Energy Sector Initial Assessment

Energy Sector Initial Assessment
October 2012

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Cataloging-In-Publication Data Asian Development Bank. Myanmar: Energy sector initial assessment. Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Asian Development Bank, 2012. 1. Energy. 2. Power. 3. Myanmar. I. Asian Development Bank.

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Power Subsector H. Oil and Gas Subsector F. Renewable Energy G. Data Requirements B. Introduction B. Boxes. The Country Context C. Energy Efficiency I. and Maps Acknowledgments Weights and Measures Currency Equivalents Abbreviations I. Coal Subsector E.Contents List of Tables. Climate Change J. Figures. Energy Sector Initial Assessment: Context and Strategic Issues A. Areas of Possible Support for the Energy Sector Appendixes 1 Problem Tree 2 Coal 3 Oil and Gas 4 Renewable Energy 5 Power 6 The Government of Myanmar’s Plan for the Power Subsector iv vi vii vii viii 1 1 1 2 6 8 15 23 35 36 37 38 38 38 40 41 46 47 48 58 iii . Overview of the Energy Sector D. Potential International Involvement A. Environmental and Social Safeguard Requirements for Energy Projects II.

5 Summary of Yangon City Electric Supply Board’s Priority Projects for Yangon City.2 A2.3 A5. Figures.Tables.2 A5. 2012 Annual Total Generation and Maximum Demand Hydropower Potential by River Basin (Including Tributaries) Existing Transmission Lines.5 A5. 2012 Transmission Losses Existing Distribution Lines. 2013–2014 6 10 10 10 12 12 13 14 14 16 17 19 21 28 28 29 30 30 31 31 42 44 45 50 51 52 53 53 54 55 56 57 58 62 63 64 64 iv . 2012 Existing Generating Plants for Hydropower.1 A5.3 A6.2 A6. 2004–2011 Planned Micro-Hydropower Projects in Border Areas Predicted Supply of Fuelwood as Indicated in the National Forestry Master Plan Biogas Energy Projects in Myanmar Wind Energy Projects in Myanmar Installed and Available Generation. 2012 Distribution Losses Major Coal Deposits in Myanmar Chemical Analysis of Coal Deposits in Myanmar Coal Production and Consumption Installed and Available Generation.6 A5.9 A6.7 A5.4 Reserve Estimates of Coal in 2011 Future Recoverable Oil Reserves by Region Future Recoverable Gas Reserved by Region Reported Profile of Myanmar Petroleum Block Concession Natural Gas Export Amount of Royalty from Both Gas Fields Domestic Use of Natural Gas Refineries in Myanmar. April 2010–March 2011 Estimated Growth in Power Demand Potential Generation Investment Potential Transmission and Substation Investment Summary of Yangon City Electric Supply Board’s Proposed 2013–2016 Program for Yangon City A6.3 A5.4 A5. Boxes. 2011 Official Retail Prices of Major Petroleum Products. 2007-2011 Hydropower Projects Implemented by the Ministry as Sole Investment Power Projects Implemented by Local Entrepreneurs on Build-Operate-Transfer Basis Hydropower Projects to be Implemented by Foreign Direct Investments Coal-Fired Power Plant Projects to be Implemented by Foreign Direct Investments Electricity Consumption. 2011 Annual Energy Generation for Hydropower. April 2010–March 2011 Domestic Electricity Consumption.8 A5.1 A2. and Maps Tables 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 A2.1 A6.

Boxes.1 A5. 2000–2009 2 Myanmar’s Total Final Consumption by Source.Tables.2 Coal Basins of Myanmar Location Map of Oil and Gas Fields in Sedimentary Basins of Myanmar Location Map of Mini-Hydropower Stations Existing Transmission System Planned Transmission System 3 4 5 5 24 25 25 26 32 33 33 34 7 12 20 41 46 47 48 49 . Figures. and Maps v Figures 1 Myanmar’s Total Primary Energy Supply. 2000–2009 4 Organizational Chart of the Ministry of Energy 5 Organization and Function of Minstry of Electric Power 6. 2 9 Growth in Peak Load 10 Monthly Load (January–August 2011) 11 Load Shedding (January–August 2011) 12 Electrification and Unit Consumption Boxes 1 Production Coordination through the Coal Mining Group 2 Myanmar–People’s Republic of China Gas Pipeline Project 3 Jatropha Plantation Project for Biodiesel Production Maps A2 A3 A4 A5. 1 8 Organizational Chart of the Ministry of Electric Power No. Organizational Overview of the Whole Power Sector 7 Organizational Chart of the Ministry of Electric Power No. 2000–2009 3 Myanmar’s Total Consumption by Sector.

Ministry of Electric Power (power). climate change. Ministry of Industry (energy efficiency). Office of the Director General. and gas). Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation (biofuels and microhydropower for irrigation purposes). and Richard Bolt (advisor. SERD. and formatting the report. proofreading. Putu Kamayana (advisor. Staff support was provided by Christine Samaniego (senior operations assistant). vi . SERD). retired).Acknowledgments This report was prepared by a team led by Jong-Inn Kim (lead energy specialist. The team was encouraged and supervised by Anthony Jude (director. SERD). Southeast Asia Department [SERD]). Duy-Thanh Bui (senior energy economist. Guidance and support were provided by Kunio Senga (director general. The team also thanks David Husband (consultant) and colleagues from ADB’s Department of External Relations for their support in editing. Pradeep Tharakan (climate change specialist. Economics and Research Department). as well as the Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development. and Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry (fuelwood. SERD). and environmental safeguards requirements). oil. SERD). Ministry of Science Technology (renewable energy). SERD). Energy Division. The team was grateful to all the government officials from seven concerned ministries responsible for the energy sector activities—Ministry of Energy (overall energy policy. which met with the team during its visit to Myanmar and provided the team with necessary information and valuable advice. and Michael Breckon (consultant). Kee-Yung Nam (senior economist. Office of the Director General. SERD). Ministry of Mines (coal). and team members Edward Baardsen (principal infastructure specialist.

0012 MK851.00 = $1.00 = kyat (MK) $0.Weights and Measures bbl BCF BCM BOPD ft3 GWh ha Hz km km2 kV kVA kW kWh MCF MMbbl MMCFD MTOE MW MWh MVA TCF – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – barrel billion cubic feet billion cubic meter barrels of oil per day cubic feet gigawatt-hour hectare hertz kilometer square kilometer kilovolt kilovolt ampere kilowatt kilowatt-hour thousand cubic feet million barrel million cubic feet per day million tons of oil equivalent megawatt megawatt-hour million volt-ampere trillion cubic feet Currency Equivalents (as of 26 October 2012) Currency Unit = MK1.225 vii .

Abbreviations ADB AFOC ASEAN CNG CNPC DEP DHPI DHPP ESE GDP GMS HPGE IEA JVA LPG MEPE MES MIC MOAI MOE MOECAF MOEP MOF MOGE MOI MOM MOST MOU MPE MPPE MTU NCEA NEDO PRC PSC PTTEP UNFCCC YESB viii – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Asian Development Bank ASEAN Forum on Coal Association of Southeast Asian Nations compressed natural gas China National Petroleum Corporation Department of Electric Power Department of Hydropower Implementation Department of Hydropower Planning Electricity Supply Enterprise gross domestic product Greater Mekong Subregion Hydropower Generation Enterprise International Energy Agency joint venture agreement liquefied petroleum gas Myanmar Electric Power Enterprise Myanmar Engineering Society Myanmar Investment Commission Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation Ministry of Energy Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry Ministry of Electric Power Ministry of Forestry Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise Ministry of Industry Ministry of Mines Ministry of Science and Technology memorandum of understanding Myanmar Petrochemical Enterprise Myanmar Petroleum Products Enterprise Mandalay Technological University National Commission for Environmental Affairs New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization People’s Republic of China production sharing contract PTT Exploration and Production Public Company United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Yangon City Electricity Supply Board .

Introduction 1. The information and findings gathered during the mission served in drafting an initial assessment of the sector. involves much more than regional cooperation in electricity generation and supply via hydropower. SEEN. Myanmar shares borders with Bangladesh. As described in this initial assessment of the energy sector. Like most other development partners. Principal Infrastructure Specialist. However. India. Myanmar’s population 1 The mission comprised Jong-Inn Kim. the policy and regulatory framework. renewable and “green” energy. Subsequently. challenges and opportunities. the institutional structure. Lead Energy Specialist. 1 . and identifies—in a preliminary manner—possible areas of support by development partners. Myanmar’s energy sector. Myanmar’s extensive forest coverage is the primary source of energy for most households. This initial assessment of Myanmar’s energy sector highlights the government’s plans for addressing priority energy needs. EREA. intensive analysis must be conducted concerning capacity building requirements. and K. with a land area of 676. though. an ADB mission1 visited Myanmar from 20 through 30 September 2011.577 square kilometers (km2). Senior Energy Economist. SEEN. Nam. Senior Economist. it also has a 2. Edward Baardsen. energy efficiency. The Country Context 4. and linking the People’s Republic of China (PRC) to these markets. SEEN. the energy component of which has provided fragmented information on Myanmar’s power supply system and its generation and transmission plans. in addition to huge hydropower potential. and other issues. the assessment has been updated to reflect the findings of follow-up ADB missions and consultations with the government. Team Leader. Myanmar is a large country. B. the Lao People’s Democratic Republic. To more fully determine the current status and needs of the energy sector. ADB has maintained limited involvement with the government through the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) Program of Economic Cooperation. Myanmar has important petroleum and coal reserves. and Thailand. the PRC. the Asian Development Bank (ADB) has not extended loan or technical assistance to Myanmar since the late 1980s. Its strategic geographic location provides Myanmar the potential to become a land bridge between South and Southeast Asia.I Energy Sector Initial Assessment: Context and Strategic Issues A.800-kilometer (km) coastline along the eastern side of the Bay of Bengal. Y. In order to have a better understanding of Myanmar’s energy sector. The assessment will be periodically revised based on new information and reflecting the evolving development partnership with Myanmar. Duy-Thanh Bui. 3. 2.

101 MW. . The economy is predominantly agriculturally based. In contrast. Asian Development Outlook 2012: Confronting Rising Inequality in Asia. Myanmar is one of the five major energy exporters in the region. and Sittaung. Offshore gas is the country’s most important source of export revenues. 6. Consequently. The hydropower potential of the country’s rivers. particularly of natural gas. the economy had reportedly been growing at more than 10% annually. to 26%. The agriculture sector accounts for about 36% of GDP. ADB.2 Myanmar: Energy Sector Initial Assessment is approximately 60 million. 2012. with rice being the main crop and staple food. Myanmar was ranked among the poorest countries (161 out of 180) by the International Monetary Fund and its ranking on the United Nations Human Development Index is also near the bottom of the list (149 of 187 countries).000 megawatts (MW).5% in FY2011 (ended 31 March 2012) and by an average of 4. This opens the possibility of extensive international assistance for Myanmar’s energy sector. Despite economic sanctions since the late 1980s. which drain the four main basins of Ayeyarwaddy. 7. is estimated to be more than 100. Liberalization of the economy and opening up to foreign direct investment has prompted rapid growth of the industrial sector.8 trillion cubic feet (tcf) with huge potential for discovery. Although employment data are unavailable. During nearly 3 decades. currently supplying Thailand with a new gas pipeline planned to the PRC. Among the economic reforms. especially those concerning democratic representation. as the mineral and gas sectors are capital rather than labor intensive. Some 26% of the population lives in poverty. the economic sanctions are now being lifted or at least eased. notably exports of natural gas. 5. at about $715. down from 57% in 2001. including from the ADB and the World Bank. as does unification of the former multiple exchange rate system. particularly hydropower and natural gas. The new government that took office in March 2011 has introduced sweeping reforms to both the political process and the economic system. The imposition by many countries of deep economic sanctions in the late 1980s. The government is in the process of formulating a new national development plan. in response to Myanmar’s suspension of democratic liberties. C. including in partnership with the private sector. Thanlwin.6 billion in foreign direct investment is in the oil and gas sector (as of September 2011). Chindwin. it appears that the agriculture sector still accounts for about 70% of total employment. the share of GDP accounted for by the industrial sector more than doubled. In response to the reforms.9% over the previous 3 years.2 with more than 70% living in rural areas. clearly hampered development. Myanmar has identified 92 potential large hydropower projects with a total installed capacity of 46. A parallel increase in employment generation in the industrial sector is unlikely. Myanmar has abundant energy resources. development of Myanmar’s energy sector has lagged greatly behind its potential. Myanmar lost most access to international investment and assistance. Myanmar’s economy has maintained relatively steady growth—by an estimated 5. 2 3 There has not been a census for the past 2 decades.3 Prior to the devastation wrought by Cyclone Nargis in 2008. a new Land Law and Foreign Investment Law address issues fundamental to development. Overview of the Energy Sector 9. Investment in the energy sector is expected to be an important driver of the economy. A third of the country’s $13. Manila. 8. Proven gas reserves total 11. Per capita gross domestic product (GDP) is one of the lowest in Southeast Asia. hence the population estimate is only approximate.

1% average annual increase from 2000 to 2009) and gas production (9. Figure 1 18 16 million tons of oil equivalent 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 2000 2001 Myanmar’s Total Primary Energy Supply.8%) and transport. necessitating reliance on the International Energy Agency (IEA)4 and other secondary sources. this is the largest consumer of energy—mainly in the form of biomass (fuelwood and charcoal). Myanmar is an extreme example of “energy poverty. oil.1 MTOE to 13. In 2009 (IEA’s latest estimates for Myanmar) the country’s total primary energy supply was about 15. reflecting poverty-level per capita incomes and an electrification rate of only 26%—and much less than this in most rural areas.3 MTOE) from oil.4% annually. had a negative annual average growth (–1. gas. Energy consumption by the commercial sector is increased by 5.7 MTOE.9% and 2.1 million tons of oil equivalent (MTOE).2% (2. 12. These shares are changing. Myanmar’s energy exports in 2009 were the equivalent of 7.7 MTOE) from natural gas and 8.8 MTOE. respectively) of total energy supply.2% annually). followed by the industrial sector (4. Overall final energy consumption in Myanmar increased between 2000 and 2009 by an average of 2.7% annually). Government energy-related data are limited. hydropower production increased more slowly (9. Some two-thirds (69.” Lacking electricity. Coal and hydropower accounted for only small shares (0. from 11. or more than half of total energy supply. Final energy consumption. Investment in hydropower and coal-powered plants.3% annually but. hydropower. reflecting the rapid expansion of coal production (an 15. 11. Further.9% or 10. 4 All 2009 energy data are based on the International Energy Agency’s Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries 2011. leading to acute respiratory diseases and high mortality/morbidity rates.5 MTOE) of Myanmar’s energy supply was from biomass. evidence of a highly dynamic sector. lacking electricity. Per capita energy consumption of electricity in Myanmar is next to Nepal in being among the lowest in Asia.Energy Sector Initial Assessment: Context and Strategic Issues 3 10. The country’s primary energy supply includes coal.5% (1. As documented by the IEA in its World Energy Outlook 2012. gas fields. nonetheless.4% annually. 2000–2009 (million tons of oil equivalent) 2002 Biomass 2003 Gas 2004 2005 Coal 2006 2007 2008 Oil 2009 Hydropower Source: International Energy Agency.9%). Figure 1 shows the total primary energy supply of Myanmar from 2000 to 2009. households rely on burning firewood and animal dung in poorly ventilated dwellings. and biomass. and oil and gas pipelines is gaining rapidly. . economic development is stymied and achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals severely hampered. however.4%. Residential consumption increased only by 1. Primary energy supply. followed by 18.

The hydropower potential of Myanmar’s four main rivers (Ayeyarwaddy. which increased on average by an estimated 15. and 206. According to the World Energy Council. energy consumption of which grew by almost 15% annually.000 megawatts (MW).7 TCF of natural gas (428 TCF onshore and 19. and (iv) promoting household use of alternative fuels. Policy framework and institutional structure.9 million barrels (MMbbl) of oil (106 MMbbl onshore and 100. respectively. oil. 14.3%. Four main goals form the basis of Myanmar’s energy policy framework: (i) maintaining energy independence. (iii) promoting energy efficiency and conservation. Energy consumption from electricity and biomass sources increased by average annual rates of approximately 4% and 1. Thanlwin and Sittaung) is estimated at 100. However.7 TCF offshore). Energy consumption by fuel type is shifting in favor of natural gas. Figure 2 16 14 million tons of oil equivalent 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 2000 Myanmar’s Total Final Consumption by Source. 2000–2009 (million tons of oil equivalent) 2001 2002 Biomass 2003 Gas 2004 2005 Coal 2006 2007 2008 Oil 2009 Electricity Source: International Energy Agency. 5 The large Myitsone hydropower project has been suspended due to environmental concerns. (ii) expanding the capacity of existing liquefied petroleum gas plants and implementing new liquefied natural and petroleum gas production projects. including: (i) inviting foreign technical expertise and foreign investment for participation in its hydropower. Figures 2 and 3 show the final consumption by source and sector in 2000–2009.4 Myanmar: Energy Sector Initial Assessment 13. 15.5 Myanmar is undertaking ventures to exploit these energy resources. (ii) promoting the wider use of new and renewable sources of energy.1% annually during 2000–2009. Seven ministries in Myanmar are responsible for energy matters. . This was followed by coal. compared to over 80% in 2000). less than 10% of which has been harnessed. with the Ministry of Energy (MOE) as the focal point for overall energy policy and coordination. Chindwin. 447. both as a basis for accelerated overall economic development and for direct social benefit to residents—especially through greater electricity supply to rural areas. biomass continued to be the main source for energy consumption (accounting for almost 73% in 2009. Despite its slow increase. and (iii) substituting the use of liquid fuel in the transport sector with compressed natural gas. and gas subsectors. Energy resources.9 MMbbl offshore). in 2007. to more fully tap the huge potential of Myanmar’s energy sector will require strategic approaches. Myanmar had coal resources estimated at around 2 million tons.

