CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING

Page 1 of 13

Control Valves and Tuning
Table of Contents
Control Valves AND TUNING........................................................................................................1
Control Valves AND TUNING........................................................................................................2
RELATIONSHIP OF MAJOR COMPONENTS.........................................................................2
Control Valve Bodies................................................................................................................2
Control-Valve Actuators...........................................................................................................2
Discussion of Flow Characteristics and Valve Selection..........................................................2
QUICK-OPENING..............................................................................................................2
LINEAR FLOW...................................................................................................................2
EQUAL-PERCENTAGE.....................................................................................................3
CRITICAL PRESSURE DROP...........................................................................................3
SIZING BY CALCULATION.............................................................................................3
AERODYNAMIC NOISE PREDICTION..........................................................................4
LIQUID SERVICE..................................................................................................................4
CAVITATION......................................................................................................................4
FLASHING..........................................................................................................................5
TUNING CONTROL LOOPS.....................................................................................................6
TUNING CONSTANTS..........................................................................................................6
PROPORTIONAL BAND (K).............................................................................................6
GAIN (K) CALCULATION................................................................................................6
INTEGRAL or RESET (T1)................................................................................................6
DERIVATIVE (T2)..............................................................................................................6
TUNING..................................................................................................................................7
ADJUST PROPORTIONAL BAND....................................................................................7
ADJUST RESET (INTEGRAL) ACTION..........................................................................7
ADJUST DERIVATIVE ACTION (RATE).........................................................................7
FLOW CHARACTERISTICS.................................................................................................8
TUNING CONTROLLERS.........................................................................................................9
GENERAL RULES FOR COMMON LOOPS........................................................................9
FLOW..................................................................................................................................9
LEVEL.................................................................................................................................9
LIQUID PRESSURE.........................................................................................................10
GAS PRESSURE...............................................................................................................10
TEMPERATURE, VAPOR PRESSURE, AND COMPOSITION....................................10
CLASSICAL CONTROLLER TUNING METHOD........................................................11
CASCADE AND OTHER INTERACTING CONTROL LOOPS....................................11
DEFAULT CONTROLLER TUNING PARAMETERS........................................................11
CONTROL LOOP SCAN RATES.....................................................................................12
PID ALGORITHM DEFAULT TUNING CONSTANTS..................................................13

Berry’s Commissioning Handbook

the valve body must permit actuator thrust transmission. hydraulic. Therefore.CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Page 2 of 13 CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Selecting the proper control valve for each application involves many factors. due to its dependability and its simplicity of design. efficient. "Inherent flow characteristic" refers to the characteristic observed during flow with a constant pressure drop across the valve. but other configurations such as ball and butterfly styles are available. The valve body design. CONTROL-VALVE ACTUATORS Pneumatically operated control-valve actuators are the most popular type in use. noise prediction and control becomes a significant factor. actuator. QUICK-OPENING The quick-opening flow characteristic provides for maximum change in flow rate at low valve travel with a fairly linear relationship. resist chemical and physical effects of the process. and plug characteristic are critical items for selection. however. In areas where personnel will be affected. Additional increases in valve travel give sharply reduced changes in flow rate. economical process control. Most valve body designs are of the globe style. and provide the appropriate end connections to mate with the adjacent piping. it must do all of this without external leakage. RELATIONSHIP OF MAJOR COMPONENTS CONTROL VALVE BODIES The rate of fluid flow varies as the position of the valve plug is changed by force from the actuator. and manual actuators are also widely used. In a control valve. Pneumatically operated piston actuators provide integral positioner capability and high stem-force output for demanding service conditions. LINEAR FLOW Berry’s Commissioning Handbook . Proper valve sizing is necessary for accurate. the change in flow rate approaches zero. When the valve plug nears the wide-open position. the quick-opening valve plug is used primarily for on-off service. DISCUSSION OF FLOW CHARACTERISTICS AND VALVE SELECTION The flow characteristic of a control valve is the relationship between the flow rate through the valve and the valve travel as the travel is varied from 0 to 100 percent. it is also suitable for many applications where a linear valve plug would normally be specified. but electric. The spring and diaphragm pneumatic actuator is commonly specified. style. Final selection depends upon detailed review of the engineering application. "Installed flow characteristic" refers to the characteristic obtained in service when the pressure drop varies with flow and other changes in the system.

