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THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES CAVE HILL CAMPUS UNDERGRADUATE COURSE OUTLINE

ITEM Course Title Course Code Academic Units to offer Course Level Semester Course Credit Load Course Description and Rationale

DESCRIPTION Caribbean Civilization FOUN 1101 Department of History and Philosophy, Faculty of Humanities and Education 1 1 and 2 3

For some time, skeptics have defined the Caribbean as part of another civilization: African, Asian, or European. This course is to help students appreciate that the Caribbean is a distinct civilization. It will focus on the main processes of cultural development in Caribbean societies and the creation of its diaspora; highlighting the emergence of Caribbean identities. It will stimulate students‟ interest in the Caribbean to strengthen their commitment to further ennobling Caribbean civilization. Specific Learning Outcomes/Objectives By the end of the course students will be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4. Discuss the main processes of cultural development in Caribbean societies; Evaluate the state of the different forms of Caribbean cultural expressions; Evaluate the contribution of Caribbean intellectuals to Caribbean societies and the wider world; Assess the major developments in the integration movement in the Caribbean.

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THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES CAVE HILL CAMPUS Course Content Week 1: Sept 2 - Introduction to FOUN1101: Caribbean Civilization Week 2: Sept 9 - Caribbean space/physical Environment/Amerindian peoples and cultures Week 3 Sept 16 - European conquest, settlement demographic changes. Week 4 Sept 23 - Slavery, marronage and rebellion. Week 5 Sept 30 - Reparations th Week 6 Oct 7 - New in/out-migration, indenture, and their consequences: 19 - 21st centuries. Week 7 Oct 14 -Revision for the In-class test. Week 8 Oct 21 - Religion in the Caribbean. Week 9 Oct 28 - Islam in the Caribbean. Week 10 Nov 4 - Caribbean Popular Culture - Music Week 11 Nov 11 - Caribbean Popular Culture - festivals Week 12 Nov 18 - Caribbean Cricket culture. Week 13 Nov 25 – Revision for final exam Teaching Methodologies Face to faces lectures from the course coordinator and invited guests. Course Assessment Methods I. This course will be assessed through THREE components: One (1) In-class test, which will account for 20% of your final grade. This is scheduled for October 19 for nonSabatarians and October 21st for Sabatarians. One (1) Research essay, which will account for 30% of your final grade. This is due by 4pm on November 6, 2013. Hand delivered to the secretary in the History Department or the designated delivery point. The essay must not exceed 2,000 words. Essays which exceed the word limit will be penalized. Assignments must clearly state the student id # and the question that is being attempted. Please ensure that you fill out the Assignment Cover Sheet which is available on Elearning. (d) A Final Examination for 50% of the final mark – Students are required to answer two (2) questions out of total of eight (8) questions in two (2) hours.

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The final examination at the end of the semester constitutes the other 50% of your overall grade. Students are required to answer two (2) questions out of total of eight (8) questions in two (2) hours. You should try to write as much as possible in the TWO hours. Please try for a minimum of three pages per question. Students MUST cite and acknowledge ALL sources. Quotation marks, and block indentation must be used for direct quotes. Students should practice crediting sources up front, by using statements like:

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THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES CAVE HILL CAMPUS „according to Brown‟, „Brown opines‟ etc. for direct quotes, as well as for work that is summarised or paraphrased. Footnotes or endnotes and bibliographies MUST also be used and set out according to the MLA format. This is the only way to avoid PLAGIARISM. IV. PLAGIARISM is the use of some else‟s work i.e. their words, opinions, photographs, ideas, data etc. (be it intentional or otherwise) without acknowledging them as the source of the information. PLAGIARISM is theft and is forbidden! It is a serious offence with very serious consequences. Assignments that show evidence of PLAGIARISM will receive NO MARKS. Also, according to University Examination Regulation 79, students found guilty of plagiarism shall be disqualified „from the examination in the course concerned‟ and may also be disqualified „from all examinations taken in that session‟ and may also be disqualified „from all further examinations of the University, for any period of time‟. The assignment MUST be accompanied by a cover sheet identifying the student‟s name; student ID number; date of submission and the student‟s declaration. V. Grades will depend on:  a competent interpretation and development of the question;  a thorough knowledge and understanding of the relevant materials; independent research, and;  clarity of ideas and an adequate command of English language.

