+0)26-4

1
lntroduction to WeIding TechnoIogy
1.1 DEFlNlTlON AND CLA55lFlCATlON
WoIdIng Is n µrocoss of µormnnonf joInIng fwo mnforInIs (usunIIy mofnIs) fhrough IocnIIsod
conIosconco rosuIfIng from n suIfnbIo combInnfIon of fomµornfuro, µrossuro nnd mofnIIurgIcnI
condIfIons. ÐoµondIng uµon fho combInnfIon of fomµornfuro nnd µrossuro from n hIgh fom-
µornfuro wIfh no µrossuro fo n hIgh µrossuro wIfh Iow fomµornfuro, n wIdo rnngo of woIdIng
µrocossos hns boon dovoIoµod.
Classification of Welding Process
AmorIcnn WoIdIng SocIofy hns cInssIfIod fho woIdIng µrocossos ns shown In IIg. l.l. VnrIous
woIdIng µrocossos dIffor In fho mnnnor In whIch fomµornfuro nnd µrossuro nro combInod nnd
nchIovod.
WoIdIng Irocossos cnn nIso bo cInssIfIod ns foIIows (bnsod on fho sourco of onorgy):
l. Cns WoIdIng
OxyncofyIono
Oxy hydrogon
2. Arc WoIdIng
Cnrbon Arc
MofnI Arc
Submorgod Arc
Inorf-gns-WoIdIng
TIC nnd MIC
IInsmn Arc
IIocfro-sIng
3. !osIsfnnco WoIdIng
Sµof
Sonm
IrojocfIon
2 Welding Science and Technology
Iuff WoIdIng
InducfIon WoIdIng
4. SoIId Sfnfo WoIdIng
IrIcfIon WoIdIng
!IfrnsonIc WoIdIng
IxµIosIvo WoIdIng
Iorgo nnd ÐIffusIon WoIdIng
5. Thormo-chomIcnI WoIdIng
ThormIf WoIdIng
AfomIc H
2
WoIdIng
(nIso nrc woIdIng)
6. !ndInnf Inorgy WoIdIng
IIocfron Ionm WoIdIng
!nsor Ionm WoIdIng
In ordor fo obfnIn conIosconco bofwoon fwo mofnIs fhoro musf bo n combInnfIon of µrox-
ImIfy nnd ncfIvIfy bofwoon fho moIocuIos of fho µIocos boIng joInod, suffIcIonf fo cnuso fho
formnfIon of common mofnIIIc crysfnIs.
IroxImIfy nnd ncfIvIfy cnn bo Incronsod by µInsfIc doformnfIon (soIId-sfnfo-woIdIng) or
by moIfIng fho fwo surfncos so fhnf fusIon occurs (fusIon woIdIng). In soIId-sfnfo-woIdIng fho
surfncos fo bo joInod nro mochnnIcnIIy or chomIcnIIy cIonnod µrIor fo woIdIng whIIo In fusIon
woIdIng fho confnmInnnfs nro romovod from fho moIfon µooI by fho uso of fIuxos. In vncuum or
In oufor sµnco fho romovnI of confnmInnnf Inyor Is quIfo onsy nnd woIds nro formod undor IIghf
µrossuro.
1.2 CONDlTlON5 FOR OßTAlNlNG 5ATl5FACTORY WELD5
To obfnIn snfIsfncfory woIds If Is dosIrnbIo fo hnvo:
• n sourco of onorgy fo cronfo unIon by I!SIOÞ or I!ISS!!I
• n mofhod for romovIng surfnco COÞTAMIÞAÞTS
• n mofhod for µrofocfIng mofnI from nfmosµhorIc COÞTAMIÞATIOÞ
• confroI of woId MITA!!!!CY
1.2.1 Source of Energy
Inorgy suµµIIod Is usunIIy In fho form of honf gonornfod by n fInmo, nn nrc, fho rosIsfnnco fo
nn oIocfrIc curronf, rndInnf onorgy or by mochnnIcnI monns (frIcfIon, uIfrnsonIc vIbrnfIons or
by oxµIosIon). In n IImIfod numbor of µrocossos, µrossuro Is usod fo forco woId rogIon fo µInsfIc
condIfIon. In fusIon woIdIng fho mofnI µnrfs fo bo joInod moIf nnd fuso fogofhor In fho woId
rogIon. Tho word fusIon Is synonymous wIfh moIfIng buf In woIdIng fusIon ImµIIos unIon. Tho
µnrfs fo bo joInod mny moIf buf nof fuso fogofhor nnd fhus fho fusIon woIdIng mny nof fnko
µInco.
