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10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ″RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN MECHANICAL INDUSTRY″
RaDMI 2010 PROCEEDINGS Vol. 1
Editor: Predrag V. Dašić Donji Milanovac, Serbia 16 - 19. September 2010.
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Maritime Faculty. Dniepropetrovsk State Agrarian University. 24. Iaşi (Romania) Prof. 22. Faculty of Engineering. Vice-chairman Dr Syed Ahmed. University of Niš. Moskva (Russia). A. Neuchâtel (Switzerland) Prof. dr Milan Jurković. Kotor (Montenegro) Prof. University of Bihać. Dniepropetrovsk (Ukraine) Prof. dr Raycho Ilarionov. dr Alexandre Dolgui. Kraljevo (Serbia) Prof. Novi Sad (Serbia) Prof. University of Novi Sad. Vicechairman Prof. Asachi″. Technical Faculty. dr Petru Dusa. Belarusian-Russian University (BRU). vice-dean. University of Kragujevac. University of Union. University of Zagreb. 18. dr Alexander I. University of Kragujevac. Faculty of Economics. University of Zenica. University of Bihać. University of Kragujevac. Donbass State Machinery Academy. dr Rade Biočanin. dr Branko Katalinić. rector. dr Mikhail V. dean. Belgrade (Serbia) Prof. Bihać (Bosnia and Herzegovina) Prof. Kragujevac (Serbia) Prof. academician. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. 15. dr Ćemal Doličanin. University Politehnica. University of Belgrade. dr Anatoly P. 33. Bacău (Romania). Erlangen (Germany) Prof. Zagreb (Croatia) Prof. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. 32. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. Novi Pazar (Serbia) Prof. 35. Branislav Dragović. academician. Avdeenko. Kruševac (Serbia) Prof. dr Manfred Geiger. 11. Kharkov (Ukraine) Prof. 4. University Erlangen-Nuremberg. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Naval Architecture. Ukrainian State University of Chemical Engineering. 16. University of Podgorica. Faculty of Mechanics. Technical Faculty. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. University of Oradea. Faculty of Technical Scientific. dr Predrag Ćosić. 9. dr Valentin Nedeff. dr Milomir Gašić. 34. Vice-chairman Prof. 12. dr Anatoly Ivanovich Grabchenko. University Transilvania of Brasov. 30. dr Isak Karabegović. University of Vienna. Technical Faculty. dr Konstantin D. Faculty of Management and Technological Engineering. Bucharest (Romania) Prof. Prof. Dniepropetrovsk (Ukraine) Prof. Sofia (Bulgaria) Prof. Saint-Etienne (France) Prof. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering.SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE 1. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. dr Milun Babić. Thessaloniki (Greece) Prof. University of Bacău. Kharkov Polytechnical Institute. National Technical University. rector. Mogilev (Belarus) Prof. Aristoteles University of Thessaloniki. University of Novi Pazar.. Technical University of Sofia. 37. 3. Burya. Zenica (Bosnia and Herzegovina) Prof. dr Ljubodrag Đorđević. Bihać (Bosnia and Herzegovina) Prof. 10. Brasov (Romania) Prof. dr Sabahudin Ekinović. 8. Chairman Prof. University of Skopje. Burmistr. dr Ilija Ćosić. Technical University of Gabrovo (Bulgaria). 7. 17. 23. dean. dr Leonid Borisenko. University of Vienna and president of Austrian Tribology Association. dr Vladan Đorđević. 14. CSEM S. dr. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne. 2. dr Nada Barac. dr Nicolae Valentin Ivan. University of Novi Pazar. Podgorica (Montenegro) Traian Buidoş. Novi Pazar (Serbia) Prof. 29. Technical University ″Gh. Niš (Serbia) Prof. dr Ratomir Ječmenica. Čačak (Serbia) Prof. rector. Surface Engineering Division. Vienna (Austria) IV . dr Grigoryev Sergey Nikolaevich. dr Miodrag Bulatović. Technical Faculty. Skopje (Macedonia) Prof. Bouzakis. dr Friedrich Franek. 36. 28. Vienna (Austria). academician. vice-rector. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. Kramatorsk (Ukraine) Prof. 25. 21. rector. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. dr Volodymir Fedorinov. Moscow State Technological University ″STANKIN″. dr Ljuben Dudesku. 20. 19. Erciyes University. Oradea (Romania) Prof. dr George Dobre. Faculty of Industrial Management. Kaysei (Turkey) Prof. 26. 6. dr Emilia Assenova. 27. Technical Faculty. 31. rector. Donbass State Machinery Academy. 13. vice-dean. rector. University of Montenegro. 5. Kramatorsk (Ukraine) Prof. dr Baki Karamiş.