Teaching/Learning Resources including internet sources I. All students should buy a Caribbean Civilisation course reader on CD for SOME of the readings which accompany the modules. These can be obtained from the Faculty of Humanities and Education. Other suggested course readings are listed below. Students are strongly advised to make use of library resources, including the WIC, e-journals, and electronic databases for SCHOLARLY RESEARCH for lecture background, assignments and group work. Students should make use of MyElearning for access to online discussions, course updates and links. MyElearning is closely monitored by the coordinator for usage. It is strongly advised that you make use of the technology and participate in the online discussions. There are several online MLA formatting guides as well as print editions in the library and bookstore.

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Required/ Recommended Readings 1. Origins I. Caribbean space/physical environment/ Amerindian peoples and culture: their legacy

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THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES CAVE HILL CAMPUS Required Readings: Watson, K. “The Pre-Columbian Caribbean”. Caribbean Civilisations Manual. Ed. A. Johnson. Faculty of Humanities and Education: 1-14. Cobley, A. “Origins: European conquest, settlement and demographic change”. Caribbean Civilisations Manual. Ed. A. Johnson. Faculty of Humanities and Education: 14-25. Sauer, C. “The Early Spanish Main”. Caribbean Civilisations Manual. Ed. A. Johnson. Faculty of Humanities and Education:25-47. [Original: Sauer, C. The Early Spanish Main. U of California, 1992]. Suggested Readings: Craton, M. and G. Saunders. Islanders in the Stream: A History of the Bahamian People. Athens: U of Georgia, 1999. Cripps, L. The Spanish Caribbean: From Columbus to Castro. G.K. Hall and Co., 1979 (pg. 63-78) Drewett, P. Pre-historic Barbados. London/ Bridgetown: UCL and BMHS, 1991. Helms, M.W. “The Indians of the Caribbean and Circum-Caribbean at the End for the Fifteenth Century”. The Cambridge History of Latin America. Ed. L. Bethell. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1995. Vol. 1: 37-57 Rouse, I. “The West Indies: An Introduction”. Handbook of South American Indians. UPA, 1983, Vol. 4: 495567.

II. European conquest, settlement and demographic changes Required Readings: Williams, E. “Documents of West Indian History”. Caribbean Civilisations Manual. Ed. A. Johnson. Faculty of Humanities and Education: 47-51 [Original: Williams, E. Documents of West Indian History. AB Publishing, 1994]. Hanke, L. “Relations between Indians and Spaniards” Caribbean Civilisations Manual. Ed. A. Johnson. Faculty of Humanities and Education: 52-55. Suggested Readings: Crosby, Alfred. The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2003.

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THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES CAVE HILL CAMPUS Knight, FW. General History of the Caribbean: The Native Population of the Americas. Rosenblat, A. “The population of Hispaniola at the time of Columbus”. Native population of the Americas in 1492. Ed. Denevan. Madison: 1976. Sale, Kirkpatrick. Christopher Columbus and the Conquest of Paradise. Palgrave, 2006. Watts, David. The West Indies: Patterns of Development, Culture and Environmental Change since 1492. Cambridge University Press, 1990. [pp. 78-121] Wilson, Samuel (Ed.). Indigenous People of the Caribbean. Scholarly Book Services, 2002. Las Casas, Bartolome. An Account, Much Abbreviated, of the Destruction of the Indies: With Related Texts. Hackett Publishing, 2003.

2. Fighting for Freedom I. Slavery, marronage and rebellion.

Required Readings: Beckles, H. “Caribbean Anti-Slavery: The Self-Liberation Ethos of Enslaved Blacks”. Caribbean Civilisations Manual. Ed. A. Johnson. Faculty of Humanities and Education: 56-67 [Original: Caribbean Slave Society and Economy. Ed. H. Beckles and V. Shepherd. Kingston: Ian Randle, 1991]. Shepherd, V. “Slavery, marronage and rebellion: the English-Colonised Caribbean”. Caribbean Civilisations Manual. Ed. A. Johnson. Faculty of Humanities and Education: 68-98. Shepherd, V. “Rejecting slavery: Stages in the Development of Anti-Slavery, slave narratives and resistance.” Caribbean Civilisations Manual. Ed. A. Johnson. Faculty of Humanities and Education: 98-102. Suggested Readings: Beckles, H. Natural Rebels: A Social History of Enslaved Black Women in Barbados. London: Zed, 1989. Beckles, H. “Caribbean Anti-Slavery: The Self-Liberation Ethos of Enslaved Blacks”. Caribbean Slave Society and Economy. Ed. H. Beckles and V. Shepherd. Kingston: Ian Randle, 1991.

