Cognitive Spoken English

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NLRC Spoken English
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¹ô¡ ꣘‰î «ð²‹ ݃Aô‹
(Cognitive Spoken English)

݃Aô‹ èŸÁ‚ªè£‡´ ï‹ î£Œªñ£N¬ò 𣶂裈¶
ï‹ ï£†®™ ñŸÁ‹ Þ‰î àôèˆF™ ê£î¬ù ¹Kò ¶®‚°‹
Þ¬÷ò Ü¡¹œ÷ƒèÀ‚° âù¶ ÞQò
¹ô¡ ꣘‰î «ð²‹ ݃Aôˆ¬î
ܘŠðE‚A«ø¡

Ü¡¹ì¡
죂ì˜. è. ê. ªüò‚°ñ£˜, H.Þ, â‹.ªì‚, â‹.âv, Hâ„®.

NLR
C Spok
en Eng
lish
NLRC
Spoken
English
Regd Office: Selliamman Nagar, M. Perumapalayam (PO), Salem (DT),
Tamil Nadu, India - 636111

Copyright © NLRC Spoken English, 2008.

First Edition 2008

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ï‹ î£Œªñ£N¬ò ÜNò£ñ™ ð£¶è£ˆî™ Ý°‹.º¡Â¬ó ¹ô¡ ꣘‰î «ð²‹ ݃Aô‹ îI› ñ‚èœ ÝƒAôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è  î¬ìJ¡P «ð²õ à¼õ£‚èŠð†®¼‚Aø¶. ݃Aô‹ ݃Aô êó÷ñ£è Þô‚èíˆ¬î «ð²õîŸè£ù õNº¬øè¬÷ M÷‚°Aø¶. ï‹ Þ‰Fò ¬ì õ™ôó² ï£ì£è Ý‚°i˜èœ â¡ø ï‹H‚¬è«ò£´ Þ‰î ¹ô¡ ꣘‰î «ð²‹ ݃Aôˆ¬î àƒèÀ‚° êñ˜H‚A«ø¡. ¹ô¡ ꣘‰î «ð²‹ ݃AôˆF¡ º‚Aò «ï£‚è‹. Þ¶ «ð²‹ ݃AôˆFŸ° à‡ì£ù 輈¶èÀ‚° ÜFè º‚Aòˆ¶õ‹ ðò¡ð´ˆî£ñ™ ªè£´ˆ¶. Ü¡¹ì¡ è. ªüò‚°ñ£˜. Þ‰î °PŠ«ð†®™ Þ¼‚°‹ 輈¶è¬÷ cƒèœ ï¡ø£è ¹K‰¶‚ªè£‡ì£™. . ݃AôˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ ¹Fò 致H®Š¹è¬÷»‹ ñŸÁ‹ ªî£N™¸†ðƒè¬÷»‹ èŸÁ àƒèÀ¬ìò Fø¬ñè¬÷ õ÷Šð´ˆF. ¹¶¬ñò£ù 致H®Š¹è¬÷ G蛈F. ê. àƒèÀ‚° ݃Aô‹ èŸÁ‚ªè£´ˆ¶. cƒèœ ݃Aô‹ ªîK‰îõ˜èOì‹ å¼ õ¼ìè£ô‹ ݃AôˆF™ à¬óò£®ò êññ£°‹. àƒèÀ¬ìò ¾ ñùŠð£¡¬ñ¬ò c‚A.

Adjectives ) ð£ì‹ 6 «ð²‹ ݃AôˆF¡ ñ«ù£îˆ¶õ‹ .Part 2 ) ð£ì‹ 7 ý£L¾† ݃Aôˆ F¬óŠðìˆF¡ à¬óò£ì™èœ ñŸÁ‹ ܬõèO¡ îIö£‚è‹ 375 ( Hollywood English Movie Dialogues And Their Tamil Translation ) ð£ì‹ 8 «ï˜è£í½‚è£ù ñ£FK «èœMèœ ( Model Questions for Interview) 383 .ð°F 2 367 ( Psychology of Spoken English .Part 1 ) ð£ì‹ 2 ñQî˜è¬÷ °P‚°‹ HóFªðò˜ ªê£Ÿèœ 27 ( Pronouns of Humans ) ð£ì‹ 3 ¹ô¡ ꣘‰î õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ 37 ( Cognitive Words ) ð£ì‹ 4 M¬ùèœ 123 ( Verbs ) ð£ì‹ 5 ð‡¹èœ ꣘‰î õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ 295 ( Properties Words .ð°F 1 7 ( Psychology of Spoken English .ªð£¼÷ì‚è‹ ð£ì‹ 1 «ð²‹ ݃AôˆF¡ ñ«ù£îˆ¶õ‹ .

. are..e. trying.. ) Vpp M¬ùJ¡ past participle ܬñŠ¹ ( Verb-pp . gone. were ãî£õ¶ 塬ø °P‚°‹. eating.. 6 «ð£¡ø¬õèO™ . was.e.NLRC Spoken English ²¼‚èñ£ù õ£˜ˆ¬îèO¡ MKõ£‚è‹ Meaning å¼ õ£˜ˆ¬îJ¡ ºî¡¬ñ ªð£¼œ Ü™ô¶ ܘˆî‹ Phrase Meaning ªê£Ÿªø£ìK¡ ܘˆî‹ pat õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹ ( Pattern ) syn å«ó ªð£¼¬÷ ªè£‡ì ñŸø õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ ( Synonym ) / Ü™ô¶ sb ò£«ó£ å¼õ˜ ( Somebody ) sth ãî£õ¶ å¡Á ( Something ) do M¬ù ( Verb ) doing M¬ùJ¡ ing ܬñŠ¹ ( Verb-ing . pat: be able be Ýù¶ is. ) pat: wrong for (doing) sth â¡ø£™ ܬìŠHÂœ ( ) Þ¼‚°‹ õ£˜ˆ¬î¬ò ðò¡ð´ˆF»‹ Ü™ô¶ ðò¡ð´ˆî£ñ½‹ õ£‚Aò‹ ܬñ‚èô£‹.i.i. eaten.

1 Chapter .1 «ð²‹ ݃AôˆF¡ ñ«ù£îˆ¶õ‹ ð°F .1 Psychology of Spoken English Part .1 7 .Cognitive Spoken English ð£ì‹ .

 Þ¬î ªê£¡ù¾ì¡ ܉î ñ£íõ˜ è¬î¬ò ð®Šð£˜. «ñŸè‡ì Å›G¬ôè¬÷ ¬õˆ¶ ñ‚è¬÷ Í¡Á õ¬èò£è HK‚èô£‹. ÞF™ cƒèœ â‰î õ¬è¬ò «ê˜‰îõ˜ â¡Á ªîK‰¶ ªè£œÀƒèœ.Cognitive Spoken English I Cognitive Spoken English à¼õ£‚èŠð´õîŸè£ù è£óí‹ â¡ù? ñŸÁ‹ àƒèO¡ «ð²‹ ݃AôˆF¡ ¹ô¬ñ¬ò è‡ìP»‹ «ê£î¬ù Cognitive Spoken English â¡ð¬î îIN™ ¹ô¡ ꣘‰î «ð²‹ ݃Aô‹ â¡Á Ãøô£‹. 9 . Üõ˜ ñùF™ ðìð승 ãŸð´‹. ñ£íõ˜ è¬î¬ò â¡Qì‹ ªê£™½‹«ð£¶ Üõ˜ I辋 Þò™ð£è «ð²õ£˜. Üõ˜ ¹K‰¶‚ ªè£‡ì è¬î¬ò â¡Qì‹ ªê£™½‹ «ð£¶ W›è‡ì Þ¡ù™èÀ‚° à†ð´Aø£˜. ñ£íõ˜ å¼õ˜ Þ¼‚Aø£˜. è¬îJ™ Þ¼‚°‹ ݃Aô õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ÜŠð®«ò ðò¡ð´ˆF «ð²õ£˜. â‰î tense-¬ò ¬ò ðò¡ð´ˆ¶õ¶. «ñŸªê£¡ù Þ¡ù™èÀ‚° ݆ðì£ñ™ å¼õ¬ó ݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ðê ¬õŠð¶ Ý°‹. Üõ˜ â‹ ðî†ìŠðì£ñ™ «ð²õ£˜.  ÜõKì‹ îIN™ Þ¼‚°‹ 10 ð‚è è¬î¬ò ªè£´ˆ¶ “Þ‰î è¬î¬ò 𮈶 M†´ Þ¬î âù‚° ªê£™½ƒèœ” â¡Á ÃÁA«ø¡. â‰î preposition¬ò ðò¡ð´ˆ¶õ¶ â¡Á «ò£CŠð£˜. œ ݃AôˆF™ «ð²‹ «ð£¶ ( Üî£õ¶ ݃Aô õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñ‚°‹ «ð£¶ ). îI› õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ݃AôˆF™ ªñ£N ªðò˜Šð£˜.  Ü«î ñ£íõKì‹ 10 ð‚è ݃Aô è¬î¬ò ªè£´ˆ¶ “Þ‰î è¬î¬ò 𮈶 M†´ Þ¬î âù‚° ݃AôˆF™ ªê£™½ƒèœ” â¡Á ÃÁA«ø¡. ÜõK¡ ªñ£N îI› â¡Á ¬õˆ¶‚ ªè£œ«õ£‹. â‰î conjunction-¬ò ¬ò ðò¡´ˆ¶õ¶. è¬î¬ò ¹K‰¶‚ ªè£‡ìŠ Hø°. œ Üõ˜ îI› õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ݃AôˆF™ ªñ£N ªðò˜‚°‹ «ð£¶. ݃Aô‹ «ð²‹ «ð£¶ ñ†´‹ ã¡ Þ‰îŠ Hó„ê¬ùèœ? âƒèO¡ ¹ô¡ ꣘‰î «ð²‹ ݃AôˆF¡ º‚Aò «ï£‚è‹ â¡ùªõ¡ø£™. œ Üõ˜ ݃AôˆF™ «ð²‹ «ð£¶. Ýù£™. îI› õ£‚AòˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ 嚪õ£¼ õ£˜ˆ¬î‚°‹ Ü‡ì£ù ݃Aô õ£˜ˆ¬î¬ò ðò¡ð´ˆF ݃Aô õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñŠð£˜. Üõ˜ îIN™ «ð²‹ «ð£¶ «ñŸªê£¡ù Þ¡ù™èÀ‚° Ý÷£õF™¬ô. ÜFè «ïó‹ ݃Aô õ£‚Aòˆ¬î Þô‚èí H¬öJ¡P ܬñŠðF™ ªêôM´õ£˜. Hø°. Üõ˜. ÜõK¡ ° Hó½‹. ðòˆF™ Üõ¼‚° Mò˜‚°‹. œ Üõ˜ ¹K‰¶‚ ªè£‡ì è¬î¬ò ºîL™ îIN™ ªñ£N ªðò˜Šð£˜. «ñ½‹. Üõ˜ è¬î¬ò 𮈶 ï¡ø£è ¹K‰¶‚ ªè£œAø£˜ â¡Á ¬õˆ¶‚ ªè£œ«õ£‹. Üõ˜ ñùF™ îI› õ£˜ˆ¬î‚° î°‰î ݃Aô õ£˜ˆ¬î àF‚èM™¬ô â¡ø£™. 10 ð‚è è¬î¬ò ° Ü™ô¶ 䉶 GIìˆF™ â¡Qì‹ ªê£™L º®Šð£˜.

Ýù£™. è™M. ( cƒèœ âƒèO¡ ¹ô¡ ꣘‰î «ð²‹ ݃AôŠ ðJŸCJ™ «ê˜‰¶ ðò¡ªðøô£‹. àƒèÀ‚° M¼Šð‹ Þ¼‰î£™ âƒèœ ðJŸCJ™ «êóô£‹.) œ ݃AôˆF™ ð®ˆî£™ âù‚° ï¡ø£è ¹KAø¶. º‚Aò °PŠ¹: ♫ô£¼‚°‹ å«ó ñ£FKò£ù ðJŸCèœ ªè£´‚èŠð´‹. Mõê£ò‹ ñŸÁ‹ Ý󣌄C ¶¬øJ™ Þ¼‚°‹ ñ£íõ˜èœ ñŸÁ‹ ÝCKò˜èœ ) œ Üó² ñŸÁ‹ îQò£˜ ¶¬øJ™ ðE¹Kðõ˜èœ. ( àƒèÀ‚° îI› «ðê ñ†´‹ ªîK‰î£™. ÝA«ò£˜ âƒèO¡ ¹ô¡ ꣘‰î «ð²‹ ݃AôŠ ðJŸCJ™ «ê˜‰¶ ðò¡ªðøô£‹.) II ò£˜ ò£˜ âƒèO¡ ¹ô¡ ꣘‰î «ð²‹ ݃AôŠ ðJŸCJ™ «ê˜‰¶ ðò¡ªðøô£‹? âƒèO¡ ¹ô¡ ꣘‰î «ð²‹ ݃AôŠ ðJŸCJ™ «êó cƒèœ îI› ªñ£NJ™ â¿î ñŸÁ‹ «ðê ªîK‰îõó£è Þ¼‚è «õ‡´‹. Ýù£™. ( cƒèœ âƒèO¡ ¹ô¡ ꣘‰î «ð²‹ ݃AôŠ ðJŸCJ™ «ê˜‰¶ ðò¡ªðøô£‹. ñQî˜èO¡ ͬ÷J™ Þ¼‚°‹ ðF¾ ªêŒ»‹ ªð£¼œ ( memory ) ♫ô£¼‚°‹ å«ó ñ£FKò£è Þ¼Šð Þ¶ ꣈Fòñ£Aø¶. ªî£N™¸†ð‹.) ( 10 . ݃AôˆF™ «ð²‹«ð£¶ «ñŸªê£¡ù Þ¡ù™èÀ‚° ݆ð´õF™¬ô. Þ è£óí‹ â¡ùªõ¡ø£™. ï£ƒèœ ªè£´‚°‹ °PŠ«ð´èO¡ 輈¶è¬÷ ñŸøõ˜ õ£CŠðî¡ Íô‹ cƒèœ «è†´ ªîK‰¶‚ªè£œ÷ô£‹. ðJŸCJ™ â‰î õ¬èò£ù ð£°ð£´‹ A¬ìò£¶. ) œ ðœO ñ£íõ˜èœ ( îI› õN ñŸÁ‹ ݃Aô õN 蟰‹ ñ£íõ˜èœ ) œ è™ÖK ñ£íõ˜èœ ( ñ¼ˆ¶õ‹. ݃AôˆF™ «ð²‹«ð£¶ «ñŸªê£¡ù Þ¡ù™èÀ‚° ݆ð´A«ø¡. è¬ô. ( àƒèÀ‚° Þ‰î ¹ô¡ ꣘‰î «ð²‹ ݃AôŠ ðJŸC «î¬õJ™¬ô.NLRC Spoken English œ ݃AôˆF™ ð®ˆî£™ âù‚° ï¡ø£è ¹KòM™¬ô.) œ ݃AôˆF™ ð®ˆî£™ âù‚° ï¡ø£è ¹KAø¶. ÜPMò™.

àƒèÀ‚° ñùî÷M™ ãŸð´‹ M¬÷¾èœ ò£¬õ? cƒèœ ݃AôŠ ðJŸC¬ò º®ˆî¾ì¡ «ñŸªê£¡ù Þ¡ù™èÀ‚° ݆ðì£ñ™ ݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ð²i˜èœ. V Cognitive Spoken English ( ¹ô¡ ꣘‰î «ð²‹ ݃Aô‹ ) â¡ø£™ â¡ù? ºîL™ ñQî¡ âŠð® Þ‰î àôèˆF™ Þòƒ°Aø£¡ Ü™ô¶ ªêò™ð´Aø£¡ â¡Á 𣘫ð£‹. Þî¡ M¬÷õ£™.  àƒèÀ‚° î¡ù‹H‚¬è õ÷¼‹. W›è‡ì M¬÷¾èœ àƒèœ ñùî÷M™ ãŸð´‹. ñQîQ¡ 䋹ô¡èœ. ¾ ñùŠð£¡¬ñ «ð£¡ø¬õèœ Mô°‹. à‡¬ñò£ù ÜP¾‚°‹ ñŸÁ‹ à¬öŠ¹‚°‹ º‚Aòˆ¶õ‹ ªè£´Šd˜èœ ( ªè£Kò˜èœ.Cognitive Spoken English IV cƒèœ ¹ô¡ ꣘‰î «ð²‹ ݃Aô ðJŸC¬ò º®ˆîŠ Hø°. Learning Nucleus â¡ð¶ ï‹ Í¬÷J™ Þ¼‚°‹ Physical Memory ñŸÁ‹ Semantic Memory Þ¬ì«ò H¬íŠ¬ð ãŸð´ˆ¶‹ è£óE Ý°‹. ºîL™ î¡ ä‹¹ô¡èœ Íôñ£è àôèˆF™ àœ÷ 11 . ªð£¶õ£è ñQî¡. ðìð승. ªõ†è‹. Þî¡ M¬÷õ£™ «ñŸªê£¡ù Þ¡ù™èÀ‚° àœ÷£èñ£†¯˜èœ. üŠð£Qò˜èœ «ð£ô )  â‰î Å›G¬ôJ½‹ cƒèœ G¬ùˆî 輈¶è¬÷ ݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ðêô£‹ ( without any preparation ). ݃AôˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ 輈¬î ¹K‰¶‚ªè£‡´ ܬî ñŸøõKì‹ ªê£™½‹«ð£¶ àƒèÀ‚° ªîK‰î ݃Aô õ£˜ˆ¬îè¬÷ ªè£‡´ Þò™ð£è «ð²i˜èœ. ݃AôˆF™ «ðCù£™î£¡ å¼õ˜ ¹ˆFê£L â¡ø â‡í‹ ñ¬ø‰¶.  àƒèœ ñùF™ ݃AôˆFŸè£ù Learning Nucleus à¼õ£°‹. ͬ÷. Þ¶ ñ†´ñ™ô£ñ™. ¬è ñŸÁ‹ è£™èœ ÝAò¬õ Üõ¡ ªêò™ð´õ º‚Aòñ£è ܬñAø¶.  ݃Aô‹ «ð²‹«ð£¶ àƒèÀ‚° ãŸð´‹ ðò‹.