Slovak University of Technology. Sibiu (Romania) 53. Director of Association of Mashine – Bulding Technologists of the Ukraine ATMU. Belarusian-Russian University (BRU). Sankt Petersburg (Russia) 69. Faculty of Mechanics. Prof. Lodz (Poland) 40. Krakow (Poland) 59. University of Thessaly. Miskolc. dr Georgi Rashev. Technical University of Brno. dr Nikolaos Vaxevanidis. University of Montenegro. Milorad Rašković. dr Karol Velisek. Institute of Pedagogical & Technological Education. University of Banja Luka. dean. Prof. vice-dean. Prof. dr Miroslav Radovanović. dr Stanislaw Pytko. dr. Prof. dr Zdravko Krivokapić. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. Podgorica (Montenegro) 45. dr Janez Kopac. dr Georgios Petropoulos. Prof. Zielona Gora (Poland) 78. New York (USA) 48. Maritime Faculty. Prof. University of Niš. Moscow (Russia) 72. Tongmyong University. Prof. dr Marianna Kazimierska . vice-rector. Zaporozhye National Engineering University. N. Heraklion Attikis (Greece) 76. Erasmus University. University of Ljubljana. University ″Constantin Brancusi″ of Tg-Jiu. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. vice-dean. University of Petrosani. academician. Prof. University of Belgrade Belgrade (Serbia) 60. University of Miskolc. Prof. Prof. Prof. Nam Kyu Park. University of Niš. Faculty of Economics. dr Ostoja Miletić. Rotterdam (Netherlands) 79. dr. dr Dragan Živković. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. dr Jozef Peterka. Belgrade (Serbia) 73. dr Liviu Palaghian. dr Vlatko Marušić. Skubov. Prof. Niš (Serbia) 49. University of Belgrade. Prof. Niš (Serbia) 68. dr Carol Zoller. University of Niš. dr Dimitri Yu. Prof. Faculty of Engineering. Faculty of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering. Technical University of Gabrovo. University of Osijek. Prof. Zoran Radmilović. Technical University of Lodz. Technical University of Krakow. Prof. dr Viktor Starkov. Niš (Serbia) 62. academician. Prof. vice-dean. Mechanical Engineering Faculty. dr Edward Walicki. Technical Faculty. Kiev (Ukraine) 41. dr Mirela Toth-Tascau. dr Oleg Vasilevich Taratynov. State Technical University. dr. dr Ivana Simić. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. dr Mirko Soković. Prof. Galati (Romania) 54. dr Georgy Slynko. Slovak University of Technology. dr Igor Sergeevich Sazonov. Bratislava (Slovakia) 44. Trnava (Slovakia) 56. dean. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. Prof. Prof. ″Lucian Blaga″ University of Sibiu. Prof. Moscow State Technological University. Prof. Ljubljana (Slovenia) 71. dr Adolfo Senatore. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. Bucharest (Romania) 58. Rotterdam School of Management.Grebosz. Fisciano (Italy) 67.38. Prof. Gabrovo (Bulgaria) 63. Prof. dr Marian Kralik. Prof. (Hungary) 46. Prof. dr Veijo Kauppinen. dr. Prof. Dr Sergei A. Korea Maritime University. dr Onisifor Olaru. University of Podgorica. rector. dr Ljubodrag Tanović. University ″Politehnica″. dr Evgeniy A. dr Janos Kundrak. University of Kragujevac. Faculty of General Mechanics. Prof dr Constantin Oprean. Prof. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. Prof. Prof. Čačak (Serbia) 61. Politehnica University of Timişoara. vice-dean. Prof. Dong-Keun Ryoo. Faculty for Mechanical and Electrical Engineers. University of Kragujevac. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. dr Snežana Radonjić. Slovak University of Technology. Prof. Prof. vice-dean. Kotor (Montenegro) 64. Prof. Prof. Lubin School of Bussiness. Moscow (Russia) 74. Espoo (Finland) 39. Helsinki University of Technology. dr Cristian N. Slavonski Brod (Croatia) 50. dean. Faculty of Material Sciences and Technology of Trnava. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. Moscow State Industrial University. Faculty of Production Engineering. University of Salermo. Prof. Trnava (Slovakia) 77. dr Karel Kocman. Chita (Russia) 47. Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering. Pace University. Banja Luka (Bosnia and Herzegovina) 51. Timişoara (Romania) 75. rector. Prof. Busan (Korea) 55. dean. Zaporozhye (Ukraine) 70. vice-dean. Mogilev (Belarus) 66.dr Jeroslav Živanić. University of Ljubljana. Madu. Tg-Jiu (Romania) 52. dr Velibor Marinković. dr Narcisa Popescu. High Technical School. Prof. Klimenko. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. University of Galati. Prof. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. University of Zielona Gora. College of International Studies. Petrosani (Romania) 80. academician. Busan (Korea) 65. Brno (Szech Republic) 42. Zrenjanin (Serbia) V . Prof. Prof. Ljubljana (Slovenia) 43. Faculty of Material Sciences and Technology of Trnava. Čačak (Serbia) 81. dr Ton vad der Wiele. State Technical University of Sankt Petersburg. Technical Faculty. Prof. Kundrashov. Volos (Greece) 57.
. Aleksandrov S. (Gabrovo – Bulgaria) WORKING OUT A SYSTEM FOR ECOLOGICAL MONITORING AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL ZONES AND OUT. NǍstac S. (Belgrade – Serbia).. MǍCUTǍ S. (Subotica – Serbia). Petrović D.. (Mostar – Bosnia and Herzegovina). Jovović D...Z.D.... (Novi Grad – Bosnia and Herzegovina) COMPUTER USAGE IN CALCULATEING THE EXPENDITURE OF REINFORCEMENT Cvejić R. (Piteşti – Romania) CAM SYNTHESIS FOR A TIMING MECHANISM WITH MECHANICAL VARIABLE VALVE LIFT XIII 549 554 560 565 572 578 584 590 595 600 610 614 624 632 . Park N.SORTING STATION AND ITS APPLICATION IN EDUCATION IN THE FIELD OF MECHATRONICS Bilić S. C-13. (Novi Sad – Serbia). (Novi Pazar – Serbia) INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY AS A TOOL FOR ESTABLISHING E-HEALTH Mihalcea S. Petrović D.OF -TOWN TERRITORIES IN BULGARIA. (Galati – Romania) ADVANCES ON COMPUTATIONAL DYNAMICS OF WHEEL LOADER BUCKET CHARGING Erić D. Pavlović V. C-14. Saračević M.. C-12.B. Đokić G. (Trstenik – Serbia) DIDACTIC SYSTEM FESTO MPS . Rajilić S. B-8. (Kotor – Montenegro) DEVELOPMENTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY TECHNOLOGIES FOR RTG CONTAINER CRANES 519 526 530 537 543 SESSION C APPLICATION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING C-1. (Belgrade – Serbia) COMMERCIAL MANAGEMENT INFORMATICS AND NEW TECHNOLOGIES Cvejić R. (Čačak – Serbia) METHOD FINITE ELEMENTS FOR ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY PROCESS IN THE CONTEXT CONCURRENT ENGINEERING Ilarionov R. (Gabrovo – Bulgaria) CLASSIFICATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL ERRORS ON BASIS OF MANUFACTURING PROCESS INFORMATION MODEL Marjanović Z. Milović B. Bošnjak S. Damnjanović Z. Stănescu N. (Niš – Serbia). Brzaković R. Dragović B. (Kotor – Montenegro) QUEUE LENGTH OF INDIVIDUAL SHIPS AT INDEPENDENT WATERWAY LOCKS Škurić M. (Belgrade – Serbia). C-8. Misirača D. C-9. B-6. C-10. C-7. Šešlija D.. Dumitrescu I. C-3... Bilić H.. B-7. Milić V. Markolović T.K. C-5. Aleksandrov S. Markolović T. Đorđević M.. (Novi Sad – Serbia) PROVIDING INFORMATION SECURITY IN BUSINESS SYSTEMS AND ELECTRONIC BUSINESS Čajetinac S. (Kragujevac – Serbia) INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR INNOVATION MANAGEMENT Mašović S. Kamberović H. (Belgrade– Serbia). (Belgrade – Serbia). (Gradiška – Bosnia and Herzegovina). Todorović M. C-2. (Bor – Serbia) ICT AND THERMOGRAPHY IN MINING INDUSTRY Debelac C. (Trstenik – Serbia) PWM CONTROL OF THE PNEUMATIC ACTUATOR BY PLC CONTROLLER Damnjanović Z. Pantović