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Ramesh Singh, Chapter 3 - Welding and Joining Processes, Applied Welding Engineering, Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, 2012, Pages 147-170,

ISBN 9780123919168, 10.1016/B978-0-12-391916-8.00015-7. ( Abstract: Publisher Summary Many welding processes require the application of heat and or pressure to produce a suitable bond between the two parts being joined. The selection of suitable welding consumable (electrode or wire) is also an important factor in producing suitable weldments. The choice depends on the intended engineering stress on the weld and the welding process being used for the work. The shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process is one of the earliest arc welding processes, and a versatile one for welding ferrous and several non-ferrous metals. The electroslag welding (ESW) process involves a molten slag that melts the filler metal and the surfaces of the work-pieces to be joined and can only be used on carbon steel and low alloy steels, and must be performed in the vertical position. Stud welding is used to describe joining a metal stud or similar part to a metal work-piece. Welding can be done with many processes, such as arc, resistance, friction, and percussion. Arc-welding processes use specialized power sources that provide specific characteristics of the electric arc to give that special edge to the process. Constant voltage power sources are used in welding processes that are self-regulating and use a constant feed electrode, mostly in the form of wire. Some welding sources are linked with their own prime mover that is linked to a generator or alternator that produces the required open circuit voltage for arc welding. The most common commercially practiced weld processes are described in this chapter. The Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) process is one of the earliest arc welding processes, and uses covered electrodes. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode which must be shielded with an inert gas. Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) uses a continuous (solid wire) consumable electrode. In the Flux Core Arc Welding (FCAW) process, the arc is maintained between a continuously fed filler metal electrode and the weld pool. The Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) process uses arc to heat and melt the metal being welded. Since the arc is buried under the mound of flux, the arc is invisible to naked eye. Other common joining and welding processes include electroslag welding, plasma arc welding (PAW), stud welding and oxy-fuel welding. There are various arc-welding processes, with additional sub-variants. All these processes use specialized power sources that provide specific characteristics. Keywords: Shielded Metal Arc Welding; Gas Tungsten Arc Welding; Gas Metal Arc Welding; Flux Core Arc Welding; Submerged Arc Welding Ramesh Singh, Chapter 2 - Physics of Welding, Applied Welding Engineering, Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, 2012, Pages 115-146, ISBN 9780123919168, 10.1016/B978-0-12-391916-8.00014-5. ( Abstract: Publisher Summary The physics of welding deals with the complex phenomena that are typically associated with welding. The study involves knowledge of electricity, magnetism, heat, light, and sound. The heat flow challenges that are faced by welding engineers are very complex, and often it is very difficult to develop a meaningful mathematical model for them, unless a complex laboratory environment is easily available. It is essential that the welding engineer understands the physics of heat flow and heat transfer associated with the welding process. Fundamental to the study of welding is

the study of heat-flow. Different welding processes have different heatproducing efficiencies; for example varying arc welding sources have varying arc efficiencies, and as a result they have different heating abilities. A large number of welding processes use electric arc as the source of heat for fusion, because of its concentration and ease of control. This chapter discusses the application of the principles in terms of pre-heat, post-heat, rate of heating and rate of cooling, and their effect on weldments. On this basis, the metal may be termed as relatively low thickness, relatively high thickness, or in an intermediary thickness condition. The physics of welding deals with the complex phenomena typically associated with heat flow in welding. Thermal energy can be transferred from one body to another body by conduction, convection and radiation. In welding, the application of a heat source is called energy input, and different welding processes have different heat-producing efficiencies. Material characteristics such as thermal conductivity affect heat-flow. Joint configuration and plate thickness are other important factors. A large number of welding processes use electric arc. The power of an arc may be expressed as the product of current passing through the arc and voltage drop across the arc. Arc efficiency is an important factor in the study of weldability. Other energy sources include plasma arc, chemical energy and mechanical energy in friction welding, ultrasonic welding and explosion welding. Laser beam (LBW) and