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THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES CAVE HILL CAMPUS Blackburn, O. The Overthrow of Colonial Slavery, 1776-1848. London: Verso, 1988 Gaspar, B. Bondmen and Rebels. Duke UP, 1993. Gaspar, B and D. Hine. More that Chattel: Black Women and Slavery in the Americas. Indiana UP, 1996. Gaspar, B. “The Antigua Slave Conspiracy of 1736: A Case Study of the origins of Collective Resistance”. William and Mary Quarterly. 1978. 35 (2): 308-323. Gaspar, B. “Working the System: Antigua Slaves and their Struggle to live”. Slavery and Abolition, 1992 13: 131-55. De Groot, S. C. Christen and F.W. Knight. “Maroon communities in the Circum-Caribbean”. General History of the Caribbean Volume II. Ed. F. Knight. UNESCO/ Macmillan, 1997. Hart, R. Blacks in Rebellion. Jamaica: UWI, 2002. Heuman, G. Out of the House of Bondage: Runaways, Resistance and Marronage in Africa and the New World. London: Frank Cass, 1982. Ott, T. The Haitian Revolution: 1789-1804. U of Tennessee, 1973. Patterson, O. “Slavery and Slave Revolts”. Social and Economic Studies. 1970 9 (3): 289-325 Price, R. Maroon Societies: Revel Slave Communities in the Americas. Garden City, NJ: Anchor/ Doubleday, 1973. Price R and S. John Gabriel Stedman‟s Narrative of a Five Years Expedition Against the Revolted Negroes of Surinam. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1988. Schuler, M. “Akan Slave Rebellions in the British Caribbean”. Caribbean Slave Society and Economy. Eds. H. Beckles and V. Shepherd. Kingston: Ian Randle, 1991. Schuler, M. “Day-to-day Resistance to Slavery in the Caribbean during the 18th Century” African Studies Association of the West Indies. Bulletin No. 6, 1973. Sollow, B. ed. Slavery and the Rise of the Atlantic Slave System. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1993. Shepherd, V. and H. Beckles, eds. Caribbean Slavery in the Atlantic World: A Student Reader. Kingston: Ian Randle, 2000.
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New in/out-migration, indenture, and their consequences: 19 – 21st centuries.

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THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES CAVE HILL CAMPUS Required Readings: Look Lai, W. “New In/Out Migration, Indenture, and Their Consequences: 19th and 20th Centuries (Parts 1, 2 &3)”. Caribbean Civilisations Manual. Ed. A. Johnson. Faculty of Humanities and Education: 103-115. Munasinghe, V. “Migration and Indenture”. Caribbean Civilisations Manual. Ed. A. Johnson. Faculty of Humanities and Education: 116-122. Richardson, B. “Caribbean Migrations, 1838-1985”. Caribbean Civilisations Manual. Ed. A. Johnson. Faculty of Humanities and Education: 123-148. In-class 20-min video: Viewing “On The Map” Directed by Annalee Davis Suggested Readings (Immigration): Dabydeen, D. (ed.) India in the Caribbean. Hansib Publishing, 1987. Glazier, S. Caribbean Ethnicity. New York: Gordon and Breach, 1985. Green, W. British Slave Emancipation. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1991. Harakasingh, K. “Control and Resistance Among Overseas Indian Workers: A Study on the Sugar Plantations of Trinidad, 1875-1917”. Caribbean Freedom. Eds. H. Beckles and V. Shepherd. M. Weiner, 1996. Hope, T. “The Impact of Immigration on Caribbean Development”. Migration and Development in the Caribbean: The Unexplored Connection. Ed. R. Pastor. Boulder: Westview Press, 1985: 237-261. LaGuerre, J. Ed. Calcutta to Caroni: The East Indians of Trinidad. Longman Caribbean, 1974. Laurence, K. Immigration into the West Indies in the 19th Century. Ginn, 1982. Laurence, K. A Question of Labour: Indentured Immigration into Trinidad and British Guiana, 1875-1917. St. Mart‟s Press, 1994. Look Lai. W. Indentured Labour, Caribbean Sugar: Chinese and Indian Migrants to the British West Indies, 1838-1919. Johns Hopkins UP, 2003. Look Lai, W. The Chinese in the West Indies, 1860-1995: A Documentary History. UWI, 2001. Ramesar, M. Survivors of Another Crossing: A History of East Indians in Trinidad, 1880-1946. UWI, 1994. Moore, B. “The Social Impact of Portuguese Immigration into British Guiana After Emancipation”. Caribbean

