Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller

ABSTRACT

"Science is the study of the world as it is. Engineering is the creation of the world tomorrow". Science is basically "passive" observation of the universe, as it exists to generate knowledge. Engineering is making use of that knowledge to meet human needs by creating machine, systems, process and technologies that have not previously existed. Design and manufacturing are the synthetic part of engineering practice. Manufacturer has received a lot of attention recently for very good economic reasons. Due to literacy awareness the number of colleges, schools and institutions are rapidly increasing. In present system bells for periods or recess are operated manually. After every class, one employee is engaged into alarming bell. To avoid this, automisation of college bell is possible so the bell would ring automatically at the scheduled time. This project deals with the preparation of circuit for scheduling of bell.

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Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller

INTRODUCTION
This Project takes over the task of ringing of the bell in colleges. It replaces the Manual Switching of the Bell in the College. It has an Inbuilt Real Time Clock (PCF 8583) which track over the Real Time. When this time equals to the bell ringing time, then the relay for the bell is switched ONN. The Bell Ringing time can be edited at any Time, so that it can be used at Normal Class Timings as well as Exam Times. The Real Time Clock is displayed on four 7-segment display. The Microcontroller PIC16F877A is used to control all the Functions, it get the time through the keypad and store it in its Memory. And when the Real time and Bell time get equal then the Bell is switched on for a predetermined time.

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Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller

LITERATURE REVIEW
An electric bell is a mechanical bell that functions by means of an electromagnet. Principle

In DC electric bells, when power is applied, current flows through the coil. The coil becomes an electromagnet, attracting the metal strip. This moves the clanger to hit the bell/gong, but also breaks the circuit. The coil is no longer a magnet, so the clanger moves back. The circuit is thus restored. The process repeats continuously until the power is removed. Government Polytechnic, Amravati 3

Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller AC electric bells do not have interrupting contacts and their coils are powered directly by the source. Their hammers vibrate at same frequency as the frequency of voltage that they are powered by. Lack of contacts makes them more reliable than DC bells. Some electric bells have two cups which generate different tones. When the hammer goes in one direction, it hits one cup, when it moves back, it hits another cup. The sound of such two-tone electric bells is more pleasant.

Applications Two early applications of the electric bell were the telephone and doorbell. Early telephones used electric bells to indicate that there was an incoming call. Doorbells were used by visitors to indicate their presence at the external door of a dwelling or business. Though still in use, the electric bell mechanisms in both telephones and doorbells now compete with nonmechanical noisemaking technologies including electronic oscillators and digitally recorded sounds played back through a speaker. A common style of doorbell uses an AC solenoid coil and a plunger. When the doorbell button is depressed, the plunger is drawn into the solenoid and strikes a gong; a shading coil on the solenoid prevents the Government Polytechnic, Amravati 4

Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller plunger from vibrating at the same frequency as the power supply. When the button is released, a spring retracts the plunger which then strikes a second gong, giving a two-tone sound. A variant has a second solenoid which is wired to the back door and only strikes one gong, allowing front or rear door callers to be identified.

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Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller

COMPONENT LIST & DESCRIPTION
Component List
Microcontroller PIC 16F877A Real Time Clock (RTC) PCF 8583 Transistor BC547 Relay 12v LCD Crystal 32.876 Keypad Voltage regulator 7805 Transformer 09 750mA Capacitor 1000mf, 25v LED Resistor 2.2K, 1K

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Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller

Microcontroller PIC 16F877A
PIC16F873A/876A devices are available only in 28-pin packages, while PIC16F874A/877A devices are available in 40-pin and 44-pin packages. All devices in the PIC16F87XA family share common architecture with the following differences: • The PIC16F873A and PIC16F874A have one-half of the total on-chip memory of the PIC16F876A and PIC16F877A • The 28-pin devices have three I/O ports, while the 40/44-pin devices have five • The 28-pin devices have fourteen interrupts, while the 40/44-pin devices have fifteen • The 28-pin devices have five A/D input channels, while the 40/44-pin devices have eight • The Parallel Slave Port is implemented only on the 40/44-pin devices The available features are summarized in Table 1-1. Block diagrams of the PIC16F873A/876A and PIC16F874A/877A devices are provided in Figure 1-1 and Figure 1-2, respectively. The pinouts for these device families are listed in Table 1-2 and Table 1-3. Additional information may be found in the PICmicro Mid-Range Reference Manual (DS33023), which may be obtained from your local Microchip Sales Representative or Government Polytechnic, Amravati 7

Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller downloaded from the Microchip web site. The Reference Manual should be considered a complementary document to this data sheet and is highly recommended reading for a better understanding of the device architecture and operation of the peripheral modules.

Peripheral Features: • • Timer0: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit prescaler Timer1: 16-bit timer/counter with prescaler, can be incremented during Sleep via external crystal/clock • Timer2: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit period register, prescaler and postscaler • Two Capture, Compare, PWM modules - Capture is 16-bit, max. resolution is 12.5 ns - Compare is 16-bit, max. resolution is 200 ns - PWM max. resolution is 10-bit

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Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller • Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) with SPI™ (Master mode) and I C™(Master/Slave) • Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART/SCI) with 9-bit address detection • Parallel Slave Port (PSP) – 8 bits wide with external RD, WR and CS controls (40/44-pin only) • Brown-out detection circuitry for Brown-out Reset (BOR)

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Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller Block Diagram

Government Polytechnic, Amravati

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Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller Pin Diagram

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Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller

RTC PCF 8583
GENERAL DESCRIPTION The PCF8583 is a clock/calendar circuit based on a 2048-bit static CMOS RAM organized as 256 words by 8 bits. Addresses and data are transferred serially via the two-line bidirectional I2C-bus. The built-in word address register is incremented automatically after each written or read data byte. Address pin A0 is used for programming the hardware address, allowing the connection of two devices to the bus without additional hardware. The built-in 32.768 kHz oscillator circuit and the first 8 bytes of the RAM are used for the clock/calendar and counter functions. The next 8 bytes may be programmed as alarm registers or used as free RAM space. The remaining 240 bytes are free RAM locations.

FEATURES • I2C-bus interface operating supply voltage: 2.5 V to 6 V • Clock operating supply voltage (0 to +70 °C): 1.0 V to 6.0 V • 240 × 8-bit low-voltage RAM • Data retention voltage: 1.0 V to 6 V Government Polytechnic, Amravati 12

Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller • Operating current (at fSCL = 0 Hz): max. 50 µA • Clock function with four year calendar • Universal timer with alarm and overflow indication • 24 or 12 hour format • 32.768 kHz or 50 Hz time base • Serial input/output bus (I2C) • Automatic word address incrementing • Programmable alarm, timer and interrupt function • Slave address: – READ: A1 or A3 – WRITE: A0 or A2.

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Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller

Block Diagram

FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION The PCF8583 contains a 256 by 8-bit RAM with an 8-bit autoincrement address register, an on-chip 32.768 kHz oscillator circuit, a frequency divider, a serial two-line bidirectional I2C-bus interface and a power-on reset circuit. The first 16 bytes of the RAM (memory addresses 00

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Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller to 0F) are designed as addressable 8-bit parallel special function registers. The first register (memory address 00) is used as a control/status register. The memory addresses 01 to 07 are used as counters for the clock function. The memory addresses 08 to 0F may be programmed as alarm registers or used as free RAM locations, when the alarm is disabled.