electron beam welding (EBW) use focused energy sources. Keywords: physics of welding; heat flow; thermal energy; welding efficiency; energy input; thermal conductivity; arc efficiency Ramesh Singh, Chapter 4 - Physical Effect of Heat on Material During Welding, Applied Welding Engineering, Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, 2012, Pages 171-174, ISBN 9780123919168, 10.1016/B978-0-12-391916-8.00016-9. ( Abstract: Publisher Summary All welding processes use the direct application of heat for welding, though the method of making that heat varies from process to process. This application of heat is localized near the weld joint and affects the parent metal closer to the weld joint. Irrespective of how the heat is applied in a specific welding process, it is essential that the process is in control of the conditions of heating. The thermal conditions are responsible for the changes in metallurgical structure, mechanical properties, and residual stresses and distortions created in the material. The faster the weld metal is cooled, the greater tendency it has to undercool and the grain size of the solidified weld is smaller. Faster cooling rates also favor the formation of trapped slag inclusions and gas blowholes. The heat distribution in the weldments is superimposed on an iron-carbon phase diagram indicating the possible effect of heat on various regions of the weldmen. All welding processes use heat to make the joint. This application of heat is localized near the weld joint. These thermal conditions are responsible for the changes in metallurgical structure, mechanical properties, and residual stresses and distortions created in the material. Taking a carbon steel weld as an example, the heat first recrystallizes any distorted grains. Above 850C (1,560F), the austenite crystals grow as small crystals coalesce, then at 1,490C (2,714F), melting begins. The faster the weld metal is cooled, the greater tendency it has to undercool, and the grain size of the solidified weld is smaller. Very rapid

cooling from 850C (1,560F) to 750C (1,380F) causes the austenite to undercool rather than transform immediately to pearlite. Keywords: Welding; heat; metallurgical structure; recrystallize; austenite; grains; cooling rate L.-E. Lindgren, Numerical modelling of welding, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Volume 195, Issues 4849, 1 October 2006, Pages 6710-6736, ISSN 0045-7825, 10.1016/j.cma.2005.08.018. ( Abstract: The paper describes the application of the finite element method to predict the thermal, material and mechanical effects of welding; Computational Welding Mechanics (CWM). The most common numerical approach used in CWM is only described shortly. The paper focuses on different modelling aspects. The most important modelling issues are the models for heat input and material behaviour. Finally, some recent applications are reviewed and future developments are discussed. Keywords: Welding; Finite elements; Thermo-mechanics; Buckling; Cracking; Optimisation Radosaw Winiczenko, Mieczysaw Kaczorowski, Friction welding of ductile iron with stainless steel, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Volume 213, Issue 3, March 2013, Pages 453-462, ISSN 0924-0136, 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2012.10.008. ( Abstract: The study of mechanical properties and microstructure of friction welded coupe of ductile iron with stainless steel are presented. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for investigation of the fracture morphology and phase transformations taking place during friction welding process. It was concluded that in case of bainitic ductile iron (BDI) the fracture precedes mainly trough the cleavage planes. Moreover, the distribution of selected elements on both side of the joining interface was studied using EDS line and maps spectrometry. The EDS spectrometry showed some enrichment of ductile iron with Cr and Ni atoms close to the joint. The depth of Cr atoms penetration reached 50 m. The heat generated locally by friction increased the temperature in the area close to the interface even over the melting point of ductile iron. This was confirmed by metallography which revealed the carbide eutectic enriched with Cr in ductile iron. Keywords: Friction welding; Ductile iron; Stainless steel; Microstructure Lifang Mei, Jiming Yi, Dongbing Yan, Jinwu Liu, Genyu Chen, Comparative study on CO2 laser overlap welding and resistance spot welding for galvanized steel, Materials & Design, Volume 40, September 2012, Pages 433442, ISSN 0261-3069, 10.1016/j.matdes.2012.04.014. ( Abstract: The CO2 laser overlap welding and the resistance spot welding are respectively investigated on DC56D galvanized steel used for auto body. The characteristics of the two types of welding methods are systematically analyzed in terms of the weld molding, tensile-shear performance, microstructure, hardness, and corrosion resistance of welding joint. The results show that, the fusion widths of the upper and lower surface are almost the same for the resistance welding joint, and the weld nugget is surrounded by the heat-affected zone. While the laser welding joint belongs to deep penetration welding, the weld fusion width presents wide at the top and narrow at the bottom, and the heat-affected zone is situated on both sides of the weld pool. Compared with resistance spot welding joint, laser welding joints have much more ultrafine microstructures, much smaller heataffected zones, as well as greater resistance to deformation and corrosion. In addition, the tensile-shear performance of laser weld joints is superior to that of resistance welding joints under certain conditions. Keywords: Welding; Galvanized steel; Mechanical properties

