators Forbidden gap . Conductor is excellent conducting material the energy gap between valance band and conduction band very small. it’s the region separates between valence band and conduction band.B call free electrons.().G). The energy gap is Eg =EC . Insulator is very poor conducting material the energy gap between valance band and conduction band very high. for that the semiconductor is transfer case between conducted and insolated material.
Ekbal Hussian Ali .(7) Band diagram for conductor. semiconductor and insulator Dr.Fig.
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