Counter function modes When the control/status register is programmed, a 32.768 kHz clock mode, a 50 Hz clock mode or an event-counter mode can be selected. In the clock modes the hundredths of a second, seconds, minutes, hours, date, month (four year calendar) and weekday are stored in a BCD format. The timer register stores up to 99 days. The event counter mode is used to count pulses applied to the oscillator input (OSCO left open-circuit). The event counter stores up to 6 digits of data. When one of the counters is read (memory locations 01 to 07), the contents of all counters are strobed into capture latches at the beginning of a read cycle. Therefore, faulty reading of the count during a carry condition is prevented. When a counter is written, other counters are not affected.

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Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller Alarm function modes By setting the alarm enable bit of the control/status register the alarm control register (address 08) is activated. By setting the alarm control register a dated alarm, a daily alarm, a weekday alarm or a timer alarm may be programmed. In the clock modes, the timer register (address 07) may be programmed to count hundredths of a second, seconds, minutes, hours or days. Days are counted when an alarm is not programmed. Whenever an alarm event occurs the alarm flag of the control/status register is set. A timer alarm event will set the alarm flag and an overflow condition of the timer will set the timer flag. The open drain interrupt output is switched on (active LOW) when the alarm or timer flag is set (enabled). The flags remain set until directly reset by a write operation. When the alarm is disabled (Bit 2 of control/status register = 0) the alarm registers at addresses 08 to 0F may be used as free RAM. Control/status register The control/status register is defined as the memory location 00 with free access for reading and writing via the I2C-bus. All functions and options are controlled by the contents of the control/status register.

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Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller

Pinning

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Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller

Voltage Regulator 7805
General Description The LM7805 series of three terminal regulators is available with several fixed output voltages making them useful in a wide range of applications One of these is local on card regulation eliminating the distribution problems associated with single point regulation The voltages available allow these regulators to be used in logic systems instrumentation HiFi and other solid state electronic equipment Although designed primarily as fixed voltage regulators these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltages and currents. The LM7805 series is available in an aluminum TO-3 package which will allow over 10A load current if adequate heat sinking is provided Current limiting is included to limit the peak output current to a safe value Safe area protection for the output transistor is provided to limit internal power dissipation If internal power dissipation becomes too high for the heat sinking provided the thermal shutdown circuit takes over preventing the IC from overheating.

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Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller Considerable effort was expanded to make the LM7805 series of regulators easy to use and mininize the number of external components It is not necessary to bypass the output although this does improve transient response Input bypassing is needed only if the regulator is located far from the filter capacitor of the power supply For output voltage other than 5V, 12V and 15V the LM117 series provides an output voltage range from 12V-57V.

Features  Output current in excess of 1A  Internal thermal overload protection  No external components required  Output transistor safe area protection  Internal short circuit current limit  Available in the aluminum TO-3 package

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Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller Transformer 09, 750mA A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled electrical conductors. A changing current in the first circuit (the primary) creates a changing magnetic field. This changing magnetic field induces a changing voltage in the second circuit (the secondary). This effect is called mutual induction. If a load is connected to the secondary circuit, electric charge will flow in the secondary winding of the transformer and transfer energy from the primary circuit to the load. In an ideal transformer, the induced voltage in the secondary winding (VS) is a fraction of the primary voltage (VP) and is given by the ratio of the number of secondary turns to the number of primary turns:

By appropriate selection of the numbers of turns, a transformer thus allows an alternating voltage to be stepped up — by making NS more than NP — or stepped down, by making it less.

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Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller Transformers come in a range of sizes from a thumbnail-sized coupling transformer hidden inside a stage microphone to huge units weighing hundreds of tons used to interconnect portions of national power grids. All operate with the same basic principles, although the range of designs is wide. While new technologies have eliminated the need for transformers in some electronic circuits, transformers are still found in nearly all electronic devices designed for household ("mains") voltage. Transformers are essential for high voltage power transmission, which makes long distance transmission economically practical.