Koen Faes, Alfred Dhooge, Patrick De Baets, Eric Van Der Donckt, Wim De Waele, Parameter optimisation for automatic pipeline girth welding using a new friction welding method, Materials & Design, Volume 30, Issue 3, March 2009, Pages 581-589, ISSN 0261-3069, 10.1016/j.matdes.2008.05.073. ( Abstract: A new welding method for fully automatic welding of pipelines has been developed. The proposed welding procedure, called Friex, is a new variant of the well-known friction welding process. An intermediate ring is rotated in between the pipes to be welded to generate the heat necessary to realise the weld. In the first part of this paper, the working principles of the Friex welding process are briefly described. Following, the influence of the rotation speed on the weld properties is discussed for welding 3 in. pipes in the pipeline steel API-5L X52. Two normalised fine-grained steels were used for the welding ring. The optimisation of the thickness of the welding ring is discussed. Keywords: Friction welding; Pipeline Hui-Chi Chen, Andrew J. Pinkerton, Lin Li, Zhu Liu, Anil T. Mistry, Gapfree fibre laser welding of Zn-coated steel on Al alloy for light-weight automotive applications, Materials & Design, Volume 32, Issue 2, February 2011, Pages 495-504, ISSN 0261-3069, 10.1016/j.matdes.2010.08.034. ( Abstract: As a result of new policies related to global warming announced by the European Union, avoiding unnecessary energy waste and reducing environmental pollution levels are becoming a major issue in the automotive industry. Accordingly, the lap welding of Zn-coated steels process, which is commonly used for producing car doors, has been gradually developed to lap welding of Zn-coated steel to light materials, such as Al alloy, Mg alloy and composite materials, in order to effectively reduce the vehicle weight. In certain part of car manufacture, organic glues are used to temporally join the Zn-coated steels and Al alloys before permanent welding takes place. The stability of such temporary joining by glues needs improving. Laser stitching or low strength welding could be considered as an alternative. However, challenges exist in joining Zn-coated steel on Al alloy by laser welding, due to significant differences of material properties between the two welding materials. Porosity, spatter and intermetallic brittle phases are readily produced in the weld. In this study, the effects of welding speed, laser power, number of the welding passes and type of shielding gas in gap-free welding of Zn-coated steel on Al alloy were investigated using a 1 kW single mode continuous wave fibre laser. Results show that a weld with higher shear strengths in the laser stitching application and less intermetallic phases could be obtained when nitrogen gas was used as the shielding gas. The corrosion resistance and the surface finish of the weld could be improved in double pass welding, especially when argon gas was used as the shielding gas. Keywords: Laser welding; Zn-coated steel; Al alloy

K.Y. Benyounis, A.G. Olabi, Optimization of different welding processes using statistical and numerical approaches A reference guide, Advances in Engineering Software, Volume 39, Issue 6, June 2008, Pages 483-496, ISSN 0965-9978, 10.1016/j.advengsoft.2007.03.012. ( Abstract: Welding input parameters play a very significant role in determining the quality of a weld joint. The joint quality can be defined in terms of properties such as weld-bead geometry, mechanical properties, and distortion. Generally, all welding processes are used with the aim of

obtaining a welded joint with the desired weld-bead parameters, excellent mechanical properties with minimum distortion. Nowadays, application of design of experiment (DoE), evolutionary algorithms and computational network are widely used to develop a mathematical relationship between the welding process input parameters and the output variables of the weld joint in order to determine the welding input parameters that lead to the desired weld quality. A comprehensive literature review of the application of these methods in the area of welding has been introduced herein. This review was classified according to the output features of the weld, i.e. bead geometry and mechanical properties of the welds. Keywords: Quality of weld; Welding; RSM; Ann; Taguchi; Optimization Mumin Sahin, Characterization of properties in plastically deformed austenitic-stainless steels joined by friction welding, Materials & Design, Volume 30, Issue 1, January 2009, Pages 135-144, ISSN 0261-3069, 10.1016/j.matdes.2008.04.033. ( Abstract: Friction welding is widely used as a mass-production method in various industries. Welding is used for joining parts with equal and/or different diameters. Austenitic-stainless steels are preferred over other stainless steels due greater