You are on page 1of 8

What to consider when welding dissimilar materials

A product of Engineering Pulse Limited, UK


Logos, name es used within this his document are copyrighted co by Eng ngineering Pulse 2013 Any unautho horized use is illega gal and strictly proh ohibited.

Info: weld@weldpulse.com Sales: sales@engineeringpulse.co.uk

2|Page

What hat to consider when welding dissimilar materials

First Words

Dissimilar welding is i not uncommon in petrochemical, oil & gas, refining and energy sectors. We need to weld two different materials in piping where we have specification break or design requirement. requirement Then we need to weld some dissimilar metals in pressure vessels vessel and heat exchangers fabrication also. Designers, most of the times, try to avoid dissimilar welding however it is not always achievable. Therefore, one needs to know about the details of dissimilar welding, possible combinations and the combinations which must not be welded. This is a guide to weld dissimilar metals. It will take you through all the considerations considerations required while dealing with dissimilar welding. The purpose of this guide is to look into the factors affecting the performance of a dissimilar weld and their significance. After going through this, you will be carrying in mind a list of factors to be considered considered while making any decision on welding two dissimilar metals.

A product of Engineering Pulse Limited, UK


Logos, name es used within this his document are copyrighted co by Eng ngineering Pulse 2013 Any unautho horized use is illega gal and strictly proh ohibited.

Info: weld@weldpulse.com Sales: sales@engineeringpulse.co.uk

3|Page

What hat to consider when welding dissimilar materials

Choosing filler metal


The factors need to be considered while choosing a filler metal for dissimilar welding are shown in the diagram below. Every factor has been explained briefly in the next paragraphs.

Physical properties High temperature Mechanical properties

Interstitial elements

Dissimilar Welding Choosing Filler

Cracking

Ductility

Corrosion properties

Melting temperature

Weldability

Cracking:
Cracking can happen frequently when welding dissimilar metals. Filler metal must be capable of some dilution without forming a crack sensitive weld. Fig. 1 Representation of properties linked with Ferrite Number

Corrosion resistance:
Against whatever damage mechanisms, a less resistive base metal among the two being welded offers good resistance, filler metal should handle them all. Low alloy steel and stainless steel weld being made to resist any hydrogen attack at certain temperature and hydrogen partial pressure should be completed with a filler metal having this resistance.

Physical properties:
Physical properties especially the thermal coefficient of expansion of the weld metal shall be close to the base metals metals when the weld has to see higher temperature. The value should be between the values for the base metals. High temperature: For high temperature application, a filler metal not prone to any oxidation, embrittlement or other high temperature damages must be chosen.

A product of Engineering Pulse Limited, UK


Logos, name es used within this his document are copyrighted co by Eng ngineering Pulse 2013 Any unautho horized use is illega gal and strictly proh ohibited.

Info: weld@weldpulse.com Sales: sales@engineeringpulse.co.uk

4|Page

What hat to consider when welding dissimilar materials

Mechanical properties:
Choose a filler metal equally strong and ductile as the weaker of the base metals to be welded.

Weldability:
Selected filler metal must have good weldability related to dilution, melting temperature and other ther physical property requirements.

Melting temperature:
Melting temperature of the filler metal must be matching to the base metal having lower melting temperature. Selecting high melting temperature filler metal would cause excessive dilution of the one one having lower melting temperature.

Ductility:
Filler metal must be ductile enough to sustain all the stresses caused by temperature changes due to different thermal conductivities of the base metals. Otherwise, cracking may take place.

Interstitial elements:
Elements like oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen must be low to have a ductile and less prone to hot cracking weld.

Selecting welding process


Selection of welding process is also important when welding dissimilar metals. During welding, materials with high chemical composition may get diluted and that dilution may impact on the overall properties and performance of the weld. Dilution depends upon upon the welding process selected and the filler metal being used. With SMAW, dilution is 30 percent and for gas welding processes, it varies from 10 to 50 percent. Dilution is further affected by the joint design and fit-up. fit

Different dissimilar combinations


Carbon steels

Nickel alloys

Alloy steels

Stainless steels
A product of Engineering Pulse Limited, UK
Logos, name es used within this his document are copyrighted co by Eng ngineering Pulse 2013 Any unautho horized use is illega gal and strictly proh ohibited.