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THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES CAVE HILL CAMPUS Freedom. Eds. H. Beckles and V. Shepherd. M. Weiner, 1996. Rodney, W. A History of the Guyanese Working People, 1881-1905. Heinneman, 1981. Seecharan, C. Tiger in the Stars: The Anatomy of Indian Achievement in British Guiana, 1919-1929. Macmillan, 1997. Tinker, H. A New System of Slavery: The Export of Indian Labour Overseas, 1830-1920. Hansib, 1991. Williams, E. From Columbus to Castro: History of the Caribbean, 1492-1969. Vintage, 1988.

Suggested Readings (Emigration): Bryan, B. “The Heart of the Race: Black Women‟s Lives in Britain”. Black British Feminism: A Reader. Ed. H. Mirza. Routledge, 1997. The Schomburg Centre for Research in Black Culture. “In-Motion: The African-American Migration Experience”. http://www.inmotionaame.org/source_materials.cfm. [click Texts]. Carter, T. Shattering Illusions: West Indians in British Politics. New York: New York UP, 1986. Craton, M. Empire, Enslavement and Freedom in the Caribbean. Markus Weiner, 1997. Davidson, R. Black British: Immigrants to England. OUP, 1966. File, N. Black Settlers in Britain, 1555-1958. Heinnemann, 1995. Foner, N. “Towards a Comparative Perspective on Caribbean Migration”. Caribbean Migration: Globalised Identities. Ed. M. Chamberlain. London: Routledge, 1998. Lowenthal, D. West Indian Societies. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1978. Maingot, A. The United States and the Caribbean. Routledge, 2004. [pp. 183-204]. McAfee, K. Storm Signals. South End Press, 1991. Monk, J. “Migration, Development and the Gender Division of Labour: Puerto Rico and Margarita Island, Venezuela”. Women and Change in the Caribbean: A Pan-Caribbean Perspective. Ed. J. Momsen. Indiana UP, 1993: 150-167. Olwig, K. “The Migration Experience: Nevisian Women at Home and Abroad”. Women and Change in the Caribbean: A Pan-Caribbean Perspective. Ed. J. Momsen. Indiana UP, 1993: 167-177.

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THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES CAVE HILL CAMPUS Patterson, S. Dark Strangers: A Sociological Study of the Absorption of a Recent Migrant Group in Brixton, South London. Indiana UP, 1964. Peach C. “Trends in Levels of Caribbean Segregation, Great Britain, 1961-91”. Caribbean Migration: Globalised Identities. Ed. M. Chamberlain. London: Routledge, 1998. Richardson, B. Caribbean Migrants: Environment and Human Survival on St. Kitts and Nevis. U of Tennessee, 1983. Richardson B. The Caribbean in the Wider World. Cambridge UP, 1992. Sunshine C. The Caribbean: Survival, Struggle and Sovereignty. Epica Task Force, 1988. Thomas-Hope, E. “Caribbean Diaspora -- The Inheritance of Slavery: Migration From the Commonwealth Caribbean”. The Caribbean in Europe: Aspects of the West Indian Experience in Britain, France and the Netherlands. Ed. C. Brock. Routledge, 1986: 15-36. Thomas-Hope, E. “Globalization and the Development of a Caribbean Migration Culture”. Caribbean Migration: Globalised Identities. Ed. M. Chamberlain. London: Routledge, 1998.

3. Quest for Identity I. Race, nationalism, independence, dependence and regionalism. Required Readings: Beckford, G. “Plantation Society: Toward a General Theory of Caribbean Society”. Savacou. 1971 5:7-22. [Main Library Course Folder] Best, L. “West Indian Society 150 Years After Abolition: A Re-examination of Some Classic Theories”. [Main Library Course Folder] Knight, Franklin. The Caribbean: A Fragmented Nationalism. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1990. Chapter 11 Suggested Readings: Barrow-Giles, C. Introduction to Caribbean Politics. Kingston: Ian Randle, 2002. Beckles, H. “Divided to the Vein”. Caribbean Freedom. Eds. H. Beckles and V. Shepherd. M. Weiner, 1996. Beckles, H. A History of Barbados. Cambridge UP, 2006.