(iii) Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation (MOAI): biofuels and micro-hydro for irrigation purposes. and a methanol plant Myanmar Petroleum Products Enterprise (MPPE) Marketing and distribution of petroleum products 6 In September 2012. . Ministry of Electric Power No. The other six ministries together with their responsibilities are shown below: (i) Ministry of Electric Power. Industry Commercial The organizational chart of MOE is shown in Figure 4. 2000–2009 (million tons of oil equivalent) 16 14 million tons of oil equivalent 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 Residential 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Transport 2009 Electricity Source: International Energy Agency. 1 (hydropower and coal power generation) and Ministry of Electric Power No. Figure 4 Organizational Chart of the Ministry of Energy Energy Planning Department Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE) Exploration and production of crude oil and natural gas Transportation of crude oil and natural gas Source: Ministry of Energy. 2 (power transmission and distribution. 5 urea fertilizer plants.6 (ii) Ministry of Mines (MOM): coal.Energy Sector Initial Assessment: Context and Strategic Issues 5 Figure 3 Myanmar’s Total Consumption by Sector. mini-hydro) were merged. 3 liquefied petroleum gas plants. (iv) Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST): renewable energy. Myanmar Petrochemical Enterprise (MPE) Operations of 3 refineries. gas-fired generation.

1 and A2. Coal Production and Use 19. Magwe Division. however.3 488. with approximately 4. the production and use of coal is expected to rise significantly. According to the 30-year plan . during the period of the State Peace and Development Council. although many of them are of minor importance. The main discoveries to date have been in the Sagaing Division. including in Shan State (Appendix 2. with the reserve potential estimated for some 200 of the deposits. Future plans for coal production. Overall energy planning by MOE is limited. From 1988 up to January 2009. the government is considering a zero import tax in the event that imports are necessary. Coal production. 527 thousand tons of coal was produced. climate change. Systematic exploration for coal deposits has been carried out in various parts of the country since 1965. Figure A2).3). Problems. Most of Myanmar’s coal resources were formed during the Tertiary period and are the most valuable type in terms of quality (lignite to sub-bituminous). Considering the vast untapped coal resources throughout Myanmar.6 Myanmar: Energy Sector Initial Assessment (v) Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry (MOECAF): fuelwood. during the period of the Parliamentary Democracy. Tables A2.2) have estimated reserves totaling some 488. environmental safeguard requirements.4 113. 18. Table A2.6 228.7 million tons in various categories (Table 1).5 million tons exported to Thailand from 1992 to 2009 and a smaller amount exported to the People’s Republic of China (PRC) during this same period. 2.7 Source: Ministry of Mines. While to date there has been no importation of coal. D. and deficient sector outputs in the energy sector are summarized in Appendix 1.323 thousand tons of coal was produced (Appendix 2. Only 1% of this estimated potential. The most notable occurrences appear to be in the Ayeyarwaddy and Chindwin river basins. Table 1 Reserves Positive reserve Probable reserve Possible reserve Potential reserve Total Reserve Estimates of Coal in 2011 Estimate (in million tons) 4. From 1949 to 1988. Coal found in Shan State tends to be of lower quality (sub-bituminous). main cause. Over the past 2 decades there have been limited exports of coal. The 33 major coal deposits (Appendix 2.4 142. Tanintharyi Division. and Shan State. as well as in the southern part of Myanmar and the intra-mountain basins. 21. Forecasts of long-term energy demand and supply by energy source are not available. has been confirmed. 20. Coal Subsector 1. Some 400 coal occurrences have been identified in Myanmar. and (vi) Ministry of Industry (MOI): energy efficiency. Coal Reserves 17. 8. 16.

Energy Sector Initial Assessment: Context and Strategic Issues 7 Box 1 Production Coordination through the Coal Mining Group In May 2010. Domestic use of coal. by which 100% of investment is borne privately and profits are shared between the two parties. To help meet the growing demand for electricity. and exploration of minerals. and the Max Myanmar Group) are in production while the remaining eight companies are still at the development stage.654 thousand tons by FY2031. Domestic coal prices are set by the market and vary from about 7. Southern Shan State. Five mining companies (Htun Thwin Mining. depending on the calorific value. The exploration permits are issued to private companies in accordance with the Myanmar Mines Law. a 5% commercial tax. 1994. Infrastructure in the region is poor and one of the objectives of the group is to construct an approach road on a cost-sharing basis. The Department of Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration is responsible for mapping. and (iii) a 6 MW plant in Tanintharyi Division. Japan has provided new technology to the plant. and dimension stones from granite and marble deposits as well. a total of 693 thousand tons of coal was used domestically: 290 thousand tons (42%) for electric power generation. (ii) a 600 MW plant in Kalewa. The Myanmar Mines Rules. 3 Mining Enterprise is responsible for the production of coal. and coordinating the mining sector. The average PSC provides 30% of profits for the government and 70% for the private contractor.000 kyats per ton in Shan State and about 40. enabling it to use lignite coal more efficiently. The ministry has two main departments and six state enterprises. (ii) thermal power plants. has a capacity of 120 megawatts (MW). 22. Output is targeted at 5 million tons of coal by 2030. The state-owned No. In FY2011. granting exploration permits. The large coal-fired power plant in Tigyit. prospecting. The Department of Mines is responsible for formulating mining policy. Myanmar is planning to construct and operate the following coal-fired power plants: (i) a 270 MW plant in Yangon. operated by the Ministry of Electric Power (MOEP). 362 thousand tons (52%) for cement and other industrial uses.761 thousand tons by FY2016 and 5.7 It relies on a production sharing contract (PSC) system with private companies.8 Following privatization of the Kalewa mine in Sagaing Division and Namma mine in Northern Shan State. Institutional Arrangements 25.000 kyats in Kalewa Region. coal production is scheduled to increase by 16% annually. industrial materials. 3. reaching 2. state enterprises no longer are involved in 7 Besides coal. Coal production in the region will be used to supply: (i) cement manufacturing plants. adopted at the end of 1996. Yangon City Development Committee. 26. prepared in FY2007. and a 2% income tax. and 41 thousand tons (4%) for household (cooking and heating) and other uses. 24. including coal. The Ministry of Mines is responsible for overall mining policy and development. the Coal Mining Group of 13 companies was formed to integrate the development of coal mines in the Sagaing Region in a more efficient and profitable manner. fully owned and operated by the private sector. 3 Mining Enterprise is responsible for the production of iron and steel. The Ministry of Mines issued integrated permits to the group based on the proven coal deposits. Besides the PSC. No. Source: Ministry of Mines. Geo Asia Industry and Mining. 8 . It is expected that the production of coal will significantly increase after all development work is completed. sets out the compliance measures for coal mine safety and the prevention of accidents. there is a 3% royalty levy. 23. and (iii) the China Nonferrous Metal Mining for ferro nickel production.000 to 25. Myanmar Economics Corporation. which stretched more than 50 miles.

In 2000.8 million barrels in 1965 to 9. (ii) cooperation with other ASEAN member states for the efficient use of coal. these objectives call for the following actions: (i) replacing firewood with coal briquettes to prevent deforestation. In turn. A. Myanmar. 2011. (ii) cooperate with ASEAN member states for the development of coal-based industry and downstream technology. Burma in the Balance: The Geopolitics of Gas.45 BCM) and second only to Indonesia (9. MOM has a number of policy objectives. to replace wood-based charcoal so as to mitigate deforestation. and (iv) to undertake environmental impact assessments of coal projects. two additional entities of MOM were established: the Myanmar Petrochemical Enterprise (MPE). BP Statistical Review of World Energy. Myanmar. During the 1960s and 1970s. Myanmar’s hydrocarbon reserves are predominately in the form of natural gas. 27. Regional cooperation. its position is much more significant regionally. increasing from 3. Strategic Analysis. 31(4). 31. The Ninth AFOC Council Meeting was held in August 2011 in Nay Pyi Taw. oil production remained modest. significantly more than Malaysia (1. London.81 billion cubic meters (BCM) of natural gas in 2010. and (iii) cooperating with ASEAN member states on using clean coal technology for power generation. and the directors general from other relevant ministries. (iii) to standardize chemical analysis and quality control. As of late 2011.6 million barrels in 1978. develop. The government is playing a lead role in obtaining clean coal technologies and transferring these to private companies. and produce petroleum. reserves of which are estimated to be 11. which operates refineries and processing plants. Until 1989. (ii) increased coal production and consumption and share of total energy output. E.9 chaired by the Deputy Minister for Mines and with the Director General of the Department of Mines as the secretary. Myanma Oil Corporation was created in March 1970 under MOM and renamed in 1985 as Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE). owing to technical limitations and the government’s reluctance to accept the participation of foreign firms. MOGE had exclusive rights to explore. the Managing Director of the No. Oil and Gas Subsector 1. 43 coal production licenses had been issued to 32 locally based private companies.8 trillion cubic feet. 3 Mining Enterprise. however. (ii) facilitating the exchange of technology for making coal briquettes.10 While this ranks Myanmar in 34th position globally. is a net importer of oil. Myanmar exported 8. Subsequently.11 9 The objectives of AFOC are to (i) effectively use and maintain coal-fired power plants. Historical Development 29.8 Myanmar: Energy Sector Initial Assessment coal production. in accordance with the Environmental Law. 2007. both onshore and offshore. In the early 1980s. Kolas. and the Myanmar Petroleum Products Enterprise (MPPE). 30. (iii) control of pollution caused by coal. however. Myanmar formed the National Committee for AFOC. including: (i) improved data on the production and use of coal. and (iii) promoting coal-based industries and coal trade within ASEAN. 10 11 .89 BCM). (iv) lead responsibility for international cooperation on coal. oil production declined. The oil and gas industry was nationalized in January 1963 and referred to as the People’s Oil Industry. Other members are the Director General of the Department of Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration. 28. The committee’s role includes: (i) cooperating with ASEAN member states for the development of coal resources. and (v) implementing Myanmar’s role under the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Plan of Action for Energy Cooperation and the ASEAN Forum on Coal (AFOC). which handles the distribution of petroleum products.

34. Daewoo International Corporation announced the discovery of the Shwe field. Gas and Power Summits held in March and September 2012 provided the forum for another round of bidding for deep and shallow water blocks and onshore blocks. testifying to the highly appealing investment opportunities in Myanmar. Myanmar Petroleum Resources. More than 150 companies from some 30 countries attended the summits. China National Offshore Oil Corporation. were discovered in the 1990s in the Gulf of Moattama. Likewise. at a rate of about 755 million cubic feet per day (MMCFD) from the Yadana field and 424 MMCFD from the Yetagun field. Hukaung. In 2012. PTTEP plans to build a pipeline to Thailand that would carry natural gas at the rate of 250 MMCFD. the national oil company of Thailand.Energy Sector Initial Assessment: Context and Strategic Issues 9 32.200 MMCFD. Yunnan Province.16 TCF). Production from the Shwe field is expected to commence in 2013. Six of the other onshore basins have been explored to some extent while five have yet to be explored at all. only three of which have been thoroughly explored. and Bago Yoma basins have been lightly explored. only three of which have been thoroughly explored: Central Myanmar. 2. and Ayeyarwaddy Delta basins. PTT Exploration and Production Public Company (PTTEP). These include the Zawtika. Kokona. According to the Myanmar Investment Commission (MIC). 35. Oil and Gas Reserves 36.7 TCF) and Yetagun (3. With the promulgation of the Foreign Investment Law of November 1988. Offshore gas discoveries have been significant. Gawthika. Mottama. Daewoo. Shwebo-Monywa. The two fields have been supplying natural gas to Thailand since 2000. through an overland pipeline from Myanmar to Kunming. has made a number of significant discoveries in blocks M-9 and M-7 in the Gulf of Martaban (near the Yetagun gas field). Figure A3). Petronas Carigali. Onshore gas discoveries have also been significant. were operating or developing nine onshore blocks. Recent estimates indicate approximately 10 TCF of recoverable gas if the nearby gas fields of Mya and Shwe Phyu. Kalaw. off the coast of Sittwe. Sinopec International Petroleum. PTTEP. the State Law and Order Restoration Council invited foreign bids for offshore exploration rights in 18 concession blocks—13 in the Gulf of Martaban and 5 off the coast of Arakan State. Sittaung Valley. fourteen onshore basins have been identified. Pyay Embayment. Shweypyihtay. joint ventures and production sharing in the oil and gas subsector began. with estimated gas reserves of about 5 TCF. with a possible expansion to 1. and North Petro-Chem. with estimated cumulative reserves as much as 8 TCF (but possibly significantly less than this). totaling $13. Since 1990. for export to the PRC. the first foreign companies to buy offshore natural gas concessions were Premier Oil (UK) and Total (France). and Zatila discoveries. 12 Chindwin and Rakhine coastal basins have been explored to some extent. Five basins have yet to be explored. Natural gas is Myanmar’s most important source of export earnings and the oil and gas subsector accounts for a third of total foreign direct investment in Myanmar. . and Mawlamyine/Mepale. 33. In 2004. Two major offshore gas fields. Goldpetrol. Seventeen geological sedimentary offshore basins have been identified (Appendix 3. The future recoverable oil and gas reserves are shown in Tables 2 and 3. In the early 1990s. Nobel Oil. Essar. and Tanintharyi basins. all offshore: Rakhine. a total of 60 investment projects had been approved for the oil and gas subsector. PRC. and China National Offshore Oil Corporation have signed 20 offshore production sharing contracts and are currently exploring and/or developing 21 blocks.12 37. The Myanmar Oil. seven companies. Yadana (5.2 billion. The pipeline will have capacity of about 500 MMCFD. Starting in 1990. as of September 2011. namely. The pipeline could parallel the gas pipeline from the Yetagun and Yadana fields. Namyau. Total. Hsipaw-Lashio.

As of August 2011.400 11. 105 30 (onshore) 28 (offshore) 7 (onshore) 10 (onshore) 75 . Proposals from interested investors were submitted in November 2011 and subsequently evaluated. Future Recoverable Gas Reserves by Region (as of September 2011) Proven 394 11. In Myanmar. A profile of these concessions is shown in Table 4.160 Total 4.549 Total 5. Concessions set the terms for exploration and development activity within geographic blocks determined by the MOE. Future Recoverable Oil Reserves by Region (as of September 2011) Proven 102 57 160 Probable 355 – 355 Possible 4.449 47. 41 separate concessions were active. and (iii) Reactivation of Suspended Fields. As of August 2011.712 Possible 4. For example. Bidding on 18 onshore blocks was announced in July 2011.682 13.674 Table 3 Region Onshore Offshore Total Source: Ministry of Energy.055 3. As noted earlier. Gas.606 41. 39. bidding on additional offshore and onshore blocks occurred following the Myanmar Oil. the PSC for the Yadana Project sets terms for the extraction and sale of natural gas from blocks M-5 and M-6.617 57 4. concessions include (i) Exploration and Production and PSCs. covering exploration and production activity in 75 blocks. 105 blocks were demarcated.160 – 4. Oil and Gas Field Exploration 38.794 Probable 530 16. A concession may apply across a number of blocks. Source: Ministry of Energy.867 18. (ii) Improved Oil Recovery and Performance Compensation Contracts.182 16.10 Myanmar: Energy Sector Initial Assessment Table 2 Region Onshore Offshore Total – = unknown. and Power Summits in March and September 2012. Table 4 Item Petroleum block Reported Profile of Myanmar Petroleum Block Concession as of August 2011 Number of Blocks 53 (onshore) 26 (offshore—shallow water) 26 (offshore—deep water) Total Concession Type Production Sharing Contract and Exploration & Production Production Sharing Contract Improved Oil Recovery/Production Compensated Contract Reactivation of Suspended Fields Total Source: Ministry of Energy.