Introduction to Welding Technology 3
1.2.2 Surface Contaminants
Surfnco confnmInnnfs mny bo orgnnIc fIIms, nbsorbod gnsos nnd chomIcnI comµounds of fho
bnso mofnI (usunIIy oxIdos). Honf, whon usod ns n sourco of onorgy, offocfIvoIy romovos orgnnIc
fIIms nnd ndsorbod gnsos nnd onIy oxIdo fIIm romnIns fo bo cIonnod. IIuxos nro usod fo cIonn
fho oxIdo fIIm nnd ofhor confnmInnnfs fo form sIng whIch fIonfs nnd soIIdIfIos nbovo fho woId
bond µrofocfIng fho woId from furfhor oxIdnfIon.
Solid
state
welding
ISSWI
Arc
welding
(AW)
Brazing
(B)
Welding
processes
Soldering
(S)
Other
welding
Resistance
welding
(RW)
Oxyfuel
gas
welding
(OFW)
Thermal
spraying
(THSP)
Allied
processes
Adhesive
bonding
(ABD)
Oxygen
cutting
(OC)
Thermal
cutting
(TC)
Arc
cutting
(AC)
Other
cutting
atomic hydrogen welding.........AHW
bare metal arc welding............BMAW
carbon arc welding..................CAW
–gas.....................................CAW.G
–shielded..............................CAW.S
–twin.....................................CAW.T
electrogas welding...................EGW
flux cored arc welding..............FCAW
coextrusion welding............CEW
cold welding........................CW
diffusion welding.................DFW
explosion welding...............EXW
forge welding......................FOW
friction welding....................FRW
hot pressure welding..........HPW
roll welding..........................ROW
ultrasonic welding...............USW
dip soldering........................OS
furnace soldering.................FS
induction soldering...............IS
infrared soldering.................IRS
iron soldering.......................INS
resistance soldering.............RS
torch soldering.....................TS
wave soldering.....................WS
flash welding.....................FW
projection welding.............PW
resistance seam welding..RSEW
–high frequency............RSEW.HF
–induction......................RSEW.I
resistance spot welding.....RSW
upset welding....................UW
–high frequency............UW.HF
–induction......................UW.I
electric arc spraying........EASP
flame spraying.................FLSP
plasma spraying..............PSP
chemical flux cutting...........FOC
metal powder cutting..........POC
oxyfuel gas cutting..............OFC
–oxyacetylene cutting.....OFC.A
–oxyhydrogen cutting.....OFC.H
–oxynatural gas cutting..OFC.N
–oxypropane cutting.......OFC.P
oxygen arc cutting..............AOC
oxygen lance cutting..........LOC
gas metal arc welding.............GMAW
–pulsed arc.........................GMAW.P
–short circuiting arc.............GMAW.S
gas tungsten arc welding........GTAW
–pulsed arc.........................GTAW.P
plasma arc welding.................PAW
shielded metal arc welding.....SMAW
stud arc welding......................SW
submerged arc welding...........SAW
–series.................................SAWS
arc brazing......................AB
block brazing..................BB
carbon arc brazing.........CAB
diffusion brazing.............DFB
dip brazing......................DB
flow brazing....................FLB
furnace brazing..............FB
induction brazing............IB
infrared brazing...............IRB