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THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES CAVE HILL CAMPUS Blerald, P. “Guadeloupe-Martinique: A System of Colonial Domination in Crisis”. Crisis in the Caribbean. Eds. F. Ambursley and R. Cohen. Monthly Review, 1984. Benn, D. Ideology and Political Development: the Growth and Development of Political Ideas in the Caribbean, 1774-1983. Kingston: UWI, 1987. Bolland, N. Struggles for Freedom: Essays on Slavery, Colonialism and Culture. Belize City: Angelus, 1997. Carmichael, T. Ed. Barbados: Thirty Years of Independence. Kingston: Ian Randle, 1998. Daly, V. The Making of Guyana. Channel 4, 2001. Dominiquez et al. Eds. Democracy in the Caribbean. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1993. Gomes, A. Through a Maze of Colour. Port of Spain: Key Caribbean, 1974. Grugel, J. Politics and Development in the Caribbean Basin. Indiana UP, 1995. Henry, P and P. Buhle. Eds. C.L.R. James‟ Caribbean. Duke UP, 1992. Jagan, C. The West on Trial: The Fight for Guyana‟s Freedom. Seven Seas, 1975. Johnson, H and K. Watson. The White Minority in the Caribbean. Markus Weiner, 1997. Knight, F. The Caribbean: The Genesis of a Fragmented Nationalism. Oxford UP, 1990. Knight, F. and C. Palmer. The Modern Caribbean. Scholarly Book Services, 2002. Leyburn, J. The Haitian People. Greenwood Press, 1980. Lewis, G. The Growth of the Modern West Indies. Monthly Review, 1970. Lewis, R.C. Walter Rodney‟s Intellectual and Political Thought. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1998. Mahin, G. East Indians and Black Power in the Caribbean: The Case of Trinidad. New York: African Research, 1986. Meeks, B. Radical Caribbean: From Black Power to Abu Bakr. Barbados: UWI, 1996. Moore, E. Haiti: Its Stagnant Society and Shackled Economy. New York: Exposition, 1972. Nicholls, D. From Dessalines to Duvalier. Macmillan, 1988.

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THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES CAVE HILL CAMPUS Niehoff, A and J. East Indians in the West Indies. Milwaukee, 1960. Ramos, A and A. Rivera. Islanders at the Crossroads: Politics in the Non-Independent Caribbean. Kingston: Ian Randle, 2001. Reddock, Rhoda. Ed. Ethnic Minorities in Caribbean Society. St. Augustine: UWI, 1999. Ryan, S. Ed. The Independence Experience, 1962-1987. St. Augustine: UWI, 1988. Ryan, S. Race and Nationalism in Trinidad and Tobago. Toronto: 1972. Searle, C. In Nobody‟s Backyard: Maurice Bishop‟s Speeches, 1979-1983. London: Zed, 1984. Singh, H.P. The Indian Struggle for Justice and Equality Against Black Racism in Trinidad and Tobago. Indian Review, 1993. Singh, N. Guyana: Democracy Betrayed. Kingston Publishers, 1996. Thomas, C. The Poor and the Powerless. Latin America Bureau, 1988. Thompson, A. The Haunting Past: Politics, Economics and Race in Caribbean Life. M.E. Sharp, 1997. Wallace, E. “The Breakup of the W.I. Federation.” Caribbean Freedom. Eds. H. Beckles and V. Shepherd. M. Weiner, 1996. Suggested Readings: I. Creolization , ethnic and linguistic identity

Required Readings: Alleyne, M. “A Linguistic Perspective on the Caribbean”. Caribbean Civilisations Manual. Ed. A. Johnson. Faculty of Humanities and Education: 149-172. Suggested Readings: Alleyne, M. “Language and Empowerment in the Caribbean: Historical Basis and Contemporary Dynamics”. The Critical Tradition of Caribbean Political Economy. Eds. K. Levitt and M. Witter. Kingston: Ian Randle, 1996. Alleyne, MC. Roots of Jamaican Culture. Pluto, 1989.