R.. C-11. Dragović B. (Busan – Republic of Korea) PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE CONTAINER PORTS WITH DEA Radmilović Z. (Belgrade– Serbia).. Cozma B. (Bor – Serbia) THERMAL ANALISIS OF SCHRS 800 CONTINUOUS EXCAVATOR CONSTRUCTION FRAME ON OPEN PIT DRMNO Kartunov S.. B-9. Lu Bo. (Slavonski Brod – Croatia).. Čajetinac S. (Kotor – Montenegro) CONTAINER YARD MODELING AND HANDLING EQUIPMENT Urdea G.. Kartunov S. (Petroşani –Romania) SYSTEMIC ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORT AT LIVEZENI MINE Zrnić N. C-6. BASED IN INFORMATIONAL INTERNET ENVIRONMENT Jovanić P..B-5. Rachev P. Itu V.. C-4. Šešlija D..
Dejan Petrović 2 University of Belgrade. Combining thermal imaging techniques with measurements using a measuring tape tension can lead to great benefit in maintaining these structures. 1. Every part of electromagnetic spectrum gives some information about object or process where it is generated. Bor SERBIA. The analysis of thermo vision information enables multiple comparatives analysis of thermograms and the other measurements.bor. Serbia THERMAL ANALISIS OF SCHRS 800 CONTINUOUS EXCAVATOR CONSTRUCTION FRAME ON OPEN PIT DRMNO 1 Predrag Jovanić 1. Belgrade. printed boards. Also. Figure 1. This methodology is special applicable for visualization distribution of temperature on electronic devices like as PC boards.19. hybrid modules. as well as detection of overheating places of every system in which are manifesting dissipation temperature. September 2010. Technical Faculty in Bor.rs e-mail: dpetrovic@tf. e-mail: zdamnjanovic@tf. Institute for Multidisciplinary research. continous excavator. thermal camera. Thermography allows you to find the critical points in the system quickly and easily which can cause damage.ac.bor.rs Summary: In this paper are given description of application thermography in the industry as an efficient way of monitoring system condition. The parts of the construction where the highest tension occur are determined by the thermal firstname.lastname@example.org 2 University of Belgrade. Adequately and timely action on those parts of the system to prevent unnecessary delays in production. Infrared thermography is traditional method for temperature mapping of objects. While visible part of spectrum gives information about morphology characteristic of object and very specific information of colors. precisely and quickly which are analyzed in real terms.bg. thermal properties of process or object manifest in infrared part of electromagnetic radiation. 600 . We can located the areas where the temperature are higher on continous excavator construction because of dynamic tension during operation of the system. tension.10th International Conference ″Research and Development in Mechanical Industry″ RaDMI 2010 16 . It is predicted installing of devices for measure size of the strain suffered by excavator construction. Donji Milanovac. Thermal imaginig analysis can be quickly and precisely find the critical parts of the system that can produce failure of the same. PRINCIPLES OF THERMAL IMAGINING ANALYSIS It is fact that every body emit some quantity of heat if it is has temperature higher than absolute temperature. Thermal imaging analysis gives a general picture of the distribution of tension examined the structure on which the measuring tape to measure the intensity and possible direction of tension action. INTRODUCTION Thermal camera measuring belong to the non destructive group of analysis that make possible determine the temperature distribution of system continously. e-mail: predrag. 2. Key words: thermography. reduce the cost of system maintenance. Zvonko Damnjanović 2. SERBIA. temperature.ac.