with an expected field life of 30 years. The Yadana field has estimated gas reserves of more than 5. off the coast of Sittwe. The Yadana project was developed by a consortium composed of Total (31%). the Yadana pipeline connects with a pipeline built by Thailand. 43. Key offshore gas field production: Yetagun. in partnership with MOGE (20%).7 TCF. a total of 365. and Gas Authority of India. which carries the gas to its destination near Bangkok. In 2004. Gas production in FY2011 averaged about 1. Nippon Oil (19%). The gas is transported via a 210-km subsea pipeline and a 67-km onshore pipeline to Thailand.573 bbl/day. Gas production from the field will be exported to the PRC.56  TCF or more. Myanmar’s onshore oil production is estimated to have reached 7. PTTEP of Thailand (26%). and PTTEP (19%). Limited (GAIL) (10%). Daewoo International partnered with MOGE to explore and develop offshore natural gas deposits in the Bay of Bengal off the coast of Arakan. 5. or 162 BCM. Unocal (28%). as described in Box 2. Most oil production is from fields located in the Salin sub-basin.7 BCF of gas was exported from the Yadana and Yetagun fields. In 2011. It is operated by Total and started production in 1998.700 bbl/day. In September 2011. in FY2011 gas production from the Yadana field reached 282 billion cubic feet (BCF) while that for the Yetagun field reached 164 BCF. There is no offshore oil production. Test drilling in blocks A-1 and A-3 has indicated gas reserves of 3. The Yetagun field. Natural gas production. 41. Key offshore gas field production: A-1 and A-3 Shwe. In terms of annual output. domestic gas delivery from the Yadana field was 174 MMCFD. The MOGE-operated onshore fields of Nyaungdon and Shwepyitha accounted for the residual condensate production. In August 2000. Crude oil production. Korean Gas Corporation (10%). Production from Yetagun started in 2000. the field produced 11. in order to meet the country’s growing demand for oil. The trend of gas export from both fields is in Table 5 and the amount of royalty is in Table 6. Following the withdrawal of Texaco in 1997 and Premier Oil in 2002.232 MMCFD.562 barrels per day (bbl/day) in September 2011. and MOGE (15%). the remainder was from the MOGE-operated onshore fields. accounts for about 90% of Myanmar’s total condensate production. located south of the Yadana field. Myanmar is hoping to increase oil production to 10. the only offshore condensate source. At the border. Key offshore gas field production: Yadana. . Gas from Yadana is transported via a 346-kilometer subsea pipeline and a 63-km onshore pipeline to the border with Thailand at Ban I Thong. more than 90% was from the offshore Yadana (57%) and Yetagun (34%) fields. Partners in the project are Daewoo International (60%). providing fuel to the Ratchaburi and Wang Noi power plants. the British oil company Premier Oil (30%).Energy Sector Initial Assessment: Context and Strategic Issues 11 4. Condensate production. Gas from the Yadana field covers an estimated 15%–20% of Thailand’s demand for natural gas. The Sein field. and Nippon Oil (20%). is estimated to have recoverable reserves of 200 BCF. The Yetagun field has estimated reserves of 3. 45. of which 59% was from the Yanada field and 41% from the Yetagun field.000 bbl/day. and was initially developed by a joint venture of Texaco (50%). 42. Yetagun has been operated by Petronas. which produced about 1. Oil and Gas Production 40. Daewoo International announced the discovery of the Shwe field.16 TCF. India’s Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (20%). led by MPRL’s Mann field. In September 2011. Of total gas production. 44. the capital of Arakan State. Export of Gas 46.

and includes a provision whereby the gas price will be reviewed quarterly to reflect global trends. with first gas production also scheduled for 2013. CNPC. Amount of Royalty from Both Gas Fields Yadana 47 64 75 94 83 Yetagon 76 87 103 109 97 Total ($ million) 123 152 178 203 180 . An Export Gas Sale and Purchase Agreement was signed in December 2008. Source: Ministry of Energy. GAIL India. Table 5 Year 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Source: Ministry of Energy. Daewoo.12 Myanmar: Energy Sector Initial Assessment Box 2 Myanmar–People’s Republic of China Gas Pipeline Project In June 2008. Daewoo commenced development of the gas fields. The contract is valid for a 30-year period and is indexed to the inflation rate in the United States. and MOGE. to be constructed by Daewoo. the China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with the Government of Myanmar and a Daewoo-led consortium on the sale and transport of natural gas from the offshore blocks A-1 and A-3. and Mya fields on Block A-1 and Block A-3 in the Rakhine Basin. Concurrently. Following signing of the MOU.73 per million British thermal units (MMBtu). consisting of Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Videsh. it is expected that the above fields will produce a total of 500 MMCFD. Gas from the fields will be sold to the People’s Republic of China (PRC) at a rate of about $7. Shwe Phyu. Daewoo. inclusive of a tariff of $1. targeting 2013 for the start of on-stream production. CNPC. Natural Gas Export (billion cubic feet) Yadana 192 192 190 193 191 237 242 198 223 215 Yetagun 756 92 92 109 142 153 158 130 151 151 Total 268 284 283 302 333 390 400 328 374 366 Table 6 Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source: Ministry of Energy. Upon landfall. The consortium planned to spend a further $936 million to lay an undersea pipeline to transport the gas to shore. 400 MMCFD will be transported to the PRC and 100 MMCFD kept for domestic use. another consortium of block partners.8 billion to develop the fields. and the Korean Gas Corporation. offshore of northern Myanmar.200 million cubic feet per day (MMCFD.02 per million British thermal units.) In combination. with a capacity of up to 1. were reportedly planning to invest approximately $2. the gas will be transported from Myanmar to the PRC’s southwest province via an 870-kilometer 40-inch pipeline. and Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE) have agreed on a gas price for Daewoo’s Shwe.

335 4. New Yadana–Yangon pipeline.040 Others 3.664 7.Energy Sector Initial Assessment: Context and Strategic Issues 13 6.746 3. .274 63.590 6.006 6.7 MMbbl of gasoline.139 5. In 1986. and 454 MMbbl of furnace oil.231 7. Table 7 Fiscal Year 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Source: Ministry of Energy.375 51.1 MMbbl: 3. and 2 in Chauk field). Between 1986 and 2011. 50 CNG refueling stations were established (42 in Yangon.332 2.796 2. the Myanmar Petroleum Enterprise is currently operating three refineries (Table 8) with a total processing capacity of 51. in Blocks M-5/M-6. total domestic demand for petroleum products was 8.383 4.570 2. In order to meet the demand for petroleum products. In FY2011.517 2. It is planned to extend the natural gas pipeline network and to replace small diameter pipelines with larger diameter pipes.156 3. About 2. 49. It delivers gas to the gas distribution station of Ywama.296 4. 7.775 miles of gas pipeline were constructed onshore and 431 miles offshore. Construction of the new pipeline was fast-tracked. 11 MMbbl of kerosene.770 Total 39.124 2. as noted earlier. Table 7 shows domestic use of gas from FY2002 through FY2011.462 4.149 2.424 Power Generation 30.813 6.695 43. Further.588 6. as the government had pledged to deliver 200 MMCFD by 2010 to supply Myanmar’s power plants.045 53.617 2.805 55. MOGE completed a new gas pipeline connecting the Total-operated Yadana gas field.832 3. Compressed natural gas and natural gas vehicle program. to Yangon. A new refinery will be built near Mandalay.188 9. and will help ease power shortages in Yangon due to leakage from an old gas pipeline. Domestic Use of Gas 47. 52.4 MMbbl of diesel. However.570 Transport 68 60 70 137 1.572 8. The use of natural gas in vehicles is in compliance with the Gas Control Safety Law (based on Japanese Industrial Standards).699 6.957 38. the government initiated the compressed natural gas (CNG) and natural gas vehicle program.676 6.574 3.086 39.446 45. in Yangon’s Insein Township.907 61. fertilizer production (12%).617 5. Petroleum Products 51. Currently. Moattama Basin.157 60. The refineries use a blend of domestic crude oil from onshore fields (heavy sweet crude oil) and condensates from the Yetagun offshore gas field. In June 2010. 3.000 buses and cars were converted to natural gas. Domestic gas demand in 2011 was about 60 BCF.837 5.689 38. and compressed natural gas (10%).183 33. 2 in Mandalay.747 25.882 2.027 2. so as to expand the use of domesticallyproduced natural gas and respond to climate change concerns.872 41.547 35. more than 27.057 41. 598 MMbbl of auto turbine fuel.356 4.400 44.440 3.000 barrels of oil per day (BOPD). 50. 4 in Yenangyaung field.226 Industry (fertilizer) 3. Domestic Use of Natural Gas (million cubic feet) Domestic 2.970 54. domestic gas consumption is primarily for 10 gas-fired power plants (60%). most of the gas produced from Yadana is exported to Thailand.818 48.

Highly refined petroleum products (e. depending on the availability of natural gas.6 35. the price for motor gasoline and jet fuel was increased from 330 kyats/liter to 549. 2011 Refine Capacity 400.3 2007–2010 549. Official retail prices of major petroleum products are shown in Table 9. 2004–2011 (in kyats/liter) 2004 39.000 BOPD = barrel of oil per stream day. again on a 95% to 5% basis.9 kyats/liter. in August 2007.9 659. a supply contract was signed by the Myanmar Petrochemical Enterprise (MPE) and Angelique of India. 55.6 3. In response to the upsurge of global oil prices and to contain demand. a a coker plant of 5.3 kyats/liter. 54.3 Source: Ministry of Energy. while the price for diesel was increased from 330 kyats/ liter to 659.000 BOPD) 300.000 6. aviation fuel) are imported. . mainly from Singapore. equivalent to 131 kyats/liter. both are highly subsidized.000 gallons (11.429 BOPD) 70. Commissioning of the renovated refinery is scheduled for August 2013. at 2.6 3. 53. There are five urea fertilizer factories in Myanmar with a total capacity of over 2. with financial assistance of $20 million from the Indian government. the price of LPG is 5. again with financial assistance from the Indian government.000 gallons (8. Biodiesel is also blended with diesel.5 MW new power plant.0 330. The retail price of furnace oil and kerosene was unchanged.. Currently. There are three liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) plants with a total capacity of 42–50 MMCFD. 1 2 3 Refinery Thanlyin Refinerya Chauk Refinery Thanbayakan Refinery Refineries in Myanmar. 56. Most of the renovation works have been completed. To upgrade the Thanlyin refinery. Price of petroleum products.000 BOPD to process crude oil from the Myanmar–PRC oil pipeline. a contract has been signed between MPE and Novatech Process Equipment for upgrading the Mann-Thanbayakan Refinery. LPG is used for cooking purposes. Table 9 Item Gasoline Diesel Fuel Furnace Oil Kerosene Official Retail Prices of Major Petroleum Products.000 gallons (2.3 2005–2006 330. c unit 2.14 Myanmar: Energy Sector Initial Assessment Table 8 Serial No.6 kyats/liter and 3.g.0 2.9 kyats/liter. ranging from 33% to 57%. The refineries are old and the operation percentage is low.000 metric tons per day. respectively. b unit 1.571 BOPD) % of Design Capacity 57 33 34 Year of Commissioning 1963b 1980c 1954 1982 Design Capacity (BOPD) 20.3 2011 549. with the exception of a 4.9 2.6 3.9 2.764 kyats/25-kilogram bottle.300 BOPD was added in 1986.000 25.6 3.9 659.2 2. Also. Source: Ministry of Energy. the government sharply increased some petroleum retail prices. with a capacity of 20. scheduled for completion in 2014. Gashol is a blend of gasoline (95%) and bioethanol (5%) made from sugarcane.

CNPC has also commenced construction of the Chinese sections of the two oil and natural gas pipelines that will link Southwestern China to Myanmar.2-million-metric-ton tank for diesel fuel and 1. The government allows the importation and construction of storage tanks by the private sector and 19 companies are doing so. and by converting (as described earlier) gasoline. but also potential for wind. is in charge of the design. the price of gasoline was 922. Myanmar has abundant renewable energy resources. Among these resources. given the reduced cost and time of importing oil from Myanmar in this manner rather than by oil tanker through the Strait of Malacca.2 kyats/liter and the price of diesel was 877. The government now allows private companies to import petroleum products. and maintenance of the pipeline. The PRC has interest in constructing a crude oil pipeline through Sittwe. the price of motor gasoline and high speed diesel is also heavily subsidized. The company has also begun construction of a refinery near Kunming.9% stake in the Myanmar section of the project with the remaining stake held by MOGE. the refinery is expected to be fully operational in 2013. 61. operation. CNPC has also signed an agreement with Yunnan Province to cooperate in oil refining.3-million-metric-ton tank for gasoline. Licenses for the construction of petroleum storage are still issued by the Ministry of Mines. 62. Max Myanmar will also build a 5. respectively. including regulations concerning the import and distribution of gasoline and diesel. E-lite will build a 2-million-metric-ton tank for diesel fuel and a 2-million-metric-ton of tank for gasoline.Energy Sector Initial Assessment: Context and Strategic Issues 15 57.000 bbl/day (up to 400. The planned 244. The construction of the Kyaukphyu deep-sea port started in late 2009 was the first step of the project. In a step towards a more market-based economy. in part to intensify the effort to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.700 km to the Guizhou and Chongqing provinces in the PRC. Clean fuel program. Southeast Asia Crude Oil Pipeline.000 bbl/day refinery will process crude imported from Myanmar. The 200. The government continues to be an active participant in the distribution of gasoline and diesel—including through ownership of 12 fueling stations. The oil pipeline will have a total length of 2. 16 . CNPC began constructing the Myanmar section of the pipeline. most petrol stations formally run by the Myanmar Petroleum Products Enterprise (MPPE) (261 out of 273 as of 2010) have been privatized. It will also be extended by 1. 59. under which CNPC will finance almost the entire cost of the project. 60. The government guarantees the safety of the pipeline and ensures the ownership of CNPC. a complementary step in building the oil pipeline to Myanmar. Myanmar–PRC crude oil pipeline. Yunnan Province.402 km. MOE and CNPC signed an MOU on joint development of a crude oil pipeline.8 kyats/liter. In 2010. and other types of renewable energy. which holds a 50. For the government sector. hydropower is 13 14 15 In October 2012. solar.000 bbl/day capacity) crude oil pipeline will run from Kyaukphyu township in Myanmar’s Rakhine State to PRC’s Kunming via the border city of Ruili in Yunnan Province. notably hydropower and biomass.16 63. CNPC’s subsidiary. including a 771-km section in Myanmar. The price of gasoline and diesel has been liberalized in 2012.000 bbl/day).14 For example. Initiatives have included the promotion of increased use of natural gas in power generation and in the industrial sector. The Environmental Conservation Committee was re-formed in 2011.15 The expected capacity of the oil pipeline will be about 161 million bbl/year (or about 440. Renewable Energy 64. Accordingly. using foreign exchange earnings from their businesses. 58. diesel. in 2007.13 MOE is in the process of implementing further liberalization measures. construction. and LPG vehicles to CNG vehicles. F.

As of the end of 2011. Table 10 provides the list of the planned micro-hydropower power projects in border areas. 1. As introduced in Section C. has so far identified more than 200 locations suitable for hydropower development. only 753 MW of hydropower power had been commissioned. Myanmar’s four main river basins (Ayeyarwaddy.000 x 3) 1. . Hydropower 66. Thanlwin and Sittaung) are the source of huge hydropower potential.200 (400 x 3) 320 (160 x 2) 6. http://www. The other renewable energy resources remain under research and in development or pilot stages.000 x 3) Source: ASEAN Energy. 67. and ensuring that the deployment of renewable energy technologies addresses the basic energy requirements of rural households and the agriculture sector.200 (600 x 2) 6. These mini-hydropower projects also facilitate cottage industries and enhance agricultural productivity through improved irrigation. The 7 kW low head propeller turbine was also designed and constructed at the Central Workshop (Kyaukse). Chindwin. 68. Tumpang Hka Chaung 3.000 kW (Appendix 4. Village-scale hydropower projects range from primitive wooden wheel types to a variety of small modern turbine systems. The 3 kW low head propeller turbine was constructed at the Central Workshop (Kyaukse) and tested at the Dan Taing Village hydropower site near Kyaukse. led by MOST. Nam Mae Sai Planned Micro-Hydropower Projects in Border Areas Location Eastern Shan State Kachin State Eastern Shan State North Eastern Shan State Eastern Shan State Objective To supply electric power to Mong Hsat and Mong Ton towns To supply electric power to Myitkyina and Waing-Maw towns To supply electric power to Mong Hkak and Mong Yang townships To supply electric power to Kyu Hkok town and nearby villages in Muse townships To supply electric power to Tachileik town and also to export excess power to Thailand Installed Capacity (kilowatt) 1. and tested at the Kulla Village hydropower site near Kyaukse. The Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) is responsible for related research and development. Over the past 5 years. includes the design and construction of different types of turbines and synchronous generators for micro-hydropower plants. Small hydropower projects for border area development. These projects have included border areas. Kyu Hkak Chanung 5.aseanenergy. 65. some 26 microand 9 mini-hydropower power projects have been developed by MEPE. Mepan Chaung 2. Thirty-six projects have been formed to tap these resources and 14 are under construction. with a combined potential capacity of about 40.htm 17 In 2009. Figure A4). with installed capacity ranging from 24 kilowatts (kW) to 5. MOST’s micro-hydropower project group designed and constructed 3 kW and 7 kW low head propeller turbines for village hydropower.16 Myanmar: Energy Sector Initial Assessment being developed and utilized on a commercial scale. The Ministry of Electric Power (MOEP) supports general rural electrification programs in the country.000 MW. As stated earlier. Kang Hkawng estimated to be more than 100. Myanmar Electric Power Enterprise (MEPE).000 (2.17 Table 10 Project 1. aimed at improving the social and economic conditions of poor rural households and remote communities. under the MOEP.000 (2. Research on micro-hydropower plants.000  MW. MOE’s policy guidelines include promoting wider use of new and renewable sources of energy.