Resistors 2.2K, 1K
A resistor is a two-terminal electronic component designed to oppose an electric current by producing a voltage drop between its terminals in proportion to the current, that is, in accordance with Ohm's law: V = IR. The resistance R is equal to the voltage drop V across the resistor divided by the current I through the resistor. The primary characteristics of resistors are their resistance and the power they can dissipate. Other characteristics include temperature Government Polytechnic, Amravati 21

Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller coefficient, noise, and inductance. Practical resistors can be made of resistive wire, and various compounds and films, and they can be integrated into hybrid and printed circuits. Size, and position of leads are relevant to equipment designers; resistors must be physically large enough not to overheat when dissipating their power. Variable resistors, adjustable by changing the position of a tapping on the resistive element, and resistors with a movable tap ("potentiometers"), either adjustable by the user of equipment or contained within, are also used. Resistors are used as part of electrical networks and electronic circuits. There are special types of resistor whose resistance varies with various quantities, most of which have names, and articles, of their own: the resistance of thermistors varies greatly with temperature, whether external or due to dissipation, so they can be used for temperature or current sensing; metal oxide varistors drop to a very low resistance when a high voltage is applied, making them suitable for over-voltage protection; the resistance of a strain gauge varies with mechanical load; the resistance of photoresistors varies with illumination; the resistance of a Quantum Tunnelling Composite can vary by a factor of 1012 with mechanical pressure applied; and so on. Government Polytechnic, Amravati 22

Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller

Transistor BC 547
In electronics, a transistor is a semiconductor device commonly used to amplify or switch electronic signals. A transistor is made of a solid piece of a semiconductor material, with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current flowing through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be much larger than the controlling (input) power, the transistor provides amplification of a signal. The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices, and is used in radio, telephone, computer and other electronic systems. Some transistors are packaged individually but most are found in integrated circuits. Government Polytechnic, Amravati 23

Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller

How transistor works?
The essential usefulness of a transistor comes from its ability to use a small signal applied between one pair of its terminals to control a much larger signal at another pair of terminals. This property is called "gain". A transistor can control its output in proportion to the input signal; this is called an "amplifier". Or, the transistor can be used to turn current on or off in a circuit like an electrically controlled "switch", where the amount of current is determined by other circuit elements. The two types of transistors have slight differences in how they are used in a circuit. A bipolar transistor has terminals labelled base, collector and emitter. A small current at base terminal can control or switch a much Government Polytechnic, Amravati 24

Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller larger current between collector and emitter terminals. For a field-effect transistor, the terminals are labelled gate, source, and drain, and a voltage at the gate can control a current between source and drain. The image to the right represents a typical bipolar transistor in a circuit. Charge will flow between emitter and collector terminals depending on the current in the base. Since internally the base and emitter connections behave like a semiconductor diode, a voltage drop develops between base and emitter while the base current exists. The size of this voltage depends on the material the transistor is made from, and is referred to as Vbe.

Capacitor 1000mf, 25v
A capacitor or condenser is a passive electronic component consisting of a pair of conductors separated by a dielectric. When a voltage potential difference occurs between the conductors, an electric field occurs in the dielectric. This field can be used to store energy, to resonate with a signal, or to link electrical and mechanical forces. Capacitors are manufactured as electronic components for use in electrical circuits, but any two conductors linked by an electric field also

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Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller display the fundamental property of capacitance. The effect is greatest between wide, flat, parallel, narrowly separated conductors. An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value, capacitance. This is defined as the ratio of the amount of electric charge in each conductor to the potential difference between them. The unit of capacitance is thus coulombs per volt, or farads. Higher capacitance indicates that more charge may be stored at a given voltage. In practice, the dielectric between the plates passes a small amount of leakage current. The conductors add an additional series resistance (specifically called equivalent series resistance), and the dielectric has an electric field strength limit resulting in a breakdown voltage. The properties of capacitors in a circuit may determine the resonant frequency and quality factor of a resonant circuit, power dissipation and operating frequency in a digital logic circuit, energy capacity in a highpower system, and many other important aspects. The capacitor has become ubiquitous within electronic and electrical systems.

