# Kursus Pendek EFFECTIVE TEACHING STRATEGIES IN PRIMARY MATHEMATICS

Institut Pendidikan Guru Malaysia Kampus Rajang Binatangor, Sarawak

Visualization and Spatial Reasoning

Essential content for elementary teachers
Become familiar with projections, cross-sections, and decompositions of common twoand three-dimensional geometric shapes.

Essential content for elementary teachers
Construct three-dimensional geometric shapes from twodimensional shapes and use a two-dimensional representation for three-dimensional shapes.

Example : draw a pyramid

Draw a pyramid in one minute ready go

Essential content for elementary teachers
Create and recognize a geometric shape from different perspectives (top, bottom, side). Draw the plane of a triangular prism

Essential content for elementary teachers
Use appropriate software (such as the Geometer's Sketchpad®) for showing representations of geometric shapes.

Essential content for students grades K-3
Specify locations and describe spatial relationships using representational systems.
– Describe relative positions in space; interpret and apply ideas about relative position.

Essential content for students grades K-3
Use visualization and spatial reasoning to solve problems.
– – – – Use spatial visualization to create mental images of geometric shapes. Identify and draw geometric shapes from different perspectives. Recognize geometric shapes and structures in their environment. Build and draw geometric objects from mental images.

Essential content for students grades 4-5
Maintain and expand on concepts introduced in primary grades.

Essential content for students grades 4-5
Specify locations and describe spatial relationships using representational systems.
– Use appropriate geometric vocabulary to describe location, movement, and relative position.

Instructional activities and lesson plans for visualization and spatial reasoning