A results of analysis IR image are visual information with intensity. In this infrared spectrum area give us information about distribution of temperature on the surface of the observed object or process. It is no big difference between intensity of radiation in any strip of spectrum. with a spectral resolution of objects is performed on of 1. which don`t need refrigeration. It is possible to measure without contact in temperature areas since –40o to 2000o C. All of them respect same rules and only difference is wavelength. The emissivity of object can be defined by separate measuring or it can automatic select form the list of commonly testing materials. The resolution of obtained images are 640x480 pixels. depending on the wavelength. with an average accuracy of measurement of ± 2o C. ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM The electromagnetic spectrum is a freely segmented to a large number of parts. figure 2. Provided thermal imaging pictures are pseudo-images obtained using appropriate LUT tables or program linking temperature for color. They are called bars and they differ in the methods used to induce and detect radiation. The new detectors allows recording on higher wavelengths. which represents a significant improvement in use in various applications. which corresponds to a modern imaginig systems.Figure 1: Electromagnetic spectrum of radiation Thermal cameras record images in infrared area of 7. measured IR radiation which are represented by color. Figure 2: Thermal image of continous excavator Tooday`s thermograpfy systems use third generation semiconductor sensors. which allows better image. 3.5-13μm. In this way the user get immediate information on the distribution of temperature on the observed object in the form of visual information. higher measurement accuracy and the elimination of the influence of solar reflectivity. 601 .3mrad.
In shorter wavelength IR part of spectrum the end of spectrum is on visible part. .6 x 10-34 J/s Boltzmann const1. Graphically.4 x 10-23 J/K Absolute temperature of black body Wavelenght * Factor 10-6 is taken because the black body radiation is expresed in W/m2m. the Wb is the area under the Planck curve for each temperature. . gives the related curve.middle IR area (3 do 6 μm). and then decreases to zero at high wavelength.alien IR area (6 do 15 μm) and . This infrared parts of spectrum contained: .UV X ray IR part of spec V part of the spec Microwawe Wawelenght Visible part of the spectrum Infrared part of spectrum Figure 3: Electromagnetic spectrum with IR part of spectrum which are used from thermography Thermography uses infrared part of spectrum. PLANCK`S LAW Black body is defined as an object that absorbs all active radiation at all wavelengths. Following the Planck curve for a temperature range of emissions is equal to zero for λ = 0. the unit is W/m2μm. When Planck`s formula is integrate for the values of λ = 0 to λ = ∞. 4. which shows that the total emissivity of the black body is proportional to the fourth degree of temperature. we get a total black body radiation: (2) This is the Stefan-Boltzmann formula. If the factor not used. When the graphic display Planck's formula for different temperatures.75 do 3 μm). 602 . and at higher wavelengths near IR spectrum range is bordered by microwave part of the spectrum. the lower the wavelength at which achieves maximum (λmax) for each curve.close IR area (0. Max Planck (1858-1947) was able to describe the distribution of spectrum with black-body radiation using the formula: (1) where are: Wλb c h k T λ Black body radiation at wavelenght λ Velocity of light 3 x 108 m/s Planck`s const 6. For practical reason IR part of spectrum is parted on four smaller areas.final extreme IR area (15 do 100 μm). then quickly grows to a maximum at λmax. The higher the temperature.
Dashed line represents the locus of maximum temperature to Wien`s law 5. Figure 5: Schema of SchRs 800 continous excavator 603 .. Excavator is installed during 1994. ANALISIS CONSTRUCTION OF SCHRS 800 CONTINUOUS EXCAVATOR Continous excavator is product of O&K firm from Germanys. It belongs to a group of compact excavators (the German classification of group A).coordinate system. Excavator is designed for coal exploitation and is currently working on second BTU system. and 1995. when it has started to work. The next figure represent schema construction of excavator.Spectral radiation Wavelength Figure 4: Planck's law introduced in the scheme log .
Minimum dump heigh .Radius of excavation .Working mass of excavator .Digging heigh .Digging depth .Technical data for the excavator are: . The back of the frame was recorded.7 m 25.The theoretical capacity . and are related primarily to the large installed power (power mining) in relation to construction. FLIR producer.Radius of dump .Max rotation engle 3024 m3/h 16.0 m 4.7 m 105° During the work are recorded numerous deficiencies and problems in the work that are otherwise typical for this type of excavator. The basic characteristics are: Measuring range of temperature sensitivity from -20°C to 250°C ±2°C 604 . a screening analysis for determining the place of strengthening and setting up sensors to control. bad diagonal layout and too much tension in the construction.25 m 15. This frame was reconstructed in 2002. presented in figure 6.7 m 585459 kg 15m 1. the introduction of excessive force through the hydraulic cylinder in the zone of the rotating bearing. The subject for research of tension was frame and foremast shown in figure 6.36 m 40.The total lenth of excavators . Figure 6: Frame and foremast For recording and analysis of SCHRS 800 continous excavators construction to a open pit "Drmno" was used infrared camera Therma CAM TM E2.The total high of excavators .0 m 13. owner of JP Serbian Railways (Department of ETP). Recording tension in this research was done by thermal imaging camera.Max dump heigh .