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Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller

Theory of operation
A capacitor consists of two conductors separated by a non-conductive region. The non-conductive substance is called the dielectric medium, although this may also mean a vacuum or a semiconductor depletion region chemically identical to the conductors. A capacitor is assumed to be selfcontained and isolated, with no net electric charge and no influence from an external electric field. The conductors thus contain equal and opposite charges on their facing surfaces, and the dielectric contains an electric field. The capacitor is a reasonably general model for electric fields within electric circuits. An ideal capacitor is wholly characterized by a constant capacitance C, defined as the ratio of charge ±Q on each conductor to the voltage V between them:

Sometimes charge buildup affects the mechanics of the capacitor, causing the capacitance to vary. In this case, capacitance is defined in terms of incremental changes:

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Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller

In SI units, a capacitance of one farad means that one coulomb of charge on each conductor causes a voltage of one volt across the device.

Crystal 32.876
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are arranged in an orderly repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. The scientific study of crystals and crystal formation is crystallography. The word crystal is derived from the ancient Greek word (krustallos), which had the same meaning, but according to the ancient understanding of crystal. At root it means anything congealed by freezing, such as ice. The word once referred particularly to quartz, or "rock crystal". Most metals encountered in everyday life are polycrystals. Crystals are often symmetrically intergrown to form crystal twins. For cost reason using an overtone crystal is 5 to 6 times cheaper than a fundamental one. Using this type of crystal is slightly different comparing Government Polytechnic, Amravati 28

Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller to a fundamental one . The frequency of an overtone crystal is adjusted on the fundamental one and this one must be trapped by a LC pass–band filter. The typical schematic is shown below.

Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) 16 x 2
A liquid crystal display (LCD) is an electronically-modulated optical device shaped into a thin, flat panel made up of any number of color or monochrome pixels filled with liquid crystals and arrayed in front of a light

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Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller source (backlight) or reflector. It is often utilized in battery-powered electronic devices because it uses very small amounts of electric power. A comprehensive classification of the various types and electro-optical modes of LCDs is provided in the article LCD classification. In recent years LCD is finding wide spread use replacing 7 segment LEDs or other multisegment LEDs. This is due to following reasons: • The declining process of LCDs. • The ability to display numbers, characters, graphics. This is in contrast to LEDs. Which are limited to numbers and a few characters. • In corporation of a refreshing controller into the LCD, thereby relieving the CPU of the task of refreshing LCD. In contrast the LED must be refreshed by the CPU to keep displaying the data. • Ease of programming for characters and graphics. LCD better known as alpha-numeric modules, display characters, numbers, symbols and some limited graphics. Interface is achieved via a bidirectional, parallel ASCII data bus necessary features such as character generation Display RAM addressing, cursor scrolling Blanking, and Handshake are call included user programmable fonts are supported summary Government Polytechnic, Amravati 30

Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller Pin no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Symbol Vss Vcc Vo RS Riw E Dbo Db1 Db2 Db3 Db4 Db5 Db6 Db7 VLED VLSS Description Ground potential Power supply for logic LCD (+) Constant adjustment Resistor select pin Read write Enable pin Code I/O data LSB Code I/O data 2nd bit Code I/O data 3rd bit Code I/O data 4th bit Code I/O data 5th bit Code I/O data 6th bit Code I/O data 7th bit Code I/O data MSB Power supply for LED backlight VLED –5V, VLSS –0V

Interfacing of LCD

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Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller

LED
A light-emitting diode (LED) is an electronic light source. The LED was discovered in the early 20th century, and introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962. All early devices emitted low-intensity red light, but modern LEDs are available across the visible, ultraviolet and infra red wavelengths, with very high brightness. LEDs are based on the semiconductor diode. When the diode is forward biased (switched on), electrons are able to recombine with holes and energy is released in the form of light. This effect is called electrolumine scence and the color of the light is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. The LED is usually small in area (less than 1 mm2) with integrated optical components to shape its radiation pattern and assist in reflection. LEDs present many advantages over traditional light sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved robustness, smaller size and faster switching. However, they are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than traditional light sources.