Ýù£™. ï‹ îI› ®™ ݃Aô‹ «ð²ðõ˜èOì‹ ï£‹ à¬óò£´õ¶ â¡ð¶ ð£¬îò Å›G¬ôJ™ å¼ ÜKî£ù è£Kò‹ Ý°‹. ܉î å¼ õ¼ì è£ôˆF™ cƒèœ U‰F¬ò cƒèœ êó÷ñ£è «ð²i˜èœ. ÞîÂì¡ ÞŠHó„ê¬ùè¬÷ «ð£‚°õõ£ù õNº¬øèÀ‹ MõK‚èŠð†´œ÷¶. cƒèœ U‰F¬ò êó÷ñ£è «ð²õ è£óí‹ àƒè¬÷ ²ŸP Þ¼Šðõ˜èœ ªð¼‹ð£ô£«ù£˜ U‰FJ™ «ð²õ¶ Ý°‹. Þšõ£Á ï‹ ä‹¹ô¡èœ Íôñ£è îI› ªñ£N¬ò èŸÁˆ î¼õ “¹ô‹ ꣘‰î «ð²‹ îI›” â¡Á ÃøŠð´‹. Þ‰î Hó„ê¬ù¬ò «ð£‚°õˆî£¡ ¹ô¡ ꣘‰î «ð²‹ ݃Aô‹ à¼õ£‚èŠð†´œ÷¶. «ñ«ô ÃPò 輈¬î ޡ‹ âOî£è W›è‡ìõ£Á ªê£™ôô£‹. VI îI› ñ£íõ˜èœ Ü™ô¶ îI› ñ‚èœ ÝƒAôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ðê º®ò£ñ™ Þ¼Šð º†´è†¬ìò£è Þ¼‚°‹ Hó„ê¬ùèœ ò£¬õ? ÜõŸ¬ø «ð£‚°õîŸè£ù õNèœ ò£¬õ? ð¡Qªó‡´ õ¬èò£ù Hó„ê¬ùèœ îI› ñ‚èœ ÝƒAôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ð²õ º†´‚膬ìò£è Þ¼‚Aø¶. Þîù£™î£¡ cƒèœ ݃Aô‹ âOî£è èŸÁ‚ ªè£œ÷º®Aø¶. ï£ƒèœ î¼‹ Þ‰î °PŠ«ð†¬ì cƒèœ ¹K‰¶‚ ªè£‡ì£™. Üî£õ¶. Hø°.  °ö‰¬îò£è Hø‰¶ õ÷¼‹ «ð£¶. ¬èJ™ àí¬õ â´ˆ¶ õ£J™«ð£†´ ªñ¡Á º¿ƒ°õ¬î 裇Hˆ¶ “꣊H´” â¡Á ÃÁ«õ£‹. 12 . ï‹ ä‹¹ô¡èœ Íôñ£è Þ‰î àôèˆ¬î ªîK‰¶‚ ªè£œA«ø£‹. ãªù¡ø£™ ñ ²ŸP»œ÷õ˜èÀ‚° ݃Aô‹ ªîK‰F¼‰î£™ Ãì îIN™î£¡ ªð¼‹ð£½‹ à¬óò£´Aø£˜èœ. å¼ ñQîù£è†´‹ Ü™ô¶ Hø‰î °ö‰¬îò£è†´‹. ï£ƒèœ ï숶‹ ݃AôŠ ðJŸC Þƒ° °PŠH†ìœ÷ 輈¬î ¬ñòñ£è ¬õˆ¶ à¼õ£‚èŠð†ì‹. ñ ²ŸP Þ¼Šðõ˜èœ ܬùõ¼‹ îIN™ «ð²õ ‹ îIN™ êó÷ñ£è «ð²A«ø£‹. Þó‡´ õò¶ °ö‰¬î‚°  îI› ªñ£N¬ò èŸÁ‚ªè£´‚°‹ «ð£¶ ºîL™ ªðò˜ªê£™L™ ( noun ) Þ¼‰¶ Ýó‹HŠ«ð£‹. Ü«î ñ£FK. cƒèœ ݃Aô‹ ªîK‰îõ˜èOì‹ å¼ õ¼ìè£ô‹ à¬óò£®ò êññ£°‹. Þ«î «ð£¡Á ï‹ ä‹¹ô¡èœ Íôñ£è ݃Aô ªñ£N¬ò èŸÁˆî¼õ “¹ô‹ ꣘‰î «ð²‹ ݃Aô‹” âù‚ ÃøŠð´‹. cƒèœ ݃Aô‹ èŸHˆî½‚° ªêôM†ì à¬öŠ¹ ií£õ G¬øò õ£ŒŠ¹èœ àœ÷¶. cƒèœ îI› ®™ Þ¼‰¶ º‹¬ð ªê™Al˜èœ ñŸÁ‹ àƒèÀ‚° U‰F ªîKò£¶ â¡Á ¬õˆ¶‚ªè£œ«õ£‹. å¼ è¼Šð£ù ðø¬õ¬ò 裇Hˆ¶ Þ¶ “è£è‹” â¡Á ÃÁ«õ£‹. ñQîQ¡ ¬è‚è£™èœ Í¬÷J¡ º®¾èÀ‚° î°‰îõ£Á ªêò™è¬÷ à¼õ£‚°‹.NLRC Spoken English ªð£¼†èœ ñŸÁ‹ ªêò™è¬÷ àœõ£ƒA ªè£œAø£¡. Üõ˜èO¡ 䋹ô¡èO¡ àîM»ì¡ ñ†´‹î£¡ Þ‰î àô般î ðŸP Üõ˜èœ ªîK‰¶‚ ªè£œAø£˜èœ. ñQîQ¡ ͬ÷ò£ù¶ Þ‰î àœõ£ƒèŠð†ì ªð£¼†èœ ñŸÁ‹ ªêò™è¬÷ ªè£‡´ Cô º‚Aòñ£ù º®¾è¬÷ â´‚°‹. Þ¬î  C‰Fˆî™ Ü™ô¶ «ò£Cˆî™ (decision making) â¡Á‚ Ãøô£‹. Þ¬î cƒèœ ï¡ø£è ¹K‰¶‚ ªè£œ÷£M®™. º‹¬ðJ™ å¼ õ¼ì‹ õC‚Al˜èœ. âƒèœ õN º¬øJ™ 蟰‹ cƒèœ 臮Šð£è Þƒ° MõK‚èŠð†´œ÷ °PŠ¹è¬÷ ï¡ø£è ¹K‰¶ ªè£œ÷ «õ‡´‹. ñ ²ŸP Þ¼Šðõ˜èœ ܬùõ¼‹ ݃AôˆF™ «ð²‹«ð£¶ ‹ ݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ð²«õ£‹. ïñ¶ 䋹ô¡èœ ï¡ø£è «õ¬ô ªêŒòM™¬ô â¡ø£™  Þ‰î àôèˆF™ õ£›õ Iè è®ùñ£è Þ¼‚°‹.

îI› õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ݃AôˆF™ ªñ£N ªðò˜Šð£˜èœ.  Cô˜ ݃AôˆF™ «ð²‹«ð£¶ ¹K‰¶‚ªè£‡ì 輈¬î ºîL™ îIN™ ªñ£N ªðò˜Šð£˜èœ. and. Þ º‚Aò è£óí‹. cƒèœ ݃AôˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ 輈¶è¬÷ ªîK‰¶ªè£œ÷ ¹ˆîèƒèœ. › cƒèœ ݃Aô‹ 蟰‹ Ýó‹ð è£ôˆF™ W›è‡ì °PŠ¹è¬÷ è†ì£ò‹ ë£ðèˆF™ ¬õ‚辋. an. îI› õ£‚AòˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ 嚪õ£¼ õ£˜ˆ¬î‚°‹ Ü‡ì£ù ݃Aô õ£˜ˆ¬î¬ò ðò¡ð´ˆF ݃Aô õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñŠð£˜. ÜFè «ïó‹ ݃Aô à¬óï¬ì õ£‚Aòˆ¬î Þô‚èí H¬öJ¡P ܬñŠðF™ ªêôM´õ£˜. Þî¡ M¬÷õ£™ cƒèœ ݃Aô‹ «ð²‹ «ð£¶ ¹ˆîèˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ ðò¡ð´ˆ¶Al˜èœ. etc) «ð£¡ø¬õè¬÷ Þ¬íŠð¶ Ý°‹. › cƒèœ ݃AôˆF™ «ð²õ simple sentences ñŸÁ‹ compound sentencesè¬÷ ñ†´‹î£¡ ðò¡ð´ˆî «õ‡´‹.  Cô êñòƒèO™ â‰î preposition -¬ò ¬ò ðò¡ð´ˆ¶õ¶ â¡ø ꉫîè‹ Þ¼‰î£™. å¼õ˜ îI› õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ݃AôˆF™ ªñ£N ªðò˜‚°‹«ð£¶. but. so.  cƒèœ â‰î õ¬èò£ù conjuntion è¬÷»‹ ðò¡ð´ˆî «õ‡ì£‹. then. ÜõK¡ ° Hó½‹. Üõ˜ ñùF™ îI› õ£˜ˆ¬î‚° î°‰î ݃Aô õ£˜ˆ¬î àF‚èM™¬ô â¡ø£™. Üõ˜èœ ݃Aô‹ «ð²‹ «ð£¶ ¹ˆîèˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ ÜŠð®«ò ðò¡ð´ˆ¶õ¶î£¡. Compound sentences â¡ð¶ simple sentences ¾ì¡ coordinating conjunction (i. Hø°. â‰î tense-¬ò ðò¡ð´ˆ¶õ¶. ªêŒF î£œèœ «ð£¡ø¬õè¬÷ ð®‚Al˜èœ. ܬî ðò¡ð´ˆî£ñ™ ݃AôˆF™ «ð²ƒèœ. M÷‚è‹ :  ðô êñòƒèO™.  Cô êñòƒèO™ a. the «ð£¡ø õ£˜ˆ¬îèO™ â¬î ðò¡ð´ˆ¶õ¶ â¡Á °öŠð‹ ãŸð´‹. ðòˆF™ Üõ¼‚° Mò˜‚°‹. Üõ˜ ñùF™ ðìð승 ãŸð´‹. 13 . Ýù£™ ݃AôˆF™ «ð²‹ «ð£¶ ðî†ìˆFŸ° à†ð´Aø£˜èœ.  ݃AôˆF™ «ð²õ simple sentences è¬÷ ñ†´‹ ðò¡ð´ˆî «õ‡´‹.  å¼õ˜ ݃AôˆF™ «ð²‹«ð£¶ ( Üî£õ¶ ݃Aô õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñ‚°‹«ð£¶ ) â‰î conjunction-¬ò ðò¡ð´ˆ¶õ¶.Cognitive Spoken English Hó„ê¬ù : 1 ݃Aô‹ «ð²õ cƒèœ à¬óï¬ì ݃AôˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ ðò¡ð´ˆ¶õ¶ Üî£õ¶ complex sentence-¬ò ðò¡ð´ˆ¶õ¶ Ý°‹. Üõ˜.e. compound sentences. and complex sentences. àƒèÀ‚° ꉫîè‹ Þ¼‰î£™ Þ‰î Í¡P™ ãî£õ¶ 塬ø ðò¡ð´ˆ¶ƒèœ. Hó„ê¬ù : 1 ¬ò «ð£‚°‹ õNº¬øèœ : › ݃AôˆF™ Í¡Á õ¬èò£ù õ£‚Aòƒèœ Þ¼‚Aø¶.  Cô˜ ݃AôˆF™ 𮂰‹ «ð£¶ Üî¡ õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ ï¡ø£è ¹K‰¶ªè£œõ£˜èœ. Üî£õ¶ simple sentences. â‰î preposition-¬ò ðò¡ð´ˆ¶õ¶ â¡Á «ò£CŠð£˜.

è£ôˆ¬îŠ ªð£Áˆ¶. Þ¬î ݃AôˆF™ meanwhile (Ü«î êñòˆF™ / Ü«î «ïóˆF™) at the same time (Ü«î êñòˆF™ / Ü«î «ïóˆF™) «ð£¡ø õ£˜ˆ¬îè¬÷ ªè£‡´ Ãøô£‹. å«ó êñòˆF™ ïì‚°‹ Þ¼ ªêò™èœ . â´ˆ¶‚裆´ :  ꣊H´A«ø¡. At the same time/Meanwhile.NLRC Spoken English Pvt Ltd  ݃Aô‹ 蟰‹ è£ôˆF™ present tense-¬ò ñ†´‹ ðò¡ð´ˆî «õ‡´‹. ÞF™ è£ôˆ¬î‚ °P‚°‹ ªê£™ “yesterday” ( «ïŸÁ ). Þó‡ìõ¶ ªêò™ ï쉶 º®‰îŠ Hø° Í¡ø£õ¶ ªêò™ Ýó‹H‚°‹. ÜõŸ¬ø Þ¼ õ¬èè÷£èŠ HK‚èô£‹. ܉î õ£‚Aò‹ îõÁ. Þ¶ complex sentence ¡ õ¬è¬ò «ê˜‰î¶. Þ‰î ݃Aô õ£‚Aòˆ¬î «ð²õ ðò¡ð´ˆîô£ñ£? › «ð²‹ ݃Aôˆ¬îŠ ªð£Áˆîõ¬ó. etc). «ð£¡ ñE Ü®‚Aø¶. (sentence 1. I met my friend” Þ‰î õ£‚Aòˆ¬î Üõ˜èœ ªê£™½‹ «ð£¶ I辋 «ò£Cˆ¶. Then I eat. Hø° ðî†ìˆ¶ì¡ ܉î õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ªê£¡ù£˜èœ. (ªñ£ˆî‹ Þó‡´ ªêò™èœ : ñ£˜ªè†´‚° ªê™½î™ ñŸÁ‹ â¡ ï‡ð¬ù ê‰Fˆî™). › «ð²‹ ݃AôˆF™ õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñ‚°‹ «ð£¶ W›è‡ì °PŠ¹è¬÷ 臮Šð£è ë£ðèˆF™ ¬õˆ¶‚ ªè£œÀƒèœ. ޶ ܉î Å›G¬ô “ ñ£˜ªè†´‚°Š «ð£ùŠð â¡ ï‡ð¬ù ê‰F„«ê¡” ܬî ݃AôˆF™ ðô˜ ªê£¡ù¶: “When I went to market. è£ôˆ¬î‚ °PŠHì Ü‡ì£ù ݃Aô õ£˜ˆ¬î¬ò ðò¡ð´ˆî¾‹. ܬî ݃AôˆF™ ªê£™½ƒèœ â¡Á ðôKì‹ «è†«ì¡.Üî£õ¶ ºî™ ªêò™ ï쉶 º®‰îŠ Hø° Þó‡ì£õ¶ ªêò™ Ýó‹H‚°‹. I take bath. Üî£õ¶ ( Sentence 1. â´ˆ¶è£†´‚°. I eat. sentecse 2. ÞF™ Present tense ðò¡ð´ˆîŠð†´œ÷¶. Å Þó‡ì£õ¶ º¬ø : First (ºîL™/ºî£ô£õî£è). 14 . ݃AôˆF™: First. ݃AôˆF™: I eat. The phone rings. â´ˆ¶‚裆´ : îIN™:  °O‚A«ø¡:  ꣊H´A«ø¡.   å¡ø¡ H¡ å¡ø£è ïì‚°‹ ªêò™èœ . Ü«î «ïóˆF™. â´ˆ¶‚裆´: ºîL™  °O‚A«ø¡: Hø° ꣊H´A«ø¡. I come here yesterday. Next (Ü´ˆîî£è) «ð£¡ø õ£˜ˆ¬îè¬÷ õ£‚AòƒèÀ‚° Þ¬ìJ™ ðò¡ð´ˆ¶õ¶ Ý°‹. Second (Þó‡ì£õî£è). › Þ‰î àôèˆF™ ïì‚°‹ ªêò™è¬÷. And («ñ½‹). Þ¬î ݃AôˆF™ Þ¼ õNèO™ °PŠHìô£‹. Meanwhile. sentence 3. Å «ñŸªê£¡ù ãî£õ¶ å¼ õ£˜ˆ¬î¬ò Þó‡´ Simple Sentences À‚° Þ¬ìJ™ ðò¡ð´ˆF å«ó êñòˆF™ ïì‚°‹ Þ¼ ªêò™è¬÷ ݃AôˆF™ «ðêô£‹. Then (Hø°). Sentence 2 ).  ºîL™ â¡ùªò¡ù ªêò™èœ Þ¼‚Aø¶ â¡Á õK¬êŠ ð´ˆî¾‹. ݃AôˆF™: I take bath.ÞF™ Þ¼ ªêò™èœ å«ó êñòˆF™ («ïóˆF™) ïì‚°‹. Þ¶ à¬óï¬ì ݃AôˆF™ ÜFèñ£èŠ ðò¡ð´ˆîŠð´Aø¶. ›  îIN™ å¼ Å›G¬ô¬ò â´ˆ¶‚ªè£‡´. Å ºî™ º¬ø : simpls sentences è¬÷ ªî£ì˜‰¶ °PŠH´õ¶ Ý°‹.