the change in flow rate will be large. ∆P/P. SIZING BY CALCULATION The gas sizing equations can be used to determine the flow of gas or vapor through any style of valve. For service conditions that would result in an angle of greater than 90 degrees. Valves with an equal-percentage flow characteristic are generally used for pressure control applications. They are also used for other applications where a large percentage of the total system pressure drop is normally absorbed by the system itself. use equal-percentage characteristics at 70 percent opening. When the valve plug. ∆P. or ball position. with only a relatively small percentage by the control valve. The modified parabolic-flow characteristic curve falls between the linear and the equal-percentage curve. This proportional relationship produces a characteristic with a constant slope so that with constant pressure drop (∆P). disc. disc. The first step is to calculate the required Cg by using the sizing equation. Valves with an equal-percentage characteristic should also be considered where highly varying pressure drop conditions could be expected. The second step is to select a valve from the manufacturer's catalog. Most commonly. Gain is a function of valve size and configuration. When the velocity at the vena contracta reaches sonic velocity. Berry’s Commissioning Handbook . The change in flow rate is always proportional to the flow rate just before the change in position is made for a valve plug. with a large flow. as a rule of thumb.) The linear-valve plug is commonly specified for liquid level control and for certain flow control applications requiring constant gain. value for the valve selected from the catalog. Absolute units of temperature and pressure must be used in the equation. the equation will predict the value of the critical flow. the change in flow rate will be small. Critical flow is a choked flow condition caused by increasing gas velocity at the vena contracta. equal increments of valve travel produce equal percentage changes in the existing flow. the valve gain will be the same at all flows. value for the Cg calculation must match the C. EQUAL-PERCENTAGE In the equal-percentage flow characteristic. (by reducing downstream pressure) produces no increase in flow. The assumed C.CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Page 3 of 13 The linear flow-characteristic curve shows that the flow rate is directly proportional to the valve travel. additional increases in pressure drop. system operating conditions and valve plug characteristic. the gas and vapor sizing equations are used to determine the proper valve size for a given set of service conditions. CRITICAL PRESSURE DROP Critical flow limitation is a significant problem when sizing valves for gaseous service. When the critical pressure drop ratio. Note: Where detailed process knowledge is lacking. the equation must be limited to 90 degrees. critical flow has been reached. The vena contracta is the point of minimum cross-sectional area of the flow stream which occurs just downstream of the actual physical restriction. which equals or exceeds the calculated value. (Valve gain is the ratio of an incremental change in flow rate to an incremental change in valve plug position. as no further increase in pressure drop will cause an increase in flow. The valve selected should have a Cg. causes the sine angle to be 90 degrees. or ball is near its seat and the flow is small.

AERODYNAMIC NOISE PREDICTION Aerodynamic noise. the first stage in cavitation. it will help to determine more accurately the maximum allowable pressure drop for sizing purposes. Graphical solution of the following equation provides a very expeditious and accurate technique for predicting ambient noise levels resulting from the flow of compressible fluids through globe valves. such as ball and butterfly valves. Other valve configurations. a brief discussion of the cavitation and flashing processes is presented in the following. the fluid stream undergoes a deceleration process resulting in a reversal of the energy interchange. Applying the equation requires knowledge of one additional condition not included in previous equations. an interchange of energy between the velocity and pressure heads forces a reduction in the pressure. Downstream from the vena contracta. When used in equations. Noise from turbulent flow is more common in valves handling compressible gases than in those controlling liquids. A single coefficient is not sufficient to describe both the capacity and the recovery characteristics of the valve. that being the inlet gas density (d). Simultaneously. r. Predicted noise levels can then be used to select the necessary degree of noise control for each application. the fluid stream is accelerated as it flows through the restricted area of the orifice. the most common type of control valve noise. At this point. Noise-prediction techniques outlined below may be used to determine control-valve noise levels. CAVITATION In a control valve. voids or cavities. and Cg values derived by the manufacturers. If the velocity increases sufficiently. appear in the fluid stream. reaching maximum velocity at the vena contracta. as the velocity increases. which not only broadens the scope of valve-sizing techniques but also increases the sizing accuracy. Berry’s Commissioning Handbook .CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Page 4 of 13 Accurate valve sizing for gases requires the use of dual coefficients. This method introduces a critical pressure ratio factor. can be sized in a similar manner using the unique C. The mass flow form of the sizing equation is the most general form and can be used for both ideal and non-ideal vapor applications. which raises the pressure above the liquid vapor pressure. the pressure at the vena contracta will be reduced to the vapor pressure of the liquid. LIQUID SERVICE The procedure used to size control valves for liquid service should consider the possibility of cavitation and flashing since they can limit the capacity and produce physical damage to the valve. In order to understand the problems more thoroughly. is the result of Reynolds stresses and shear forces that are the results of turbulent flow. Cg and C1.