ease in welding. In the present study, an experimental set-up was designed in order to achieve friction welding of plastically deformed austenitic-stainless steels. AISI 304 austeniticstainless steels having equal and different diameters were welded under different process parameters. Strengths of the joints having equal diameter were determined by using a statistical approach as a result of tension tests. Hardness variations and microstructures using scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis in the welding zone were obtained and examined. Subsequently, the effects on the welding zone of plastic deformation was analysed. It has been established that plastic deformation of AISI 304 austenitic-stainless steel has neither an effect on the process nor on the strength of the welding joint. Keywords: Materials joining; Welding Cemal Meran, The joint properties of brass plates by friction stir welding, Materials & Design, Volume 27, Issue 9, 2006, Pages 719-726, ISSN 02613069, 10.1016/j.matdes.2005.05.006. ( Abstract: Brass materials widely used as engineering materials in industry because of their high strength, high corrosion resistance, high electrical and thermal conductivity. They are easily shaped and they possess nice appearance. However, it is difficult to fusion welding of brasses. The main problem of these alloys in fusion welding is the evaporation of the zinc during the welding process. After the welding, the weld metal becomes porous. Moreover, since the amount of the zinc in the alloy is reduced due to evaporation, the brass material loses its physical and chemical properties which it normally possesses. Not being solved these problems good enough in fusion welding of brass materials, it had been directed investigators to apply new methods. It seems that friction stir welding which is one of the new method developed nowadays, will solve these problems. So, it needs experimental investigations in this subject. Even though there are so many researches in the literature about friction stir welding in aluminum and its alloys, researches about copper and its alloys especially brass are limited. In this research, it was pointed out friction stir welding capability especially brass plates which are 3 mm in thickness. For this reason, experiment conditions were determined and friction stir welding procedures were applied to brass plates in different rotation and welding speeds. Obtained welded joints

subjected about physical virtual, mechanical tests and microstructure investigations and the results had been evaluated. Keywords: Welded joint; Brass; Friction stir welding; Rotation speed; Welding speed Mmin ahin, H.Erol Akata, Joining with friction welding of plastically deformed steel, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Volume 142, Issue 1, 10 November 2003, Pages 239-246, ISSN 0924-0136, 10.1016/S09240136(03)00589-2. ( Abstract: Friction welding finds increasingly widespread industrial application as manufacturing method for joining parts. In the present study, an experimental set up was designed and realised in order to achieve the friction welding of plastically deformed steel bars. The parts having same and different diameters deformed plastically, but same material was welded with different process parameters. The strengths of the joints were determined by tension tests. Hardness variations and microstructures in the welding zone were obtained and the effects of welding parameters on the welding zone were investigated. Keywords: Welding; Hardness; Friction Emel Taban, Jerry E. Gould, John C. Lippold, Dissimilar friction welding of 6061-T6 aluminum and AISI 1018 steel: Properties and microstructural characterization, Materials & Design, Volume 31, Issue 5, May 2010, Pages 2305-2311, ISSN 0261-3069, 10.1016/j.matdes.2009.12.010. ( Abstract: Joining of dissimilar materials is of increasing interest for a wide range of industrial applications. The automotive industry, in particular, views dissimilar materials joining as a gateway for the implementation of lightweight materials. Specifically, the introduction of aluminum alloy parts into a steel car body requires the development of reliable, efficient and economic joining processes. Since aluminum and steel demonstrate different physical, mechanical and metallurgical properties, identification of proper welding processes and practices can be problematic. In this work, inertia friction welding has been used to create joints between a 6061-T6 aluminum alloy and a AISI 1018 steel using various parameters. The joints were evaluated by mechanical testing and metallurgical analysis. Microstructural analyses were done using metallography, microhardness testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray elemental mapping, focused ion beam (FIB) with ultra high resolution SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in TEM and STEM modes. Results of these analysis first suggested that joint strengths on the order of 250 MPa could be achieved. In addition, failures were seen in the plasticized layer on the aluminum side of the joint. Further, bond lines were characterized by a thin layer of formed AlFe intermetallic. This intermetallic layer averaged roughly 250 nm thick and compositionally appears related to the FeAl and Fe2Al5 phases. Keywords: Dissimilar welding; Aluminum; Steel; Microstructural characterization Mmin Sahin, Simulation of friction welding using a developed computer program, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Volumes 153154, 10 November 2004, Pages 1011-1018, ISSN 0924-0136, 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2004.04.287. ( Abstract: Friction welding is widespread used in various industries nowadays. In the friction welding, heat is generated by conversion of mechanical energy into thermal energy at the interface of the work pieces during rotation under pressure. Generally, friction welding can easily be used to joint the components that have circular or non-circular cross