public awareness. An additional 7. The plantations expanded at an average annual rate of about 4.84 million hectares (ha) of forest plantations between 1981 and 2010. 73. Establishment of fuelwood plantations. such as hydropower and natural gas. and (ii) protected area systems cover almost 6% (37. and animal waste). the Forest Department has helped establish fuelwood plantations and community forests. Establishment of community forests.44 13.44 100. Charcoal. fuelwood use is forecast to decrease. which accounts for 4%–6% of total fuelwood consumption.63 29.37 2030 (million cubic meter) (%) 4.213 km2 (1. To assist in meeting the demand for bio-energy.300 ha during 2000–2005. 70. reflecting greater reliance on energy efficient stoves and alternative energy sources. some 20% of which were for fuelwood. The Forest Department established a total of 0.23 25. approximately two-thirds of primary energy in Myanmar is supplied by biomass (fuelwood. fuelwood is projected to account for less than half of total primary energy. is mainly used in urban areas.01 0.44 7. agriculture residue. primarily serving as havens for the country’s rich biodiversity and for protection of the environment. In 2002.54 31.07%) has been proposed under the protected area systems. Despite an increasing population.900 ha annually during 2006–2010. and substitution of fuelwood. The policy is based on six principles: protection. sustainability. but this slowed to about 1. basic needs.89 0. compared to almost two-thirds currently. It has also encouraged fuelwood conservation by promoting the use of efficient cooking and heating stoves and the use of alternative energy sources. the Ministry of Forestry (MOF) announced its long-term (to 2030) National Forestry Master Plan. Community Forestry Instructions were issued in 1995. Myanmar’s forest policy is designed to promote forest conservation and efficient use and management of forestry resources.Energy Sector Initial Assessment: Context and Strategic Issues 17 2. By 2030. such as agricultural waste and coal briquettes.5 m3) for rural households and 1.5 m3) for urban residents. 71. stressing the importance of local community participation in sustainable forest management.36 25.00 25. Programs implemented by MOF for the supply. including for bio-energy. most of which is harvested from natural forests. .4 cubic tons (2.18 it is used in both urban and rural areas. Table 11 Source Plantations Non-forest land Community forests Natural forests Total Predicted Supply of Fuelwood as Indicated in the National Forestry Master Plan 2002 (million cubic meter) 1.06 22.00 1.00 45. efficiency.77 100.77 million hectares) is covered by different types of forest (Forest Resource Assessment 2010): (i) permanent forest estates—which are reserved forest and protected public forest—cover about 24% (162.00 Source: Ministry of Forestry. According 18 About 47% of the country’s total area (31. The annual consumption of fuelwood per household is estimated to be about 2. The department’s predictions of fuelwood supply in 2030 are shown in the Table 11. As noted earlier.895 km2) of the total land area. and participation.26 7.55 (%) 3.523 km2) of the total land area.19 71.5 cubic tons (4. 72.06 7. efficient use. charcoal. Fuelwood accounts for more than 90% of biomass-sourced energy. Biomass and Biogas 69.

Diesel will be substituted by a diesel-blend (5% to 20% Jatropha oil) at the community level and biodiesel at the national level. Biomass thermo-chemical energy. 75. Based on the government’s energy plan. . The distribution of efficient stoves was initiated in the 1990s by MOF and implemented in cooperation with the United Nations Development Programme and the Food and Agriculture Organization. mostly in the central region (Mandalay. 77. many millions of tons of animal waste (particularly cattle excreta) are produced every year. Since 2004. 80. such as broken rice corn. a 25-cubic-meter. which includes dissemination of efficient stoves and utilization of wood fuel substitutes. molasses. Rice husk gasifiers have been improved and more than 1. community forests occupied about 41. For cottage industry sector applications. Several private companies engaged in sugar production have diverted surplus sugar output to bioethanol production. gasoline will be gradually substituted by bioethanol (95% ethanol) to meet energy demand at the community level. it is enough to serve 172 villages with four hours of electricity per day. 74. Biogas from that plant is utilized for cooking and the effluent from the biogas plant is used as organic fertilizer for plants. and starchy materials. Ayeyarwaddy Region. and by gasohol (15% anhydrous ethanol in gasoline) at the national level.18 Myanmar: Energy Sector Initial Assessment to the instructions. Biomass thermo-chemical energy for power generation has relied mainly on paddy husk and bagasse. In light of this extensive biomass energy potential. 19 In 2008. In 2009. and Eastern Shan State. Bioethanol. MOST developed 23 family-sized. the government has started to actively promote its use. MOST is also undertaking research and development for woodchip and other forms of small-scale gasifiers. had been distributed free of charge or at an affordable price. A 100-cubic-meter. chop the forage for cows. 232. 78. or as feed for pigs and fish. are produced year round in Myanmar due to the continuous cultivation of various crops. bioethanol is used as a transportation fuel to substitute for gasoline or to mix with gasoline. By the end of 2010.840 ha and it is expected that their continued expansion to 2030 will result in their fulfilling 25% of the projected demand for wood fuel. Produced from sugarcane. some private sector rice mills have been using rice husk as permanent fuel in driving steam turbines. Over the past 10 years. and Magway divisions) and in the Northern Shan State. 76. By March 2011. 3. organic farming. Mandalay. and produce electricity to provide light to the whole farm. Biomass biological energy. It can produce biogas for cooking. fixed-dome type biogas plant using human wastes was constructed at the Sinmin cement factory. including A1 and rice-husk stoves. While the combined output of these digesters is modest. which can be used for soaking seeds for germination. Sagaing. Millions of tons of crop residues. about 30 to 50 gallons per day of organic fertilizer is produced. fixed-dome type biogas digesters and deployed them in Nay Pyi Taw. MOF has been implementing the Bago Yoma Greening Project. fixed-dome type biogas plant was constructed in 2008 at a dairy cow breeding farm in Mandalay Division. such as rice husks. The digesters vary in capacity (from 25 to 100 cubic meters)19 and electricity output ranges from 5–25 kW. Distribution of fuel efficient stoves and promotion of wood fuel substitutes. about 152 community-based biogas digesters (plants) have been built. Table 12 summarizes the biogas energy projects in Myanmar until 2011. Biofuels 79. From one family-sized biogas digester.000 kW can be generated. such as coal briquettes and agricultural waste.000 fuel efficient stoves. capable of producing 30–50 kW of electricity for villages in rural areas. local communities are granted 30-year land leases for the establishment of community forests. Research has indicated that A1 stoves can reduce wood fuel use by up to 40%. Further.

000 3.000 900 600 9. and the Kathar plant in Sagaing with capacity of 15. When the price of gasoline was sharply increased in August 2007 (from 330 kyats/liter to 549.8 million gallons/year. with 500 gallon/day capacity. there was renewed interest in the factory.000 gallons/day.000 2.000 3.000 4.000 gallons/day. which was transferred to private ownership. both with a capacity of 3.500 500 900 No. It was uneconomic at the time. Commercial production of the two plants commenced in 2008.9 kyats/liter). a private company.700 gallons of anhydrous alcohol per day.5% ethanol: the Pyinmana plant in Mandalay. as the cost of production (3. has built an ethanol plant capable of producing 3.500 700 5.000 Electricity 5.Energy Sector Initial Assessment: Context and Strategic Issues 19 Table 12 Digester Size (cubic meters) 50 10 8 100 50 35 25 8 50 15 10 50 25 50 25 10 60 25 50 15 5 10 Total Source: Ministry of Science and Technology. In addition to public sector leadership. 82.000 Cooking and lighting Electricity Cooking and lighting 600 5. with a combined capacity of 1. the Myanmar Sugarcane Enterprise (now the Sugarcane Development Department) established the first gasohol plant in the country.5% ethanol per day. The Myanmar Economic Cooperation has built two large bioethanol plants. the Kantbalu plant in Sagaing and Taungsinaye plant in Bago. of Biogas Plants 6 4 8 1 102 3 2 3 23 1 1 8 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 174 Location Nay Pyi Taw Division Type Purpose Electricity Electricity. Their total annual production capacity is 1. Biogas Energy Projects in Myanmar Date Started 2003 2009 2008 2008 2002 Cost ($ per plant) 5.000 kyats/gallon) was twice the governmentcontrolled price of gasoline (1. In 2000.000 5.95 million gallons. based on .000 Electricity 5. the Myanmar Chemical Engineers Group has constructed four plants producing 99. based on sugarcane.000 900 Cooking Electricity Cooking and lighting Electricity 5.000 3. cooking.000 3. Since 2002.000 2.500 kyats/gallon) and there was no market for the factory’s output. 83. Another factory. and lighting Cooking and lighting Mandalay Division 2009 2009 2009 2004 Sagaing Fixed-Dome Type 2010 2009 2004 2009 2005 2009 2009 2010 2009 2009 2010 2010 2009 Magway Shan State (North) Shan State (East) Shan State (South) Kayah Kachin Ayeyarwaddy 81. with a capacity of 500 gallons of 99. Great Wall.

narrow spacing. (ii) lack of capacity. with the initial target of 3. In 2005. (ii) acid/base catalyzed esterification reaction for preparation of biodiesel from high free fatty acid oil. Moreover.20 85. Research has shown that Jatropha biodiesel provides engine performance that is very similar to diesel fuel. (iii) improve management practices. lack of fertilizer. with important foreign exchange savings. about 2 million ha (5. Much of the cultivated area for Jatropha was along roadsides and under shade. (vii) motivate smaller holder producers. Despite the ambitious start. MOST has initiated research and development on biodiesel. mealy bug. community forests. as existing variety has low yields. Myanmar imports more than 200 million gallons of diesel annually and biodiesel could be a substitute. (v) develop marketing systems and credit facilities. numerous constraints have impeded Jatropha biodiesel production: (i) difficulty in the dissemination of technology. Low nutrient value. and (vii) marketing and processing concerns. The government believes that the following steps must be implemented to enhance Jatropha biodiesel production: (i) increase productivity through new improved varieties. a  Jatropha curcas is a new crop and the cultivated area has expanded very rapidly. Biodiesel as a substitute for petrol diesel can be produced from a number of raw materials found in Myanmar. The government encourages entrepreneurs and local farmers to grow Jatropha and different types of Jatropha cultivation can be found in large-scale plantations. Source: Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation. It is expected that biodiesel would be widely accepted by the world automobile industry. including production in pilot plants using Jatropha curcas oil. The Jatropha Plantation Project for Biodiesel Production was first launched in 2005. The Jatropha curcas seed has high oil content (more than 26%) and 50–60 gallons of oil per acre are projected. Regulations concerning bioethanol production would appear needed so as to avoid potential conflict with food security. By September 2011. the government launched the Jatropha Plantation Project (Box 3). (iii) lack of a promising variety. including crude palm oil and Jatropha curcas oil. (v) problems during post harvest. and (vi) liquid organic fertilizer from Jatropha curcas press cake. and lack of systematic pruning resulted in marginal yields. and roadsides. Box 3 Jatropha Plantation Project for Biodiesel Production Jatropha biodiesel holds promise as a fuel alternative. and (ix) enhance the information network. (viii) facilitate technology exchange with international organizations.23 million ha (8 million acres) of plantation. 84. consistent with the need to reduce carbon emissions and to protect the environment. (ii) expand cultivation in highly fertile areas of the country. (vi) create better linkages between research and extension. (vi) ownership issues. (iv) improve post-harvest technology and processing techniques.20 Myanmar: Energy Sector Initial Assessment cassava.2 million acres) had been planted with Jatropha. (iii) exploration of liquid rich microalgae for biodiesel production. (iv) presence of pest and diseases. (iv) purification and esterification of waste lipids from rice bran oil industry. 20 Other biodiesel research by MOST includes: (i) preparation of biodiesel by a non-catalytic superheated methanol vapor bubble method. . leaf miner. red mite. will be constructed by an associated company of Great Wall. Biodiesel. (v) direct trans-esterification of biomass for biodiesel preparation.

including the Department of Physics at Yangon University and the Department of Electric Power (DEP) and MEPE at the MOEP. permanent magnet generator. to collect data and to conduct feasibility studies for wind-solar power hybrid systems. led by the Myanmar Scientific and Technological Research Department and the Department of Meteorology and Hydrology. its development is at the experimental and research phase in Myanmar. three-blade system Direct-driven. Further. NEDO has assisted in installing wind and solar measuring equipment at several sites. is around 365. Table 13 Name 1. which would yield outputs ranging from 55 kW to 225 kW. Source: Ministry of Science and Technology. Potential available wind energy along this coastal strip. It was perfectly utilized for lighting purpose in the township’s monastery.2 kW wind turbine Location Wind Energy Projects in Myanmar Type Radial-flux. There are some wind turbines operational in Myanmar. and Dattaw Mountain in Kyaukse Township. . with its southwesterly wind for 9 months and northeasterly wind for 3 months. Dattaw Mountain. available data on wind energy sources are not sufficient to evaluate suitable sites for the construction of wind turbines. Ayeyarwaddy Region Wind energy project group (Kyaukse) Ministry of Science and Technology 1.000 kW = kilowatt. Shwetharlyoug Mountain in Kyaukse Township. 15-foot wind turbine (3 kW) of axial-type permanent magnet generator has been constructed and tested at the Shwetharlyoug Mountain (Table 13). Wind 86. Gunkul Engineering Public Company Limited and China Three Gorges Company. which has constructed meteorological observation stations in Central and Lower Myanmar.832-km coastal strip facing the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea. including at the Technological University (Kyaukse).032 MW of wind energy. 21 The results from investigative studies indicate that feasible areas to harness wind energy are in locations with an average wind speed of 5. Up to September 2011. horizontal type and three-blade system of wind turbine using axial-flux permanent magnet generator Date Started 7 July 2008 Cost ($) 2. The evaluation of wind energy resources using modern systems has been conducted since 1998.Energy Sector Initial Assessment: Context and Strategic Issues 21 4.6 to 7. signed MOU with MOEP in 2011 and has undertaken the feasibility study for potential development of 4. 89.2 kW wind turbine 16 April 2010 2. Myanmar has a 2. horizontal type and three-blade system using axialflux permanent magnet generator Direct-driven. the Government Technical High School (Ahmar) in Ayeyarwaddy region. This research was in cooperation with the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) of Japan.21 However. Judging from existing data. 88. Kyaukse Township. 87. Two foreign companies.4 meters per second.000 Monastery. Mandalay Region Government Technical High School (Ahmar). Due to the initial high cost of wind energy. the western part of the country appears to have the best potential for harnessing wind power.1 terawatt-hours per year. Other institutions have also conducted research and development on wind energy.300 3 kW wind turbine 10 January 2009 3.

“Solar Photovoltaic Battery Charging Community Enterprise. supported by the Myanmar Scientific and Technological Research Department and the Department of Physics of the Yangon Technological University. Most materials were designed and constructed by MTU and all of the materials are in compliance with international codes of practice.” in cooperation with NEDO of Japan and the Department of Electric Power of MOEP. MOST has begun providing electricity to schools and institutes by using solar energy. Ninety-three geothermal locations have been identified throughout the country. solar energy in Myanmar is in the research and development stage. 6. ii. Geothermal 95.” with research and development of solar equipment prototypes. Geothermal energy is abundant in Myanmar. 22 Experimental measurement indicates that radiation intensity of more than 5 kilowatt-hours per square meter per day was observed during the dry season. Research has successfully demonstrated the use of solar energy for making salt from seawater.25 in cooperation with the Electric Power Development of Japan and Union Oil Company of California and Caithness Resources of the United States. Specifically. Testing includes chemical and X-ray diffraction analysis. “Demonstrative Research on a Photovoltaic Power Generation System in Myanmar. For each school. 92. Both poly-crystalline and amorphous solar panels were used in order to evaluate actual performance and application. To help demonstrate the practicality of this initiative. Forty-three of these sites are being tested by the Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE) and MEPE. there is enough power to supply 10 computers. Solar 90. 94. MTU. two sets of 3 kW solar energy systems were installed in the Government Technical High School in Putao and Kamtee (both are located at the northernmost part of the country with harsh weather conditions). for irrigation pumps. and for solar driers for grain and fish. As an initial step to demonstrate photovoltaic power systems for remote villages.24 MOST plans to install the system throughout the country in technical schools lacking electricity. The sunshine availability in both townships is approximately four hours per day. “Solar Power Village Electrification Scheme. IPSTAR internet equipment. due to its initial high cost. 93. Solar energy potential in Myanmar is perhaps highest in the Central Dry Zone Area of Myanmar. The solar system used can be applied at minimum cost. and iii. Solar energy is being introduced in a limited manner in some rural areas.” financed by the Energy Services and Income Generating Opportunities for the Poor (Project “ENSIGN”). with considerable potential for commercial development. the Department of Engineering Physics and the Electrical and Electronic Research Center. through photovoltaic cells to generate electricity for charging batteries and to pump water for irrigation. some equipment has been installed under a technical cooperation program with other developing countries.22 Myanmar: Energy Sector Initial Assessment 5. enabling students to access the internet during this period.22 91. one overhead projector. in collaboration with Yoma Bank and Energy Planning Department of the Ministry of Energy (MOE). Mandalay Technological University (MTU)23 has installed 3  kW photovoltaic (PV) power systems in several MOST technical schools and institutes located in remote areas and without access to the national grid system. As a result. Research continues on the use of solar power for household purposes (lighting and cooking). Similar to wind energy. and 10 fluorescent lamps. Pilot projects have included the following: i. 23 24 25 .