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Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller Applications of LEDs are diverse. They are used as low-energy replacements for traditional light sources in well-established applications such as indicators and automotive lighting. The compact size of LEDs has allowed new text and video displays and sensors to be developed, while their high switching rates are useful in communications technology.

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Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller

Construction of LED

Types of LEDs

LEDs are produced in an array of shapes and sizes. The 5 mm cylindrical package (red, fifth from the left) is the most common, estimated at 80% of world production.[citation needed] The color of the plastic lens is often the same as the actual color of light emitted, but not always. For instance, purple plastic is often used for infrared LEDs, and most blue devices have clear housings. There are also LEDs in SMT packages, such as those found on blinkies and on cell phone keypads.

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Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM & WORKING
VCC U1 LM7805C/TO220 +12vu R1 4.7k 1 + C1 470uF/16V D2 LED 2 1 IN GND OUT 3 +12vu 2 D1 + BRIDGE 3 1 J1 1 2 3 4 CON4 4

So1

2

VCC

1 R2 100E 2 So1

VCC TEMP 1 2 3 CON3 1uF J3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 CON12 PIC16F877 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 U2 So1 VCC +VE MCLR_ +VE 1 2 RRST 1k 1 1 PSP0/RD0 PSP1/RD1 PSP2/RD2 PSP3/RD3 PSP4/RD4 PSP5/RD5 PSP6/RD6 PSP7/RD7 19 20 21 22 27 28 29 30 15 16 17 18 23 24 25 26 LCD_11 LCD_12 LCD_13 LCD_14 E R3 RS 1 1 R4 1.5K LCD_14 LCD_13 LCD_12 LCD_11 E J5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 VCC 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 CON10 J4 CON8 VCC RS CONT R5 15E J6 2 12 11 10 11 32 VCC

+

C2

VCC 1.5K 2 2 D3 D4 LED LED

J2 PC_RXD PC_TXD 1 2 3 CON3

10

RA0/AN0 RA1/AN1 RA2/AN2/VREFRA3/AN3/VREF+ RA4/TOCK1 RA5/AN4/SS RE0/AN5/RD RE1/AN6/WR RE2/AN7/CS

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 CON12 1 2 3 J7

T1OS0/T1CK1/RC0 T1OS1/CCP2/RC1 CCP1/RC2 SCK/SCL/RC3 SDL/SDA/RC4 SD0/RC5 TX/CK/RC6 RX/DT/RC7

TXD RXD

CONT

VCC

CON3

INT/RB0 VCC 2 R6 2 10K PC_RXD 1 R9 10K 2 D5 1N4148 C6 VCC 2 R7 100uF R10 10K 10K 1 10K 1 1 2 2 R8 Q1 BC547 RXD 1 12 31 1 TXD C3 33pF 1 4MHz 13 X1 2 C4 33pF 14 OSC2/CLKOUT GND GND OSC1/CLKIN PGM/RB3 PGCLK/RB6 PGDA/RB7

RB1 RB2 RB4 RB5

Q2 BC557

33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

PC_TXD

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Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller

WORKING
The main working of the project is based on real time clock ie PCF 8583. Interfacing of microcontroller chip with this RTC is done by IIC protocols. In this protocol there are only two lines connected to the microcontroller ie SCL (Serial Clock) and SDA (Serial Data). The start and stop conditions of PCF 8583 is shown below

For the initialization of RTC, send the control word to the RTC bit by bit serially. In start we edit the actual time in the RTC register. And then scheduling register is used for schedule. In this RTC there are several registers (eg. Hrs, min, sec, day, year, month). The alarm register is same as this register. When we schedule the alarm register, it equals with the main register and if it equals the interrupt is generated. This interruption is read by the microcontroller and according to process schedule the bell is ring. Government Polytechnic, Amravati 36

Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller LCD 16x2 is used for editing time, scheduling and actual time displaying. This LCD have 16 pins. First pin is used for ground, second is for Vcc. Third is used for contrast control. Forth is for RS bit. Fifth is for read/write bar, so we have connected fifth pin directly to ground. Sixth pin is used for enabling data/command. Pin 7-14 is used for data/command bus. 15 and 16 pin is used for back LED. If RS bit is in high condition then LCD treat as data and if RS bit is low LCD treat it as a command byte. Firstly, to interface to the LCD the first command of ‘CLEAR DISPLAY’ should be sent by microcotroller for clearing the display. The second command is cursor movement ie left to right/right to left according the our application. Next command should be sent for location selection in which we can display the data to that location. But the microcontroller works on hex and LCD works on ASCII so giving data should be in hex to ASCII conversion form. Keyboard is used for editing the time which is directly connected with microcontroller port pins. Particular subroutine is called according to the pin which goes low.

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Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller For ONN/OFF the AC bell, the relay is used. Relay requires 12v. The driving capability of the microcontroller and voltages is less than 12v relay so we use the transistor for the driving of relay. When the microcontroller pin gets high the relay becomes ONN and bell starts ringing. When pin of microntroller gets low, the relay becomes OFF to stop the bell. The power supply of the whole circuit is 5v and 12v for relay. For this we have used step down transformer but output of the transformer is AC so we use bridge for DC source and capacitor for filter. 7805 is used for 5v regulator. LCD, microcontroller, PCF 8583 requires 5v which is supplied by voltage regulator 7805.

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Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller

PCB DESIGN
INTRODUCTION
Printed circuit board is a piece of art. The performance of an electronic circuit depends upon the layout and design of PCB. The PCB design of the circuit operation should be very precise to work it properly. The soldered point should be small enough so that any stray between these points should not exist. Also high package density of components can produce stray which should be avoided by proper circuit designing and components should be spread in such a way that two-component produce minimum stray. Also the track of the PCB, soldering points and components mounting should be very correct and that will be of great help to success the project. Making such precise PCB is easy. For preparing the PCB layout, we used the PCB layout manufacturing by the Vega company with a help of computerized equipment. We can not use readymade PCB for our project. The trackside of the PCB is shown in figure. To make the PCB with professional touch, the general method that should be carried out is as follows. Government Polytechnic, Amravati 39

Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller

LAYOUT PLANNING:
The layout of the PCB has to incorporate all information on the board, before one can proceed further for the artwork preparation. This planning procedure depends on many factors.

LAYOUT SCALE:
Depending upon the accuracy required artwork produced should be at 1:1 or 2:1 scale. Accordingly the size of the artwork will be equal to four times or sixteen times of that actual PCB. The layout is best prepared on the same scale as artwork.

LAYOUT SKETCH:
The end produced of the layout design is the pencil sketched component and conductor driving, which is called layout sketch. It contains all relevant information for preparation of artwork. Besides the components outlines, components holes and interconnection line (patterns) the layout should also include the information on. • Diameter of component hole, IC transistor pads. • Minimum spacing between the conduction lines that must produced. Government Polytechnic, Amravati 40

Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller Bottom Layer

Top Layer

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Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller

ARTWORK:
Preparation of artwork is considered as first step in preparation of PCB. Following steps are included while designing the artwork. A polyester foil and tracing paper may be used. Basic methods of preparing artwork are:  Ink the drawing.  Using block tapes and sticking patterns.  Using red and blue transparent tapes. The artwork is then converted to photonegative of proper size.

SOLDERING AND SOLDERING TECHNIQUE
There are basically two types of soldering techniques:  Manual soldering with iron.  Mass soldering.