These implosions. When sufficient vapor has been formed. vapor forms as the vena contracta pressure is reduced to the vapor pressure of the liquid Berry’s Commissioning Handbook . the fluid will remain in the vapor state because the downstream pressure is equal to or less than the vapor pressure of the liquid. the final stage in the cavitation process. The first stages of cavitation and flashing are identical.CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Page 5 of 13 The vapor cavities cannot exist at the increased pressure and are forced to collapse or implode. produce noise. an increase in pressure drop (∆P) will not cause the flow to increase. vibration and physical damage. the pressure at the vena contracta must remain above the vapor pressure of the liquid. the increase in flow rate will no longer be proportional to an increase in the square root of the body differential pressure. In order to avoid cavitation completely. that is. FLASHING If the pressure at the vena contracta remains low. After the first vapor cavities are formed. As long as the inlet pressure (P1) remains constant. the flow will become completely choked.

i. each percent change of input signal to the controller will produce a greater percent of change at the controller's output. each percent change in input signal to the controller will produce a smaller percent of change at the controller's output. • If a Proportional Band is larger than 100%. • The controller's output signal determines the amount of movement that will be produced at the control valve.e: When derivative is applied to a two mode controller ( PI ). GAIN = INTEGRAL OR RESET (T1) • Integral action repeats the proportional controllers initial corrective signal until there is no difference between the PV and Setpoint.CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Page 6 of 13 TUNING CONTROL LOOPS TUNING CONSTANTS PROPORTIONAL BAND (K) • If Proportional Band is 100%. each percent of change at the input to the controller will produce the same percent of change at the controller's output. GAIN (K) CALCULATION Ratio of entire span of measurement to percent span being used as Proportional Band. it's action consists of decreasing the number of repeats per minute required to drive the error back to setpoint. • Derivative action is expressed in minutes. GAIN = 100% (the entire span of measurement) % of span being used as a proportional band Assume 50% proportional band. in advance of the time proportional action alone would produce the same output. Berry’s Commissioning Handbook . to make it a three mode controller ( PID ). • Represents the time that the proportional plus derivative will take to reach a certain level of output. • If a Proportional Band is less than 100%. PB = PROPORTIONAL BAND GAIN = 100% (span) 50% (PB) 2 Honeywell uses letter “K" to represent GAIN. • The Proportional Band that is selected for a particular operating situation determines how much corrective signal the controller can produce for each percent of change in the variable controlled by the controller. • Integral ( T1 ) is expressed in "Minutes per Repeat" DERIVATIVE (T2) • Changes the output of a controller in proportion to the "RATE" or "SPEED" at which the controlled variable is moving towards or away from the setpoint. therefore K = 2.