Cognitive Spoken English  ªêò™è¬÷ Present tense-¬ò ¬ò ðò¡ð´ˆF ݃AôˆF™ à¼õ£‚°ƒèœ : I go to market. Hó„ê¬ù : 2¬ò «ð£‚°‹ õNº¬øèœ : › ݃AôˆF™ «ð²‹«ð£¶ ªñ¶õ£è «ð꾋. › âƒèœ ðJŸCJ™ ݃Aô Þô‚èíˆFŸ° º‚Aòˆ¶õ‹ A¬ìò£¶. Ýù£™ Þõ˜ «ð²õ¬î «è†°‹ ï𼂰 ¹K‰îî£ Þ™¬ôò£ â¡Á 致‚ªè£œ÷ ñ£†ì£˜. M÷‚è‹ :  ðô˜ ݃AôˆF™ «ð²‹«ð£¶ I辋 «õèñ£è «ð²õ£˜èœ.  ݃AôˆF™ «õèñ£è «ð²ðõ˜èœ. Then.  Cô˜ ݃AôˆF™ «ð²‹ «ð£¶. I meet my friend  ªêò™èœ â‰î õ¬è¬ò «ê˜‰î¶ â¡Á 𣼃èœ: Þƒ° ªè£´‚èŠð†ì Å›G¬ô å¡ø¡ H¡ å¡ø£è ïìŠð¶ Ý°‹. Þ º‚Aò è£óí‹ ï£‹ ðò¡ð´ˆ¶‹ ݃Aô õ£‚Aò‹ êKò£ îõø£ â¡ø ðò‹ . › cƒèœ Þƒ° èõQˆb˜è÷£ù£™ «ñ«ô °PŠH†ì ݃Aô õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ ܬñ‚°‹ «ð£¶.  Cô˜ ݃AôˆF™ ãî£õ¶ «ðê«õ‡´ªñQ™.  ݃AôˆF™ «ð²ðõ˜ «ð²‹«ð£¶ õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚° Þ¬ìJ™ å¼ Mù£® è£ô Ü÷¾ ªè£´ˆî£™ Ãì Üõ¼‚° å¼ GIì‹ Ü™ô¶ ÜFè «ïó‹ è£ô Ü÷¾ ªè£´Šð¶ «ð£™ «î£¡Á‹. õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚° Þ¬ìJ™ °¬ø‰î¶ 3 . 15 . Üõ˜è¬÷ °P‚A†´. I meet my friend Ü™ô¶ First. ÜŠHø° ñŸø Tense è¬÷ ðò¡ð´ˆF ݃AôˆF™ «ð²õ¶ I辋 âO¶). Þ¬ìJ™ ãî£õ¶ «èœM «è†ì£™ I辋 ðî†ìŠð´õ£óèœ. Üî¡ õ£‚Aòˆ¬î º®ŠðF™ ñ†´‹ °Pò£è Þ¼Šð£˜èœ. Þ¬õè¬÷ ¬õˆ¶ Üõ˜ êó÷ñ£è ݃AôˆF™ «ðêô£‹. å¡Á Ü™ô¶ Ü «ñŸð†ì simple sentencesè¬÷ ðò¡ð´ˆ¶A«ø£‹. Üõ˜èœ õ£‚Aòˆ¬î «ðC º®ˆî¾ì¡ Üõ˜èÀ‚«è  â¡ù «ðC«ù£‹ â¡Á ªîKò£¶. cƒèœ ݃Aô‹ ï¡ø£è èŸÁ‚ ªè£‡ìŠ Hø° è£ô Ü÷¬õ î£ù£è«õ °¬øˆ¶‚ ªè£œi˜èœ. I meet my friend â¡Á ªê£™ô «õ‡´‹. Üî£õ¶. I go market. ï£ƒèœ ªè£´‚°‹ õ£˜ˆ¬îèO¡ °PŠ«ð´èO¡ º‚Aò «ï£‚è‹ â¡ùªõ¡ø£™ âŠð® simple sentencesè¬÷  î¬ìJ¡P à¼õ£‚°õ¶ Ý°‹. cƒèœ à¬óï¬ì ݃Aô õ£‚Aòˆ¬î «ð²õ ðò¡ð´ˆFù£™ ÞŠHó„ê¬ù õ¼‹. Þ¬î ݃AôˆF™ «ð²‹ «ð£¶ I go to maket. ÞFL¼‰¶ â¡ù ªîKAø¶ â¡ø£™. › ï£ƒèœ ªè£´‚°‹ õ£˜ˆ¬îèO¡ °PŠ«ð´è¬÷ º¿¬ñò£è ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œÀƒèœ. (°PŠ¹ : ºîL™ Present Tense ¬ò ðò¡ð´ˆF ݃AôˆF™ «ðê èŸÁ‚ ªè£œÀƒèœ.5 Mù£®èœ è£ô Ü÷¾ ªè£´ˆ¶ «ð꾋. Üõ˜èœ «ð²õ¬î «ðŠðK™ â¿F ñùŠð£ì‹ ªêŒ¶ªè£‡´ «ð²õ£˜èœ. Hó„ê¬ù : 2 ݃AôˆF™ «ð²‹«ð£¶ cƒèœ «õèñ£è «ð²Al˜èœ. å¼õ˜ simple sentencesè¬÷ î¬ìJ¡P à¼õ£‚Aù£™ «ð£¶‹.

Þƒ° ªè£´‚èŠð†ì º¬øè¬÷ cƒèœ ¬èò£‡ì£™.) › Cô êñòƒèO™ cƒèœ «ð²‹«ð£¶ õ£‚Aòˆ¬î àƒè÷£™ àì«ù º®‚è º®ò£¶... Üî£õ¶ îI› õ£‚AòƒèO™ Þ¼‚°‹ 嚪õ£¼ îI› õ£˜ˆ¬î‚°‹ Ü‡ì£ù ݃Aô õ£˜ˆ¬îè¬÷ ªè£‡´ ªñ£N ªðò˜Šð£˜èœ. «õÁ õ£‚Aòˆ¶‚° ( «õÁ topic‚° ) ñ£P M´ƒèœ.. cƒèœ «ò£Cˆ¶ ðF™ ªê£™Al˜èœ â¡Á G¬ùŠð£˜. Þ‰î Í¡Á õ£˜ˆ¬îè¬÷ «ðCò¾ì¡.. Üî£õ¶. Ýó‹ðˆF™ 3 õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ ñ†´‹î£¡ «ðê º®Aø¶ â¡Á ¬õˆ¶‚ªè£œ«õ£‹. ÞŠð® ªêŒî£™ àƒèœ «ð„¬ê «è†ðõ˜ â¡ù G¬ùŠð£˜ â¡ø£™../ salem tomorrow morning ).. I go to. Ýîô£™ cƒèœ «õÁ topic‚¬èŠ ðŸP «ð²Al˜èœ. ܉î Þ¬ìŠð†ì è£ôˆF™ Þƒ° ªè£´‚èŠð†ì õ£˜ˆ¬îèO™ ( you know / you know what / um um um./ we discuss about Math ).. Þƒ° è¬ìC Í¡Á õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚° ðFô£è. (“um um um. â‰î Å›G¬ôJ½‹ ݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ðêô£‹.NLRC Spoken English Pvt Ltd › ݃Aô‹ «ð²‹«ð£¶ cƒèœ Í¡Á õ¬èò£ù Å›G¬ôèÀ‚° à†ð´Al˜èœ.../ yes ) ãî£õ¶ 塬ø ªê£™½ƒèœ. › cƒèœ º¡Ã†®«ò îò£˜ ªêŒò£ñ™ F¯˜ â¡Á «ð²‹«ð£¶‹..”) â¡Á °ó™ åL â¿ŠH õ£‚Aòˆ¬î Ýó‹H»ƒèœ. He comes here tomorrow. 16 ./ um./ yes ãî£õ¶ 塬ø «ð²ƒèœ./ um um um. ò£ó£õ¶ «è†°‹ «èœM‚° ðFôO‚°‹«ð£¶‹. Üî£õ¶ ܉î õ£‚AòˆF™ 6 õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ Þ¼Šðî£è ¬õˆ¶‚ªè£œ«õ£‹. «ò£ê¬ù ªêŒîHø°. Hó„ê¬ù : 3 ݃AôˆF™ «ð²‹«ð£¶ îI› õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ ݃AôˆF™ ªñ£N ªðò˜Al˜èœ./ I go to salem tomorrow morning.  ªñ£N ªðò˜ˆî™ à¬óï¬ì ݃AôˆF™ 70 êîMî Å›G¬ôèÀ‚°‹ ñŸÁ‹ «ð²‹ ݃AôˆF™ 30 êîMî Å›G¬ôèÀ‚°‹ ñ†´‹î£¡ ªõŸPèóñ£è ܬñ»‹.. cƒèœ ñŸø õ£˜ˆ¬îè¬÷ «ð²i˜èœ.. CP¶ «ïó‹ â´ˆ¶‚ªè£‡ìŠ Hø°î£¡ ò£ó£½‹ «ðê Ýó‹H‚è º®»‹.. Þƒ° ºî™ õ£‚AòˆF™ cƒèœ “ CQñ£¾‚° «ð£èô£‹ ñŸÁ‹  ꣊Hìô£‹” â¡Á ªê£™Al˜èœ... «ò£C‚°‹ «ïóˆF™ Þƒ° ªè£´‚èŠð†ì õ£˜ˆ¬îèO™ you know/ you know what/ um um um. ( â´ˆ¶‚裆´ : I go to. ( â´ˆ¶‚裆´ : um um um.. â™ô£ õ£˜ˆ¬îè¬÷»‹ Ãì cƒèœ «ê˜ˆ¶ «ðêô£‹. M÷‚è‹ :  ðô˜ ݃AôˆF™ «ð²‹«ð£¶ îI› õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ ݃AôˆF™ ªñ£N ªðò˜Aø£˜èœ. ñŸø Í¡Á õ£˜ˆ¬îè¬÷ ðŸP «ò£ê¬ù ªêŒi˜èœ... ( â´ˆ¶‚裆´ : we go to cinema and we eat..... › cƒèœ «ð²‹«ð£¶ àƒè÷£™ õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ( «ò£CˆîŠ Hø°‹ Ãì ) º®‚è º®òM™¬ô â¡ø£™ Ü™ô¶ 𣶠«ð²‹ õ£‚AòˆFŸ° à‡ì£ù 輈¶ ( topic ) H®‚èM™¬ô â¡ø£™../ um um um. “ èí‚¬èŠ ðŸP Mõ£F‚èô£‹” â¡Á ªê£™Al˜èœ.... Ü‰î «ïóˆF™ ‹ ‹ ‹ ‹ ‹. ÜŠ Hø° àƒèÀ‚° â¡ù «ð²õ¶ â¡Á ªîKòM™¬ô.. Üî£õ¶..

ºîL™ absorb¡ õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¬ð ºîL™ èŸÁ‚ ªè£œÀƒèœ. 輋ðô¬è åO¬ò Ü™ô¶ ªõŠðˆ¬î àœõ£ƒA ªè£œõ‹ absorb ðò¡ð´Aø¶. Üî¡ Ü˜ˆî¬î ï¡ø£è ¹K‰¶ ªè£œÀƒèœ. àP…²ðõ˜ . › ݃AôˆF™ ¹ô¬ñ àœ÷õ˜èœ «ñ«ô °PŠH†ì º¬ø¬ò ¬õˆ¶  ݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ð²Aø£˜èœ. 輈¶ ޶. › ÞŠªð£¿¶ cƒèœ õ£‚Aò ܬñŠH¡ ªð£¼¬÷ ï¡ø£è ªîK‰¶‚ªè£‡¯˜èœ. ޡ‹ MKõ£è. absorb â¡ø õ£˜ˆ¬î¬ò ¬õˆ¶ âŠð® ݃Aô õ£‚Aò‹ ܬñŠð¶ (ܶ¾‹ îIN™ Þ¼‰¶ ªñ£N ªðò˜‚è£ñ™ ) ? › ݃Aô õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñ‚è. Üî£õ¶. â¡ø õ£˜ˆ¬î‚° àP‰¶ªè£œÀî™.sth1.ñó‹ (the tree). › Absorb ¡ › õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¬ð ªîK‰¶‚ªè£¡ì Hø°. «ñ«ô °PŠH†ì õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¬ð W›è‡ìõ£Á ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œ÷ «õ‡´‹. ( Üî£õ¶. Üî£õ¶ “ñó‹ c¬ó «õK¡ Íô‹ àP…²Aø¶”. Ü´ˆ¶ Þ¬î ¬õˆ¶ cƒèœ G¬ùˆî 輈¬î âŠð® ݃AôˆF™ ªê£™ôô£‹ â¡Á 𣘊«ð£‹. Þ‰î õ£‚Aòˆ¬î Present Tense™ â¿Fù£™ A¬ìŠð¶ “the tree absorbs the water from the root” Ý°‹.sth2 . å¼ ñóˆF¡ «õ˜ Ü™ô¶ ð…² c¬ó àP…²õ‹. Þƒ° àP…²ðõ˜ (sth1) . õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹ sth1 .the root.absorb . Þîù£™î£¡ à¬óï¬ì ݃AôˆF™ ¹ô¬ñŠ ªðŸø ðô˜ ݃AôˆF™ «ð²‹«ð£¶ ðî†ìŠð´õ˜. ªðò˜„ªê£™½‚° º¡ù£™ the â¡ø õ£˜ˆ¬î¬ò «ê˜ˆ¶‚ ªè£œÀƒèœ.sth2. àƒèOì‹ «è†èŠð´‹ Ü´ˆî‚ «èœM. › Absorb › ÞŠªð£¿¶ cƒèœ absorb ¡ ªð£¼¬÷ ï¡ø£è ªîK‰¶‚ ªè£‡¯˜èœ. sth1 (something1) â¡ø£™ ãî£õ¶ å¼ ªð£¼œ Ü™ô¶ ãî£õ¶ å¡Á â¡Á ܘˆî‹. àPòŠð´Aø ªð£¼œ (sth2) . â‰î preposition¬ò ðò¡ð´ˆ¶õ¶ â¡ø °öŠð‹ åN»‹ ñŸÁ‹ êó÷ñ£è cƒèœ ݃AôˆF™ «ðêô£‹.Cognitive Spoken English  Þ‰î ªñ£N ªðò˜Šð£ù¶.sth2 .sth3 Ý°‹.absorb the water . ÞŠªð£¿¶ ïñ‚° ªñ£Nªðò˜‚è£ñ™ ݃Aô õ£‚Aò‹ A¬ìˆ¶ M†ì¶. àPòŠð´Aø ªð£¼œ . ªð£¼œ1 (sth1) Ýù¶ ªð£¼œ2 (sth2) ¬ò ªð£¼œ3 (sth3) L¼‰¶ àP…²Aø¶. õ£˜ˆ¬îèO¡ °PŠ«ð´ Þ‰î º¬ø¬ò ¬õˆ¶î£¡ â¿îŠ ð†´œ÷¶. 17 . cƒèœ ݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ð²õ º†´‚膬ìò£è ܬñAø¶. Hó„ê¬ù : 3¬ò «ð£‚°‹ õNº¬øèœ : › Þ‰î ªñ£Nªðò˜Š¹ Hó„ê¬ù¬ò «ð£‚°õ õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹ º¬ø ( sentence pattern) ðò¡ð´ˆîŠð´Aø¶. âFL¼‰¶ sth3 ).from . Üî£õ¶. Þ‰î º¬ø¬ò cƒèœ ¬èò£‡ì£™.from .sth3) ̘ˆF ªêŒîŠHø° àƒèÀ‚° A¬ì‚°‹ õ£‚Aò‹ ޶. › ï£ƒèœ î¼‹ õ£˜ˆ¬îèO¡ °PŠ«ð´ «ñ«ô °PŠH†ì º¬øè¬÷ ªè£‡´ â¿îŠð†´œ÷¶. àœ õ£ƒA‚ªè£œÀî™ â¡Á ªð£¼œð´‹.«õ˜ (the root). the tree . Þƒ°.c˜ (the water) âFL¼‰¶ (sth3) . › «ñ«ô °PŠH†ì ªð£¼œè¬÷ Absorb¡ õ£‚Aò ܬñŠH™ (sth1 .from .absorb .