4 kV. which make it difficult for wind and solar energy alternatives to compete. 132 kV. The country’s average electrification26 grew from about 16% in 2006 to 26% in 2011. Distribution systems consist of lower voltage levels—33 kV. (ii) limited financial capital to support research and development. including off-grid generation and distribution.6 kV. While Myanmar has abundant renewable energy resources. Tidal Energy 96. Establishment of a more supportive environment for development of Myanmar’s renewable energy resources should include the following: (i) more information on the resource potential. Power Subsector 1. and 120 MW (4%) coal-fired capacity.200 persons).520 MW (76%) hydropower capacity. Its 3-kW turbine was locally designed and built and provides electricity to 220 households (about 1. The remaining rural areas are still poorly electrified averaging at about 16%.533 MW. Myanmar’s per capita electricity consumption was only 100 kWh per year. and 0. the availability capacity of the gas and coal power plants were low due to poor maintenance. during the dry season. total electricity consumption was 6. and (iv) subsidized power and petroleum prices. and deployment. (iii) lack of human resource capacity. These high losses and low electrification ratio will require improvement of transmission and distribution network in Myanmar. Even though electricity consumption in Myanmar has doubled during the last 10 years. Two distribution enterprises operate the distribution systems in the country. . and other options for rural use. low industrial development and lack of investment. It was reported that technical and non-technical losses of the transmission and distribution system were as high as 30% in 2003 and reduced to 27% in 2011. 26 It is defined as the number of electrified households connected to the grid over the total number of households. The low national average per capita electricity consumption is due to the low electrification rate. Yangon City has the highest electrification ratio (67%). (iv) clarification of government policy regarding renewable energy. 11 kV. The Yangon City Electricity Supply Board (YESB) is responsible for the supply of electricity to consumers in Yangon City. Myanmar’s power grid is experiencing significant load shedding during the dry season of up to 400–500 MW. Overview 98. the hydropower plants cannot generate at full capacity due to lack of water. 6. (iii) promotion of private sector participation. A similar project with a 5-kW turbine was implemented at a salt production site.Energy Sector Initial Assessment: Context and Strategic Issues 23 7. It is a barrage style power plant with a single basin. 97. in 2011. harnessing them is hampered by several factors: (i) lack of a fully transparent institutional and legal framework to support exploration. Kayar (37%). Although the installed capacity exceeds the 2011 peak load of 1. The first tidal power plant in Myanmar was installed in 2007 in Kanbalar village. market-based investment programs.312 GWh. covering the voltage levels of 66 kV. development. Total system installed capacity in 2011 was 3. G. and Mandalay (31%). Particularly. With a population of about 60 million.361 megawatts (MW) consisting of 2. followed by Nay Pyi Taw (54%). which was the lowest among ASEAN 10 countries. (ii) improved inter-ministerial cooperation and coordination. mini-hydropower plants. Hence. 715 MW (21%) gas-fired capacity. MEPE is responsible for the development and implementation of transmission network. and development of physical infrastructures. and 230 kV. Future development of renewable energy resources. The Electricity Supply Enterprise (ESE) covers the rest of the country comprising 13 states and regions. and (v) technology dissemination regarding family-size biogas digesters.

The organization and function of MOEP is provided in Figure 5. and seven engineering construction companies capable of undertaking large hydropower projects. Source: Ministry of Electric Power. and Hydropower Generation Enterprise (HPGE). implementing. The regulatory framework for the power sector in Myanmar includes the Electricity Act of 1948 (as amended in 1967). 101.4 kV. and future 500 kV. Two distribution enterprises operate the distribution systems. GT = gas turbine. Before the merger. and maintenance of the transmission network. namely: 33 kV. and mechanical works. Distribution systems consist of lower voltage level. Organization 99. and maintaining all large hydropower and coal-fired thermal power plants. 6. MEPE = Myanmar Electric Power Enterprise. HPGE operates and maintains all of MOEP1’s hydropower stations. MOEP = Ministry of Electric Power. 100. investigation. and the Electricity Rules (1985). or by joint ventures with foreign investors. and 230 kV. MOEP1 was responsible for developing. DHPP plans hydropower projects to be implemented by MOEP1 itself. MOEP1 has three departments: Department of Hydropower Planning (DHPP). operating. MOEP2 has four departmental level organizations: the Department of Electric Power (DEP). Wind and Other Projects Planning Transmission line. . (ii) operating and maintaining gas-fired thermal power generation plants. ESE = Electricity Supply Enterprise. Sub-stations. the Myanmar Electricity Law (1984). 102. and maintaining the transmission network and distribution systems throughout the country. DHPP = Department of Hydropower Planning. operation. MEPE is responsible for the development. HPGE = Hydropower Generation Enterprise. DEP’s main function involves power system strategic planning. Wind Farm Implementation Small Hydropower Generation Electricity Distribution DEP = Department of Electric Power. Department of Hydropower Implementation (DHPI). 132 kV. DHPI has four institutes responsible for design. MOEP2 was responsible for: (i)  developing. 11 kV. These two ministries were merged as one ministry—Ministry of Electric Power—in September 2012. GT. Figure 5 Organization and Function of Ministry of Electric Power MOEP DHPP Hydropower and Thermal Power Project Planning DEP DHPI Hydropower and Thermal Power Projects Implementation MEPE HPGE Hydropower Station and Coal-Fired Thermal Plant Generation ESE YESB Electricity Distribution (Yangon City) GT. and ESE.6 kV. YESB. YESB = Yangon City Electricity Supply Board. operating. MEPE.27 and the 27 The transmission network under MEPE’s responsibility covers the following voltage levels: existing 66 kV. The organizational chart of MOEP1 is shown in Figure 7. by local provincial enterprises. DHPI = Department of Hydropower Implementation.24 Myanmar: Energy Sector Initial Assessment 2. An overview of the entire power sector before the merge is provided in Figure 6. and 0. and participates in the operation and maintenance of power plants under joint ventures. HPGE also operates a coal-fired power plant. The power sector in Myanmar was the responsibility of two ministries: MOEP1 and MOEP2 until a merger in September 2012. and operating mini-hydropower plants. and (iii) planning. implementing.

Energy Sector Initial Assessment: Context and Strategic Issues


Figure 6

Organizational Overview of the Whole Power Sector
Transmission Distribution End User





Purchasing from MOEP1

MEPE (MOEP2) Own Generation

Purchasing from JV/IPP

ESE Purchasing from MEPE Own Generation (Mini Hydro, Diesel) Supply electricity to the whole country except Yangon Division

YESB Purchasing from MEPE Own Generation (Diesel) Supply electricity to Yangon Division only

ESE = Electricity Supply Enterprise, HPGE = Hydropower Generation Enterprise, IPP = independent power producer, JV = joint venture, MEPE = Myanmar Electric Power Enterprise, MOEP = Ministry of Electric Power, YESB = Yangon City Electricity Supply Board. Source: Ministry of Electric Power.

Figure 7
Department of Hydropower Planning (DHPP) Projects and generation planning

Organizational Chart of the Ministry of Electric Power No. 1
Department of Hydropower Implementation (DHPI) Investigation and design (4 institutes) Implementation of hydropower project (7 construction companies) Hydropower Generation Enterprise (HPGE) Generation of hydropower and coal-fired plants Operation and maintenance of power stations

Source: Ministry of Electric Power.

operation and maintenance of gas-fired power plants, including gas turbines. YESB is responsible for the supply of electricity to consumers in Yangon City. ESE covers all 13 states and divisions in the rest of the country, including off-grid generation and distribution; it is also responsible for planning, implementing, and operating off-grid mini-hydropower and diesel stations.28 Correspondingly, YESB and ESE also implement system improvement and expansion of distribution systems. The organizational chart of MOEP2 is shown in Figure 8.


This organizational structure is similar to that of Thailand, where the Metropolitan Electric Authority is responsible for the Bangkok metropolitan area, and the Provincial Electric Authority is responsible for the rest of the country.


Myanmar: Energy Sector Initial Assessment

Figure 8
Department of Electric Power (DEP) Project and power system strategic planning

Organizational Chart of the Ministry of Electric Power No. 2
Myanmar Electric Power Enterprise (MEPE) Power system operation and maintenance Generation from gas turbine Operation and maintenance of gas turbine and combined cycle Implementation of transmission line and substation projects Electric Supply Enterprise (ESE) Distribution to the whole country (except Yangon City) Small off-grid systems (hydropower and diesel) planning, implementation and operation Yangon City Electricity Supply Board (YESB) Distribution in Yangon City

Source: Ministry of Electric Power.

3. Generation System
103. Before 1960, the generation system consisted mainly of isolated grids supplied by diesel generators and mini-hydropower. The first stage of the first medium-scale hydropower plant, Baluchaung-2 in central-east Myanmar about 420 km north of Yangon, was commissioned in 1960 with an installed capacity of 84 MW. The plant was designed for an annual generation of 595 gigawatt-hours (GWh) to supply Yangon and, in 1963, Mandalay. The second stage was commissioned in 1974, also with 84 MW capacity and providing an additional 595 GWh. During the subsequent 30 years, another eight hydropower plants were built, ranging from 12 MW to 75 MW and totaling 264 MW. In 2005, the 280 MW Paunglaung Hydropower Plant, about 20 km east of the new capital, Nay Pyi Taw, was commissioned. From 2005 to 2011, eight power plants, totaling 1,934 MW, were built. Two large-scale hydropower plants, one partly for export to the PRC (Shewli-1, 600 MW) and the other for domestic supply (Yeywa,29 790 MW), were commissioned in 2008 and 2010, respectively. 104. With regards to the Shewli-1 hydropower plant, the agreement with the PRC investor is that three of its six generating units will provide power to the Myanmar grid. Of the

Sedawgyi Hydropower Station


The 790 MW Yeywa hydropower plant on the Myitnge River, 50 km southeast of Mandalay, cost $600 million to build. Commissioned in 2010, it has four 197.5 MW generating units and a 134-m high roller compacted concrete dam, with a volume of 2.5 million cubic meters. It is one of the largest roller compacted concrete dams in the world. MOEP used the services of the Swiss consulting firm Colenco for detailed design and construction supervision of the plant, and engaged Chinese contractors for the construction. The power plant is estimated to generate 3,550 GWh per year.

Energy Sector Initial Assessment: Context and Strategic Issues


total generated electricity, 50% will be provided at no cost to Myanmar and an additional 15%, if required, will be provided at cost. MOEP records indicate that 49% of the electricity generated by the power plant since 2008, operating at about 75% of its potential capacity, has been transmitted to the Myanmar grid. For the Dapein-1 hydropower plant (240 MW), also being developed by Chinese investors, 10% of the generated electricity will be made available to the Myanmar central grid. In combination, the two plants will augment domestic supply by 324 MW. 105. The 120 MW Tigyit power plant in central Myanmar was completed in 2002 in central Myanmar and was the first coal-fired power plant. It generates between 217 GWh/year and 389 GWh/year, corresponding to an average capacity factor of 31%; to be efficient, it should operate at 75%–80% capacity. 106. Off-grid power supply is provided for by ESE, local communities, and district authorities. There are 32 mini-hydropower plants with a combined generating capacity of 33.1 MW. A sub-department of ESE plans, builds, and operates the mini-hydropower plants. An exception is the 10.5 MW Buga hydropower plant at Myitkyina, Kachin State, which is a private sector arrangement. The company pays a royalty to ESE and is contracted to generate and distribute the power to villages and small industries in the surrounding project area. However, off-grid power supply is intermittent and electricity is only provided up to two hours a day in remote areas. 107. The first gas-fired power plant, Kyunchaung in central-western Myanmar, was commissioned in 1974 with an installed capacity of 54.3 MW. During the following 30 years up to 2004, another nine gas-fired power plants were commissioned with a total capacity of 714.9 MW. Ywama, the first gas-fired power plant close to Yangon, was commissioned in 1980 with an installed capacity of 36.9 MW. In 2004, two units of 33.4 MW capacity were added. Subsequently, another three gas-fired steam turbine power plants were built in stages surrounding Yangon: Hwlaga (154.2 MW), Ahlone Combined-Cycle Gas Turbine Thaketa (92 MW), and Ahlone (154.2 MW). The total installed capacity is now 470.7 MW. Output has not been as high as expected due to the low calorific value of Myanmar gas30 and low pressure without gas compression. According to MOEP, the energy potential of these power plants is 4,384 GWh/year, representing an average capacity factor of 70%. 108. The existing generation comprises 30 power stations with a combined installed capacity of 3,495 MW as of August 2012 (Appendix 5, Table A5.1). Due to scheduled maintenance and various operational limitations at a number of the stations, the actual firm capacity as of August 2012 is 1,957 MW. During the wet season (June to September), the hydropower stations are able to generate at optimum capacity. However, during the dry season, their capacity drops off due to insufficient water storage. 109. In 1995, 49% of electricity generation to the national grid was provided by thermal units, primarily gas-fired turbines, with the remainder provided by hydropower sources. Since then, there has been less dependency on gas-fired generating plant with hydropower providing 74% of the annual production in


Gas produced in Thailand has a calorific value of 902 BTU per cubic foot (BTU/ft3), while Myanmar gas has a much lower calorific value due to its high nitrogen content (about 25%): 615 BTU/ft3 for gas from the Kanapauk offshore field; 651 BTU/ft3 from the Dawnyein offshore field; and 850 BTU/ft3 for onshore gas (negligible nitrogen content).

MOEP is planning to build another 13 hydropower plants in the period to 2020. on a least-cost. 110. Overall. Installed and Available Generation. 111. there is a lack of comprehensive planning for power generation. Table 16 shows the potential of each river basin. Ninety-two large-scale (>10 MW) hydropower sites on Myanmar’s main river basins have been identified.572 MW. The installed and available capacity of generation plant is summarized in Tables 14 and 15.958 (%) 77 1 22 100 76 3 21 100 Annual Production (MW) 13.830 Maximum Demand (MW) 1. Table A5. Tables A5. Local enterprises will develop seven hydropower plants. totaling approximately 42.3–A5. 113.1 GW. Nevertheless. DHPP/MOEP make future plans for hydropower development based on assessments of hydropower potential.946 17.010 MW. 31 The Memorandum of Agreement for construction of a 500 MW gas power plants in Thaketa. Similar to the lack of demand projections. there were severe shortages in gas supplies.6).146 MW (Appendix 5. It is hoped that these projects will proceed quickly. the gas-fired plants are supplying base load and running almost continuously at 100% of available capacity.588 1. earmarked for private sector development (Appendix 5.28 Myanmar: Energy Sector Initial Assessment 2012.640 1. with generation being unable to sustain demand.129 – = unknown.660 120 715 3. 2012 Firm Capacity (MW) 1. 112. Table 14 Power Plant Hydro Coal-fired Gas turbine Total MW = megawatt. Yangon was signed in October 2012. Future power development.495 Table 15 Year 2012 (year to date) 2011 2010 2009 Annual Total Generation and Maximum Demand Annual Production (GWh) – 10. with a total capacity of 2. with an estimated total installed capacity of 46.033 7. A further 44 projects are planned as joint ventures with foreign investors. Source: Ministry of Electric Power. with an installed capacity of 876  MW. there is currently a shortfall of approximately 500 MW in generation during peak time—this is managed by rolling blackouts to reduce the load. with a projected combined capacity of 500 MW. Currently. . Source: Ministry of Electric Power.811 6. following offers to international developers in cooperation with MOEP. MOEP has also identified sites for three coal-fired power plants. efficiency basis. HPGE operates 17 hydropower plants with a total capacity of 2. GWh = gigawatt-hour.5).371 1.31 114. but by 1994 this had stabilized following the development of off-shore gas fields. In 1989.504 27 427 1.814 (%) 75 3 22 100 (%) Installed Capacity (MW) 2.268 600 3. MW = megawatt.

.101 MW = megawatt. Transmission System 117. Dapein-1. the investor then carries out a full feasibility study to determine the technical and financial viability of the project. which normally has a duration of 30 years. once determined feasible. in addition to commercial and income tax revenues. There are plans to introduce 500 kV 32 The Myanmar Investment Commission has approved three projects so far: Shweli-1. At the end of the concession period. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Hydropower Potential by River Basin (Including Tributaries) River Basin Ayeyarwaddy Chindwin Sittaung Thanlwin Mekong Others Total No. contributing one-third to the operation costs and maintenance staff. Free share and free power are negotiated individually but. Source: Ministry of Electric Power. and vii. The MEPE transmission system currently comprises an interconnected overhead grid of 230 kV.015 1.128 17. HPGE takes part in the operation of joint ventures. ii. following acceptance of the pre-feasibility study. MOEP and the investor sign a memorandum of agreement with a duration of 18 months. 132 kV. and 66 kV. iii. v. For each joint venture.776 46. as a general rule. the investor begins preliminary investigation and pre-feasibility study. which interconnects with all generation stations. free share is not less than 25% and free power is not less than 10%. MOEP and the investor would sign an MOU with a 30-month validity. 115. which makes the final approval decision. describing the investor’s technical expertise and financial situation.32 116. full ownership must be transferred to the government.Energy Sector Initial Assessment: Context and Strategic Issues 29 Table 16 No. The purchase price for electricity is re-negotiated annually during the concession period. vi. of Promising Hydropower Projects 34 8 11 21 4 14 92 Installed Capacity (MW) 21. and it is reviewed by line ministries and the Myanmar Investment Commission (MIC). The approval process for a foreign investor includes the following steps: i.821 3. the parties will enter into negotiation of the joint-venture agreement (JVA).000 MW Myitsone hydropower project on which construction started but has now been suspended. Myanmar is entitled to “free share” and “free power” (equivalent to royalties). 4. This can be extended for 5 years at a time. the JVA defines the responsibilities and duties of both parties. the potential investor submits a proposal to MOEP. and the 6.641 720 1. Myanmar is entitled to buy up to 50% of the generated electricity. iv. on acceptance by the government. DHPP has prepared a list of potential joint venture power projects and is soliciting interest from possible investment partners. with the facility in good condition as defined in the JVA.