sections. Friction time, friction pressure, forging time, forging pressure and rotation speed are the most interesting parameters in friction welding method. High material save, low production time and low energy expenditure are some of the other advantages of friction welding. The main aim of the present study is to prepare a computer program simulating how to occur the weld flashes in the welded joints having equal diameter or different diameter, AISI 1040 (medium carbon steel). The properties of the program are such as below: The program was coded with MicrosoftVisual Basic 6.0 The Models 3D are prepared with 3D Studio Max R3 While some coatings are prepared Paint Shop Pro 7.0 and made optimize, some coatings are obtained from library of 3D Studio Max and, the running of the program, volume deformation functions found and various simulation examples were given in this study. Then, obtained results were compared with those of the experiments. Keywords: Welding; Friction welding; Simulation; Medium carbon steel Mmin Sahin, Joining with friction welding of high-speed steel and mediumcarbon steel, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Volume 168, Issue 2, 30 September 2005, Pages 202-210, ISSN 0924-0136, 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2004.11.015. ( Abstract: Machine parts can be produced by one of various manufacturing methods such as forging, machining, casting or welding methods. Choice of the manufacturing method depends on production costs of the alternatives for individual parts. Friction welding method as a mass production process is finding increasing industrial acceptance, particularly for joining dissimilar materials. One of the areas using much more of the method is the tool industry. In this study, an experimental set-up was designed and produced to achieve the friction welding of components having equal diameter. The set-up was designed as continuous drive, and transition from friction to forging stage can be done automatically. In the experiments, high-speed steel (HSSS 6-52) and medium-carbon steel (AISI 1040) were used. Post-weld annealing was applied to the joints at 650 C for 4 h. First, the optimum welding parameters for the joints were obtained. Later, the strengths of the joints were determined by tension, fatigue and notch-impact tests, and results were compared with the tensile strengths of materials. Then, hardness variations and microstructures in the post-weld of the joints were obtained and examined. Then, obtained results were compared with those of previous studies. Keywords: Welding; Friction welding; High-speed steel; Medium-carbon steel Mumin Sahin, H. Erol Akata, Turgut Gulmez, Characterization of mechanical properties in AISI 1040 parts welded by friction welding, Materials Characterization, Volume 58, Issue 10, October 2007, Pages 1033-1038, ISSN 1044-5803, 10.1016/j.matchar.2006.09.008. ( Abstract: This study deals with the importance of welding in manufacturing methods. There are various welding methods that have been developed to obtain suitable joints in various applications. However, friction welding, which is an alternative manufacturing method, is one of the methods that has been widely used for many years. In the present study, an experimental friction welding set-up, which is a continuous drive friction welding setup, was used in the experiments. Firstly, optimum parameters were obtained

to join parts having equal diameter. Secondly, the effects of welding parameters on welding strength were investigated. Later, the mechanical properties of joints were examined by using tensile tests, fatigue tests, notch-impact tests and hardness tests. Finally, the results obtained were shown and discussed. Keywords: Welding; Friction welding; AISI 1040 steel; Joint strength Chaitanya Sharma, Dheerendra Kumar Dwivedi, Pradeep Kumar, Effect of welding parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded joints of AA7039 aluminum alloy, Materials & Design, Volume 36, April 2012, Pages 379-390, ISSN 0261-3069, 10.1016/j.matdes.2011.10.054. ( Abstract: A high strength AlZnMg alloy AA7039 was friction stir welded by varying welding and rotary speed of the tool in order to investigate the effect of varying welding parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties. The friction stir welding (FSW) process parameters have great influence on heat input per unit length of weld, hence on temperature profile which in turn governs the microstructure and mechanical properties of welded joints. There exits an optimum combination of welding and