the coconut tree . cƒèœ ݃Aô õ£‚Aò‹ ܬñ‚°‹ «ð£¶ â‰î preposition¬ò ðò¡ð´ˆ¶õ¶ â¡ø °öŠðˆF™ Þ¼Šð àƒè÷£™ ݃Aô‹ êó÷ñ£è «ðê º®òM™¬ô. àì™ ïôˆFŸ° ï™ô¶.‚°. for â¡ø õ£˜ˆ¬î‚° .  ãŸèù«õ ªê£¡ù¶ «ð£™.‚è£è â¡Á‹ ªð£¼œ ªè£í´ ðò¡ð´ˆ¶Aø£˜èœ. Hó„ê¬ù : 4 ¬ò «ð£‚°‹ õNº¬øèœ : › Preposition ¬ò › The apple is good for health . ݃AôˆF™ ¹ô¡ ꣘‰î õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ ªñ£ˆî‹ 255 Þ¼‚Aø¶. Hó„ê¬ù :5 «ð²‹ ݃Aô‹ 蟰‹«ð£¶ in. ÞF™ for »¬ìò ªð£¼œ “Ÿ°” â¡Á ªð£¼œ ªè£‡´ ðò¡ð´ˆîM™¬ô. i†®Ÿ° ªî¡¬ù ñó‹ ï™ô¶ â¡ø Å›G¬ô¬ò ݃AôˆF™ °PŠHì Þ‰î õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹ º¬ø¬ò ðò¡ð´ˆF âOî£è ܬñ‚èô£‹. Þ‰î º¬ø 10 êîMîñ£ù Å›G¬ôèÀ‚°î£¡ êKò£è ªð£¼‰¶‹.sth2 ). in â¡ø õ£˜ˆ¬î‚° .is good for . ( pattern : sth1 . Good â¡ø õ£˜ˆ¬î‚° ܼA™ for â¡ø õ£˜ˆ¬î õ¼‹. cƒèœ ݃Aô‹ êó÷ñ£è «ðê º®ò£ñ™ Þ¼Šð Þ¶ å¼ º‚Aòñ£ù è£óí‹ Ý°‹.the house. on. Þ¶ õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹ º¬ø¬ò ðò¡ð´ˆF for àð«ò£èŠð´ˆîŠð´Aø¶. Üî£õ¶.NLRC Spoken English Pvt Ltd Hó„ê¬ù : 4 Preposition èœ Üî£õ¶ to â¡ø õ£˜ˆ¬î‚° .“‚è£è” â¡Á‹.“™” â¡Á‹ ªð£¼œ ªè£‡´ ðò¡ð´ˆ¶Al˜èœ. Ÿ°” â¡Á‹. ï£ƒèœ î¼‹ °PŠ«ð†®™ ¹ô¡ ꣘‰î õ£˜ˆ¬îè¬÷Š ðŸP MKõ£è â¿îŠð†´œ÷¶. Hó„ê¬ù : 5 ¬ò «ð£‚°‹ õNº¬øèœ : › ¹ô¡ ꣘‰î õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ â¡ð¶ preposition.  cƒèœ ªð¼‹ð£½‹ noun ñŸÁ‹ verb è¬÷ ñ†´‹î£¡ èŸÁ‚ ªè£œAl˜èœ.is good for .ÝŠHœ ðò¡ð´ˆ¶õ õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹ º¬ø¬ò (sentence pattern) ðò¡ð´ˆ¶ƒèœ. for. Ÿ° â¡Á‹. by «ð£¡ø õ£˜ˆ¬îèO¡ ªð£¼¬÷ ï¡ø£è èŸÁ‚ªè£œõF™¬ô. Üî£õ¶. for â¡ø õ£˜ˆ¬î‚° . pronoun «ð£¡ø¬õè¬÷ °P‚°‹ õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ Ý°‹.“‚°. Þ‰î õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚° “¹ô¡ ꣘‰î õ£˜ˆ¬î蜔 â¡Á Ãøô£‹. M÷‚è‹ :  ݃Aô‹ 蟰‹ «ð£¶ ¹ô¡ ꣘‰î õ£˜ˆ¬îè¬÷ cƒèœ ï¡ø£è ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œ÷ ñø‰¶ M´Al˜èœ. M÷‚è‹ :  ðô˜ ݃AôˆF™ «ð²‹«ð£¶ to â¡ø õ£˜ˆ¬î‚° . adverb. determiner. 18 .

M÷‚è‹ :  ݃AôˆF™ cƒèœ êó÷ñ£è «ðê«õ‡´ªñQ™ cƒèœ ݃AôˆF™î£¡ «ò£C‚è «õ‡´‹ â¡Á àƒèÀ‚° ªê£™L ªè£´ˆF¼‚è õ£ŒŠ¹ àœ÷¶. Hó„ê¬ù : 6 ¬ò «ð£‚°‹ õNº¬øèœ : › ݃AôˆF™ “õ£ƒ°î™” â¡ø 輈¬î ªîKM‚è buy.Cognitive Spoken English › àƒèÀ‚° ݃AôˆF™ àœ÷ â™ô£ noun ñŸÁ‹ verbèœ ªîK‰î£™ Ãì.  â‰îªõ£¼ ªñ£N¬ò ðò¡ð´ˆF»‹ «ò£CŠðF™¬ô. obtain. ÜP¬õ ñŸÁ‹ è‹ðQ¬ò ªðø acquire. acquire. Þ¶ îõø£ù 輈¶ Ý°‹. 19 . 嚪õ£¼ õ£˜ˆ¬î‚°‹ Iè CPò MˆFò£ê‹î£¡ Þ¼‚Aø¶. 嚪õ£¼ ªð£¼À‚° î°‰î ñ£FK «ñ«ô ªê£¡ù õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ ðò¡ð´ˆîŠð´Aø¶. H󄄬ù : 7¬ò «ð£‚°‹ õNº¬øèœ : › ñQî˜è÷£Aò  ݃AôˆF«ô£ Ü™ô¶ îIN«ô£ «ò£CŠðF™¬ô. purchase. › ¹ô¡ ꣘‰î õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ àƒèO¡ «ò£C‚°‹ Fø¬ù ÜFèŠð´ˆ¶‹. semantic memory â¡ø Þ¼ ð°Fèœ àœ÷¶. ÞFL¼‰¶Š 𣘈. Hó„ê¬ù :6 ݃AôˆF™ å¼ è¼ˆ¬î «ðê Ü‡ì£ù Iè êKò£ù ݃Aô õ£˜ˆ¬î¬ò ðò¡ð´ˆ¶õ¶. cƒè«÷ â‰î ݃Aô õ£˜ˆ¬î¬ò ðò¡ð´ˆî «õ‡´‹ â¡Á ¹K‰¶‚ ªè£œi˜èœ. › ïñ ͬ÷J™ physical memory. purchase. get «ð£¡ø õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ ðò¡ð´ˆîŠð´Aø¶. Cô è£ôˆFŸ° Hø°.  Þî¡ M¬÷õ£™ cƒèœ ݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ðê º®ò£¶. «ñ«ô °PŠH†ì ¹ô¡ ꣘‰î õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ ªîKòM™¬ô â¡ø£™ àƒè÷£™ êó÷ñ£è ݃Aô‹ «ðê Þòô£¶. Hó„ê¬ù : 7 cƒèœ ݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ðê «õ‡´ªñQ™ cƒèœ ݃AôˆF™î£¡ «ò£C‚è ( think ªêŒò ) «õ‡´‹. ðí‹ ªè£´ˆ¶ õ£ƒ°õ buy. › cƒèœ ݃Aô‹ «ð²‹ Ýó‹ð è£ôˆF™ “õ£ƒ°î™ ” 輈¬î ªîKM‚è «ñ«ô ªê£¡ù ãî£õ¶ å¼ ÝƒAô õ£˜ˆ¬î¬ò ( buy / purchase / obtain / acquire / get) ðò¡ð´ˆF «ð²ƒèœ. M÷‚è‹ :  ݃Aô‹ «ð²‹«ð£¶ å¼ è¼ˆ¬î ªîKM‚è Ü‡ì£ù Iè êKò£ù ݃Aô õ£˜ˆ¬î¬ò àƒèœ ñùF™ «î´‹ «ð£¶ àƒèÀ‚° ðîŸø‹ ãŸð´‹. ðJŸCJ¡ Íôñ£è î£ù£è«õ.  physical memory Íôñ£èˆî£¡ «ò£C‚A«ø£‹.

 Þ¶¾‹ cƒèœ ݃Aô‹ «ð²õ å¼ I芪ðKò Hó„ê¬ùò£è Þ¼‚Aø¶. Þîù£™ cƒèœ â‰î ¶¬ø¬ò ꣘‰îõ˜ â¡ø£½‹ âƒèOì‹ ðJŸC ªðŸø£™ cƒèœ êó÷ñ£è ݃Aô‹ «ðêô£‹. ñ¼ˆ¶õ‹ «ð£¡ø¬õè¬÷Š ðŸP «ðê. Hó„ê¬ù :9 ݃Aô õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚° îI› õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚°Š «ð£™ å¡Á Ü™ô¶ Þó‡´ ªð£¼œèœ (meaning)  àœ÷¶. Ü«î «ð£™ ÝƒAôˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ Cô 輈¶èœ îIN™ «ïó®ò£è ªê£™ô Þòô£¶. Ýù£™ Þ¶ îõÁ.” › îI› ªîKò£îõ˜èOì‹ ñ†´‹ ݃AôˆF™ «ð²ƒèœ. Üõ˜èœ 輈¬î cƒèÀ‹ ¹K‰¶‚ ªè£œ÷ô£‹. About 20 . Ü¬îŠ ð£˜. M÷‚è‹ :  ðô˜ â¡ù G¬ùˆ¶ ªè£‡®¼‚Aø£˜èœ â¡ø£™. œ ªî£N™ ªêŒõ (business Communication) œ è¬ô. îI› õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚°Š «ð£ô ݃Aô õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚°‹ å¡Á Ü™ô¶ Þó‡´ ªð£¼œèœî£¡ Þ¼‚Aø¶. àƒèœ 輈¬î Üõ˜èœ ¹K‰¶‚ ªè£œõ£˜èœ. œ Fùº‹ ïì‚°‹ Ü¡ø£ì G蛾è¬÷Š ðŸP «ðê.NLRC Spoken English Pvt Ltd Hó„ê¬ù : 8 îIN™ Þ¼‚°‹ â™ô£ 輈¶‚è¬÷»‹ ݃AôˆF™ «ðê G¬ùŠð¶ M÷‚è‹ :  ݃AôˆF™ cƒèœ «ð²‹«ð£¶ îIN™ Þ¼‚°‹ â™ô£ 輈¶‚è¬÷»‹ ݃AôˆF™ «ðê G¬ù‚Al˜èœ. ÜPMò™. ¹ô¡ê£˜‰î õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ ñŸÁ‹ M¬ùªê£Ÿèœ ñ£ø£¶.  îIN™ Þ¼‚°‹ Cô 輈¶èœ ݃AôˆF™ «ïó®ò£è ªê£™ô Þòô£¶. Ýù£™. › ï£ƒèœ ªè£´‚°‹ ðJŸCJ¡ Íô‹ àôèˆF™ àœ÷ ܬùõ¼ì‹ ݃AôˆF™ «ðêô£‹. › cƒèœ 嚪õ£¼ Å›G¬ôJ½‹ «ð²‹«ð£¶ ªðò˜ªê£Ÿèœ (nouns) ñ†´‹î£¡ ñ£Á‹. › ݃Aôˆ¬î W›è‡ì¬õèÀ‚° ñ†´‹ ðò¡ð´ˆ¶ƒèœ. àƒèÀ‚° «î¬õòŸø ðòˆ¬î à¼õ£‚°‹. ªî£N™¸†ð‹. ¹øï£ÛÁèO™ Þ¼‚°‹ 輈¶‚è¬÷ ݃AôˆF™ «ðê M¼‹¹Al˜èœ.  â¡ø õ£˜ˆ¬î‚° âˆî¬ù ªð£¼œ â¡Á ðôKì‹ «è†ì “ðŸP” â¡ø å¼ ªð£¼œ ñ†´‹î£¡ â¡Á ÃPù£˜èœ. Üî£õ¶ “c ¯ °®.  F¼‚°øœ. Hó„ê¬ù :8¬ò «ð£‚°‹ õNº¬øèœ : › «ñŸªê£¡ù Hó„ê¬ùèœ.

Hó„ê¬ù : 10 ݃Aô‹ êó÷ñ£è «ð²õ ªêŒFî£œèœ ñŸÁ‹ ¹ˆîèƒè¬÷ 𮂰ñ£Á ÜP¾ÁˆîŠð´Al˜èœ.Cognitive Spoken English Hó„ê¬ù : 9¬ò «ð£‚°‹ õNº¬øèœ : › 嚪õ£¼ ݃Aô õ£˜ˆ¬î‚°‹ °¬ø‰î¶ 1 ªð£¼À‹ ÜFèð†êñ£è 40 ªð£¼œèÀ‹ Þ¼‚Aø¶. voice ñŸÁ‹ grammar «ð£¡ø¬õèœ ÜFè º‚Aòˆ¶õ‹ ªðÁAø¶. Hó„ê¬ù :12 «ð²‹ ݃AôŠ ðJŸCJ™ ݃Aô Þô‚èí‹ ÜFè º‚Aòˆ¶õ‹ ªðÁAø¶. Hó„ê¬ù : 11¬ò «ð£‚°‹ õNº¬øèœ : › «ð²‹ ݃AôŠ ðJŸC¬ò Üõóõ˜ ªñ£NJ™ ïìˆFù£™ Iè ï¡ø£è ¹K‰¶ ªè£œõ˜.  Þ¶ cƒèœ ݃Aô‹ «ð²õ IèŠ ªðKò º†´‚膬ìò£è Þ¼‚Aø¶. 21 . M÷‚è‹ :  ݃AôŠ ðJŸC õ°Š¹èœ ݃Aô õNJ™ ðJŸÁM‚èŠð´A¶. M÷‚è‹ :  cƒèœ ݃Aô‹ êó÷ñ£è «ðê ªêŒFî£œèœ ñŸÁ‹ è¬î ¹ˆîèƒèœ 𮂰ñ£Á ÜP¾ÁˆîŠð´Al˜èœ. › ݃Aô ï®è˜èœ. M÷‚è‹ :  ݃Aô ðJŸC õ°Š¹èO™ tenses. › âƒèœ ¹ô‰î ꣘‰î «ð²‹ ݃AôŠ ðJŸC º¿õ¶ñ£è îI› õNJ™ ïìˆîŠð´Aø¶. õ£˜ˆ¬î‚° ãøˆî£ö 30 ªð£¼œèœ Þ¼‚Aø¶. Þîù£™ îI› ñ£íõ˜èœ õ°Š¹è¬÷ ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œ÷ CóñŠð´Aø£˜èœ. M…ë£Qèœ Üõ˜èO¡ ݃AôŠ «ð†®è¬÷ ð®‚辋. Hó„ê¬ù : 10¬ò «ð£‚°‹ õNº¬øèœ : › cƒèœ à¬óò£ì™ ÜFèñ£è Þ¼‚°‹ ݃Aô ðìƒè¬÷ (Hollywood movies) Engilsh subtitles ¾ì¡ 𣘂辋. › Go â¡ø › õ£˜ˆ¬îèO¡ â™ô£ ªð£¼œè¬÷»‹ cƒèœ ªîK‰¶ªè£‡ì£™. passive. °¬ø‰î õ£˜ˆ¬îè¬÷ ªè£‡´ â™ô£ Å›G¬ôèO½‹ «ðêô£‹. active. Hó„ê¬ù : 11 «ð²‹ ݃AôŠ ðJŸC ݃Aô õNJ™ ðJŸÁM‚èŠð´Aø¶.

ñŸªø£¡Á semantic memory. ï‹ è‡èœ Íôñ£è ªðøŠð´‹ åO ܬôèœ physical memory J™ º‚Aò ðƒ° õA‚Aø¶. èŸð¬ù ªêŒî™ «ð£¡ø ªêò™è¬÷  ªêŒõ physical memory ðò¡ð´Aø¶. è‡èœ Íôñ£è àôèˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ ªð£¼œèœ ñŸÁ‹ ªêò™è¬÷ physical memory J™ àœõ£ƒèŠð´Aø¶. 22 . «ò£Cˆî™. Üî£õ¶. ïñ‚° Þó‡´ ªñ£Nèœ ( îI›. âƒèœ ðJŸC õ°Š¹èO™ ݃Aô Þô‚èí«ñ A¬ìò£¶. Þ‰î H¬íŠ¹ Þ™ô£ñ™ Þ¼Šð. å¡Á physical memory. Physical memoryJ™ 䋹ô¡èO¡ ܬôèÀ‹ (signals) ñŸÁ‹ ï‹ à혾èÀ‹ (feelings) Þ¼‚°‹. îI¿‚° å¼ semantic memeory ñŸÁ‹ ݃Aôˆ¶‚° å¼ semantic memory. Þ‰î H¬íŠ¬ð learning nucleus â¡Á Ãøô£‹. 䋹ô¡èO™. îI› ï¡ø£è «ðê ªîK‰îõ˜èÀ‚° îI› semantic memory ‚°‹ physical memory ‚°‹ ï™ô H¬íŠ¹ Þ¼‚°‹. W›è‡ì ðìˆF™ ͬ÷J¡ memory è¬÷ è£íô£‹.NLRC Spoken English Pvt Ltd  Þ¶ cƒèœ ݃Aô‹ «ð²õ I芪ðKò º†´‚膬ìò£è Þ¼‚Aø¶. îI› ñ£íõ˜èÀ‚° Þ¼‚°‹ Hó„ê¬ù â¡ùªõ¡ø£™ ݃Aô semantic memory ‚°‹ physical memory ‚°‹ ï™ô H¬íŠ¹ Þ™ô£ñ™ Þ¼Šð¶ Ý°‹. Hó„ê¬ù :12¬ò «ð£‚°‹ õNº¬øèœ : › âƒèœ ¹ô¡ ꣘‰î «ð²‹ ݃AôŠ ðJŸCJ™ ݃Aô Þô‚èíˆFŸ° º‚Aòˆ¶õ‹ îó£ñ™ ðJŸC õ°Š¹èœ ïìˆîŠð´Aø¶. cƒèœ ݃Aô‹ «ð²‹ «ð£¶ îIN™ ªñ£N ªðò˜ˆ¶ «ð²Al˜èœ. ݃Aô‹ ) ªîK‰F¼‰î£™ ï‹ Í¬÷J™ Þó‡´ semantic memeoryèœ à¼õ£°‹. Semantic memoryò£ù¶  «ò£Cˆ¶ ¬õˆ¶œ÷ 輈¶èœ ñŸÁ‹ ¹K‰¶‚ªè£‡ì 輈¶è¬÷ ñŸøõ˜èÀ‚° ãî£õ¶ å¼ ªñ£N Íô‹ ªê£™õ Þ¶ ðò¡ð´Aø¶. ޡ‹ ªê£™ôŠ«ð£ù£™. VII ͬ÷J¡ ðF¾ ªð£¼œèœ (Brain Memories) ͬ÷J™ Þ¼ õ¬èò£ù memories Þ¼‚Aø¶. semantic memory J™ å¼ °PŠH†ì ªñ£NJ¡ õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ ñŸÁ‹ Üî¡ Þô‚èí‹ Þ¼‚°‹.