Distribution in Myanmar comprises a network of 33 kV. 2012 Number of Circuits 51 40 137 228 Circuit (km) 2. as shown in Table 18. Lines are generally in good condition. 118.041 7. but it could be used in the future to directly supply 33/0.6 kV.167 5.042 6. Table 17 Voltage (kV) 230 132 66 Total Existing Transmission Lines.665 6. The 33 kV is used to connect 33/11 kV zone substations. which is predominately in the north with the main load centers in the south. kV = kilovolt. Figures A5. The 6.921 5. Source: Ministry of Electric Power. Transmission Loss (gigawatt-hour) Net Received Energy Distribution Side 777 9.588 Energy Losses 59 771 573 499 361 419 Losses (%) 7. and 6.30 Myanmar: Energy Sector Initial Assessment in the near future in order to connect the majority of the country’s generation. The existing transmission lines are shown in Table 17 and Appendix 5.11 7. The existing distribution lines are shown in Table 19.289 3. Transmission lines are mostly single circuit.614 9. some Load Dispatch Center with overhead lightning protection earthwires.007 5.86 7. Transmission losses are in the order or 7%.4 kV distribution transformers.2. 11 kV.812 7. mostly in Yangon.281 6.93 Net Transmitted Energy 836 9.1 and A5. with a variety of portal and conventional free standing towers.983 2. Distribution Systems 119.886 km = kilometer. Table 18 Year 2012 (Jan) 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 Source: Ministry of Electric Power.6 kV emanating from the grid and zone substations to connect to the distribution transformers to supply single and three phase 400/230 V to the customers.614 6. is a relic voltage and needs to be phased out as soon as practical in order to improve the efficiency of the distribution network .52 7. Structure designs are mostly lattice steel towers.74 6.48 5. with relatively few double circuit connections. 120.

for example conductor guards for road and railway crossings (this practice has been superseded in most countries now as modern protection 132 kV Switchyard at Magwe systems prove more reliable). Construction is generally overhead. Table 20 Year 2012 (Feb) 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 Distribution Losses (%) Losses 18. otherwise most are either ground mounted or on single or two pole structures. Frequency is nominally 50 hertz (Hz). open-wire construction using concrete poles. Myanmar has not yet introduced aerial bundled conductor. Some construction designs are outmoded.4 22.697 3.2 19. Although distribution losses are showing improvement over the last 5 years.6 19. Much of the construction is old and of insufficient cross-section for present-day loads. 2012 Length (km) 6.743 12.009 – = unknown. MVA = million volt-ampere. It was observed that many service connections just used twisted connections instead of connectors—this is a bad practice as it will lead to high resistance connection with high losses and ultimately burning and failure of conductor. although oil leaks were not uncommon.2 19. In urban areas. km = kilometer.428 Capacity (MVA) 3.435 15. 121. There is also some underground distribution in Yangon City area. they are still high as shown in Table 20. It is noted that some of the more recent distribution transformers purchased for the 6.4 Total Existing Distribution Lines.6 0.Energy Sector Initial Assessment: Context and Strategic Issues 31 Table 19 Voltage (kV) 33 11 6. some transformers are installed indoors in substation buildings. kV = kilovolt.781 1.000 kVA and are mostly in reasonable condition.6 kV system also have a 11 kV winding to facilitate the future changeover to 11 kV.469 36.593 – 9. and reduce losses.719 1.3 21. Sizes of the distribution transformer vary from 100 kilovolt amperes (kVA) up to 1. base.6 Source: Ministry of Electric Power. 122. . Source: Ministry of Electric Power. The low voltage network comprises a 400/230 V three-phase four-wire system with the neutral solidly grounded.

System Characteristics 123. Load shedding appears to be heaviest during the morning peak. megawatts 1.32 Myanmar: Energy Sector Initial Assessment 6. Power Demand 127. . Peak load or demand in Myanmar33 increased from 322 MW in 1990 to 1. from 3.m. Figure 11 shows load shedding of the power system.8% annually to 2011. from 1. and then accelerated to about 8. and in the late afternoon to evening from 4:00 p. Figure 9 Growth in Peak Load 1.200 1.533 MW in August 2011.m. 126.34 in terms of megawatt-hours (MWh). Daily load factors range from 79% to 86%.530 MW. The system suffers from load shedding corresponding to about 1% in terms of energy. an average annual increase of 6. The average load factor for August 2011 was 53%.m.000 800 600 400 200 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 0 28 24 20 16 12 8 4 0 –4 –8 Growth. although— as shown in Figure 10—there was a gradual increase from January to August 2011. Myanmar’s per capita electricity consumption was 33 34 Peak load is the peak demand or maximum power requirement of the system at a given time.9%. to 10:00 p. was negligible during the next 3 years to 2007. 125. but no details were available regarding this.380 MW to 1. to 11:00 a. Peak load in Myanmar does not vary greatly from month to month during the year..268 GWh to 6.m. The system experiences two peaks: in the morning from 6:00 a. Percentage Increase (%) Load Sources: Asian Development Bank estimates. Electricity consumption almost doubled between 2001 and 2011.400 Peak Load.312 GWh. The system also suffers from unstable frequency control. experienced from January to August 2011. 7. The increase was fairly steady up to 2004. which is similar to the previous load factor from January to July.600 1.800 1. With a population of approximately 60 million. Ministry of Electric Power. Load shedding is the deliberate disconnecting of electric current on certain lines when demand exceeds supply. but at times exceeding 250 MW or about 15% of peak load. Growth 124. Figure 9 shows the longterm trend in peak load.

Energy Sector Initial Assessment: Context and Strategic Issues 33 Figure 10 1. electricity consumption increased by 7% annually. Myanmar’s average degree of electrification (defined as the number of electrified households connected to the grid over the total number of households) increased from about 16% in 2006 to 26% in 2011.000 800 600 400 200 0 Load Shedding (January–August 2011) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Hour of the day January February March April May June July August Sources: Asian Development Bank estimates.400 Load.600 1.000 800 600 400 200 Jan Feb Monthly Load (January–August 2011) Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Max Hourly Load Max Daily Load Average Load Min Daily Load Min Hourly Load Max Load Shedding Sources: Asian Development Bank estimates. about 105 kWh per year. megawatts 1.400 1. 128.600 1.800 1. Yangon City has the highest electrification ratio (67%).200 1.200 megawatt-hours 1. Ministry of Electric Power. followed by Nay Pyi Taw . During the 10-year period. Figure 12 shows domestic electricity sales in FY2010 by state and division and the number of households. Figure 11 1. Ministry of Electric Power. Low per capita electricity consumption is due to the low degree of electrification and industrial development.

Switzerland) to conduct preparatory work for a system planning study. and Mandalay (31%). 0. etc. Magway had the highest average sales by industrial consumers at 1. about 680 kWh in Ayeyarwaddy and Tanitharyi. west of Yangon in the Ayeyarwaddy Delta. with sales of 549 GWh.7). 130. Mandalay City ranks second in electricity sales (at about 16%).40 GWh in Nay Pyi Taw. including demand projections.44 GWh in Yangon.” representing households. based on the assumption that any new supply would be fully consumed. nor was there separation of domestic demand and export demand.270 kWh in Nay Pyi Taw and Mandalay. Ministry of Electric Power.04 GWh. In September 2011. and about 270 kWh in Yakhine. compared with 0.. compared to about 1. Ayeyarwaddy (9%). drivers of energy demand. The areas with lowest electrification ratios are: Yakhine (6%).37 GWh in Mandalay. Table A5. and the high scenario assumed the gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate of 7% per annum. Kayar (37%).7% of the total. accounting for approximately 42% of total enduse in 2011. the capital. 129. followed by industry at 36% and commerce at 20%. The average household in Yangon consumed about 1. however. The last demand projection by Department of Electric Power (DEP) was prepared in 2001 and has not been systematically updated since. and 0. (54%). The highest industrial consumption (supplied at 33 kV) was in Yangon. Demand forecast. kWh/HH 2. the low scenario assumed doubling of demand every 10 years. Three scenarios were prepared: the base scenario assumed a growth rate of demand taking into account experience in Thailand. MOEP contracted a consulting service (Colenco.500 1. There was no attempt to project demand based on consumer categories.760  kWh in FY2010 (ending 31 March 2011).500 1. was fourth (behind Magway) with sales representing about 5. and Tanintharyi (9%) in the southeast (Annex 5. while Nay Pyi Taw. Unit Consumption.34 Myanmar: Energy Sector Initial Assessment Figure 12 70 60 Electrification Ratio 50 40 30 20 Electrification and Unit Consumption 2. greatly underestimated demand.000 . The largest end-use of electricity in the country is for “general purpose. followed by Mandalay (430 GWh) and Magway (265 GWh). Yangon City accounts for around 45% of total electricity drawn from the grid. east of Yangon. Rural areas are poorly electrified. as reflected in ESE’s average ratio of 16% for these areas. Table A5. Temporary uses and street lighting account for less than 1% (Appendix 5.000 500 10 0 Ya n Na gon yp yit aw Ka y M ar an da lay Sh M an on (s Ba outh go ) (ea s Ka t) Ba chi go n (w e Sa st) Sh gain an g (n Sh orth an ) (ea st) C M hin ag wa y Ka Ta yin n Ay inth ey ary ar i wa d Ra dy kh ine - Electrified kWh/HH kWh/HH = kilowatt-hour per household. The 2001 projections. The demand projection was simplistic. Sources: Asian Development Bank estimates.8).

In addition. there is no legal and regulatory framework (e. and cost parameters are not explicit in this planning approach. Off-grid consumer tariffs vary depending on the cost of generation by diesel or other means (e. However. The next step is to estimate the capital requirements and submit the overall plan to the cabinet. Power system planning in Myanmar is based on central planning. Myanmar lacks a consolidated plan for energy efficiency. Electricity generated by joint ventures (including free power and purchased power) is supplied to MOEP at an agreed price. planning for future demand and supply is essentially according to power development. 35 36 12 cents/kWh for foreigners. small power. all generation by gas-fired power plants is supplied to MEPE. System planning. The linkages between future demand. bulk (for >30 kW supplied at 33 kV). This approach is based on supply availability and the assumption that all power generated will be consumed or exported. and upon clarification of investment by private sector developers.g. Based on the hydropower plan. solar. Electricity produced by hydropower and coal-fired power stations (owned by MOEP) is sold to MEPE at a constant price of 20 kyats/kWh. the power development plan is scaled accordingly for implementation in the coming year. Apart from the above-noted study by DEP in 2001. The Department of Hydropower Planning (DHPP) develops a list of potential hydropower projects and then seeks potential developers. and ii. Generation costs of combined-cycle gas turbines have been estimated at 130 kyats/kWh. In parallel. the main objectives of the Myanmar Energy Policy are to maintain the status of energy independence. the Research and Development Center under the Ministry of Industry (MOI) addresses energy efficiency. As of January 2012. A royalty is also due to ESE. the MOGE prepares its production plan and allocates gas for power generation.36 In line with ASEAN’s target. Electricity Tariff 132..g. connections between generation sources and load centers are then outlined and the tentative schemes for the voltage levels of the transmission lines and substations are proposed. As noted earlier. which then supplies it to the Yangon City Electricity Supply Board (YESB) and the Electricity Supply Enterprise (ESE). and the use of alternative fuels by households. Energy Efficiency 135. 136. technical specifications. 8. of about 20–25 kyats/kWh. Consequently. 35 kyats/kWh for general purpose (households). and low-voltage temporary users. street lighting. standards) for energy efficiency and no dedicated organization at the national level. resource availability. 133. mini-hydropower) and may range between 100 kyats/kWh and 300 kyats/kWh. compared to the base year 2005.. 134. 75 kyats/kWh for domestic power. . energy efficiency and conservation are important objectives of Myanmar’s energy policy. Upon budget determination. H.Energy Sector Initial Assessment: Context and Strategic Issues 35 131. energy efficiency and conservation. and to promote wider use of new and renewable sources of energy. the government aims to save 5% of the total primary energy consumption by 2020 and 8% by 2030. To advance energy security. While the Ministry of Energy (MOE) is the focal point for energy sector coordination. government offices. YESB and ESE have two categories for their electricity tariffs:35 i. and high-voltage temporary users.

In order to promote and enhance energy efficiency. (v) institutional strengthening and capacity building. 1 in 2008. 38 . promotion of energy efficiency in rural villages. Under the AyeyarwaddyChao Phraya-Mekong Economic Cooperation Strategy. Extensive staff recruitment and capacity building will be needed to fully establish the new department. and (ix) increased energy prices.38 and training in energy auditing. and the Myanmar Engineering Society37 undertake a number of activities related to energy efficiency activities. Under the law. (ii) Kyankhin Cement Plant in 2006. a new Environmental Conservation Department is proposed. Myanmar’s Agenda 21. It is Myanmar’s representative under the ASEAN Energy Manager Accreditation Scheme. Myanmar cooperates with the Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency of Thailand concerning energy statistics. (iv) Mayangone Textile Factory No. Development of Myanmar’s climate change policy is under the responsibility of the National Environmental Conservation Committee. (ii) a central and dedicated energy efficiency agency with confirmed roles. With Myanmar’s ratification of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) on 25 November 1994. I. adopted in May 2008. MES has undertaken energy audits of selected industries. MOE. Despite its limited resources. (iii) a well-defined energy efficiency policy and guidelines. Nonetheless. When the law is promulgated.36 Myanmar: Energy Sector Initial Assessment 137. (iii) Thanlyin Oil Refinery. 141. such as: (i) Mann Petroleum Refinery in 2001 and a follow-up in 2004. provide for protection of the environment. several ministerial provisions and statements relate to the concern. (vii) improved energy management practices for industrial and commercial sectors. However. published in 1997. In 2009. 139. the government has indicated the following requirements: (i) strong leadership and commitment by the government. MOI. an Environmental Impact Assessment Rule will be mandatory. (viii) an energy efficiency labeling program for appliance and energy service companies. Yangon Division in 2008–2009. 142. Kungangone Township. including seminars and workshops for capacity building and participation in the ASEAN Energy Award Program and ASEAN Energy Manager Accreditation Scheme. the National Sustainable Development Strategy was announced. MES has limited capability in acquiring accurate data and financial resources. Despite the above actions. requiring environmental and social impact reports for all major projects. also in 2006. As an NGO. (iv) detailed information on energy use. Workshops on energy efficiency promotion for rural villages were held in Su Ka Lat Village. 138. which aims to train and certify 50 energy managers over a 4-year period (2010–2013). and (v) Myanmar Automobile and Diesel Engine Industries in 2009. (vi) training and dissemination of energy efficiency and conservation practices. Other initiatives have been construction of an energy-efficient urea fertilizer plant at Kyawzwa and a start in replacing privately-owned vehicles 40 years old or more. which will be responsible for environmental and social safeguards requirements. several ministries are implementing sector-specific initiatives relevant to climate change: 37 The Myanmar Engineering Society (MES) is a nongovernment organization that is actively participating in energy efficiency activities in Myanmar. Although the government has not issued a formal policy statement concerning climate change. Climate Change 140. Myanmar still lacks a national strategy and action plan for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The Environmental Protection Law is under Parliamentary consideration and is expected to be promulgated in the near future. the government undertook initiatives to fulfill its commitment and obligations. and the Constitution of the Union of Myanmar.

2009–2015 sets out projects and activities necessary to meet the Hyogo Framework for Action and the ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response Commitments. (ii) The government has implemented the Initial National Communication project with the assistance of the Global Environment Facility. The National Environmental Conservation Committee was formed in 2004 and re-formed in April 2011. 39 These are the Planning and Statistics Department. (iv) MOE has initiated the Clean Fuel Program. In September 2011. Environmental and Social Safeguard Requirements for Energy Projects 144. Simultaneously. and Dry Zone Greening Department. Four institutions under MOECAF are performing their specific duties and responsibilities mainly related to environmental conservation and forestry. this includes converting gasoline. including regulations and technical guidelines. replacing NCEA. It is chaired by MOECAF. 145. The government established the National Commission for Environmental Affairs (NCEA) in February 1990. the name of the Ministry of Forestry was changed to Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry (MOECAF) with the aim of developing a body dedicated to environmental conservation measures. the Environmental Conservation Rule in draft corresponding regulations to enact legislation. efficiency. The 1995 Myanmar Forest Policy formalizes the commitment to sustainable development of forest resources for social. (iii) The National Adaptation Program of Actions.39 147. . The Director General of the Department of Planning and Statistics in MOECAF serves as the secretary. funded by the Global Environment Facility. The report is ready for submission to UNFCCC. and now serves as the focal organization for environmental matters. Six imperatives identified in the policy are protection. one hydropower project has been submitted to UNFCCC for clean development mechanism consideration. sustainability. in cooperation with the Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry (MOECAF). MOECAF is the designated national authority for the clean development mechanism.Energy Sector Initial Assessment: Context and Strategic Issues 37 (i) The Myanmar Action Plan on Disaster Risk Reduction. and economic purposes. 146. 143. and public awareness. To date. Environmental Conservation Department (ECD) has been opened in October 2012 and is carrying out its duties of environmental conservation activities. The Environmental Conservation Law provides the legal basis for implementing a range of enhanced environmental management measures. the Committee’s membership includes 19 ministries. the government is endeavoring to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by increasing the use of natural gas in the industrial sector and for power generation. The Environmental Conservation Law was enacted by the Government in March 2012. Myanmar Timber Enterprise. now includes Myanmar. NCEA acted as the national focal point and coordinating agency for environmental matters. participation. A new department for Environmental Conservation is expected. diesel. basic needs. Until early 2011. Forest Department. J. The executing agency is the Department of Metrological and Hydrology in the Ministry of Transport. and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vehicles to compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles. As noted earlier. and creating the enabling conditions for their effective implementation has been being drawn and submitted to authorized body. formerly the Ministry of Forestry. environmental.