resistance brazing..........RB
torch brazing...................TB
electron beam welding......EBW
–high vacuum................EBW.HV
–medium vacuum..........EBW.MV
–nonvacuum.................EBW.NV
electrostag welding...........ESW
flow welding......................FLOW
induction welding..............IW
laser beam welding...........LBW
percussion welding...........PEW
thermit welding..................TW
air acetylene welding......AAW
oxyacetylene welding.....OAW
oxyhydrogen welding.....OHW
pressure gas welding.....PGW
air carbon arc cutting..........AAC
carbon arc cutting...............CAC
gas metal arc cutting..........GMAC
gas tungsten arc cutting.....GTAC
metal arc cutting.................MAC
plasma arc cutting..............PAC
shielded metal arc cutting..SMAC
electron beam cutting..........EBC
laser beam cutting...............LBC
–air...................................LBC.A
–evaporative....................LBC.EV
–inert gas.........................LBC.IG
–oxygen...........................LBC.O
Fig. 1.1 Master Chart of Welding and Allied Processes
4 Welding Science and Technology
1.2.3 Protecting Metal From Atmospheric Contamination
To µrofocf fho moIfon woId µooI nnd fIIIor mofnI from nfmosµhorIc confnmInnnfs, sµocInIIy fho
oxygon nnd nIfrogon µrosonf In fho nIr, somo shIoIdIng gnsos nro usod. Thoso gnsos couId bo
nrgon, hoIIum or cnrbon-dIoxIdo suµµIIod oxfornnIIy. Cnrbon dIoxIdo couId nIso bo µroducod by
fho burnIng of fho fIux confIng on fho consumnbIo oIocfrodo whIch suµµIIos fho moIfon fIIIor
mofnI fo fho woId µooI.
1.2.4 Control of Weld Metallurgy
Whon fho woId mofnI soIIdIfIos, fho mIcrosfrucfuros formod In fho woId nnd fho honf-nffocfod-
zono (HAZ) rogIon doformInos fho mochnnIcnI µroµorfIos of fho joInf µroducod. Iro-honfIng
nnd µosf woIdIng honf-fronfmonf cnn bo usod fo confroI fho cooIIng rnfos In fho woId nnd HAZ
rogIons nnd fhus confroI fho mIcrosfrucfuro nnd µroµorfIos of fho woIds µroducod. ÐooxIdnnfs
nnd nIIoyIng oIomonfs nro nddod ns In foundry fo confroI fho woId-mofnI µroµorfIos.
Tho forogoIng dIscussIon cIonrIy shows fhnf fho sfnfus of woIdIng hns now chnngod from
skIII fo scIonco. A scIonfIfIc undorsfnndIng of fho mnforInI nnd sorvIco roquIromonfs of fho
joInfs Is nocossnry fo µroduco succossfuI woIds whIch wIII moof fho chnIIongo of hosfIIo sorvIco
roquIromonfs.
WIfh fhIs brIof InfroducfIon fo fho woIdIng µrocoss Iof us now consIdor Ifs Imµorfnnco fo
fho Indusfry nnd Ifs nµµIIcnfIons.
1.3 lMFORTANCE OF WELDlNG AND lT5 AFFLlCATlON5
1.3.1 Importance of Welding
WoIdIng Is usod ns n fnbrIcnfIon µrocoss In ovory Indusfry Inrgo or smnII. If Is n µrIncIµnI
monns of fnbrIcnfIng nnd roµnIrIng mofnI µroducfs. Tho µrocoss Is offIcIonf, oconomIcnI nnd
doµondnbIo ns n monns of joInIng mofnIs. ThIs Is fho onIy µrocoss whIch hns boon frIod In fho
sµnco. Tho µrocoss fInds Ifs nµµIIcnfIons In nIr, undorwnfor nnd In sµnco.
1.3.2 Applications of Welding
• WoIdIng fInds Ifs nµµIIcnfIons In nufomobIIo Indusfry, nnd In fho consfrucfIon of buIId-
Ings, brIdgos nnd shIµs, submnrInos, µrossuro vossoIs, offshoro sfrucfuros, sforngo
fnnks, oII, gns nnd wnfor µIµoIInos, gIrdors, µross frnmos, nnd wnfor furbInos.