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THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES CAVE HILL CAMPUS Allsopp, R. Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1996. [1. Introduction; 2. Essay on Caribbean English] Allsopp, R. Language and National Unity. Georgetown: Guyana Department of Culture, 1998. Mazama, Ama Kimpukula. “The Nature of Language Contacts in Guadeloupe During Slavery: Sociological and Linguistic Evidence. Studies in Caribbean Language II. Papers from the Ninth Biennial Conference of the Society for Caribbean Linguistics, 1992, 250-264. St. Augustine: Society for Caribbean Linguistics. Collection of - Barbados - Jamaica - Guyana - Trinidad Caribbean Proverbs: (Addington Forde, Margot Blackman) (Anderson & F. Cundall, M. Beckwith, M. Brown) (R. Spiers, O. Abrams, S. Brathwaite, C.A. Yansen) (J. Mendes, Cote Ce Cote la, K. Baprise, Trini Talk)

Collins, M. “Writing and Creole Language Politics: Voice and Story”. Caribbean Creolization: Reflections on the Cultural Dynamics of Language, Literature and Identity. Eds. K. Balutansky and M. Sorieau. University of Florida, 1998 Donnelly, J. “Basilectal Features of Bahamian Creole English”. Handler, J. and J. Jacoby. “Slave Names and M=Naming in Barbados, 1650-1830”. William and Mary Quarterly. 1996 53(4): 685-728. Lamming, G. Enterprise of the Indies. Trinidad Institute of the West Indies, 1999. [Section 17: 175-185; Allsopp, Carrington and Solomon] Pollard, V. Dread-Talk: The Language of Rastafari. McGill-Queen‟s UP, 2000. Roberts, R. “The (Re)Construction of the Concept of “Indio” in the National Identities of Cuba, the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico”. Sargasso, 2000 I: 99-120. Roberts, R. “The Fabric of Barbadian English” Studies in Caribbean Language II. Papers from the Ninth Biennial Conference of the Society for Caribbean Linguistics, 1992, 250-264. St. Augustine: Society for Caribbean Linguistics. Sagay, E. African Hairstyles. Heinneman, 1984.

4. Ideas AND Ideologies

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Caribbean Intellectual Traditions

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THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES CAVE HILL CAMPUS Required Readings: Cobham, R. “The Background”. Caribbean Civilisations Manual. Ed. A. Johnson. Faculty of Humanities and Education: 173-180. Boxill, A. “The Beginnings to 1929”. Caribbean Civilisations Manual. Ed. A. Johnson. Faculty of Humanities and Education: 181-186. Marquez, R. “Nationalism, Nation and Ideology: Trends in the Emergence of a Caribbean Literature”. Caribbean Civilisations Manual. Ed. A. Johnson. Faculty of Humanities and Education: 187-234. Suggested Readings: Burnett, P. (Ed). The Penguin Book of Caribbean Verse. Puffin, 1986. Chamberlain, JE. Come Back to Me My Language. U of Illinois, 1993. Cudjoe, S. Caribbean Women Writers. U of Massachusetts, 1990. Kearns. R. Black Identity. International Thomson, 1970. Ramchand, K. West Indian Novel and Its Background. Kingston: Ian Randle, 2004.

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Religion in the Caribbean

Required Readings: Besson, J. “Religion as Resistance in Jamaican Peasant Life: The Baptist Church, Revival World View and the Rastafari Movement”. Caribbean Civilisations Manual. Ed. A. Johnson. Faculty of Humanities and Education: 235-268. Suggested Readings: Austin-Broos, D. “Pentecostals and Rastafarians: Cultural, Political and Gender Relations of Two Religious Movements”. Social and Economic Studies. 1987 36 (4): 1-39. Barett, L. The Rastafarians. Beacon, 1997. [Chp. 4]. Barrow C. and R. Rheddock. Caribbean Sociology: Introductory Readings. Marcus Weiner, 2002. [Religion] Campbell, H. Rasta and Resistance: From Marcus Garvey to Walter Rodney. Africa World Press, 1987.

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THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES CAVE HILL CAMPUS Chavannes, B. “Revivalism: A Disappearing Religion”. Caribbean Quarterly. 1978 24 (3-4): 1-17. Diouf, Sylviane. Servants of Allah: African Muslims Enslaved in the Americas. New York: New York University Press, 1998. Harkasingh, Kusha. "Aspects of the Indian Experience in the Caribbean." Calcutta to Caroni: The East Indians of Trinidad. Ed. John La Guerre. St. Augustine: University of the West Indies, Extra-mural Unit, 1985. Holland, D. and J. Crane. “Adapting to an Industrialising Nation: The Shango Cult of Trinidad”. Social and Economic Studies. 36 (4): 41-66. Lampe, Armando. Christianity in the Caribbean. Mona: University of the West Indies, 2001. Rambachan, Anant. "Hinduism in the 21st Century." Divali Magazine: Hinduism in Trinidad and Tobago 1988: 24-29. Stewart, R. “Religion, Myths and Beliefs: Their Socio-Political Roles”. General History of the Caribbean vol. 1. Ed. B. Brereton. UNESCO, 1999. Vertovec, Steven. "'Official' and 'Popular' Hinduism in the Caribbean: Historical and Contemporary Trends in Surinam, Trinidad and Guyana." Across the Dark Waters. Ed. David Dabydeen and Brinsley Samaroo. London: Macmillan, 1996. 5. Caribbean Expressions I. Caribbean Cricket