Myanmar’s development partners—in consultation with the government—could begin considering support for the sector by focusing on several apparent priorities. A comprehensive energy sector assessment for Myanmar is a priority foundation for forward planning. Rehabilitation works in power generation. without which whole areas of the country will be severely hampered in their efforts to advance economically. 149. Detailed energy sector assessment. Medium and long-term planning is lacking. strengthening Myanmar’s energy sector is critical to reducing poverty and enhancing the medium and long-term development prospects of the country. As noted. which will be essential in mobilizing the financial and technical expertise needed. there is a need for a detailed and comprehensive energy sector assessment. issues of sustainability and protection of the environment must be considered simultaneously. desirable institutional structural reforms. managed so as to constructively involve the seven ministries concerned. extensive technical assistance will be required. Electrification is an urgent requirement. Drawing from this initial assessment of the energy sector. but with the caveat that a comprehensive assessment is needed. the least-cost and sequencing of infrastructure investments.II Potential International Involvement A. education. is of primary concern. and distribution. and many other related issues. especially of rural areas. 153. coal. It would also serve as a basis for coordination with Myanmar’s development partners and the private sector. Clearly. there are many dimensions to the sector and they must be addressed comprehensively and systematically so as to ensure efficient and effective use of resources. demand projections and supply options have to be determined for power. Social progress also depends on electrification. transmission. B. While electrification. 152. perhaps especially in the Yangon area. As this initial assessment of the energy sector has described. and other sources of energy. Data Requirements 148. where frequent blackouts 38 . hence at this stage it is difficult to determine capacity-building needs. petroleum. Yet another consideration is integration of Myanmar’s energy potential with the GMS and ASEAN initiatives. The initial assessment outlined in this report is very preliminary. These three thrusts are needed throughout the country. Areas of Possible Support for the Energy Sector 151. together with the investment requirements for meeting the growing demand for energy. gaps in the policy and regulatory framework. without which health. and other essential services inevitably suffer. It does not draw from in-depth analytical work on the energy sector. 150. energy conservation and climate change initiatives. In this regard.

154. transmission and distribution lines in Myanmar must be extended and improved together with addition of new power plants. As a medium-term solution. Since most natural gas pipelines are old. In collaboration with the GMS Program.000 barrels per day. Environmental and social safeguards must also be guiding principles. Private sector investment will lead this subsector. is a potential public–private partnership project (crude oil would be supplied from the Myanmar–PRC crude oil pipeline). 161. 44 by foreign investors. 156. 162. Proposed additional coal and gas-fired power generation plants will also need to be assessed. their rehabilitation is necessary. with capacity of 20. The corporatization and privatization of various energy enterprises should also be considered (currently all enterprises are within the ministries). Rehabilitation and expansion of natural gas pipelines. Renewable energy and energy efficiency. Development of the oil and gas subsector. The one coal-fired power generation plant and 10 gas-fired power plants must be rehabilitated and upgraded. Coal sector. Sector reform. 159. Development of Myanmar’s huge hydropower potential should be guided by sustainable and least-cost principles. Rehabilitation and upgrading of coal and gas-fired generation plants. 157. the government could benefit from best practices regarding the investment climate for proactively attracting private sector participation. To promote energy efficiency. Myanmar’s development partners could be third party facilitators. in line with the public sector reform program in Myanmar. 158. a 500-kV transmission line from the northern areas to Yangon should be considered. All investment in the coal sector should be undertaken by the private sector. information must continue to be collected on the latest developments concerning renewable energy and energy efficiency in Myanmar. including assisting the government in streamlining and assessing the terms of production sharing contracts. The existing refineries are old and in need of rehabilitation and upgrading.Potential International Involvement 39 occur. Rehabilitation and upgrading of refineries. especially in regards to clean technology and environmental safeguards. 155. An integrated comprehensive development plan for hydropower. 160. The construction of a new refinery near Mandalay. Myanmar’s development partners could be third party facilitators. Some 66 potential hydropower development projects have been identified. the pricing mechanism for electricity and petroleum products should be reassessed. . To increase the overall electrification ratio (26% in 2011) and energy access in rural areas. The expansion of distribution networks and the construction of a gas transmission pipeline from offshore to the area of Yangon could be considered. A prefeasibility study for solar power generation (solar park type) in the Central Dry Zone should be undertaken. some of which is underway. through the production sharing contracts (PSCs). Increased electrification. More generally.

institutional. environmental. and distribution. Eight enterprises related the energy sector are within the concerned ministries Limited number of staff dedicated to energy policy and regulation Weak coordination for energy efficiency and renewable energy development Appendix 1 Problem Tree NATIONAL IMPACTS SECTOR IMPACTS CORE SECTOR PROBLEMS Main Cause Lack of coordination and poor long-term integrated energy planning and development (i) Deficient Sector Output No consolidated energy demand projections or supply planning (ii) Inefficient institutional coordination and cooperation among eight concerned ministries (iii) Absence of coordinated energy sector policy (iv) Lack of transparency and energy policy and pricing mechanism . and economic sustainability Ineffective energy institutions and lack of capability and capacity of staff (i) (i) (ii) No integrated hydropower development plan for sustainable and inclusive development to utilize abundant hydropower potential (ii) No legal requirements for environmental and social safeguards for energy infrastructure (iii) (i) Low electrification ratio (ii) High losses in transmission and distribution networks for power and natural gas (iii) Persistent blackouts in Yangon in dry seasons (iv) Low electricity tariff (v) Poor operation and maintenance of power generation. unreliable power supply because of low investment in generation. regulation. transmission.40 Limited and inefficient socioeconomic developments of the country Low electrification ratio. and distribution networks (iv) (v) Energy sector activities are scattered among eight ministries Within each ministry. transmission. high technical losses. inefficient use of natural resources as renewable energy investments are limited Poor and inadequate infrastructure. and implementation and operation exists. the function of policy. and human resources capacity to provide reliable and sustainable energy resources Limited investment in energy sector Lack of sector support for social.

The boundaries. colors. denominations. or information. denominations. September 2011. 14 00’N o 0 100 Kilometers 200 Dawei 14 00’N o Banchuang Basin Tanintharyi Basin This map was produced by the cartography unit of the Asian Development Bank. or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. any judgment on the legal status of any territory. and any other information shown on this map do not imply. on the part of the Asian Development Bank. 41 . o Myeik (Mergui) Archipelago Karatbud Basin 94 00’E 100 00’E o Source: Ministry of Mines. colors.Appendix 2 Coal Figure A2 94 00’E o Coal Basins of Myanmar 100 00’E o Puta-O Basin Hukaung Basin Myitkyina Chindwin Basin 24 00’N o Shwebo-Mabein Basin Lwajil Basin 24 00’N o Lashio Lashio Basin Shwebo Basin Hakha Nawangchun Basin Sagaing Mandalay Kyud-Namhsan Basin Namhsan Basin Mongkhet Basin Kyingbon Basin Minbu-Salin Basin Sittwe KalawPinhuong Basin Magway NAY PYI TAW Tachileik Basin Taunggyi Mung Huat Basin Tigyit Basin Maungtum Basin Loikaw Pyinmana Loikaw Basin Ramree Island Man-Aung Island Inggyu Basin N Bay of Bengal Pathein Bago Hpa-an Yangon Hitchuya Basin Mawlamyine Gulf of Martaban Coal Basin National Capital City/Town River International Boundary Boundaries are not necessarily authoritative.

831 65. 4.149 1. Karathuri Banchaung Wungyichaung Tasu-Letpanhla Kyesi-Mansan Kholan Tigyit Kyasakan.500 0.240 0. 21. Location Kalewa Major Coal Deposits in Myanmar (as of 30 September 2011) Township Kalewa State/Region Sagaing Tonnage (millions) 4.Minpalaung Mankyaung Manpan-Monma Harput Bokpyin Dawe Seikphyu Pauk Kyesi-Mansan Namsam PinLaung Ywangan Tanyang Tanyang Tanyang Tanintharyi Tanintharyi Magwe Magwe Shan (South) Shan (South) Shan (South) Shan (South) Shan (North) Shan (North) Shan (North) 20.469 5.800 1.841 5.072 0. Darthwekyauk Paluzawa Mawleikgyi Ch.000 89.462 0. 12. Sintaung Namma Narkon Lashio Lashio Lashio Shan (North) Shan (North) Shan (North) Lignite Sub-bituminous Lignite continued on next page .000 5.230 0.683 2. 14. 6.800 3. 13. 15.213 0.110 3.000 0. 17.615 17.030 1. Sale (Mansele) Sanya Lashio Lashio Shan (North) Shan (North) 22.800 1. 3.335 33.1 No. 8.044 0.052 3.851 5.42 Appendix 2 Table A2.048 0.825 0. 11.704 0. Kyopin Lweji Kawmapyin Mawtaung Tamu Mawlike Mawlike Kawlin Bamoh Tanintharyi Tanintharyi Sagaing Sagaing Sagaing Sagaing Kachin Tanintharyi Tanintharyi 9.030 18.925 Category Positive Probable Possible Possible Potential Potential Possible Probable Possible Probable Probable Possible Potential Potential Possible Probable Probable Probable Probable Probable Possible Possible Probable Potential Probable Possible Potential Possible Potential Probable Possible Potential Probable Possible Probable Potential Probable Possible Potential Coal Rank Sub-bituminous Sub-bituminous Sub-bituminous Lignite to sub-bituminous Sub-bituminous Sub-bituminous Lignite to sub-bituminous Lignite Lignite to sub-bituminous Lignite to sub-bituminous Sub-bituminous Lignite to sub-bituminous Sub-bituminous Lignite Sub-bituminous Lignite Lignite to sub-bituminous Sub-bituminous Sub-bituminous Sub-bituminous Sub-bituminous Lignite to sub-bituminous Lignite to sub-bituminous Lignite 2.692 1.220 1.365 3. 5.220 1.200 2. 19. 23. 7.280 0. 16.810 2. 24. 1.700 0.808 1.490 20. 18. 10.

740 Category Probable Probable Probable Potential Probable Probable Potential Probable Probable Probable Possible Possible Potential Coal Rank Lignite Lignite 27. 25.Coal 43 Table A2. 32.930 1.1 continued No.574 0.256 16. 33.000 0.549 1. Total Sanlaung Mahkaw Wankyan (Namlap) Hoko Mainghkok Narparkaw Kywesin Thipaw Thipaw Kyaington Kyaington Maingsat Maington Ingapu Shan (North) Shan (North) Shan (East) Shan (East) Shan (East) Shan (East) Ayeyawadi Lignite to sub-bituminous Lignite to sub-bituminous Lignite Lignite Lignite to sub-bituminous Lignite Sub-bituminous Source: Ministry of Mines.870 1. Location Narlan Namlinhkan Township Lashio Lashio State/Region Shan (North) Shan (North) Tonnage (millions) 1. 26.339 0.048 0.700 3.190 117. 29.500 465. 31. 30.680 10.660 1. . 28.

51 12. 12. 1. 2.75 – – 26. 20.99 44.26 54.33 13.24 0.32 18.83 52.169 9.98 6.59 37.41 1.97 51.70 31.36 61.81 26.00 41.17 Sulphur (%) – <1.16 19.64 0.885 1.47 49.00 17. 32.60 35. . 4.396 9.87 1. 18. 6.98 56.00 2.29 21. 7. 14.28 8.77 33.69 5.31 59.34 20.60 8.77 28.754 9.14 11.59 36.163 8.82 – – 41. 19.56 No.70 9. 9.48 0.00 – 1.40 48.98 17.21 9.772 10. 30.10 42. Btu/lb = British thermal units per pound.233 10.40 38. 26.80 0.89 18. Region Kalewa Darthwekyauk Paluzawa Mawlikegyi Kyopyin Lweji Kawmapyin Mawtaung Karathuri Wungyichaung Tasu-letpanhla Kyesi-Mansan Kholan Tigyit Makyaning Manpan-Monma Harput Sale (Mansele) Sanya Sintaung Namma Narkon Narlan Namlinhkan Sanlaung Mahkaw Wankyan Hoko Mainghkok Narparkaw Kywesin Kani Tanintharyi Tanintharyi Tanintharyi Magwe Magwe Shan (South) Shan (South) Shan (South) Shan (North) Shan (North) Shan (North) Shan (North) Shan (North) Shan (North) Shan (North) Shan (North) Shan (North) Shan (North) Shan (North) Shan (North) Shan (East) Shan (East) Shan (East) Shan (East) Ayeyarwaddy Taninthayi 14.32 18.45 28.99 1.43 8.30 23.56 1. 10.355 9.30 14.30 Volatile (%) 38.40 1.62 – 45.65 19.40 16.69 2.977 9. 21. 23.64 2.71 34.365 9.720 12.86 40.00 – 6.27 22.185 0.44 0. 22. 13.50 – 26.60 31.90 13.93 0.50 2.00 – – – 1. 31.47 33. 24.770 10.80 48.370 – = unknown.889 8.24 48.40 50.70 – – 8. 5.080 9.890 11.00 56.82 0. 11.36 5.32 3.2 Location Township Kalewa Tamu Mawlike Mawlike Kawlin Bamoh Taninthayi Tanintharyi Bokpyin Seikphuy Pauk Kyesi Namsan Pinlaung Tayang Tayang Tayang Lashio Lashio Lashio Lashio Lashio Lashio Lashio Thipaw Thipaw Kyaington Kyaington Maingsat Maington Ingapu Dawei State/ Division Sagaing Sagaing Sagaing Sagaing Sagaing Kachin Chemical Analysis of Coal Deposits in Myanmar Chemical Analysis Fix Carbon (%) 52.881 10. 25.58 27.08 0.80 Moisture (%) 9.42 35.71 30.90 15.51 – – – – 13.00 35.52 35. 27.32 43.720–8.153 7.25 12.57 13.51 50.86 55.02 58.27 9.45 45.31–31.67 34. 8. 29.00 44.187 9.40 0.49 41. 17.98 16.50 15.244 9.69 2.00 56.16 – Ash (%) 8.26 34.01 33.349 10. 3.12 1.07 41.93–28.800 8.85 34.26 23.83–15.64 15.39 7.51 Calorific Value (Btu/lb) 11.64 6.96 0. 28.60 14.000 – 11.40 15.40 43.90 34.420 8.60 2.88 40.66 43.40 34.370 10.00 25. Source: Ministry of Mines.174 6.32 96.16 12. 16.440 9.49 21.36 28. 15.57 33.083 11.97 4.44 Appendix 2 Table A2.52 17.06 6.430 5.86 35.54 38.74 8.810 8.

93 2.48 386.71 29.34 – = unknown.31 6.26 799.04 28.33 10.30 43.08 4.26 8. Source: Ministry of Mines.76 245.62 1. .14 550.99 21.68 0.13 1.12 30.67 32.36 401.67 15.34 136.18 6.88 623.43 14.05 66.06 54.26 507.84 2.53 13.44 25.25 102.83 64.83 76.72 27.21 228.42 3.89 9.79 17.90 28.00 – Cement 0.00 3.64 340.8 – – – – 90.18 2.14 571.93 39.86 – – – – – – – – – 88.16 2.78 7.26 0.85 1.17 85.00 1.94 3.06 42.31 32.26 25.77 2.78 0.14 35 37.4 43.78 51.25 439.14 33.30 515.63 34.64 48.03 7.20 925.70 26.52 202.82 24.78 34.57 32.81 – – – – 1.15 37.2 2.09 Other 4.71 30.34 0.78 38.08 362.04 2.84 29.19 472.26 – Electricity 4.26 14.47 Export – – – – – – – – – – 5.50 1.16 3.61 122.18 24 25.68 20.28 24.40 1.61 26.08 20.41 3.86 26.29 564.81 21.87 140.00 2.88 531.12 133.117.71 38.59 43.46 39.49 571.00 – – – – – – – 24.13 4.09 30.55 9.30 2.24 5.5 38.42 992.48 35.16 227.76 9.63 30.39 150.3 Year 1981–82 1982–83 1983–84 1984–85 1985–86 1986–87 1987–88 1988–89 1989–90 1990–91 1991–92 1992–93 1993–94 1994–95 1995–96 1996–97 1997–98 1998–99 1999–00 2000–01 2001–02 2002–03 2003–04 2004–05 2005–06 2006–07 2007–08 2008–09 2009–10 2010–11 Production 18.36 18.11 12.58 0.55 – Consumption Briquetting – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 3.02 20.08 24.43 31.96 19.55 15.14 63.66 35.38 27.Coal 45 Table A2.82 23.77 41.1 7.66 3.182.313.23 17.00 40.06 207.85 290.39 15.53 64.90 Coal Production and Consumption (thousand tons) Steel 8.57 53.93 13.53 43.29 0.87 737.09 30.03 12.40 2.48 3.74 692.47 20.