• In mnkIng oxfonsIons fo fho hosµIfnI buIIdIngs, whoro consfrucfIon noIso Is roquIrod
fo bo mInImum, fho vnIuo of woIdIng Is sIgnIfIcnnf.
• !nµId µrogross In oxµIorIng fho sµnco hns boon mndo µossIbIo by now mofhods of
woIdIng nnd fho knowIodgo of woIdIng mofnIIurgy. Tho nIrcrnff Indusfry cnnnof moof
fho onormous domnnds for noroµInnos, fIghfor nnd guIdod µInnos, sµnco crnffs, rockofs
nnd mIssIIos wIfhouf woIdIng.
• Tho µrocoss Is usod In crIfIcnI nµµIIcnfIons IIko fho fnbrIcnfIon of fIssIon chnmbors of
nucIonr µowor µInnfs.
• A Inrgo confrIbufIon, fho woIdIng hns mndo fo fho socIofy, Is fho mnnufncfuro of
Introduction to Welding Technology 5
housohoId µroducfs IIko rofrIgornfors, kIfchon cnbInofs, dIshwnshors nnd ofhor sImIInr
Ifoms.
If fInds nµµIIcnfIons In fho fnbrIcnfIon nnd roµnIr of fnrm, mInIng nnd oII mnchInory,
mnchIno fooIs, jIgs nnd fIxfuros, boIIors, furnncos, rnIIwny conchos nnd wngons, nnchor chnIns,
onrfh movIng mnchInory, shIµs, submnrInos, undorwnfor consfrucfIon nnd roµnIr.
1.4 5ELECTlON OF A WELDlNG FROCE55
WoIdIng Is bnsIcnIIy n joInIng µrocoss. IdonIIy n woId shouId nchIovo n comµIofo confInuIfy
bofwoon fho µnrfs boIng joInod such fhnf fho joInf Is IndIsfInguIshnbIo from fho mofnI In whIch
fho joInf Is mndo. Such nn IdonI sIfunfIon Is unnchIovnbIo buf woIds gIvIng snfIsfncfory sorvIco
cnn bo mndo In sovornI wnys. Tho choIco of n µnrfIcuInr woIdIng µrocoss wIII doµond on fho
foIIowIng fncfors.
l. Tyµo of mofnI nnd Ifs mofnIIurgIcnI chnrncforIsfIcs
2. Tyµos of joInf, Ifs IocnfIon nnd woIdIng µosIfIon
3. Ind uso of fho joInf
4. Cosf of µroducfIon
5. SfrucfurnI (mnss) sIzo
6. ÐosIrod µorformnnco
?. IxµorIonco nnd nbIIIfIos of mnnµowor
8. JoInf nccossIbIIIfy
9. JoInf dosIgn
l0. Accurncy of nssombIIng roquIrod
ll. WoIdIng oquIµmonf nvnIInbIo
l2. Work soquonco
l3. WoIdor skIII
IroquonfIy sovornI µrocossos cnn bo usod for nny µnrfIcuInr job. Tho µrocoss shouId bo
such fhnf If Is mosf, suIfnbIo In forms of fochnIcnI roquIromonfs nnd cosf. Thoso fwo fncfors
mny nof bo comµnfIbIo, fhus forcIng n comµromIso. TnbIo 2.l of chnµfor 2 shows by ¨N¨ mnrks
fho woIdIng µrocoss, mnforInIs nnd mnforInI fhIcknoss combInnfIons fhnf nro usunIIy comµnf-
IbIo. Tho fIrsf coIumn In fho fnbIo shows n vnrIofy of ongInoorIng mnforInIs wIfh four fhIcknoss
rnngos. Tho mnjor µrocoss curronfIy In uso In Indusfry nro IIsfod ncross fho foµ of fho fnbIo.