SOLDERING:
Soldering is a process used for jointing metal parts. It is necessary to use molten metal known as solder. Government Polytechnic, Amravati 42

Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller During soldering, relative positioning of the surfaces to be joined, wetting of this surface with molten solder and cooling time for solidification is important. The various types of soldering are  Mass soldering:  Dip soldering:  Wave soldering:

PRINTING OF PCB
The drawing so prepared has to imposed over the glass epoxy. Take a PCB terminated sheet and cut the of required size of PCB by using hacksaw place the glass epoxy plate sheet on a table, keeping the glass epoxy side on rub away the dirt, grease and oxide wish a sand paper. Now keep carban paper of the same size on PCB taking glass epoxy surface on the top carban paper. Since the tracing paper is transparent you can now reproduce carbon print over the PCB. After tracing the PCB layout now paint the tracks wish the help of oil paint and brush, keep plate in open to dry. After the paint on a copper side has dried, check the drawing carefully, excess paint should be scratched off wish of a blade.

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Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller

ETCHING OF PCB
In a tray, take water and mix a few tea spoons of ferric chloride powder and few drop of HCL. Immerse/dip the PCB in this solution keep the PCB in this solution for about 40-50 min. Reaction - 2FeC13+2Cu=2CuC12+Fe2Cl Observe the changing color of copper surface. Take out the PCB from the solution only when the unmarked portion of copper is completely dissolved in this solution wash the PCB wish water. After washing PCB, remove the paint with a soft piece of cloth or cotton. Now the plate is what we call it as printed circuit board.

DRILLING, MOUNTING AND SOLDERING.
After the etching process drilling is done for mounting the components. Drill the board by using hand drill or machine drill. Before inserting the leads of the components are placed on the irrespective position (according to the circuit Diagram) this process is called as component mounting. Now the next process is soldering. In this process, the leads of components are joined/ soldered with the copper tracks of PCB. For this tussible Government Polytechnic, Amravati 44

Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller alloy metal which is known as 'SOLDERING WIRE1 is required soft solder has 37% of lead and 63 % of zinc and is used because of its excellent drying action. Its melting point is very low. It gives mechanically strong point for soldering the components, soldering gun is used. Flux is used as an inorganic solvent.

Government Polytechnic, Amravati

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Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller

ADVANTAGES
1) 2) Automatic scheduling of college bell is possible The components used for the assembling of this circuit are very cheap and are easily available in the market. Hence the initial cost of setting up the circuit is minimal. 3) 4) 5) 6) Compact in size so takes less space. Easy to install. This project is much suitable college, schools, institutions etc. Time editable facility is available.

Government Polytechnic, Amravati

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Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller

CONCLUSION

Present day manual operation for ringing the bell in colleges or schools are carried out. The main disadvantage of this is one person is to be keep alert for this. At the same time during that time he could not be engage in another task. To overcome from this, we have decided to prepare the circuit which will be operated automatically and the ringing of bell will start by its own time. The time input can be edited as per requirements. This circuit is simple to prepare and easy to install. We can say that it will be much useful for colleges or schools or other educational institutions.

Government Polytechnic, Amravati

47

Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller

REFERENCES
Books:
1. “Intel’s MCS 51 Data Book ”, Intel Inc. 2. Joan B. Peatman, “Design with Microcontroller”, Mc Graw Hill. 3. V. K. Mehta & Rohit Mehta “Principle of Electronics”

Websites:
 www.datasheet4u.com  www.wikipedia.org  www.google.com
 www.sciencetoday.com  www.crutchfield.com

Government Polytechnic, Amravati

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Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller

CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. ABSTRACT.....................................................................................................................1 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................2 LITERATURE REVIEW..................................................................................................3 COMPONENT LIST & DESCRIPTION ........................................................................6 Circuit Diagram & WORKING......................................................................................35 WORKING.....................................................................................................................36 ADVANTAGES..............................................................................................................46 CONCLUSION...............................................................................................................47 REFERENCES...............................................................................................................48 CONTENTS...................................................................................................................49

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