12°C at 25°C 50/60 Hz non-interlaced Manual type Focal Plane Array (FPA). 50/60 Hz.0. B&W. rechargeable. color alarm above or below Palettes (iron. Display shows battery status Field of view/min focus distance Thermal sensitivity Image frequency Focus Detector type Spectral range Video output External display Temperature range Accuracy Measurement mode Menu controls Set-up controls Measurement corrections Type File formats Classification Type Type Operating time Charging system AC operation Voltage Operating temperature range Storage temperature range Humidity USB RS-232 cable (optional) in camera. field replaceable 2 hours continuous operation.Figure 7: Used IR camera Figure 8: dimension of FLIR E2 camera used in this research Table 1: Properties of used IR camera 25°x19° /0. B&W invers). reflected ambient IMAGE STORAGE Built-in FLASH memory (50 images Standard JPEG LASER LOCATIRTM Class 2 Semiconductor AlGaInP Diode Laser: 1mW/635 nm red BATTERY SYSTEM Li-Ion. 16K colors MEASUREMENT -20°C to +250°C.) 2 bay intelligent charger. non-condensing INTERFACES Image transfer to PC Image transfer to PC 605 . standard RCA composite video 2.5 to 13μm IMAGE PRESENTATION PAL or NTSC. temperature units °C/°F.3 m 0. scale.rainbow. auto-adjust (continuous/manual) Date/time. AC adapter or 12 V from car (with optional Std. 12 V AC adapter 90-260 V AC.1 to 1. (-4°F to +482°F) up to +900°C optional ±2°C. language. LCD intensity (high/normal/low) Emissivity variable from 0. uncooled microbolometer 160 x 120 pixels 7. 12 V DC out 11-16 V DC ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIFICATION -15°C to +45°C (5°F to 113°F) -40°C to +70°C (-40°F to 158°F) Operating and storage 20% to 80%. area average. area min. area max. info field.5” colour LCD. ±2% Movable spot. cable.
As seen from the table the camera is not designed for continuous recording. Limited memory. so that it was necessary to define a system for continuous recording of the phenomenon and designing special holder for the camera. a) b) Figure 9: The right part of the frame. base: a) the unloaded. Connections with computer are not provided as a two-way. for protect the camera during shooting. up to 50 shots. b) loaded. is not served to the required tests. right position Figure 10: Rig recorded at different speeds of work Figure 11: Bollard of frame recorded during higher speed of excavator 606 . or not allowed outside independent control the camera during the work.
Figure 13: Tension distribution modeled based on the recorded thermograms 607 . Tensions are divided into three groups. allows you to define the values of the measurements by thermography. intermediate (blue) and high (red). By measuring the tension of the selected points by other techniques. Processing is made in software package Image Pro Plus v6.Figure 12: Above part of frame recorded during higher speed of excavator It is made processing of the results to got recorded voltage distribution facility with screening technique. but it has been used for accurate determination of loaded areas and their sharing of tension. Thermal imaging techniques can not to define bulkiness of tension in this case. as well as air extinction. low (green). Corrections are done for the surface emissivity and reflection. a tension extrapolation is made using a mathematical model who is described. The results are shown in figure 13.