adjust the derivative action by beginning at a setting of one second. from 10% to 15%. derivative action is not needed and does not help the situation. That is. adjust the proportional band to a smaller value (higher gain) until cycling or instability begins. always set the reset (integral) adjustment at. That is.5). Say the reset is at twenty seconds. then reduce the reset to five seconds. etc. The reset action should now be properly adjusted and should be left at this value. increase the reset to three seconds. If cycling is observed at 8 seconds. increase the reset to 12 seconds. until improvement is observed and seems to be optimal. Cycling should stop. ADJUST DERIVATIVE ACTION (RATE) If a derivative adjustment is felt necessary. EXAMPLE: Start with 40% proportional band (a gain of 2. etc. When cycling or instability begins. increase the proportional band by 50 percent. Then reduce the reset to ten seconds. The proportional band adjustment should now be properly set and should be left at this value. from 18% to 24%. etc. then three. say twenty or thirty seconds or more before adjusting the proportional band. Berry’s Commissioning Handbook . etc. then two. for instance with a speed control loop. ADJUST RESET (INTEGRAL) ACTION This is done by reducing the time value (in seconds). Then. When cycling just begins.CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Page 7 of 13 TUNING ADJUST PROPORTIONAL BAND Always tune proportional band with very little reset action. then reduce the reset to two seconds. increase the reset adjustment by 50%. Example: If cycling is observed at two seconds. then halve the proportional band to 10% (a gain of 10). then halve the proportional band to 20% (a gain of 5). Normally.

fast reset.CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Page 8 of 13 FLOW CHARACTERISTICS Very fast. Dead time possible. Dead time possible (especially in Settings vary but gain usually above 1. Linear. Valve characteristic unimportant. Linear. Most lags are in the control system. Settings vary. Linear valve. High gain controllers. Valve characteristic relatively unimportant PRESSURE (Vapor) LEVEL TEMPERATURE COMPOSITION Dynamics vary. Low gain. Sampling systems complicate both measurement and control. Simple process. Self acting or high gain proportional controllers. often noisy. P + I Controller. Sometimes noisy due to poor On line analyzers fast. No Noise. no noise. FLOW Non Linear (square) measurement common. Derivative of limited value if dead time is large. Usually linear. Three response controllers. Noisy. Multiple capacity system. Equal percentage Linear. fast reset rate. Linear valves. Low gain. Single capacity Precise control: No dead time. Three response controllers. no noise. Dead time usually present. variable reset rate. Dynamics vary. No dead time. specialized controllers. processes. Gain near 1. add dead time. Linear. pH mixing. Berry’s Commissioning Handbook . Measurement dynamics are important. Derivative sometimes useful. Equal percentage valves. PRESSURE (Liquid) PRESSURE (Gas) Fast. Averaging control: Infrequent noise. heat exchangers). Derivative of no value. nonlinear. P + I controllers. Valve is the major dynamic element. Derivative unnecessary. Noisy Single capacity. Equal percentage valves for linear measurement. Slow compared to other pressure valves. Linear valves for differential pressure measurement. P + I Controllers. high PB Derivative hurts. Most lags are in the control system. Reset seldom necessary. Low gain. Non linear.

GENERAL RULES FOR COMMON LOOPS FLOW Usually. Adjust the proportional band so that the measurement is not too noisy. If the vessel is large and the controlling flow is a trickle. Set the integral at 10 minutes. The shorter the integral time. Never use derivative action in a flow loop. LEVEL The next most common loop after flow is level. then a greater value of integral must be used. inspect the valve and orifice installation to find the. usually about 300% although an occasional poor meter run installation may require as much as 1000%. Don't attempt tuning under these conditions. These notes are intended to provide a few simple rules to use in tuning controllers which will minimize upsets and still get the job done. THE CONTROLLER MUST BE ADJUSTED TO BALANCE THE PROCESS. at least half of the control loops in a plant are flow loops. Set integral (I) at 0. "knobs" provided for controller tuning. IMPORTANT NOTE: No controller will work when the valve is almost closed or almost wide open. If you do not have a feel for the process characteristics or cannot find someone to enlighten you. Do not confuse these actions or grief will be your constant companion during your controller tuning efforts. then a shorter integral time can be used but remember that a large value is safer.1 minutes. Slow moving or sticky control valves may require 0. A few require upsetting the process to some extent. This will satisfy 80 to 90% of the level applications in a plant. problem. Fix the problem. Do not adjust the controller to some ridiculous setting such as a 10 minute reset time. If the process is slow (i.3 minutes but are rare exceptions. If you do. leave controller tuning to someone else who can get the needed information. you will find the loop will always cycle. NOT PROPORTIONAL BAND (or gain). the longer the period.2 or 0. often with a period (time from the peak of one cycle to the peak of the next) of 10 to 15 minutes. many methods have been developed over the years to aid in their proper adjustment. Have the operator open or close a bypass (if one exists) or wait until process conditions change enough to get the valve back within its operating range (from 5 to 95% of travel as extreme limits with 10 to 90% as a safer range). Fast or slow for a controller refers to integral (or reset). A loop where a valve positioner has been used will require a proportional band setting two to three times larger than for a loop without a positioner. If the process is fast to respond (i. then the controller must be tuned slow TO MATCH THE PROCESS.e. then the controller must be tuned fast too. if the vessel time constant (volume/flow) is 1 to 2 minutes. If these settings do not work. Use the controller in manual or a hand valve if you think a 10 minute reset time is necessary. a flow loop). Berry’s Commissioning Handbook .e. temperature control of a tray part way up a distillation column). often an unacceptable practice in real life.CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Page 9 of 13 TUNING CONTROLLERS Since there are a very large number of combinations of the two or sometimes three. DO NOT EVER USE A SHORT INTEGRAL VALUE IN A LEVEL LOOP.