«ð²ðõK¡ 輈¬î‚ «è†ðF™ ñ†´‹î£¡ °Pò£è Þ¼Šð£˜. Þî¡ õK¬ê¬ò ¬õˆ¶ ªõšõ£ø£ù ªñ£Nèœ à¼õ£‚èŠð´Aø¶. âƒèœ ¹ô¡ ꣘‰î ݃Aô ðJŸCJ¡ Íôñ£è Þ¼ ªññKèÀ‚°‹ ï™ô H¬íŠ¹ 㟴ˆîŠð´Aø¶. ªêò™èœ ñŸÁ‹ àí˜¾èœ Ý°‹. ‰ «ð²ðõ˜ Þ‰î ñ£FK «ðCù£™ Ãì «è†ðõ˜ ï¡ø£è ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œõ£˜.  Þô‚èíŠ H¬öJ¡P «ðê «õ‡´‹. ‰ «ð²ðõ˜ M†´ M†´ ªñ¶õ£è «ðCù£™ Ãì. ªð£¼œèO¡ ªêò™ð£´èœ ñŸÁ‹ ñQîQ¡ àí˜¾èœ «ð£¡ø¬õè¬÷ å¼õ˜ ñŸªø£¼õ¼‚° â´ˆ¶‚ Ãø ñQî¡ ªñ£N¬ò à¼õ£‚è è£óíñ£è ܬñ‰F¼‚A¡ø¶. ݘAI®v õ‹ èŠð™ ã¡ èìL™ Iî‚Aø¶ â¡ø è£ó투î ÃÁõ Þ¶ 輈¶ Ý°‹. 輈¶ â¡ð¶ ¹K‰¶‚ ªè£œ÷Šð†ì ªð£¼œèœ.  «õèñ£è «ðê «õ‡´‹. 23 . ݃Aô semantic memory ‚°‹ physical memory ‚°‹ ï™ô H¬íŠ¹ Þ¼‚è «õ‡´‹. walk. ªð£¼œèO¡ ªêò™ð£´èœ ñŸÁ‹ ñQîQ¡ àí˜¾èœ «ð£¡ø¬õèÀ‚° Ü‡ì£ù ªðò˜ ¬õˆ¶ ܬö‚A«ø£‹. 輈¶ ° º‚Aò ð°Fè¬÷ ªè£‡®¼‚Aø¶. «è†ðõ˜ ªð£Á¬ñ»ì¡ Þ¼Šð£˜. IX ñQî¡ ªñ£N¬ò â âŠð® à¼õ£‚Aù£¡ ? Þ‰î àôèˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ ªð£¼œèœ. Üî£õ¶ Subject (S). ÞFL¼‰¶  â¡ù ¹K‰¶ ªè£‡«ì£‹ â¡ø£™. hate.Cognitive Spoken English å¼õ˜ ݃Aô‹ êó÷ñ£è «ðê «õ‡´ªñQ™. eat. èŠð™ ã¡ èìL™ Iî‚Aø¶ â¡ø è£óí‹ è¼ˆ¶ Ý°‹. VIII ݃AôˆF™ «ð²ðõK¡ ñùG¬ô ñŸÁ‹ «è†ðõK¡ ñùG¬ô âŠð® Þ¼‚°‹? «ð²ðõK¡ ñùG¬ô :  ¹ˆîèˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ ݃Aô õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ÜŠð®«ò «ðê «õ‡´‹.) Þ‰î ªðò˜è¬÷ Þô‚èíˆ¬î ¬õˆ¶ å¡Á «ê˜ˆ¶ õ£‚Aòƒèœ ܬñ‚èŠð´Aø¶. cƒèœ Þô‚èí H¬ö«ò£´ «ð²Al˜è÷£ Þ™¬ôò£ â¡Á èõQ‚èñ£†ì£˜. «è†ðõK¡ ñùG¬ô : ‰ «è†ðõ˜ ݃Aô õ£‚AòˆF¡ ªð£¼¬÷ ñ†´‹î£¡ èõQŠð£˜. Þ‰î ݃Aô õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ♫ô£¼‹ ¹K‰¶‚ ªè£œõ£˜èœ. love. èìL™ èŠð™ Iî‚Aø¶ â¡ð¶ å¼ ªêò™. Ýîô£™ àƒè÷£™ ݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ðê º®Aø¶. “I walk road thief hit fell”. Object (O). Üî£õ¶. 嚪õ£¼ ªñ£NJ½‹ Þ‰î àôèˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ ªð£¼œèœ. Complement (C). etc. (Example : cat. Verb (V). «ð²‹ «ð£¶ Þô‚èíŠ H¬ö«ò£´ Ãì «ðêô£‹.

Ýîô£™ ÞF™ “Üõ¡” â¡ð¶ object¬ò °P‚°‹.S + V + O + C â¡ø õK¬êJ™ õ¼‹. etc  Subject . â¬î.  Verb¬ò ¬õˆ¶ Ü Object Þ¼‚Aøî£ Þ™¬ôò£ â¡Á âOî£è 致H®‚èô£‹. ܉î M¬ù‚° Object Þ¼‚Aø¶ â¡Á ܘˆî‹. ý‰F. Kumar â¡ð¶ M¬ù¬ò ªêŒîõ˜ (subject) Ý°‹. object. O. ò£¬ó â¡ø «èœM¬ò M¬ù»ì¡ «è†°‹«ð£¶ Object A¬ì‚°‹. Ýù£™.  Irish . Þƒ° Kumar (°ñ£˜) â¡ð¶ Subject Ý°‹.S + O + C + V â¡ø õK¬êJ™ õ¼‹.. Ýù£™ Verb Ýù¶ ݃Aô õ£‚AòˆF™ Þó‡ì£õî£è õ¼‹. Complement . “” â¡ð¶ Subject ¬ò °P‚°‹. Þƒ° cƒèœ ï¡° èõQˆb˜è÷£ù£™. Kumar (°ñ£˜) â¡ø Subject îI¿‚°‹. C õK¬ê Ý°‹. “ «ó£†®™ ïì‚A«ø¡” â¡ø õ£‚AòˆF™ Subject . ÞF™ ãî£õ¶ å¼ «èœM‚° M¬ì Þ¼‰î£™. M¬ù Ü™ô¶ ªêò¬ô ªêŒðõ¬ó °P‚°‹.NLRC Spoken English Pvt Ltd  îI›. Object - «ñ«ô °PŠH†ì Í¡Á «èœMè¬÷ îMó ñŸø «èœMèœ Üî£õ¶ ã¡ / ⃫è / âŠð® / ⊪𣿶 «ð£¡ø¬õè¬÷ M¬ù»ì¡ «è†°‹«ð£¶ Complement A¬ì‚°‹.Þ¶  ªêò¬ô ªðÁðõ˜ Ü™ô¶ ªêò¬ô õ£ƒA ªè£œðõ˜. ݃Aôˆ¶‚°‹ õ£‚AòƒèO™ ºîô£õî£è õ¼Aø¶. Verb . S+V ÞŠªð£¿¶ subject. ݃AôˆF™ Þó‡ì£õî£è Þ¼‚Aø¶. Þî¡ îIö£‚è‹ : °ñ£˜ âù‚° ¹ˆîè‹ ªè£´‚Aø£ó. cƒèœ O.  Verb . ñŸÁ‹ Þ‰Fò ªñ£Nèœ . Üî£õ¶ “ Üõ¬ù Ü®‚A«ø¡” â¡ø õ£‚AòˆF™ “Ü®” â¡ø ªêò¬ô “Üõ¡” õ£ƒA‚ ªè£œAø£¡. îI¿‚°‹ ݃AôˆFŸ°‹ õK¬ê å¡«ø. œ Ýù¶ îIN™ õ£‚AòˆF¡ è¬ìCJ™ õ¼‹. C è¬÷ c‚Aù£™. îI¿‚° Verb è¬ìCò£è Þ¼‚°‹.  Complement - œ îI¿‚°‹ ñŸÁ‹ ݃Aôˆ¶‚°‹ àœ÷ º‚Aòñ£ù «õÁð£´è¬÷ 臮Šð£è ë£ðèˆF™ ¬õ‚辋. Üî£õ¶ â¡ù. îI› ñ‚èœ ÝƒAô‹ «ð²õ è®ùñ£è Þ¼‚°‹ ñŸªø£¼ ªêò™ S. Kumar walks (°ñ£˜ ïì‚Aø£˜) â¡ø õ£‚AòˆF™ walks â¡ð¶ M¬ù (Verb).Þ¶ M¬ù¬ò Ü™ô¶ ªêò¬ô °P‚è ðò¡ð´Aø¶.V + O + C + S â¡ø õK¬êJ™ õ¼‹. â¬î + Verb = ?.ïì. ( â¡ù + Verb = ?. complement «ð£¡ø¬õèO¡ ªð£¼œ â¡ù â¡Á 𣘊«ð£‹. ò£¬ó + Verb = ? ). › (â´î¶‚裆´ : Kumar gives me book â¡ð¶ ݃Aô õ£‚Aò‹. Üî£õ¶. Example : eat ( ꣊H´ ) walk ( ïì ). îI¿‚°‹ ñŸÁ‹ ݃Aôˆ¶‚°‹ õ£‚AòƒèO™ ºîô£õî£è õ¼‹. V.  ݃Aô‹ . verb. Verb 24 .«ó£†®™ ( ⃫è + ïì‚Aø£¡ = «ó£†®™ ) › Subject Ýù¶.

› êKò£ù Þô‚è툫 ݃Aô õ£‚Aòˆ¬î «ðê «õ‡´‹ â¡Á ÜõCòI™¬ô. › ݃Aô‹ êó÷ñ£è «ðê ªêŒF è¬÷ ð®‚è£b˜èœ. Þƒ° ݃AôˆF¡ º‚Aòˆ¶õ‹ â¡ùªõ¡ø£™. MõK â¡ø M¬ùèÀì¡ õ¼Aø«î£. “ðŸP” â¡ø õ£˜ˆ¬î»ì¡ “ïì” â¡ø M¬ù¬ò ¬õˆ¶ õ£‚Aò‹ ܬñ‚è º®»ñ£? 臮Šð£è îIN™ õ£‚Aò‹ ܬñ‚è º®ò£¶? Ü«î ñ£FK ݃AôˆF½‹ õ£‚Aò‹ ܬñ‚è º®ò£¶. Þ¶ cƒèœ ݃Aô‹ êKò£ù ªð£¼Àì¡ «ð²õ õN õ°‚°‹. › ݃Aô‹ «ð²‹ «ð£¶ simple sentence ™ «ð꾋. › àƒèœ ªñ£N¬ò ÜNò£ñ™ ð£¶è£ˆ¶ ªè£œÀƒèœ. Þ¬î GÏH. “ Üõ¬ùŠ ðŸP «ð²A«ø¡”. discuss «ð£¡ø M¬ùèÀì¡ ñ†´‹ õ¼‹. ݃AôˆF½‹ about ( ðŸP ) â¡ø õ£˜ˆ¬î talk. › ݃Aôˆ¬î business. â¬î»‹ ê£F‚°‹ ñQîó£è¾‹ ñ£ŸÁ‹. › ªñ¶õ£è «ð꾋. Üî£õ¶ about ( ðŸP ) ñŸÁ‹ walk ( ïì ) «ð£¡ø õ£˜ˆ¬îè¬÷ ¬õˆ¶ ݃AôˆF™ õ£‚Aò‹ ܬñ‚è º®ò£¶.Cognitive Spoken English X àôèˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ â™ô£ ªñ£NèÀ‚°‹ ªð£¼œèœ (Meanings) å¡«ø. XI ñ£íõ˜èœ ⊪𣿶‹ «ð²‹ ݃Aôˆ¬îŠ ðŸP ë£ðè‹ ¬õˆ¶‚ ªè£œ÷ îò º‚Aòñ£ù °PŠ¹èœ: Þƒ° ªê£™ôŠð´Aø 輈¶èœ ܬùˆ¶‹ Þ¶õ¬ó ªê£™ôŠð†ì 輈¶‚èO¡ ²¼‚è‹ Ý°‹. 25 . “¹ˆîè‹ ÜóCò¬ôŠ ðŸP MõK‚Aø¶.” îIN™ âŠð® ðŸP â¡ø õ£˜ˆ¬î «ð². àƒèÀ‚° ªîK‰î 輈¶‚è¬÷. ¹K‰¶‚ ªè£‡´ èŸø½‹î£¡ å¼õ¬ó ¹ˆFê£Lò£è¾‹. àôèˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ â™ô£ ªñ£NèÀ‚°‹ ªð£¼œèœ å¡«ø. education ñŸÁ‹ Ü¡ø£ì G蛾è¬÷ «ðê ñ†´‹ ðò¡ð´ˆ¶ƒèœ. Ü«î «ð£™.  îIN™ “ðŸP” â¡ø õ£˜ˆ¬î¬ò ¬õˆ¶ Cô õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ ܬñ‚èô£‹. › ݃Aô‹ ñ†´‹ êó÷ñ£è «ðCù£™ å¼õ˜ ¹ˆFê£Lò£è Ýèô£‹ Ü™ô¶ â¬î»‹ ê£F‚èô£‹ â¡ø â‡íƒè¬÷ Mì «õ‡´‹. è®ù à¬öŠ¹‹. îI› ªîKò£îõ˜èOì‹ â´ˆ¶ ªê£™õ¶ Ý°‹. Üî£õ¶. îI› ªîKò£îõ˜èOì‹ ñ†´‹ ݃Aô‹ «ð²ƒèœ.

2 Pronouns of Humans 27 .2 ñQî˜è¬÷ °P‚°‹ HóFªðò˜ ªê£Ÿèœ Chapter .Cognitive Spoken English ð£ì‹ .

You come with me - âù‚° Ü™ô¶ â¡Qì‹ ¹ˆîè‹ ªè£´ƒèœ. b. ù Ü™ô¶  îQò£è ( l myself ). 3. Myself Meaning 1: ï£ù£è«õ. My Meaning 1: â¡Â¬ìò. cƒèœ â¡Âì¡ õ£¼ƒèœ. Üî£õ¶ verb‚° º¡¹ õ¼‹. âù‚° ( me / to me / for me ). Me too - Þ¶  / Þ¶  / ܶ . b. This is my car - Þ¶ â¡Â¬ìò 裘 Ý°‹. b. l myself walked long .NLRC Spoken English 1. ( °PŠ¹: å¼õ˜ îù‚° ªê£‰îñ£ù å¼ ªð£¼¬÷ ¬õˆF¼Šð¬î Ãø has / have ðò¡ð´Aø¶. a. 4. a. â¡Â¬ìò¶ CPò¶ Ý°‹. a. You give me the book . My car price is 6 lacs - â¡Â¬ìò è£K¡ M¬ô 6 ô†êƒèœ Ý°‹. Phrase Meaning 1: It’s me / this is me / that’s me Phrase Meaning 2: me too d. I have car - 2. I want money - âù‚° ðí‹ «î¬õŠð´Aø¶. ⡬ù«ò. îQò£è ÜFè Éó‹ ïì‰«î¡ Ü™ô¶ ù ÜFè Éó‹ ï쉫î¡. âù‚°. âù‚°‹ Ü«î G¬ô¬ñ. I am hungry. 30 . I do the work all by myself . Me Meaning 1: ⡬ù. c. â¡Qì‹ è£˜ Þ¼‚Aø¶ Ü™ô¶  裘 ¬õˆF¼‚A«ø¡. Mine Meaning 1: â¡Â¬ìò¶ a. Your book is big. ⡬ù«ò è£òŠð´ˆF ªè£œA«ø¡. â¡Qì‹. âù‚°‹ Ü«î G¬ô¬ñ. å¼ ÞìˆF™ å¼ ªð£¼œ Þ¼‚Aø¶ âù‚ Ãø is ðò¡ð´Aø¶) c. âù‚° ðC‚Aø¶. Þî¡ ªð£¼œèœ: . c. â¡Qì‹. You don’t hurt me - cƒèœ ⡬ù è£òŠð´ˆî£b˜èœ Ü™ô¶ ¹‡ð´ˆî£b˜èœ. 5. b. Phrase Meaning 1: ( all ) by myself - îQò£è ( syn: alone ). The car is mine - 裘 â¡Â¬ìò¶ Ý°‹. I walk -  ïì‚A«ø¡. I hurt myself . Mine is small - àƒèÀ¬ìò ¹ˆîè‹ ªðKò¶. b. Mine is red car - â¡Â¬ìò¶ C芹Gø 裘 Ý°‹. â¡Âì¡ ( with me ) a. Þ¶ ªðò˜ªê£™½‚° ( noun ) º¡¹ ñ†´‹ õ¼‹. «õ¬ô¬ò îQò£è ªêŒA«ø¡. I Meaning 1: Þ¶ subject Ýè ñ†´‹ õ¼‹.cƒèœ c.