Required Readings: Beckles, H. West Indian Embrace of Englishness”. Caribbean Civilisations Manual. Ed. A. Johnson. Faculty of Humanities and Education: 375-381. Beckles, H. “The Political Ideology of West Indies Cricket Culture”. Caribbean Civilisations Manual. Ed. A. Johnson. Faculty of Humanities and Education: 382-409. Grimshaw, A. Ed. “Kanhai: A Study in Confidence”. Caribbean Civilisations Manual. Ed. A. Johnson. Faculty of Humanities and Education: 410-14. Suggested Readings: Beckles, H and B. Stoddart (eds). Liberation Cricket. Manchester: U of Manchester, 1995 Cashman, R. “Cricket and Colonialism: Colonial Hegemony and Indigenous subversion?” . Pleasure, Profit and

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THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES CAVE HILL CAMPUS Proselytism: British Culture and Sport at Home and Abroad, 1700-1914. Ed. J.A. Mangan. London: Routledge, 2004. James, CLR. Beyond the Boundary. Duke UP, 1993. Marshall. T. “Ethnicity, Class and Democratisation of West Indies Cricket. An Area of Conquest. Ed. H. Beckles. Kingston: Ian Randle, 1994. II. Caribbean Music

Required Readings: Best, C. “Barbadian Popular Music and the Politics of Caribbean Culture (Chapters 1-2)”. Caribbean Civilisations Manual. Ed. A. Johnson. Faculty of Humanities and Education: 269-307. Bilby, K. “Caribbean Crucible”. Caribbean Civilisations Manual. Ed. A. Johnson. Faculty of Humanities and Education: 307-319. White, G. “The Evolution of Jamaican Music, Pt. 1”. Caribbean Civilisations Manual. Ed. A. Johnson. Faculty of Humanities and Education: 320-327. Rohlehr, G. “Tradition and Change in the Calypso”. Caribbean Civilisations Manual. Ed. A. Johnson. Faculty of Humanities and Education: 328-338. Stuempfler, Stephen. “The Emergence of the Steelband: the 1930s and 1940s”. Caribbean Civilisations Manual. Ed. A. Johnson. Faculty of Humanities and Education: 339-347. [Original: Steelband Movement. UWI Press, 1995.] Encarta Encyclopedia. “Caribbean Music”. Caribbean Civilisations Manual. Ed. A. Johnson. Faculty of Humanities and Education: 348-350. Regis, L. “The Calypso and Reggae”. Caribbean Civilisations Manual. Ed. A. Johnson. Faculty of Humanities and Education: 351-354. Suggested Readings:

Behague, GH (ed). Music and Black Ethnicity. U of Miami, 1994, Best, C. Roots to Popular Culture: Barbadian Aesthetics. Macmillan Caribbean, 2001. Campbell, H. Rasta and Resistance: From Marcus Garvey to Walter Rodney. Africa World Press, 1987.