TEMPERATURE. These are temperature. It will always work and will leave no doubt as to the characteristics of the control loop. Changes in tuning will shorten or lengthen the period but only a positioner or level cascaded to a flow controller will eliminate the problem. A limit cycle looks like a saw blade. Readjust the proportional band if required to get a damped oscillation after an upset (wait for a bump or ask the operator to make a small set point change in a safe direction). Switch the controller to automatic when the measurement is close to the desired set point. This is the period of the control loop.) until the cycles damp out. a 5 or 10 minute integral time. usually of the flat bottom type (when almost closed) or of the flat top type when almost fully open. cycling is usually unimportant. When the flow is used to control the level going to tankage. which is not equipped with a positioner. Berry’s Commissioning Handbook . Please note that a valve cycling almost closed or fully open will also produce a limit cycle. increase the proportional band (double. The period will get shorter as the integral time is increased. AND COMPOSITION There are several ways to tune these more difficult loops. follow the procedure given below. If each peak is higher than the one before. The first is to use starting settings of 100% proportional band. measure the time from peak to peak (high to high or low to low). GAS PRESSURE Tune the same as level loops using a large integral value. the integral time is too short and is causing the cycle. If the shortcut method described above is unsuccessful or you want to be a bit more methodical. then such a limit cycle may be unacceptable. Increase the integral time. If a cycle develops. set the derivative at one quarter of the integral time.). sometimes with flat bottoms and/or tops Limit cycle will show about 5% change. LIQUID PRESSURE Tune the same. If it is the reflux or feed to a distillation tower. you're pretty well finished. Noise should not be as severe as for flow and proportional bands will usually be smaller. Never use derivative action in a level loop. Included are the temperatures used to infer composition for so many distillation columns. Use a larger proportional band (perhaps 100%) if smooth flow control to a downstream unit is more important than tight level control. Level loops will usually show a limit cycle when the level controller sets a valve. triple etc. Divide by two. If the starting integral value is less than one half of the period. on to the more difficult control tuning applications. and composition. There is absolutely nothing you can do to tune out such a limit cycle. vapor pressure. set the proportional band to as small a value as possible (20-50%) without causing cycling. Proportional bands can be quite small (under 100% and often as small as 20-30%.CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Page 10 of 13 If close control of level is important. as flow loops. Well now that you've tuned over 90% of the loops in the typical plant. When the period is about twice the integral time and the cycles are dampening out. VAPOR PRESSURE. and no derivative. If the measurement is not noisy.