Cognitive Spoken English ð£ì‹ .3 Cognitive Words 37 .3 ¹ô¡ ꣘‰î õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ Chapter .

39 . ÜŠ«ð£¶ àƒèœ Þ¼õ¼‚°‹ êLŠ¹ ãŸð´Aø¶. “àƒèÀ‚°‹ ðC‚Aøî£?” â¡Á «è†ð how about you / what about you Ý°‹. Ýù£™ Þ¼ ªð£¼œèÀ‹ 塬øªò£¡Á ªî£ì‚Ã죶. About Meaning 1: ðŸP ðŸP. ÜŠ«ð£¶ àƒèÀ‚° ðC‚Aø¶. The price is above Rs 5 - c. àƒèœ ñ¬ùM‚° àì™ ïô‹ êKJ™¬ô. I buy the house. “ã¡ àƒèœ ñ¬ùM õóM™¬ô. Meaning 2: ãøˆî£ö. Þ ݃AôˆF™ how about your wife / what about your wife â¡Á ܘˆî‹. I live about 10 miles away - d. what about you . Phrase Meaning 1a: cƒèœ ñŸÁ‹ àƒèœ ï‡ð˜ Þ¼õ¼‹ «ðC‚ªè£‡®¼‚Al˜èœ. Phrase Meaning 1: how / what about sth / sb . what about you? . a. The fan is above the table - b. f. The book is about politics - b. ÜŠ«ð£¶. ( syn: approximately / roughly ) e. ãøˆî£ö ñ£¬ô 10. Above Meaning 1: «ñ«ô «ñ«ô. Þ ݃AôˆF™ that’s it â¡Á ܘˆî‹. cƒèÀñ£? Phrase Meaning 1b: cƒèœ ñŸÁ‹ àƒèœ ï‡ð˜ Þ¼õ¼‹ «ðC‚ªè£‡®¼‚Al˜èœ. ( syn: on / concerning / focus ) a. ( syn: approximately / roughly )  ãøˆî£ö 10 ¬ñ™èÀ‚° ܊𣙠õC‚A«ø¡.30 ñE‚° i†¬ì M†´ A÷‹¹A«ø¡. ÜŠ«ð£¶ àƒèœ ï‡ðKì‹ cƒèœ. cƒèœ ªðò¬ó ºèõK‚° «ñ«ô ⿶ƒèœ. å¼ ªêò¬ô Ü™ô¶ ªð£¼¬÷ ðŸP °PŠH´õ¶ Ý°‹. You write the name above the address - M¬ô 5 ¼ð£Œ‚° «ñ«ô Þ¼‚Aø¶. I¡MCP «ñ¬ü‚° «ñ«ô Þ¼‚Aø¶. Ü cƒèœ. Meaning 3: å¼ ªêò¬ô ªêŒò îò£ó£è Þ¼. ÜŠ«ð£¶ àƒèœ ï‡ð˜ àƒèOì‹ ï£‹ «õÁ ãî£õ¶ ªêŒòô£‹ â¡Aø£˜. I am about to leave ( syn: about to + verb ) -  A÷‹¹õ Ü™ô¶ ¹øŠð´õ îò£ó£è Þ¼‚A«ø¡. å¼ ªð£¼O¡ M¬ô å¼ ñFŠ¹‚° «ñ«ô Þ¼Šð¶. He lies about his age - ¹ˆîè‹ ÜóCò¬ôŠ ðŸP Þ¼‚Aø¶ Ü™ô¶ MõK‚Aø¶. ðC‚Aø¶. àƒèÀ‚°? i´ õ£ƒ°A«ø¡. Üõ¡ Üõ¬ìò õò¬îŠ ðŸP ªð£Œ ªê£™Aø£¡. Ýîô£™. I leave the home about 10 PM . 2.Cognitive Spoken English 1.âù‚° g. c. Üõ¼‚° â¡ù ÝJŸÁ?”. àƒèœ ï‡ð˜ «è†Aø£˜.  CQñ£õ‚° «ð£èô£«ñ â¡Á ªê£™Al˜èœ. å¼ ªð£¼œ Þ¡ªù£¼ ªð£¼À‚° àò«ó Þ¼Šð¶ Ý°‹. Þ ݃AôˆF™ how about movie / what about movie â¡Á ܘˆî‹.cƒèœ °ö‰¬îèÀ‚° è¬î ªê£™Al˜èœ. I am feeling hungry. Phrase Meaning 2: that’s about it / that’s about all / that’s it .cƒèœ ñŸÁ‹ àƒèœ ñ¬ùM Þ¼õ¼‹ àƒèœ ï‡ð˜ i†®Ÿ° õ¼õî£è ÜõKì‹ ªê£™Al˜èœ. è¬î º®‰î î¼íˆF™ “è¬î Üšõ÷¾  / è¬î º®‰¶ M†ì¶” â¡d˜èœ. cƒèœ ñ†´‹ àƒèœ ï‡ð˜ i†®Ÿ° ªê™Al˜èœ.

( syn: most of all / most importantly / particularly / primarily ) g. The students are grouped according to age - ñ£íõ˜èœ õò¬î ªð£Áˆ¶ °¿‚è÷£è HK‚èŠð´Aø£˜èœ. As I mentioned above. Phrase Meaning 1: according to plan . â™ô£õŸPŸ°‹ «ñô£è ävAK‹ H®‚°‹. Across Meaning 1: °Á‚«è. I like apple. there is a big room in the house -  «ñ«ô °PŠH†ì ñ£FK. 3. Meaning 3: Þ¶ ðîMJ¡ õK¬ê¬ò °P‚Aø¶. Ýó…² H®‚°‹. According to police. d. Üî£õ¶. Above all. c. ªî¼. ÝÁ «ð£¡ø¬õè¬÷ Ãøô£‹. b.  ÜFè 裌èPè¬÷ ꣊H´A«ø¡. å¼ ð‚èˆF™ Þ¼‰¶ Ü´ˆî ð‚èˆFŸ°. orange and above all ice cream . I play the cricket according to rules . c. ªêò™  G¬ùˆîŠð® Ü™ô¶ ï‹ F†ìŠð® ïì‚Aø¶. â´ˆ¶‚裆´‚° «ó£´. Þ¶ è¬î ¹ˆîèƒèO™ ÜFèñ£è õ¼‹. I eat more vegetables - â™ô£õŸPŸ°‹ «ñô£è. a. e. According to Meaning 1: å¼õ¬ó ªð£Áˆîõ¬ó. f.å¼ d.âù‚° ÝŠHœ. ( pat: according to sth ) b. I am above the manager - Phrase Meaning 1: above all .NLRC Spoken English Meaning 2: «ñŸªê£¡ùð® Ü™ô¶ «ñ«ô °PŠH†ì.â™ô£‹  G¬ùˆîŠð® ïì‚Aø¶. There is a crack across the road - «ó£†®¡ °Á‚«è MKê™ Þ¼‚Aø¶. 40 .â™ô£õŸPŸ°‹ «ñô£è. Üî£õ¶ ܉î ðîM Þ‰î ðîM‚° «ñ«ô Þ¼‚Aø¶. â‰îŠ ªð£¼œèÀ‚° ð‚è‹ Þ¼‚Aø«î£ ܬõèÀ‚° across õ¼‹. Üõ¡ å¼ F¼ì¡. Iè º‚Aòñ£è. ÜF™ Iè º‚Aòñ£ù¬î Ãø Þ¶ ðò¡ð´Aø¶. ïñ‚° ° ªð£¼œèœ H®ˆF¼‚Aø¶. Write to the above address for further information - ÜFèñ£ù îèõ½‚° «ñ«ô °PŠH†ì ºèõK‚° â¿î¾‹. he is a thief ( pat: according to sb ) - «ð£L¬ú ªð£Áˆîõ¬ó. h. a. â¡Â¬ìò ðîM «ñ«ùü˜ ðîM‚° «ñ«ô Þ¼‚Aø¶. i†®™ ªðKò ܬø Þ¼‚Aø¶. 4. I walk across the road -  «ó£†®¡ °Á‚«è ïì‚A«ø¡. Meaning 2: 塬ø ªð£Áˆ¶. All went according to plan .  «ñ«ùü˜ ðîM‚° «ñ«ô Þ¼‚A«ø¡. MFº¬øè¬÷Š ªð£Áˆ¶ Ü™ô¶ H¡ðŸP AK‚ªè† M¬÷ò£´A«ø¡. I see across the valley -  ðœ÷A¡ °Á‚«è 𣘂A«ø¡. .

“ºîL™ céèœ î‡a˜ H®»ƒèœ. Across the board. After (that) sent2 ) . I go to bed - b.ï£ƒèœ ï£†®¡ â™ô£ ð°FèO½‹ õ£‚ªè´Š¹ ï숶A«ø£‹. «êô‹ ªê™A«ø¡. Ü´ˆîî£è. c. H¡¹. Phrase Meaning 2: after you - 41 .Cognitive Spoken English ( °PŠ¹: over â¡ø õ£˜ˆ¬î‚°‹ °Á‚«è â¡Á ªð£¼œ. Ü«î êñòˆF™ Þ¡ªù£¼õ¼‹ î‡a˜ H®‚è õ¼Aø£˜. We conduct the election across the country . 10 GIìˆFŸ° Hø°  è™ÖK ªê™A«ø¡. You write the address after the name - cƒèœ ºèõK¬ò ªðò¼‚° Hø° Ü™ô¶ ªðò¼‚° Ü´ˆîî£è â¿î¾‹. å¼ ªêò™ i†®™ Ü™ô¶ ®™ Þ¼‚°‹ ܬùõ¬ó»‹ ð£FŠð¬î Þ¶ °P‚Aø¶. After Meaning 1: Hø°. Hø°  ªêŒA«ø¡. I drink five glasses of water one after another . Hø°  F¼„C ªê™A«ø¡. My friend lives across the road - e. I go to college - d. ñŸÁ‹ å¼õ˜ ñŸªø£¼õ¬ó H¡ªî£ì˜õ¬î»‹ Þ¶ °P‚Aø¶. d. I jump over the road â¡ø£™.å¡ø¡ h. Phrase Meaning 1: one after another / one after the other / one by one .♫ô£¼‚°‹. Þó¾ ꣊𣆴‚° Hø°  Éƒè ªê™A«ø¡. Hø°  H®‚A«ø¡” â¡ð¬î after you âù‚ Ãøô£‹. å¼ ªêò¬ô ºîL™ cƒèœ ªêŒ»ƒèœ. Þ¼õ¼‹ å«ó êñòˆF™ °ìˆ¬î ¬õ‚Al˜èœ. g. f. cƒèœ ¬ðŠH™ î‡a˜ H®‚è ªê™Al˜èœ. I go to Salem. f. Üõ¡ àí¾ M´FJ™ «õ¬ô ªêŒAø£¡. After leaving the school. Üî£õ¶.  «ó£†®Ÿ° °Á‚«è ´A«ø¡ â¡Á ܘˆî‹.Üõ¡ Üõ¬÷ H¡ªî£ì˜‰¶ ªê™Aø£¡. 䉶 ì‹÷˜ c¬ó Ü´ˆî´ˆ¶ °®‚A«ø¡. e. Üî£õ¶ «ó£†®¡ å¼ ð‚èˆF™ Þ¼‰¶ Ü´ˆî ð‚èˆFŸ° ªî£ì£ñ™ ªê™A«ø¡. Ü´ˆî´ˆ¶. 5. ÜŠ«ð£¶ cƒèœ. ) Meaning 2: âF˜ð‚èˆF™ ( syn: on the other side / opposite ) . H¡ å¡ø£è. there is 10% pay increase - ♫ô£¼‚°‹ 10 êîMî ê‹ð÷ àò˜¾ Þ¼‚Aø¶. over ñŸÁ‹ across Þó‡´‚°‹ â¡ù MˆFò£ê‹ â¡ø£™ over ‚° å¼ ð‚èˆF™ Þ¼‰¶ Ü´ˆî ð‚èˆFŸ° ªî£ì£ñ™ ªê™õ¶ Ý°‹. he works in the restaurant ( pat: after doing sth. After 10 minutes. He goes after her / He follows her . Meaning 2: å¼õ˜ ñŸªø£¼õ¬ó «î´õ‹. After (that) I go to Trichy ( pat: sent1. The police is after me ( syn: look for / search for ) - «ð£Lv ⡬ù H¡ªî£ì˜‰¶ «î® õ¼Aø¶. Phrase Meaning 1: across the board . sent1 ) - ðœO M†ìŠ H¡¹. â™ô£ð°FèO½‹ ( syn: throughout / all over / everywhere in ) â¡Â¬ìò ï‡ð¡ «ó£†®¡ âF˜ ð‚èˆF™ õC‚Aø£¡. After the dinner. a.

People are aware of problems such as these ( pat: noun such as this or these ) . Þƒ° âƒèò£õ¶ a. ãŸèù«õ ªî£ìƒèŠð†ì å¼ ªêò¬ô ðŸP‚ Ãø still ðò¡ð´Aø¶. we get lots of problems. e. How soon you finish the report? .âšõ÷¾ M¬óM™ Ü™ô¶ âšõ÷¾ Y‚Aó‹ ÝŒõP‚¬è¬ò º®Šd˜èœ? Phrase Meaning 1: as soon as ( pat : sent1.. What should we do in such a situation? - c. The bell rings as soon as he enters the room .. 200. âƒèò£õ¶. Every rainy season. There must be somewhere you can buy things cheaply - Þƒ° âƒèò£õ¶ 臮Šð£è cƒèœ ñLõ£è ªð£¼œè¬÷ õ£ƒè º®»‹. ܬî ܉î ñ£FK«ò ( ÞòŸ¬èò£è ) ïìˆî Ü™ô¶ G¬ù‚è «õ‡´‹. He ate the food soon . ) a. sent2 ) . as soon as.Üõ¡ ܬøJ™ ¸¬ö‰î àì«ù ñE Ü®‚Aø¶. You finish the work. My purse should be around here somewhere / My purse should be somewhere around here . the sooner the better - «õ¬ô¬ò º®»ƒèœ.  «õ¬ô¬ò ޡ‹ º®‚èM™¬ô. å¼ ªêò™ ޡ‹ Ýó‹H‚èM™¬ô Ü™ô¶ å¼õ˜ Þƒ° ޡ‹ õóM™¬ô â¡Á‚ Ãø yet ðò¡ð´Aø¶. Such behavior is not good . The sooner you go to the airport the better ( it is ) - âšõ÷¾ Y‚Aóñ£è cƒèœ 㘫𣘆 ªê™Al˜è«÷£ Üšõ÷¾‚° ï™ô¶. Still Meaning 1: ޡ‹ ( °PŠ¹: yet-â¡ø õ£˜ˆ¬î‚°‹ “ޡ‹” â¡Á ªð£¼œ. ܉î ñ£FK Å›G¬ôJ™  â¡ù ªêŒò «õ‡´‹? ܉î ñ£FK Hó„C¬ùè¬÷ ðŸP ÜP‰F¼‚Aø£˜èœ.. 106 . c.â¡Â¬ìò 𘲠ރ° âƒèò£õ¶ Þ¼‚è «õ‡´‹. ïñ‚° G¬øò Hó„C¬ùèœ õ¼Aø¶. ޡ‹ 膴¬ó ⿶A«ø¡. I still write the essay .HøŠ¹ â¡ð¶ å¼ ÞòŸ¬èò£ù ªêò™ Ý°‹.NLRC Spoken English 198. «õèñ£è.܉î ñ£FKò£ù ªêò™ð£´ ï™ô¶ Ü™ô. ( syn: People are aware of such problems ) d. b. ( syn: The bell rings. b. b. Soon Meaning 1: M¬óM™. the better. I haven’t still finished the work / I haven’t finished the work yet - 201. âšõ÷¾ Y‚Aóñ£è º®‚Al˜è«÷£ Üšõ÷¾‚° ï™ô¶. ܉î ñ£FKò£ù Ü™ô¶ Ü«î ñ£FKò£ù a. ( syn: as soon as possible ) - å¼ ªêò¬ô âšõ÷¾ Y‚Aóñ£è ªêŒAø«ñ£ Üšõ÷¾‚° ï™ô¶. b.ñ‚èœ åšªõ£¼ ñ¬ö ªðŒ»‹ êñòˆF½‹. Such Meaning 1: ܉î ñ£FK. âF˜ñ¬ø õ£‚AòƒèO™ still ñŸÁ‹ yet å«ó ªð£¼O™ õ¼‹. At the same time.Üõ¡ M¬óM™ Ü™ô¶ «õèñ£è àí¾ ê£ŠH†ì£¡. ( syn: quickly / fastly ) a.. Y‚Aó‹. 199. Somewhere Meaning 1: âƒè«ò£. he enters the room ) Phrase Meaning 2: the sooner .àì«ù. d. Birth is a natural process and it is treated as such ( pat: as such ) .