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THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES CAVE HILL CAMPUS Cowley, J. Carnival, Canboulay, and Calypso: Tradition in the Making. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1999. Davis, S. Bob Marley. Doubleday, 1985. Dawes, K. Natural Mysticism: Towards a New Reggae Aesthetic. Peeplal Tree, 1999. Guilbault, Jocelyne. Zouk: World Music in the West Indies. U of Chicago, 1993. Giovanetti, J. “Jamaican Reggae and the Articulation of Social and Historical Consciousness in Musical Discourse”. Contemporary Caribbean Cultures and Societies in a Global Context. Eds. FW Knight and T. Martinez. U of North Carolina, 2005. Hendige, D. Cut N‟Mix: Culture, Identity and Caribbean Music. Routledge, 1987. Sing, S. and R. Jensen. “Bob Marley‟s „Redemption Song‟: The Rhetoric of Reggae and Rastafari” Journal of Popular Culture. 1995: 29. Larkin, C. Ed. The Guinness Who‟s Who of Reggae. Guinness World Records, 1994. Lewin, O. Rock it Come Over: The Folk Music of Jamaica. UWI, 2000. Loncke, J. Ed. Developments in Caribbean Music. Manuel, P, K. Bilby and M. Largey. Caribbean Currents: Caribbean Music from Rumba to Reggae. Kingston: Ian Randle, 2006. Olsen, D. and D. Sheehy. The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music vol. 1. Routledge, 1999. Pouchet Paquet, S., P. Saunders and S. Steumpfle. Music, Memory. Resistance: Calypso and the Caribbean Literary Imagination. Kingston: Ian Randle, 2007. Regis, Louis. The Political Calypso. UWI Press, 1999. Rohlehr, G. Calypso and Society in Pre-Independence Trinidad. G. Rohlehr, 1990. Rohlehr, G. “Change and Prophecy in the Trinidad and Tobago Calypso Towards the 21st Century.” Contending with Destiny. Eds. K. Hall and D. Benn. IRP, 2000 Salewicz, Chris and Adrian Boot. Reggae Explosion: The Story of Jamaican Music. Kingston: Ian Randle, 2001. Saunders, P. “Is Not Everything Good to Eat, Good to Talk: Sexual Economy and Dancehall Music in the Global Marketplace” Small Axe. 2003 13.

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III.

Caribbean Festivals

Required Readings: Mansingh, A. and I. Mansingh. “Hosay and its Creolization”. Caribbean Civilisations Manual. Ed. A. Johnson. Faculty of Humanities and Education: 355-362. Bettleheim, J, J. Nunley and B. Bridges. “An Introduction to Caribbean Festival Arts”. Caribbean Civilisations Manual. Ed. A. Johnson. Faculty of Humanities and Education: 363-370. Regis, L. “The Trinidad Carnival”. Caribbean Civilisations Manual. Ed. A. Johnson. Faculty of Humanities and Education: 371-374. Suggested Readings: Anthony, M. Parade of the Carnivals of Trinidad, 1839-1939. Port of Spain: Circle, 1988. Bakhtin, M. Rabelais and His World. Indiana UP, 1984. Bastide, R. African Civilizations in the New World. Harper and Row, 1972. Bethel, C. Junkanoo: Festival of the Bahamas. Macmillan Caribbean, 1992. Bettleheim, J. Cuban Festivals. Markus Wiener, 2001. Brathwaite, E. Folk Culture of the Slaves in Jamaica. New Beacon, 1970. “Caribbean Monograph”. Caribbean Quarterly. 1956. 4 Craton, M. and G. Saunders. Islanders in the Stream: A History of the Bahamian People. Athens: U of Georgia, 1999. [chp. 4] Fayer, J. and J. McMurray. “The Carriacou mas as „Syncretic Artifact‟”. Journal of American Folklore. 111 (443): 112 (443): 58-73. Forte, J. “Women‟s Performance Art: Feminism and Post-Modernism”. Performing Feminism: Feminist Case Critical Theory and Theatre. Ed. S. Ellen. Johns Hopkins UP, 1990. Gates, H.L. Jr. The Signifying Monkey. Oxford UP, 1989. Hall, S. “Cultural Identity and Diaspora”. Identity: Community, Culture and Difference. Ed. J. Rutherford.

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THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES CAVE HILL CAMPUS Lawrence and Wishart, 2003. Herskovits, M. “African Gods and Catholic Saints in the New World Negro Belief”. The New World Negro. Ed. F. Herskovits. Indiana UP, 1966. Hill, E. The Trinidad Carnival: Mandate for a National Theatre. Austin: U of Texas, 1972. Liverpool, H. Rituals of Power and Rebellion: Carnival Tradition in Trinidad and Tobago. Frontline Distribution International, 2001. Mansingh, A and L. “Hosey and Its Creolization”. Caribbean Quarterly. 1995. 41 (1):25-39. Nettleford, R. “Cultural Resistance in Caribbean Society: Dance and Survival”. Inward Stretch, Outward Reach. Caribbean Diaspora Press, 1995. Philip, M.N. “Race, Space and the Poetics of Moving”. Caribbean Creolization: Reflections on the Cultural Dynamics of Language Literature and Identity. Eds. K. Balutansky and M. Sourieau. U of Florida, 1998. Rholerhr, G. “Caribbean Folk Culture: Fossil or Living Bone”. Massachusetts Review, 1994 35 (3-4): 383-394. Riggio, M. “Resistance and Identity: Carnival in Trinidad and Tobago”. The Drama Review. 1998. 42 (3): 7-23.

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