The same rules hold true for interacting loops such as pressure and pressure compensated temperature used for a distillation tower. Tune the pressure loop (representing the fastest loop in this case) with a minimum integral value. These are start-up values only. DEFAULT CONTROLLER TUNING PARAMETERS For the start-up of any plant. For a P+I Controller: Set I = to the period x 0. If the cycle stops. perhaps to half the value tried before. If the measurement is noisy (Ph loops in particular). oscillations develop.82. safe values are a large I and a small D. switch the controller to manual. Note the starting valve position. Set I = to the period x O. never under any circumstances set the derivative greater than the integral. These instructions are for controllers adjusted in terms of minutes per repeat. Some manufacturers use an inverse relationship so large becomes small and vice versa. it can be some time (the plant has to stabilize) before all controllers have their Berry’s Commissioning Handbook . there are default tuning parameters that can be entered into each controller. CASCADE AND OTHER INTERACTING CONTROL LOOPS Tune the secondary loop first using the local set point mode. This tuning may occur several times on individual controllers. In fact. or very nearly so. Double the proportional band. Set D = to the period x 0. depending on plant start-up conditions. To test for interaction when two -loops cycle together at the same period. Readjust the proportional band if more or less damping is desired. Reduce the integral as much as possible. Transfer to remote set point and tune the primary loop.CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Page 11 of 13 CLASSICAL CONTROLLER TUNING METHOD When the process is reasonably stable and no plant upsets are expected. The period will increase by about 43%. Rearrange the loops or use the technique outlined above to minimize cycling. If oscillations do not develop. Remember. Change the output a small amount and transfer the controller to automatic. Select a set point equal to the measurement and adjust the proportional band to 100% (or gain at 1. (derivative or rate on some controllers) to minimum (if provided on the controller) and I.0) to start. Then set D. derivative cannot usually be used. (integral or reset on some controllers) to maximum. then use an integral time at least four times as great for the temperature controller. Double the proportional band and try again until uniform. If oscillations of increasing amplitude develop on the first try. The period will decrease by about 15%. Readjust the proportional band if more or less damping is desired. interaction is probably the problem. return to manual and set the valve at the original position noted in step 2. and each controller will still require additional tuning. Never use a primary controller integral value less than four times the integral value used for the secondary controller. place one loop in manual. Double the proportional band. Continue to reduce the proportional band until oscillations start.12. repeat step 2 reducing the proportional band.S. Measure the period (defined as the time for one complete cycle to occur).

5 Min.9% to 106.Complex Control Loop. as it has not been shown to be required for those conditions. Master controller output in cascade loops shall be 0% to 100%.2 5 Min. PRESSURE (Gas) 2 50 .3 3. Berry’s Commissioning Handbook . In case of sensing element failure. a "Bad PV" alarm will be generated and if it is a control point.CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Page 12 of 13 final (normal operations) tunings.Cascade Control Loop. Following are the basic types of control loops: . . CONTROL LOOP SCAN RATES The control loops shall be configured to achieve the functionality and philosophy of the P&IDs.9% to compensate for calibration offsets in the field device. When a control valve is tripped on abnormal condition (Low-low level. . Derivative values should be added in the final tunings of the applicable controllers. Controller output to field devices shall be -6. the PID controller shall be configured to switch to manual output mode and the controller output to the fail-safe condition value. The following is a list of typical start-up tunings: PROCESS GAIN K PB REPEATS/MIN .Discrete 1/0 Loops within APM (Advanced Process Manager).Single Control Loop.5 200 12 PRESSURE (Liquid) 1 100 1 1 Min. TEMPERATURE 1.2 5 Min.Discrete 1/0 Loops within LM.). controller shall switch to manual output mode. FLOW 1.083 or 5 Sec.5 2 Min. ANALYZERS 75 .Analog Indication Only Loop. There are no values shown for Derivative action for start-up conditions. and .3 75 .3 MINS/REPEAT T1 . etc. CONTROLLER INPUT/OUTPUT INDICATION Output to valves viewed by the operator shall indicate close as 0% and open as 100%. LEVEL 1 100 . . .

0 1.0 2.0 (min. It is understand that these are initial values.0 1..0 0. Some fast loops (according to EPC contractor) will run at 0.5 seconds.0 0.25 seconds.0 .3 Berry’s Commissioning Handbook Integral (min.CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Page 13 of 13 The controllers (APM) base scan rate will be 0.0 5.5 1.0 3.0 2.0 0. PID ALGORITHM DEFAULT TUNING CONSTANTS The PID algorithms will be configured with the following default values unless otherwise specified by the EPC contractor.T2) 0.08 1.T1) 0.0 0. final loop tuning will be done during plant operation: PID Gain (K) Derivative Flow Pressure (Liquid) Pressure (Gas) Level Temperature 0. .

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