ܶ ÞƒA¼‰¶ ܉î Ü÷¾‚° ÜFè ªî£¬ô¾ Ý°‹.  Þ¬î ï‹ð ñ£†«ì¡. f. He failed in the exam. Please give me your pen. d. I am not sure whether he will come here - àÁFò£è ªîKòM™¬ô.Üõœ 裬ó 膴Šð´ˆî º®ò£î Ü÷¾‚° Üõœ 裬ó «õèñ£è 憴Aø£œ.âù‚° c. Meaning 3: å¼ ªêò™ ªêŒò º®ò£î Ü÷¾‚° Þ¡ªù£¼ ªêò™ Þ¼‚Aø¶. ªè£œ Please make sure that the door is locked .àÁFð´ˆF e. I am not sure .Þ¶ ï™ô 裘 â¡Á àƒèÀ‚° G„Còñ£è ªîK»ñ£? b. Are you sure? . Phrase Meaning 1: such as . e. æ ï‹ðñ£†«ì¡. This is a good car.ܬõèœ. îò¾ªêŒ¶ âù‚° àƒèÀ¬ìò «ðù£¬õ ªè£´ƒèœ. He is such a nice person - Üõ˜ ܉î Ü÷¾‚° ï™ô ñQî˜ Ýõ£˜ Ü™ô¶ Üõ˜ I辋 ï™ô ñQî˜ Ýõ£˜. g. ( syn: certain ) a. Phrase Meaning 1: there is no such a thing / man - ܉î ñ£FK ªð£¼œ Ü™ô¶ ñQî˜ â¶¾‹ / ò£¼‹ Þ™¬ô. It is such a small house that I can’t go inside ( pat: such a noun . She drives a car at such a speed that she is unable to contol the car .ÜõÀ‚° Ü¬îŠ ðŸP àÁFò£è ªîK»‹.Cognitive Spoken English Meaning 2: ܉î Ü÷¾‚° Ü™ô¶ I辋. Sure Meaning 1: àÁFò£è ªîK»‹ Ü™ô¶ G„Còñ£è ªîK»‹.that sent1 ) -  àœ«÷ «ð£è º®ò£î Ü÷¾‚° i´ CPòî£è Þ¼‚Aø¶. That is not true - ܶ à‡¬ñ Þ™¬ô. She is sure of / about that . It is such a long way from here . 202. Surely not - Üõ¡ «î˜M™ ªðJô£A Ü™ô¶ îõP M†ì£¡.. Oh sure (  ) àÁFò£è î¼A«ø¡. ܉î a. h. g. that .ò£¼‹ «è†è º®ò£î Ü÷¾‚° Üõ¡ ð£ì¬ô ð£´Aø£¡. Phrase Meaning 2: å¼õ˜ àƒèOì‹ ãî£õ¶ àîM «è†°‹«ð£¶  àÁFò£è ªêŒA«ø¡ â¡Á ÃÁõ¶ Ý°‹. He sings a song in such a way that no one can hear ( pat: in such a way that sent1 ) . 107 . f. Üõ¡ Þƒ° õ¼õ£ù Þ™¬ôò£ â¡Á âù‚° àÁFò£è ªîKòM™¬ô. 203. i. èí‚° ñŸÁ‹ ÞòŸHò™ «ð£¡ø ¹ˆîèƒèœ ¬õˆF¼‚A«ø¡. Phrase Meaning 1: make sure . I have books such as maths and physics .èî¾ Ì†®J¼‚Aøî£ â¡Á îò¾ªêŒ¶ àÁFð´ˆF ªè£œÀƒèœ. those . That Meaning 1: that-¡ ð¡¬ñ õ®õ‹ those Ý°‹. ªð£¼œèœ Ü™ô¶ «ð£¡ø¬õèœ.ܶ.. Phrase Meaning 3: surely not . ܉î.«ð£¡ø j.

å¼ °PŠH†ì Ü÷MŸ°œ ( Éó‹.Üõ˜ õ‰î£†ì£ó£? Ü™ô¶ Üõ˜ ޡ‹ õóM™¬ôò£? b. e. Yet Meaning 1: Þ¶ å¼ ªêò™ ޡ‹ ïì‰îî£ Þ™¬ôò£ â¡Á Ãø ðò¡ð´Aø¶.c¼ì¡ ꘂè¬ó¬ò èô‚辋. Þ¶ ªð¼‹ð£½‹ «èœM ñŸÁ‹ âF˜ñ¬ø õ£‚AòƒèO™ ðò¡ð´ˆîŠð´Aø¶. Yes Meaning 1: Ý‹ Ü™ô¶ êK. Þó‡´ ñE «ïóˆFŸ°œ ñ¬ô¬ò ܬ쉫î¡. Yesterday Meaning 1: «ïŸÁ a. c. He has yet to receive the offer letter - Üõ¡ «õ¬ô õ£ŒŠ¹ è®îˆ¬î ÞQ«ñ™î£¡ ªðø «õ‡´‹. d. 254. Mix the sugar with water .å¼ A«ô£e†ì¼‚°œ G¬øò è¬ìèœ Þ¼‚Aø¶. Üî£õ¶ Üõ¡ ޡ‹ «õ¬ô õ£ŒŠ¹ è®îˆ¬î ªðøM™¬ô. ÞQ«ñ™î£¡ è®î‹ â¿î «õ‡´‹. Without Phrase Meaning 1: without sth . Has the bus left (to) the Salem? not yet .âù‚° cƒèœ ªê£™õ¶ ¹KAø¶. Has he come yet? . a. There many shops within one kilometer .. Are you with me? . 122 .sth Þ™ô£ñ™ a.cƒèœ ªð£ˆî£¬ù ªî£†¯˜è÷£? Ý‹. Phrase Meaning 1: be with you / me .àƒèÀ‚°  ( me ) ªê£™õ¶ ¹KAøî£? 251.å¼õ˜ ãî£õ¶ ªê£™õ¶ àƒèÀ‚° ¹KAø¶ â¡ð‹. Phrase Meaning 1: yet to do sth .Üõ¡ å¼ ªêò¬ô ªêŒõ¶ Ý°‹ Üõ¡ Þ™ô£ñ™ «êô‹ «ð£A«ø¡.. I am yet to write the letter . The man with red shirt is my brother - C芹 ꆬì»ì¡ Þ¼‚°‹ ïð˜ â¡ î‹H Ýõ£˜.NLRC Spoken English b. ܃«è ÜÂñF Þ™ô£ñ™ ªê¡ø£¡. ޡ‹ ªêŒF¬ò ªê£™ôM™¬ô. a. I haven’t told the news yet / I still haven’t told the news . 252. Within Meaning 1: å¼ °PŠH†ì è£ôˆFŸ°œ. I come / came to Salem yesterday . â¡ø ªêò¬ô ÞQ«ñ™î£¡ ªêŒò «õ‡´‹. Üèô‹. Did you touch the button? yes . b. I am with you . He went there without permission . ) a. I reach the hill within 2 hours . e.ðv c. b. c. å¼ «èœM‚° ðF™ ªê£™ô Þ¶ ðò¡ð´Aø¶. «êôˆFŸ° A÷‹H M†ìî£? ޡ‹ Þ™¬ô.. I travel daily without the car . «ïŸÁ «êô‹ õ‰«î¡. I go to salem without him. 253.do d. Ü™ô¶ Ýñ£‹. Üîõ£¶ do â¡ø ªêò¬ô ޡ‹ ªêŒòM™¬ô. 255. 裘 Þ™ô£‹ Fùº‹ ðòí‹ ªêŒA«ø¡.

4 M¬ùèœ Chapter .Cognitive Spoken English ð£ì‹ .4 Verbs 123 .

Water is absorbed into sponge ( pat: be absorbed into sth ) . Meaning 3: å¼ Ü¬ñŠH™ ªð£¼¬÷«ò£ Ü™ô¶ ñ‚è¬÷«ò£ «ê˜ˆ¶‚ªè£œõ¶ Ý°‹. Accept Forms: accept . Üõ¡ ÜõÀ¬ìò ¯ M¼‰«î£‹ð¬ô ãŸÁ‚ªè£œAø£¡ Ü™ô¶ Üõ¡ ÜõÀ¬ìò ¯¬ò ãŸÁ‚ªè£œAø£¡. Boeing 747 is absorbed into air force ( pat: be absorbed into sth ) . f. c.ÝvF«óLò£ ð®ˆî °®«òPè¬÷ «ê˜ˆ¶‚ªè£œAø¶. He absorbs the information quickly ( syn: understand/ digest ) - Üõ˜ MCòˆ¬î «õèñ£è ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œAø£˜. She abondoned her husband ( syn: leave / walk out / desert / divorce ) . àœõ£ƒA ªè£œÀî™. b.absorbed . He is absorbed in the book / He is interested in the book - Üõ˜ ¹ˆîèˆF™ ݘõñ£è Ü™ô¶ Ý›‰¶ Þ¼‚Aø£˜. å¼ ªêò¬ô ð£FJ«ô«ò ¬èMìŠð´õ‹. b.accepting Meaning 1: ãŸÁ‚ªè£œÀî™ a. b. Abandon Forms: abandon ( present ) .abandoned ( past participle ) -abandoning ( ing form) Meaning 1: å¼õ˜ å¼ ªð£¼¬÷ ¬èM´õ‹. He accepted the water from me ( pat: accept sth from sb ) . d.Cognitive Spoken English 1.Üõ¡ Üõ¬ìò 裬ó ¬èM†ì£¡.Üõ¡ Üõ¬ìò ï‹H‚¬è¬ò ¬èM´Aø£¡. c.accepted .îò¾ ªêŒ¶ «õ¬ô¬ò ãŸÁ‚ªè£œÀƒèœ. The game is abandoned due to bad weather ( syn: give up / quit / drop / stop / cancel ) .M¬÷ò£†´ «ñ£êñ£ù õ£Q¬ôò£™ ¬èMìŠð´Aø¶. 2. Australia absorbs educated immigrants . å¼ è¼‹ðô¬è åO¬ò Ü™ô¶ ªõŠðˆ¬î àœõ£ƒA ªè£œõ¬î»‹ °P‚°‹. He accepts her offer of tea / He accepts her tea - 125 . ( °PŠ¹: õ£J¡ Íôñ£è ñŸø‹ v†ó£ ¬õˆ¶ c¬ó àP…²õ suck â¡Á ܘˆî‹ ) Meaning 2: å¼ ¹¶ MCòˆ¬î «õèñ£è ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œÀ‹ Fø¡. Plants absorb nutrients from the soil ( pat: sth1 absorb sth2 from sth3 ) - î£õóƒèœ Šªð£¼œè¬÷ ñ‡ Íôñ£è àP…²Aø¶.Üõœ ÜõÀ¬ìò èíõ¬ù M†´ Gó‰îóñ£è HK‰î£œ.absorbing Meaning 1: àP‰¶‚ªè£œÀ™ Ü™ô¶ àP…²î™. He abandons his hope ( syn: give up / lose heart / despair ) . Absorb Forms: absorb . å¼õ˜ îù¶ ï‹H‚¬è¬ò ¬èM´õ‹ «ð£¡ø ªð£¼œèÀì¡ Þ¶ õ¼Aø¶. å¼õ˜ Þ¡ªù£¼õ¬ó M†´ Gó‰îóñ£è HKõ‹. a.«ð£Jƒ 747 㘫ð£˜C™ «ê˜ˆ¶‚ªè£œ÷Šð´Aø¶. e.c˜ vð£…CJù£™ àPòŠð´Aø¶. ( syn: include ) 3.absorbed .abandoned ( past ) . He abandoned his car ( syn: leave / desert ) . Please accept the job . ñóˆF¡ «õ˜ c¬ó àP…²õ‹. å¼õ˜ å¼ ªêòL™ ÜFè ݘõˆ¶ì¡ Ü™ô¶ Ý›‰¶ Þ¼Šð¶.accepted . a. d. Üî£õ¶. c.Üõ¡ â¡QìI¼‰¶ c¬ó ãŸÁ‚ªè£‡ì£¡ Ü™ô¶ ªðŸÁ‚ªè£‡ì£¡.

Accuse Forms: accuse . The family acknowledges that he is a small boy - °´‹ð‹ “Üõ¡ å¼ C¡ùŠ ¬ðò¡ “ â¡Á ªõOŠð¬ìò£è ªê£™Aø¶. Üõ¬ó «ñ«ùüó£è ãŸÁ‚ªè£œA«ø¡. h. ܶ «ð£Œ «ê˜‰îî£ Þ™¬ôò£ â¡Á ªîK‰¶‚ªè£œ÷ ðFF™ è®î‹ â¿î ªê£™i˜èœ. 4. ( syn: admit / accept) a.accused .acknowledging Meaning 1: 塬ø ðŸP åO¾ ñ¬øM¡P ªõOŠð¬ìò£è Ãøõ¶ Ý°‹. I accept the responsibility for killings ( pat: accept the responsibility for sth ) .cƒèœ è®î‹ A¬ìˆî¬î ( receipt of the letter ) ªîKò𴈶i˜èœ ( acknowledge ) â¡ø£™  àƒèÀ‚° ï¡P ªê£™ô èì¬ñðŸÁœ«÷¡ ( I would be grateful to you ) 5. US accepts Iraq as an democratic country ( syn: acknowledge / recognize ) . g.ܪñK‚è£ ß󣂬è üùï£òè ï£ì£è ãŸÁ‚ªè£œAø¶ Ü™ô¶ ܃AèK‚Aø¶. ( °PŠ¹: charge â¡ø£™ «ð£Lv å¼õ˜ e¶ °Ÿø‹ ²ñŸP Üõ¬ó ¬è¶ ªêŒõ¶ Ý°‹ ) a. Meaning 3: cƒèœ å¼õ¼‚° è®î‹ ÜŠ¹Al˜èœ.ï£ƒèœ è™ÖK àîM ªêŒî ï¡P ªê£™ô M¼‹¹A«ø£‹. è ‹ ð Q . I accept his idea .  Üõ¬ù ªè£œ¬÷ò®ˆîî£è °Ÿø‹ ²ñˆ¶A«ø¡.Üî£õ¶ «ñ¬ìJ™ ♫ô£¼‚°‹ º¡ù£™ å¼õ˜ ñŸøõ¼‚° ï¡P ªê£™½î™ Ý°‹. Þ acknowledge â¡Á ܘˆî‹. People accepts the ban on smoking . Meaning 2: ê † ì g F ò £ è è † C . d. We wish to acknowledge the support of the college ( syn: thank ) . I acknowledge him as a leader ( pat: acknowledge sb as sth ) -  Üõ¬ó å¼ î¬ôõó£è ܃AèK‚A«ø¡. ï¡P ªê£™ .ñ‚èœ ¹¬è H®ŠðîŸè£ù î¬ì¬ò ãŸÁ‚ªè£œAø£˜èœ.accused .Üõ¡ ªð£Œ ªê£¡ùîŸè£è  Üõ¡ e¶ °Ÿø‹ ²ñˆ¶A«ø¡. e. I would be grateful to you if you would acknowledge the receipt of the letter . I accept him as a manager ( pat: accept sb as sth ) . I accuse him of lying ( pat: accuse of doing ) . f. I accuse him .accusing Meaning 1: å¼õ˜ Þ¡ªù£¼õ˜ e¶ °Ÿø‹ ²ñˆ¶õ¶ Ý°‹. Acknowledge Forms: acknowledge . è ™ Ö K « ð £ ¡ ø ¬ õ è ¬ ÷ Ü ƒ A è K Š ð ¶ Ü ™ ô ¶ ãŸÁ‚ªè£œõ¶ Ý°‹. The film festival is acknowledged as the best of all ( pat: be acknowledged as sth ) . c.acknowledged . b. c. Üõ¡ e¶ °Ÿø‹ ²ñˆ¶A«ø¡. He acknowledges that he has bad temper - Üõ¡ “Üõ‚° º¡ «è£ð‹ Þ¼‚Aø¶” â¡Á ªõOŠð¬ìò£è ªê£¡ù£¡. b.NLRC Spoken English d.acknowledged .CQñ£ Mö£ Iè Cø‰îî£è ( ñŸø Mö£¬õ‚ 裆®½‹ ) ܃AèK‚èŠð´Aø¶. Meaning 2: ܃AèKˆî™. I accuse him for robbery ( pat: accuse sb for sth / accuse sb for doing sth ) - 126 . ïì‰î ªè£¬ôèÀ‚° ªð£ÁŠ«ðŸÁ‚ ªè£œA«ø¡. ( syn: recognize / accept ) e. f. Üõ¬ìò 輈¬î ãŸÁ‚ªè£œA«ø¡.