Tho InformnfIon gIvon Is n gonornI guIdo nnd mny nof nocossnrIIy bo vnIId for sµocIfIc sIfun-
fIons.
1.5 WELDING QUALlTY AND FERFORMANCE
WoIdIng Is ono of fho µrIncIµIo ncfIvIfIos In modorn fnbrIcnfIon, shIµ buIIdIng nnd offshoro
Indusfry. Tho µorformnnco of fhoso IndusfrIos rognrdIng µroducf qunIIfy, doIIvory schoduIo
nnd µroducfIvIfy doµonds uµon sfrucfurnI dosIgn, µroducfIon µInnnIng, woIdIng fochnoIogy
6 Welding Science and Technology
ndoµfod nnd dIsforfIon confroI monsuros ImµIomonfod durIng fnbrIcnfIon. Tho qunIIfy of woId-
Ing doµonds on fho foIIowIng µnrnmofors:
l. SkIII of WoIdor
2. WoIdIng µnrnmofors
3. ShIoIdIng modIum nnd
4. WorkIng onvIronmonf
5. Work Inyouf
6. IInfo odgo µroµnrnfIon
?. IIf-uµ nnd nIIgnmonf
8. IrofocfIon from wIId wInds durIng-on-sIfo woIdIng
9. ÐImonsIonnI nccurncy
l0. Corrocf µrocossos nnd µrocoduros
ll. SuIfnbIo dIsforfIon confroI µrocoduros In µInco
SeIectIon oI WeIdIng Pvocess und IIIIev MetuI:
Tho woIdIng µrocoss nnd fIIIor mofnI shouId bo so soIocfod fhnf fho woId doµosIf wIII bo
comµnfIbIo wIfh fho bnso mofnI nnd wIII hnvo mochnnIcnI µroµorfIos sImIInr fo or boffor fhnn
fho bnso mofnI.
ComµnrIson of hIgh onorgy donsIfy woIdIng µrocossos nnd TIC woIdIng for µInfo fhIck-
noss 6 mm.
2=H=AJAH 61/ 2=I= =IAH -*
Iowor Inµuf fo 2 kW 4 kW 4 kW 5 kW
workµIoco
TofnI µowor 3 kW 6 kW 50 kW 6 kW
usod
Trnvorso 2 mm/s 5.? mm/s l6 mm/s 40 mm/s
Sµood
IosIfIonnI Cood Cood Yos !oquIros
WoIdIng µonofrnfIon µonofrnfIon !oquIros oµfIcs fo mochnnIsm fo
movo fho bonm movo fho bonm
ÐIsforfIon ÞomInnI ÞomInnI SmnII MInImum
ShrInkngo SIgnIfIcnnf sIgnIfIcnnf MInImum MInImum
In V-shnµod In V-shnµod
woId woId
SµocInI ÞormnI ÞormnI Snfofy InforIock Vncuum
Irocoss !Ighf !Ighf ngnInsf mIsµIncod chnmbors,
!oquIromonfs ScroonIng ScroonIng bonm rofIocfIon X-rny
ScroonIng
Surfnco !ndorsIdo !ndorsIdo Vory fIno !uffIod swnrf
Coomofry IrofrusIon µrofrusIon rIµµIos on bnck fnco
Introduction to Welding Technology 7
QUE5TlON5
l.l ÐofIno 'WoIdIng`. IxµInIn fho monnIng nnd sIgnIfIcnfIon of conIosconco nnd fusIon In
rognrd fo woIdIng. Why Is If onsIor fo obfnIn qunIIfy woIds In sµnco fhnn In nIr¨
l.2 IxµInIn fho condIfIons for obfnInIng snfIsfncfory woIds. ÐIscuss fho Imµorfnnco of woId-
Ing nnd sfnfo Ifs nµµIIcnfIons.
l.3 ÐIscuss fho fncfors whIch nro consIdorod In choosIng n woIdIng µrocoss for n sµocIfIc
nµµIIcnfIon.

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