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Research Methodology

 Meaning & Why Research

 Objectives and Motivation in Research.
 Characteristics of Good Research.
 Types of Research.
 Research Approaches.
 Research Process.
 Criteria For Good Research
 Limitations
Meaning :
 Discovery of facts , Development of facts and verification of

 Discover answers to questions through the application of

scientific procedures.

 Find the truth which is hidden & not discovered yet.

 Systematic inquiry to provide information to solve managerial


 Art of scientific investigation.

 “Systematic effort to gain new knowledge” Movement from

known to unknown.
 Clover and Balsely: “Process of systematically
obtaining accurate answers to significant and
pertinent questions by the use of scientific method of
gathering and interpreting information.
 Research comprises
Defining and refining problems
Formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions
Collecting, Organizing & Evaluating data
Making deductions and reaching conclusions
& at last carefully testing the conclusions to
determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis
Characteristics of Research
 Prediction for future occurrences.
 Direction towards solution.
 Accuracy in observation and description.
 Basis of research is experience .
 Gathering of data.
 It is a scientific program.
 Patient activity.
 Quest for answers.
 Objective and logical.
 Carefully designed procedures.
 Need Expertise.
 Careful critical enquiry.
Why Research
Environmental factors demanding managers to have
more & better information for decision making.
 More variables to consider in every decision.
 Knowledge increment in the field of management .
 Global and Domestic competition.
 Quality of theories and decision models getting
 Increased role of govt.
 Growth of commercial sites on web.
 Workers, shareholders and customers wants
to have their share in decision making.

 Data mining or extraction of knowledge from

internal database.

 Use of technology (computers).

 Tools used to conduct research have

Objectives in research
 Description
 Explanation
 Forecasting
 Control
 Modeling
Objectives in Research
 To gain familiarity or to achieve new insights to the
phenomenon. Exploratory or Formulative Studies.
 To portray accurately the characteristics of a
particular individual, situation or a group
Descriptive Studies.
 To determine the frequency with which something
occurs or with which it is associated with
something else. Diagnostic Studies.
 To test a hypothesis of a casual relationship
between variables. Hypothesis testing Studies
Types of Study
 Most elementary level
 To generate some statistics
Descriptive Study- Observation
 Who, What, When, Where and sometimes How.
 Describe a subject by creating profile of problems, people
or events.
Explanatory Study: Why
 Explains the reason .
 Use of theories or hypothesis to study the forces that
caused the event to occur.
Predictive Study: Forecasting
 Predict when and in what situation the event will occur.
Motivation In Research
 Research Degree & its benefits.
 Face challenges in solving unsolved
 Joy of doing something creative.
 To serve the society.
 To get respect.
 Government directives.
 Employment conditions.
 Curiosity about new things.
 Social thinking and awakening.
Types of Research
 To describe the event as it exists in present.

 Survey and fact finding enquiries of different

 No control over the variable. Report what has
happened or happening.
 Most ex- post facto projects .

 E.g.. Frequency of shopping, Preferences of

2. Analytical Research
 Use of facts and information already present to make the
critical evaluation of the event.

3. Applied Research
 To find solution for an immediate problem being faced by
a society or business organization.

4. Fundamental Research
 Concerned with generalization & formulation of a theory.

5. Quantitative Research
 Measurement of quantity or amount
6. Qualitative Research
 Based on qualitative analysis.

7. Conceptual
 Based on abstract idea or theory, Used to develop
new concepts or to reinterpret the existing ones.

8. Empirical Research
 Relies on experience and observation alone without
due regards for system or theory.
 Data based research with conclusions which are
capable of being verified by observation or
9. Exploratory Research
 Development of hypothesis rather than its

10. Formularized Research

 These studies are with substantial structure & with
specific hypothesis to be tested.

11. Diagnostic Studies

 To determine the frequency with which something occurs
or with which it is associated with something else.

12. Historical Research

 Utilizes historical sources like documents , remains etc
to study events & ideas of past.
Research Approaches

Quantitative Approaches
 Deals with numerical measurements (i.e.
 Quantitative approaches aim to test
hypotheses, and usually to identify numerical
differences between groups.
Qualitative approaches
 Deals with how people understand their
experiences (i.e. qualities).
Quantitative Qualitative approaches
'Simple' numeric data 'Complex' rich data
Measurement Meaning
Explanation Understanding
Prediction Interpretation
Generalisable account Contextual account
Representative population Purposive/ representative
sample perspective sample
Hypothesis-testing Exploratory
Claims objectivity Accepts subjectivity
Closed system Open system
(experimental control) (ecological validity)
Discover the Management Dilemma
Define the Management Question
Define the research Question
Refine the research Question

Exploration Exploration
Research Proposal

Research Design

Research Strategy
Type, Purpose, Time frame, Scope, Environment

Data Collection Design Sampling Design

Question & Instrument

Pilot Testing

Instrument Revision

Researc Data Collection & Preparation

h Data Analysis & Interpretation

Process Research Reporting

Management Decision
Research Process
1. Formulating the research Problem
2. Extensive Literature Survey
3. Development of working Hypothesis
4. Preparing of research design
5. Determining the sample design
6. Collecting the data
7. Execution of the project
8. Analysis of data
9. Hypothesis testing
10. Generalization & interpretation
11. Preparation of Report
Research Process
Process Begins with Management Dilemma “Usually symptom of
actual Problem”
 Rising Cost

 Declining Sales

 Absenteeism

 Turnover

Management Research Question Hierarchy

Management Dilemma
Management Question
Research Question
Investigate Question
Measurement Question
Management Decision
Formulating the research
 Understanding the nature of problem
 Difference between Problem & symptom

 Discuss with who raised it.

 Pilot Survey.

Surveying available literature.

 Academic Journals, Conference
Proceedings, government reports, books ,
internet etc.
Development of working
Working Hypothesis is tentative assumption
made in order to draw out and test its logical
and empirical consequences.
 Discuss with colleagues & experts.

 Examination of data & records.

 Review of similar studies.

 Personal investigations.
Preparing the Research
 Blueprint for fulfilling objectives & answering
 Blueprint for collection , measurement & analysis
of data.
 Collecting relevant evidence with minimal
expenditure of effort, time & money.
Four design Categories
5. Exploration
6. Description
7. Diagnosis
8. Experimentation.
Determining The Sample Design

 Target Audience .
 A sample is a part of the target population,
carefully selected to represent that
 Who and how many people to interview
 What and how many events to observe
 What and how many records to inspect.
Collecting The Data
 By observation
 Personal Interview
 Telephone Interviews
 Mailing of Questionnaire
 Etc.
Execution and Analysis .

 Data analysis involves

 Reducing accumulated data to manageable
 Developing summaries,
 Looking for patterns and
 Applying statistical techniques.
Testing of Hypothesis

Generalization and

Preparation of report
Criteria For Good Research
 Purpose Clearly Defined
 Research Process described in detail for further
 Research Design Thoroughly Planned( Procedure ,
sample, Data collection)
 High Ethical Standards Applied
 Limitations frankly revealed
 Sufficient Analysis
 Findings presented unambiguously.
 Conclusion justifies
 Researcher's experience reflected.
Problems Encountered by
Researchers in India
 Lack of training
 Insufficient interaction between government,
Business organization and research dept.
 Less confidence among business units
regarding misuse of there data.
 No code of conduct.
 Overlapping researches.
 Library availability.
 Timely availability of published data.