ï£ìè‹ îò£K. AVM produced Sivaji movie . Produce Forms: produce . The company produces the cars . He pretends to sleep in the bed .promising Meaning 1: êˆFò‹ ªêŒ. a. å¼ ªð£¼¬÷ 裇H. a. b.printed . 241 .promised .õ£‚°ÁF ªè£´‚裫î Ü™ô¶ êˆFò‹ ªêŒò£«î. 457.pricked . b. Print Forms: print .prevented . The company prints the book .printing Meaning 1: Ü„C´ a. Prevent Forms: prevent . 454.pretended .MFº¬øèœ Mðˆ¶è¬÷ î´‚Aø¶. Produce your certificates . Promise Forms: promise . à¼õ£‚° Ü™ô¶ îò£K. I pricked my finger . 453.pretending Meaning 1: å¼ ªêò¬ô ªêŒõ¶ «ð£™ ï® Ü™ô¶ ð£ê£ƒ° ªêŒ. CQñ£. c.ãMâ‹ Cõ£T CQñ£ ð숬î îò£Kˆî¶.ꆬìJ™ ªðò¬ó Ü„C쾋. â¡Â¬ìò Mó¬ô áCò£™ °ˆF‚ªè£‡«ì¡. b. d.àƒèÀ¬ìò ꣡Pî›è¬÷ 裇H‚辋.è‹ðQ ¹ˆî般î Ü„C´Aø¶. Don’t promise . You don’t pretend . Prick Forms: prick . õ£‚°ÁF ªè£´. 455.Cognitive Spoken English 452.Üõ¡ 𴂬èJ™ Ƀ°õ¶ «ð£™ ð£ê£ƒ° ªêŒAø£¡.pricking Meaning 1: å¼ ªð£¼¬÷ áC «ð£¡ø ªð£¼œè¬÷ ªè£‡´ °ˆ¶. She prevents him from staying in the house ( pat: prevent sb from doing sth ) - Üõœ Üõ¬ù i†®™ õ î´‚Aø£œ.pretended .è‹ðQ 裘è¬÷ îò£K‚Aø¶. b. You prick the balloon . a.preventing Meaning 1: å¼ ªêò¬ô ªêŒòñ£™ î´.prevented . Print the name in the shirt . a.cƒèœ ðÖ¬ù áCò£™ °ˆ¶ƒèœ. b.promised . The rules prevent the accidents .cƒèœ ð£ê£ƒ° ªêŒò£b˜èœ. Pretend Forms: pretend .printed .producing Meaning 1: 塬ø ãŸð´ˆ¶Aø¶. The climatic change produces the higher temperature - î†ðG¬ô ñ£Ÿø‹ ÜFè ªõŠðˆ¬î ãŸð´ˆ¶Aø¶ Ü™ô¶ à¼õ£‚°Aø¶.pricked . 456.produced . a.produced .

. PhraseMeaning 1: what worries me is sth / the thing that worries me is sth .Þò‰Fóˆ¬î GÁˆ¶ñ£Á ÜõKì‹ Üõ˜ èˆFù£˜. I write the book .Ý󣌄C ï™ô b˜¬õ à¼õ£‚Aò¶. d. PhraseMeaning 1: He yell out in pain / happieness. 683. c..Üõ˜ õLò£™ / ꉫî£êˆF™ 舶Aø£˜. ï¡ø£è ⿶A«ø¡. b. What worries me is the work - 682. b. PhraseMeaning 1: You write it down . c.written .. Worry Forms: worry . b.cƒèœ Üõ‚° è®î‹ ⿶ƒèœ. ¹ˆîè‹ â¿¶A«ø¡. The research yielded the good result .NLRC Spoken English 681. èõ¬ôðì¬õ a. Write Forms: write .è‹ðQ ÜFè ô£ðˆ¬î ߆®ò¶.wrote . a.yelling Meaning 1: å¼õKì‹ èˆF Ü™ô¶ êˆî‹ «ð£†´ «ð². Üõ¬ù ðŸP èõ¬ôð´A«ø¡. Yield Forms: yield .yielded . Yell Forms: yell . Don’t yell at me .worried .yielded . 294 . I write well . I worry about him .sthÝù¶ ⡬ù èõ¬ôŠðì ¬õ‚Aø¶. a.worrying Meaning 1: èõ¬ôð´. Don’t worry .yielding Meaning 1: à ¼ õ £ ‚ ° A ø ¶ . ô £ ð ‹ « ð £ ¡ ø ¬ õ è œ A ¬ ì ˆ F ¼ ‚ A ø ¶ Ü ™ ô ¶ ߆®J¼‚Aø¶. He yelled at him to stop the machine ( pat: yell at sb to do sth ) . Üî£õ¶ ⶠ⡬ù èõ¬ôðì ¬õ‚Aø¶ â¡ø£™ ܶ «õ¬ô. b. Üî£õ¶ è‹ðQ‚° ÜFè ô£ð‹ A¬ìˆF¼‚Aø¶. You write the letter to him .â¡Qì‹ êˆî‹ «ð£†´ «ð꣫î.yelled . The company yielded more profit . M ¬ ÷ „ ê ™ .èõ¬ôð죫î. The accident worries me .writing Meaning 1: ¹ˆîè‹.Mðˆ¶ â¡¬ù èõ¬ôŠðì ¬õ‚Aø¶.yelled .cƒèœ Þ¬î «ðŠðK™ ⿶ƒèœ. 684. a.worried . è®î‹ «ð£¡ø¬õè¬÷ ⿶. 塬ø ¬èò£™ ⿶. «õ¬ô ⡬ù èõ¬ôðì ¬õ‚Aø¶.

5 Properties Words ( Adjectives ) 295 .5 ð‡¹èœ ꣘‰î õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ Chapter .Cognitive Spoken English ð£ì‹ .

He is active in reading books ( pat: be active in doing sth ) - Üõ˜ ¹ˆîè‹ ð®ŠðF™ I°‰î ݘõˆ¶ì¡ Þ¼‚Aø£˜. Active Meaning 1: å¡P™ Ü™ô¶ å¼ ªêòL™ ²Á²ÁŠð£è Þ¼‚è îò Ü™ô¶ I°‰î ݘõˆ¶ì¡ Þ¼‚è îò. a. ªð£¼œ. ( syn: actually / really ) In actual fact / In fact / Actually. b. I am able to swin / I can swim . 3. b.cƒèœ ޡ‹ ÜFèñ£ù ªî£¬è¬ò ªê½ˆ¶ƒèœ. You give additional / extra bed . The virus is active at low temperature . I don’t know anything . Acceptable Meaning 1: ãŸÁ‚ªè£œ÷ îò a. c‰î º®»‹. You pay the additional amount .Þò‰Fó‹ ãŸÁ‚ªè£œ÷ îò îóˆF™ Þ™¬ô. âù‚° ⶾ‹ ªîKò£¶.do â¡ø a.do â¡ø ªêò¬ô ªêŒõ¶ sb‚° ãŸÁ‚ªè£œ÷ îò MCò‹ Ý°‹. Additional Meaning 1: ޡ‹ ÜFèñ£ù Ü™ô¶ Þ¡ªù£¼ ªð£¼œ ( syn: extra ) a. 6. Absent Meaning 1: ðœO. c. 2. Able PhraseMeaning 1: subj be able to do sth ( syn: can do sth ) .Üõ˜ ðœO‚° õóM™¬ô.Üõ˜ ²Á²ÁŠð£è Þ¼‚è îòõ˜ Ýõ£˜. 297 . sent1¡ b.à‡¬ñJ™. a. sent1 .sth ªêò™ð´Aø¶ d. The machine is not in acceptable standard . The actual price is Rs 20 . He take an active interest in the game / He take an active part / role in the game .à‡¬ñò£ù Ü™ô¶ êKò£ù M¬ô 20 ¼ð£Œ Ý°‹.¬õóv °¬ø‰î ªõŠðG¬ôJ™ ªêò™ð´Aø¶. Ü™ô¶ «õ¬ô ªêŒAø¶.Üõ˜ «ð£†®J™ I°‰î ݘõˆ¶ì¡ Ü™ô¶ º¿ñù¶ì¡ èô‰¶ ªè£œAø£˜. PhraseMeaning 1: sth is active . Ã†ì‹ «ð£¡ø¬õèÀ‚° å¼õ˜ õóM™¬ô Ü™ô¶ Ýüó£èM™¬ô Ü™ô¶ èô‰¶‚ªè£œ÷M™¬ô.cƒèœ âù‚° Þ¡ªù£¼ ð´‚¬è ªè£´ƒèœ. 5. He is active .â¡ù£™ ªêò¬ô ªêŒò º®»‹. It is acceptable for me to wear the chain - ªêJ¬ù ÜEõ¶ âù‚° ãŸÁ‚ªè£œ÷ îò MCòñ£è Þ¼‚Aø¶. PhraseMeaning 1: In ( actual ) fact. 4.Cognitive Spoken English 1. b. PhraseMeaning 1: It is acceptable ( for sb ) to do sth . Actual Meaning 1: à‡¬ñò£ù / Güñ£ù / êKò£ù ( pat: actual noun ) a. He is absent from the school ( pat: be absent from sth ) .à‡¬ñJ™.

âù‚° è£ôEJù£™ ã«î£ Hó„ê¬ù Þ¼‚Aø¶ Ü™ô¶ õ¼Aø¶.«ó£´ 10 e†ì˜ Üèôñ£è Þ¼‚Aø¶.ðì‹ ðôîóŠð†ì 𣘬õò£÷˜è¬÷ èõ¼Aø¶. Wide Meaning 1: Üèôñ£ù. 490. PhraseMeaning 1: You are wrong . b.Üõ¡ ºó†´ˆîùñ£è ï쉶‚ªè£‡ì£¡. It is worthwhile job . This is wrong answer . The movie attracts wide / wider audience . 366 . ðôîóŠð†ì a.cƒèœ ªêŒî¶ îõÁ / cƒèœ îõø£ùõ˜. PhraseMeaning 5: There is nothing wrong . Wise Meaning 1: ÜP¾œ÷ / ¹ˆFê£Lò£ù a. Worthwhile Meaning 1: ñ î¼Aø / ðòÂœ÷ / Iè º‚Aòñ£ù a. The road is wide . â¡ù Hó„ê¬ù? PhraseMeaning 4: sb1 / sth1 got something wrong with sb2 / sth2 . I got something wrong with the shoe .¹L 裆®™ õC‚èîò Môƒ° Ý°‹. The road is 10 meter wide . b. c. c.Þƒ° ꣊H´õ¶ ¹ˆFê£Lîùñ£ù ªêò™ Ý°‹.ã«î£ PhraseMeaning 3: What is wrong with sb ? . He is a wise man .ⶾ‹ Hó„ê¬ù Þ™¬ô. Þƒ° ꣊H´õ¶ ¹ˆFê£Lîùñ£ù¶ Ý°‹. Wrong Meaning 1: îõø£ù a.sb1 / sth1‚° sb2 / sth2Ý™ Hó„ê¬ù Þ¼‚Aø¶. PhraseMeaning 1: He went wild .«ó£´ Üèôñ£è Þ¼‚Aø¶. 491. 493. It is wrong to slap him ( pat: It is wrong to do sth ) .Üõ¬ù è¡ùˆF™ ܬøõ¶ îõø£ù¶ Ý°‹.NLRC Spoken English 489. It is worthwhile to study civil ( pat: It is worthwhile to do sth / It is worthwhile doing sth ) .Þ¶ îõø£ù M¬ì Ý°‹.Þ¶ Iè º‚Aòñ£ù Ü™ô¶ ðòÂœ÷ «õ¬ô Ý°‹.膴ñ£ù‹ ê‹ð‰îŠð†ì 𮊬ð ð®Šð¶ ñ îó‚îò¶ Ý°‹. b. b. Ü™ô¶. 492. It is wise to eat here ( pat: It is wise to do sth ) . The tiger is a wild animal .sb‚° Hó„ê¬ù Þ¼‚Aø¶. Wild Meaning 1: 裆®™ õC‚èîò ( °PŠ¹: domestic â¡ø£™ i†®™ õC‚èîò â¡Á ܘˆî‹ ) a. PhraseMeaning 2: There is something wrong / Something is wrong .Üõ˜ ÜP¾œ÷ ñQî˜ Ýõ£˜.

Cognitive Spoken English ð£ì‹ .6 «ð²‹ ݃AôˆF¡ ñ«ù£îˆ¶õ‹ ð°F 2 Chapter .6 Psychology of Spoken English Part 2 367 .

Cognitive Spoken English ð£ì‹ .7 Hollywood English Movie Dialogues And Their Tamil Translation 375 .7 ý£L¾† ݃Aôˆ F¬óŠðìˆF¡ à¬óò£ì™èœ ñŸÁ‹ ܬõèO¡ îIö£‚è‹ Chapter .

Don’t worry. àƒèÀ¬ìò ªð£‹¬ñè¬÷ ªõO«ò É‚A «ð£´ƒèœ. âù‚° Þ¬î H®‚èM™¬ô. 7.âƒ«è ªê™õ¶ â¡Á âù‚° Ãì âŠð® ªîK»‹? . â™ô£‹ ï™ôð®ò£è Þ¼‚Aøî£ â¡Á àÁF ªêŒ¶ ªè£œõîŸè£è . Look. Hey. èõ¬ôð죫î. 1. cƒèœ «ï˜ºè «î˜¾‚° õ¼‹«ð£¶ Þ¶ñ£FK °¬ø‰î¶ ý£L¾† F¬óðìˆF¡ 50 à¬óò£ì™èÀ‚° (50 õ£‚AòƒèÀ‚° ) ªñ£Nªðò˜Š¹ ªêŒ¶ õó«õ‡´‹.Ü‹ñ£. 5. Þ¬õè¬÷ cƒèœ èõQˆb˜è÷£ù£™. Are you all right. And I want to see your class room and just make sure that everything is OK 15. àƒèÀ‚° ꉫîè‹ õ‰î£™ âƒè¬÷ Ü™ô¶ àƒèœ ï‡ð˜è¬÷ ܵ°ƒèœ.â¡Â¬ìò ñFò àí¾ ¬ðJ™ CÁ °PŠ¹ «ð£ô â¬î»‹ ¬õ‚è£b˜èœ. . You know what? They just need a fresh coat of paint . You are going to knock somebody over cƒèœ ïôñ£è Þ¼‚Al˜è÷£. . õ£. . Come on.àù‚° ªîKò£î£ â¡ù? ܬõèÀ‚° ¹¶¬ñò£ù ªðJ‡† «î¬õð´Aø¶. Why not? - Þ¶ à¡Â¬ìò ܬø. . ÞîŸè£è ñŸøõ¬ó 𣘈¶ â¿î£b˜èœ. Billy? - 3. you know what. Don’t put anything in my lunch bag like a little note. I don’t want to go to school.ð£˜. H™L? ܃«è èõùñ£è Þ¼ƒèœ. Hey Billy. cƒèœ èô¬ó «î˜‰ªî´ƒèœ. àƒèÀ¬ìò ÝCKò¬ó ê‰F‚è M¼‹¹A«ø¡. cƒèœ Þò™¹ G¬ô‚° õ‰î¾ì¡. âîù£™ H®‚èM™¬ô? .²õ˜è¬÷ ºè˜‰¶ ð£˜. Smell the walls 8. Careful there - 4. This is your room.  ðœOJ™ ¹¶ ñ£íõó£è Þ¼Š«ð¡. Þ¼‚Aøî«ô«ò Þ¶  I辋 «ñ£êñ£ù å¡Á Ý°‹. Once you get settled in and get all your toys out - 17. . Look here - 2.  ðœO‚° ªê™ô M¼‹ðM™¬ô. It is the worst thing ever 12. there is a new kid .Cognitive Spoken English º‚Aò °PŠ¹ Þƒ° °PŠH†´œ÷ ݃Aô õ£‚Aòƒèœ ý£L¾† F¬óðìˆF¡ à¬óò£ì™èœ Ý°‹. I am saying stop - ý£Œ.cƒèœ ò£¬óò£õ¶ W«ö îœO Mì «ð£Al˜èœ Ü™ô¶ Þ®‚è «ð£Al˜èœ.  Ü¬î ªêŒòñ£†«ì¡. . I am going to be the new kid. I want to meet your teacher 14. 6. «ð²õîŸè£ù ݃Aô õ£‚Aòƒèœ ªð¼‹ð£½‹ ê£î£óí õ£‚Aòƒèœ Ý°‹. ªð¼‹ð£ô£ù õ£‚Aòƒèœ Present Tense™ Þ¼‚Aø¶. à¡Â¬ìò õ°Šð¬ø¬ò 𣘂è M¼‹¹A«ø¡. cƒè«÷ ²òñ£è îò£˜ ªêŒ»ƒèœ.  G™½¡Â ªê£™A«ø¡. Þƒ° º‚Aòñ£è Þ¡ªù£¼ CøŠ¹ â¡ùªõ¡ø£™. You can pick the color - 10. Þƒ«è 𣘠ܙô¶ Þƒ«è èõQ. 377 . ý£Œ H™L. ¹¶ °ö‰¬î Ü™ô¶ ñ£íõ˜. I don’t like it. mom 11. How will I even know where to go? 13. àƒèÀ‚° ªîK»î£ â¡ù. 9. cƒèÀ‹ ݃Aô‹ «ð²õ ê£î£óí õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷«ò ðò¡ð´ˆ¶ƒèœ. I won’t 16.

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