rotary speed to produce a sound and defect free joint with microstructure that yields maximum mechanical properties. The mechanical properties increase with decreasing welding speed/ increasing rotary speed i.e. with increasing heat input per unit length of welded joint. The high heat input joints fractured from heat affected zone (HAZ) adjacent to thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ) on advancing side while low heat input joints fractured from weld nugget along zigzag line on advancing side. Keywords: D. Welding; E. Mechanical; G. Fractography Z. Zhang, H.W. Zhang, Numerical studies on controlling of process parameters in friction stir welding, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Volume 209, Issue 1, 1 January 2009, Pages 241-270, ISSN 09240136, 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2008.01.044. ( Abstract: A thermo-mechanical model is developed to predict the material deformations and temperature histories in the friction stir welding (FSW) process. Based on this model, the effects of the welding parameters on temperatures and material behaviors are investigated. Numerical results indicate that the maximum temperature in the FSW process can be increased with the increase of the rotating speed. The increase of the welding speed can lead to the obvious increase of the efficient input power for FSW system. The material particles on the top surface do not enter into the wake and just pile up at the border of the wake at the retreating side and this is the reason for the formation of the weld fash in FSW. Both the increase of the rotating speed and the decrease of the welding speed can lead to the increase of the stirring effect of the welding tool, which can improve the friction stir weld quality. But when the rotating speed is increased, the weld fash becomes more obvious. When the welding speed becomes higher, the rotating speed must be increased simultaneously to avoid any possible welding defects such as void. The simultaneous increase of the rotating and the translating speeds of the welding tool can lead to the increase of the residual stress. Keywords: Friction stir welding; Finite element model; Material flow; Welding parameter; Residual stress Zhaohua Zhang, Xinqi Yang, Jialong Zhang, Guang Zhou, Xiaodong Xu, Binlian Zou, Effect of welding parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir spot welded 5052 aluminum alloy, Materials & Design, Volume 32, Issues 89, September 2011, Pages 4461-4470, ISSN 02613069, 10.1016/j.matdes.2011.03.058. (

Abstract: Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) is a newly-developed solid state joining technology. In this study, two types of FSSW, normal FSSW and walking FSSW, are applied to join the 5052-H112 aluminum alloy sheets with 1 mm thickness and then the effect of the rotational speed and dwell time on microstructure and mechanical properties is discussed. The lower sheet material underneath the hook didnt flow into the upper sheet due to the concave surface in the shoulder and groove in the anvil. The hardness profile of the welds exhibited a W-shaped appearance and the minimum hardness was measured in the HAZ. The results of tensile/shear tests and cross-tension tests indicate that the joint strength decreases with increasing rotational speed, while its not affected significantly by dwell time. At the rotational speed of 1541 rpm, the tensile/shear strength and cross-tension strength reached the maximum of 2847.7 N and 902.1 N corresponding to the dwell time of 5 s and 15 s. Two different fracture modes were observed under both tensile/shear and crosstension loadings: shear fracture and tensile/shear mixed fracture under tensile/shear loadings, and nugget debonding and pull-out under crosstension loadings. The performance of the welds plays a predominant role in determining the type of fracture modes. In addition, the adoption of walking FSSW brings unremarkable improvements in weld strength. Keywords: A. Non-ferrous metals and alloys; D. Welding; E. Mechanical Xiaoyan Gu, Huan Li, Lijun Yang, Ying Gao, Coupling mechanism of laser and arcs of laser-twin-arc hybrid welding and its effect on welding process, Optics & Laser Technology, Volume 48, June 2013, Pages 246-253, ISSN 00303992, 10.1016/j.optlastec.2012.10.025. ( Abstract: Laser-twin-arc hybrid welding, which combines the techniques of laser welding and twin-arc welding, is an emerging welding technology. In this study, synchronous information including spectral signal, high-speed photography and electrical signal is used to explore the physical interaction between the arcs and the laser of alternate burning in lasertwin-arc hybrid welding process, and the effect of the combined arc/laser heat source on the welding process was analyzed. The results indicated that the laser provides a conductive, stable plasma channel for the arcs, which can influence the arc shape, slow down droplet transfer, reduce resistivity and stabilize arcs. Electron temperature of hybrid arc plasma is from 7000 K to 17000 K, which is significantly influenced by laser parameters. The laser-twin-arc hybrid welding acquires deeper penetration and wider HAZ than with the twin-arc welding alone. Keywords: Laser-twin-arc hybrid welding; Coupling mechanism; Electron temperature