the arrangement of measuring tape (rosettes) in order to obtain relevant data on the size of the tension and monitoring of behavior during the exploitation of the frame is shown in Figure 14. ed.: Infrared physics and engineering. Figure 1: Positions of rosettes for recording value of tension 6. 635.Bearing in mind this tension during operation. 608 . First ed. et AL. 1963. Thermal imaging analysis gives a general picture of the distribution of tension examined the structure on which the measuring tape to measure the intensity and possible direction of tension action. 1989. Combining thermal imaging techniques with measurements using a measuring tape tension can lead to great benefit in maintaining these structures.  Jamieson lA. Inter-university electronic series. lP. Howell: Thermal radiation heat transfer.  Siegel R. 1992.E. ed. New York: McGraw-Hili book company. 1061. and lR. Recent Development in Industrial Measurement and Analysis. Washington: Hemisphere Publishing Corporation. F.London. Series in thermal and fluids engineering. England: SPIE. The system is useful for preliminary quantification of the level of tension. so that the system can be used with increasing confidence in the maintenance and regular checkups of industrial systems. The results obtained this analysis showed the areas of increased loads structures in a very short time. Terman. Second ed. CONCLUSION Application thermal systems for the analysis of industrial structure has shown that the system is an effective tool to identify the distribution of tension in dynamically loaded structures. REFERENCES  Mackenzie AK. with additional analysis can be applied to analyze the development of fatigue load. Hartnett. in Stress and Vibration. :Effects of surface coatings on infra-red measurements of thermoelastic responses.
Metals Handbook.1991. ed. 465.49 (4): p. Agema Infrared systems.K.ll. Bever: Physical chemistry of metals. and LE. RF. 1849-1855. Infrared Observer Number 36 . Nondestructive evaluation of materials by infrared thermo-graphy. D.  Krapez J. Oxford: Oxford University Press 1959. Inc: USA International.  AB: Agema Infrared systems. and W. Handbook of infrared optical materials.P. 1994.  Stanley P.A. handbok for planlegging. Dunn: On the revised theory of the thermoelastic effect. Florida: SPIE. 0.  Zickel: Review of Progress inQuantitative Nondestructive Evaluation.New York: John Wiley & sons.B. 1063.S..v. Capri. Freeman and Company..1987.. 1987. 387.. 30. Bever: The thermoelastic effect in iron and nickel as a function of temperature. Kroemer: Thermal physics. 327-333.. Inc.  Wong AK. Journal of Applied Physics. Wu and W.H. 1994.C. 1985.New York: John Wiley & sons. Journal of strain measurements. gjennomf¢ring og oppf¢lging. 9-16. 525.  Busse G. 1959.  Wonnacott R. Committee. Jaeger: Conduction of heat in solids.New York: John wiley & sons. 1992. London: Springer-Verlag.  Swalin. Wiley series on the SCIence and technology of materials. First ed. ed. Sparrow and S.  Bhattacharyya G. and M.Orlando. 395-400. lG. New York: McGraw-Hili Book Company Inc.  Dulieu-Smith: Alternative calibration for quantitative thermoelastic stress analysis. 1993. and R. Second ed.Oslo: Universitetsforlaget. 1997.S. Stockholm.I. Mehl and M. Sjoevold.  http://www. Vol. 207. BJ.  Rocca R.  Kaplan ll. x. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc. 639. Second ed. All. K&.  Hibbitt. Wiley senes ill probability and mathematical statistics. in Stress Analysis by Thermoelastic Techniques. En¢k i bygninger. 1994. Wonnacott: Introductory Statistics. 1995 (February): p..K. 611. Bever. Curry and M. and T. Italy: ONERA. 1950.B. Metal Handbook.. Second ed. London: SPIE. Wiley series inprobability and mathematical statistics.ABAQUS. First ed. 188 :p. 1995. RA. 1992. and H. G. 649.13: p.flir. Vol. an update. 505.S.  Maldague. Fourth ed. 3962-3965. 1977. New York: W. in 3rd International Workshop on Advanced Infrared Technologies and Applications.. Optical engineering.Hibbitt.J.  Klocek P.Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.  Darken L. Balageas: Lock-in IR thermography: advantages and problems of some approaches.B. Gardette and D.: VentilasJonsteknikk. 1. RW.com/thermography/eurasia/en/ 609 .  Carslaw ll. Metallurgy and Metallurgical Engineering Series. First ed. First ed. ed.  Stensaas L. Kittel C. A.:Commercial applications for thermal imaging instruments. In Infrared detectors andfocal plane array III. 1990. 483. Journal of physics and chemistry of solids. Transactions AIME. Johnson: Statistical concepts and methods. Chan: Assessment and development of the thermoelastic technique for engineering applications: four years of progress.A.. User manual for installation and operation of Thermovision®900. First ed.71 (8): p.  AB. 1961. 1992. Thompson. USA: ASM International. 424. Karpen: Thermal wave imaging with phase sensitive modulated thermography. 1953. 1990.: Thermodynamics of solids. 1980. Karlsson & Soerensen.
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