Info: weld@weldpulse.com Sales: sales@engineeringpulse.co.uk

5|Page

What hat to consider when welding dissimilar materials

Carbon & low alloy steels to Austenitic Stainless steels (300 series)
Filler selection

Austenitic stainless steel filler


E/ER-309 Chances of carbon migration at higher temperatures

Nickel alloy filler


ENiCrFe-2 ENiCrFe 2 / 3, ERNiCr-3 ERNiCr Recommended for high temperature

Specific considerations
Service Service temperature exceeding 700 F - carbon migration from austentic stainless steel filler Recommended Recommended filler is nickel alloy

High temperature

PWHT

Carbon Carbon or alloy steel requiring PWHT may be buttered with ERNiCr-3 ERNiCr 3 and heat treated before welding to SS PWHT, PWHT, if required, must not be waived off Thermal Thermal coefficient must be considered for the base metals to be welded. Major difference leads to high thermal stresses at elevated temperatures When When using austenitic filler metal, resulting weld ferrite number need to be predicted. Refere WeldPulse guide over ferrite number

Thermal stresses

Ferrite Number

A product of Engineering Pulse Limited, UK


Logos, name es used within this his document are copyrighted co by Eng ngineering Pulse 2013 Any unautho horized use is illega gal and strictly proh ohibited.

Info: weld@weldpulse.com Sales: sales@engineeringpulse.co.uk

6|Page

What hat to consider when welding dissimilar materials

Carbon & low alloy steels to Cr C Stainless steels (400 series) series
Filler selection

Filler containing Cr equal to one having less Cr


Perform PWHT

Austenitic filler wire


E/ER-309 E/ER Not applicable if any steel is to be used as a pressure vessel

Carbon steel suiting filler in case of CS to Cr SS


A Cr SS suiting filler can also be used but preferable to use less hardenable filler

Specific considerations

High temperature

Operation upto 800 F Above this temperature, careful assessment is required

PWHT

Heat treated requirement should be assessed carefully Follow the construction code requirements

A product of Engineering Pulse Limited, UK


Logos, name es used within this his document are copyrighted co by Eng ngineering Pulse 2013 Any unautho horized use is illega gal and strictly proh ohibited.

Info: weld@weldpulse.com Sales: sales@engineeringpulse.co.uk

7|Page

What hat to consider when welding dissimilar materials

Nickel alloys to steels


Filler selection

Nickel alloy / Nickel Chromium


Nickel alloy fillers should be used to join nickel alloys to CS, alloy steel or stainless steels. No other filler should be considered. Ni alloy fillers are selected due to their good ductility and tolerance of dilution by iron in steel Specific considerations

Iron dilution Chromium dilution PWHT

Iron dilution if couldn't be tolerated during welding to any steel to nickel alloy would cause hot cracking It depends upon the filler used and the welding process SMAW process with nickel alloy or Nickel chromium can handle iron dilution up to 40%

Chromium dilution may also take place while welding stainless steels to Nickel. It can be controlled by using Nickel or Nickel Chromium filler Welding process doesn't have much of impact over chromium dilution

PWHT shall be done as required by the steel end side.

A product of Engineering Pulse Limited, UK


Logos, name es used within this his document are copyrighted co by Eng ngineering Pulse 2013 Any unautho horized use is illega gal and strictly proh ohibited.

Info: weld@weldpulse.com Sales: sales@engineeringpulse.co.uk

8|Page

What hat to consider when welding dissimilar materials

Determining resultant weld composition


For dissimilar welding, resultant weld composition can be estimated if dilution is known. As told earlier, dilution is based upon the welding process being used. For SMAW, dilution is almost 30%. Resultant composition is measured for each critical element based upon the dilution percentage. We need to know the chemical composition of both both the metals being joined and the filler metal used. Taking on example of welding P11 to SS304 with SMAW using E309, , Chromium composition composition in the weld can be estimated as follows: Cr (weld) = Cr (P11) * 0.15 + Cr (304) * 0.15 + Cr (309) * 0.70 All compositions in % Same formula can then be used for other elements.

Final Words
Dealing with dissimilar welding requires good knowledge of materials being joined and the critical issues associated with their welding. Typical guidelines have been provided within this document however service conditions and other codes requirements requirements should also be considered wherever herever stands mandatory. ma As a general rule, preheat and post weld heat treatment requirements should be followed for the material requiring high temperature and holding time. Filler metal selection should be made considering all the factors defined above and the the typical resultant weld composition which should suit the service conditions. These guidelines should be used only for getting a procedure qualified and not for applying them directly without qualification.

A product of Engineering Pulse Limited, UK


Logos, name es used within this his document are copyrighted co by Eng ngineering Pulse 2013 Any unautho horized use is illega gal and strictly proh ohibited.

Info: weld@weldpulse.com Sales: sales@engineeringpulse.co.uk