100 00’E Source: Ministry of Energy. and any other information shown on this map do not imply. colors. 46 . September 2011. or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. 14 00’N o 4 5 6 7 8 9 Zawtilla Yetagun 10 Mepale 11 Mawlamyine 12 Namyau 13 Hsipaw-Lashio 14 Kalaw 15 Rakhine Offshore 16 Moattama Offshore 17 Tanintharyi Offshore 94 00’E o o 17 Myeik (Mergui) Archipelago This map was produced by the cartography unit of the Asian Development Bank.Appendix 3 Oil and Gas Figure A3 Location Map of Oil and Gas Fields in Sedimentary Basins of Myanmar 94 00’E o 100 00’E o 2 Myitkyina 24 00’N o 3 4 24 00’N o Lashio 13 Hakha 12 Mandalay Sagaing Kyauddonat 5 Laipando Thagyilaung-Babe Ayadaw Chauk Yananchaung Taunggyi Sittwe Marin Hlaulahabin Kaini Peppil Magway NAY PYI TAW 14 Shwe Pyinmana Loikaw Ramree Island Man-Aung Island 6 1 Pyay 8 15 Myanaung Shwapyitha Apyauk N 9 0 100 Kilometers Sedimentary Basin National Capital City/Town 200 Bay of Bengal Nyaungdan Pathein Bago Indalog Yangon Hpa-an 7 11 10 Mawlamyine Gulf of Martaban Sedimentary Basin 1 2 3 14 00’N o Oil Field Gas Field Rakhine Coastal Hukaung Chindwin Shwebo-Monywa Central Myanmar Pyay Embayment Ayeyarwady Delta Bago Yoma Sittaung Valley Yadana River 16 Dawei International Boundary Boundaries are not necessarily authoritative. on the part of the Asian Development Bank. The boundaries. any judgment on the legal status of any territory. denominations. or information. colors. denominations.

260 200 300 150 500 4.000 Myeik (Mergui) Archipelago Dawei Nam Htum (Putao) Lahe Galichaung (Hopin) Nam Kham Parkyethaw Namhumon (Kaungkhar) Namsaungchaung Moegoke Boundaries are not necessarily authoritative.Appendix 4 Renewable Energy Figure A4 94 00’E o Location Map of Mini-Hydropower Stations 100 00’E o 1 2 3 Myitkyina 4 24 00’N o 24 00’N o 14 16 15 17 5 7 Lashio 6 8 18 Hakha 19 Mandalay Sagaing 9 11 12 22 13 10 21 20 24 Taunggyi 23 25 26 Sittwe Magway NAY PYI TAW Pyinmana 32 Ramree Island Man-Aung Island Loikaw 27 28 N Bay of Bengal Pathein Bago Hpa-an 0 100 Kilometers Mawlamyine Gulf of Martaban National Capital City/Town 200 Yangon 29 1 Power Station 1 2 14 00’N o Minihydro Power Station River International Boundary kW 160 50 1. denominations.102 100 00’E o Source: Ministry of Energy. or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.000 30 31 10 Nammyaw 11 Namsaungngaung 12 Pyin Oo Lwin 13 Bahtoo (Tatkyi) 14 Htwesaung 15 Zarlwe 16 Ngasitvar This map was produced by the cartography unit of the Asian Development Bank. Total 33. colors.260 600 400 139 50 200 480 3.200 164 400 1. The boundaries. on the part of the Asian Development Bank. 47 . or information.000 94 00’E o Power Station 17 Zeechaung 18 Laivar 19 Daungvar 20 Namlaung 21 Thinthe 22 Chichaung 23 Namlut 24 Namwote 25 Mepan 26 Konhein 27 Pharsaung 28 Pharpon 29 Zinkyaik 30 Mali 31 Kattalu 32 Pathi kW 1. any judgment on the legal status of any territory.000 4.000 450 1. denominations. colors. 14 00’N o 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Nam Khan Kha (Moekaung) 5.000 4.000 1.200 125 118 62 192 192 150 2. and any other information shown on this map do not imply.

1 MW) Zawgyi-1 Kyawsi Project-N Nyaungoo Khaolan Aungpan Aungthapye Meikhtila Bagan Loilem Project-L Wazi Project-P Chauk Saytotetayar Pozolan Tanyaung Pinpet Namsan Keng Tawng Thazi Mone Kalaw Sale Moenal (54 MW) Kyaukpadaung Yepaungsone (3x25 MW) Pakhannge Mauk Mai Sonsae Mann Linkhae Shemyo Kyeeon Kyeewa Tikyit (2x25 MW) Paunglaung Taungdwingyi Magway Ngaphe Upper Paung Laung (280 MW) Nay Pyi Taw (140 MW) Malun Nancho Baluchaung-1 Pyinmana Sinpaungwe (48 MW) (2x14 MW) Kalama Aunglan Thayet Project-C Shwepandaw Thephyu Baluchaung-2 Kyawswa (6x28 MW) Kyaukswekyo Pyay Ramree Island Pauk Kaung Project-K Sinde Okshitpin Khapaung Nyaungche Dauk Taungoo (30 MW) Man-Aung Island Mathone Kamyaing Phyu (40 MW) Kyankin Kun (60 MW) Myanaung Tharyargone (1x16. or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. any judgment on the legal status of any territory. denominations. on the part of the Asian Development Bank. and any other information shown on this map do not imply. The boundaries. 48 . o Myeik (Mergui) Archipelago 94 00’E 100 00’E o Source: Ministry of Electric Power.Appendix 5 Power Figure A5. denominations. or information.45 MW) Hlawga Yegyi Thaketa Phaan Ywama Myainggalay Tharpaung Hlaingtharyar Thanlyin Mawlamyine Kangyidaunt (18 MW) Sinmalaik Athoke Bayintnaung Pathein Thida Myaungmya Laputta Ahlone Shweli (600 MW) Namtu Panlon Mansan Moegote Mansan Future Existing Hydro-power Station Gas Turbine Power Station Steam Turbine Power Station 230 kV Substation 132 kV Substation 66 kV Substation 33 kV Substation 11 kV Substation 230 kV Transmission Line 132 kV Transmission Line 66 kV Transmission Line 33 kV Transmission Line 11 kV Transmission Line River International Boundary Boundaries are not necessarily authoritative.1 94 00’E o Existing Transmission System 100 00’E o 24 00’N Kyaukpahto Thaphanseik Kantbalu o Nabar Shwegu Tagaung Tapein 1 (4x60 MW) Bhamo Muse Namkhan Theinni Lashio 24 00’N o Ngapyawdaing Bay of Letpanha Hsibaw Sedawgyi (25 MW) Kyauk Me Monywa Yadanarbon Aungpinle Nyaungbingyi Ohntaw Pyinoolwin Nyaungbingyi Myaukpyin Taguntaing Ywathit Chaungku Pakhange Industrial Zone Shwesaryan Semekhon Kyauktalone Pauk Yeywa Semekhon-2 Pakkhokku Belin Zawgyi-2 Myingyan Ingon Wansin Kanma Kinda Myingyan (2x28 MW) Kyunchaung (3x18.25 MW) Yenwe (1x18.25 MW) Maung Tagar Bengal East Dagon (1x18. Gulf of Martaban 14 00’N o 14 00’N o N 0 100 Kilometers 200 This map was produced by the cartography unit of the Asian Development Bank. colors. colors. September 2011.45 MW) Zaungtu Shwekyin (20 MW) (75 MW) Hinthata Thaton Kamarnat (2x16.

45 MW) Hinthata Minhla Yenwe (25 MW) Tharyargone Shwekyin (75 MW) Hutgyi (75 MW) Thaton (2x16.Power 49 Figure A5.2 Planned Transmission System 94 00’E Yenam (1200 MW) o 100 00’E o Kaunglangphu (2700 MW) Pisa (2000 MW) Wusok (2000 MW) Lasa (6000 MW) Lawngdin (435 MW) Chibwe (2800 MW) Myitsone (6000 MW) Htamanthi (1200 MW) Farkent Mogaung Homemalin Mohnyin Hopin Tapein 2 (4x40 MW) Bhamo Winemaw Chibwengae Washuang (99 MW) Gawlan (100 MW) Hkankwan (140 MW) Wxhongze (60 MW) Tongxinqiao (320 MW) Myitkyina 24 00’N o 24 00’N Muse Upper Thanlwin (1400 MW) Launtkai Namkhan Shweli 1 Kyaukpahto Mabane Kutkhai Shweli 2 Tagaung Thaphanseik Shweli 3 Kunlon Namtu Kale Moemate (30 MW) Theinni Ngapyawdaing Thaingin Manton Lashio Tant Yann Kantbalu Mansan Naung Pha Moegote Falam Nansan Letpanha (1200 MW Sedawgyi (40 MW) Manipu (4x95 MW) Hsibaw Mine Yal Shwesayae Sedawgyi Kyauk Me Haka (660 MW) (25 MW) Yeywa (280 MW) Yadanarbon Namlan Loi Hson Tauk Gantgaw Aungpinle Monywa Pyinoolwin Myittha (40 MW) Ohntaw Mong-Hsu Myaukpyin Kyethi Mong Yah Taguntaing Kyaw Nyaungbingyi Namkha Mong Kung Industrial Zone Ywathit (200 MW) Mong Khat Pakhange Shwesaryan Madupi Kyauktalone Chaungku Wantapeng (25 MW) Ingon Yeywa (790 MW) Semekhon Mong-Naung Belin Zawgyi-2 Semekhon-2 PaukPakkhokku Keng Tong (96 MW) Kanma Wansin Heku (88 MW) Palatwa Mindat Myingyan Myogyi Myingyan Kinda Solu (165 MW) Laihka Konhein (2x28 MW) Kyunchaung (3x18. or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. colors. The boundaries. o Myeik (Mergui) Archipelago Kawthaung 94 00’E 100 00’E o Source: Ministry of Electric Power. on the part of the Asian Development Bank.5 MW) Keng Yan (28 MW) Nyaungoo Pintaya Loilem Project-N Wazi Keng Tong Buthitaung Kyauktaw Bagan Thapyaywa Aungpan Aungthapye Mong Khot Kholam Laymo 1 Mong Yaung (2x135 MW) Yinmarbin Pozolan Chauk Project-P Maungdaw Laymo 2 Tanyaung Kanzauk Keng Tawng Namsan Mong Phyat Pinpet Sale Buywa Thazi (54 MW) Kalaw Mrauk-U Moenal (42 MW) Mone Yathedaung Mong Hsat Kyaukpadaung Yepaungsone Minbya Mauk Mai (3x25 MW) Pakhannge Tacheleik Mann Ponna Gyun Kyeeon Kyeewa Linkhae Mon Ta Sang Tikyit Sonsae Nay Pyi Taw Mong Tong Shemyo Hsi-Hsaing Pan (7111 MW) Pauktaw (2x25 MW) Sittwe Ngaphe Nay Pyi Taw 1 Magway Nampon (130 MW) Myebon Malun Taungdwingyi Namtapet (110 MW) Pyinmana Ann (15 MW) Nancho Sinpaungwe Baluchaung-1 Kalama (48 MW) (2x14 MW) Project-C Aunglan Shwepandaw Future Existing Baluchaung-2 Kyauk Phyu Thayet (6x28 MW) Thephyu Kyaukswekyo Maei Baluchaung-3 Kyawswa Sane Hydro-power Station Pyay (48 MW) Ramree Island Sinde Pauk Kaung Thauk-Ye-Khat 1 (120 MW) Project-K Okshitpin Yengbye Gas Turbine Power Station Ywathit (600 MW) Khapaung Man-Aung Island Thauk-Ye-Khat 2 (120 MW) Toungup Nyaungche Dauk (30 MW) Taungoo Steam Turbine Power Station Thatay Chaung (111 MW) Mathone Bawgata Phyu (40 MW) Kamyaing (160 MW) Thandwe Kyankin Kun (60 MW) Tamu Mawlight (520 MW) Kyeintali Myanaung (1x16. denominations. any judgment on the legal status of any territory.1 MW) Kyawsi Zawgyi-1 Mong Pyin Ywarngan Sinedin (76.45 MW) Phaan Kawkareik Mawlamyine (12 MW) Phaungbyin Nabar Shwegu Tapein 1 (4x60 MW) o 500 kV Substation 230 kV Substation 132 kV Substation Myawadi Sittaung Bay of Bengal Tharpaung Kangyidaunt Zaungtu (20 MW) Kamarnat Maung Tagar East Dagon Wartayar Hlawga Yegyi Htantapin Thaketa Gwa 66 kV Substation 33 kV Substation 11 kV Substation 500 kV Transmission Line 230 kV Transmission Line 132 kV Transmission Line 66 kV Transmission Line 33 kV Transmission Line Pathein Myaungmya Laputta Myainggalay Hlaingtharyar Ywama Thanlyin Athoke Bayintnaung Kyaikasan Thida Maubin Ahlone Kyaiklatt Thanphuzayut Gulf of Martaban Lamine Ye 11 kV Transmission Line River Dawe Kanpauk 14 00’N Kyauknemaw o International Boundary 14 o 00’N Boundaries are not necessarily authoritative.25 MW) (1x18. or information. colors. and any other information shown on this map do not imply. denominations. Palauk Palaw N 0 100 Kilometers 200 Myeik May Yon (600 MW) Bokpyin This map was produced by the cartography unit of the Asian Development Bank. August 2010. .25 MW) (1x18.

0 40.7 44.0 120.5 91.946.0 76.0 300.3 3 x 33.45 3 x 18.25 2 x 6. Source: Ministry of Electric Power.0 1.8 600.0 75.9 3.5 4 x 60 4 x 18.0 75.2 154.5 3x6 2x6 2 x 10 3 x 10 3 x 25 4 x 70 2 x 12.0 370.0 3 x 33.3 1 x 18.065.0 2.0 35.5 2 x 15 3 x 18 6 x 100 4 x 197. 2012 Operation Start Date 1992 1974 1985 1989 1995 1998 2000 2002 2004 2005 2007 2008 2008 2008 2010 2011 2011 2011 2012 Installed Capacity (MW) 2 x 14 6 x 28 2 x 28 2 x 12.0 60.0 168.0 Annual Production (GWh) 200.0 120.1 2 x 18.0 25.0 30.0 990.0 262.45 1 x 16.022.0 600.0 74.550.3 1 x 54.2 330.0 154.3 1 x 54.0 1.0 3.190.6 427.9 34.7 55.957 568.0 0 200.95 12.5 31.0 Firm Capacitya (MW) 140 20 20 12 6 5 15 20 190 30 15 15 175 38 630 30 35 38 70 1.5 36.0 56.4 3 x 19. c  Production stopped in 2005.0 54.0 117.0 60.2 50.0 20.0 238.0 1 x 35.0 300.495 68.0 240.50 Appendix 5 Table A5.660.0 25.0 990.504 26.0 1.0 13.3 Thakayta Ahlone Hlawga Thaton Mawlamyaing Subtotal Gas Turbine Total GWh = gigawatt-hour.0 54.35 70.0 300.8 3 x 20 2 x 37 28.1 Installed and Available Generation.0 97.0 123.0 134.0 714.0 3. a   Capacity as of August 2012.0 12.0 165.0 Type Hydropower Power Station Baluchaung BHP (1) Baluchaung BHP (2) Kinda Sedawgyi Zawgyi (1) Zawgyi (2) Zaungtu Thaphanseik Mone Paunglaung Ye’new Khabaung KengTawn Shweli (1) Yeywa Tapein (1)b Shwegyin Kun Kyee ON Kyee Wa Location Kayah Kayah Mandalay Mandalay Shan Shan Bago Sagaing Magwe Mandalay Bago Bago Shan Shan Mandalay Kachin Bago Bago Magwe Subtotal Hydropower Coal-Fired Gas Turbine Tigyit Kyunchaung Mannc Myanaung Shwedaung Ywama Shan Magwe Magwe Ayarwaddy Bago Yangon 2005 1974 1978 1975 1984 1984 1980 2004 2004 1990 1997 1995 1999 1995 1999 1985 2001 1980 2 x 60 3 x 18.0 3.0 1 x 9.0 17.0 18. Yangon Yangon Yangon Mon Mon 92.814 .0 190.5 0 14.25 1 x 18.45 1 x 24. b  Temporarily out of service.45 2 x 16.0 30.3 36.45 2 x 18.6 4.0 377.0 790.0 30.267. MW = megawatt.0 280.0 911.

0 (Min) 75.00 7.0 (Min) 80.0 (Max) 54.0 (Min) 63.Power 51 Table A5.0 (Max) 9. Baluchaung-2 Baluchaung-2 2.8 (Min) 2.065 262 Commissioning Date 1960 1974 1985 1989 1992 1995 1998 2000 2002 2004 2005 2007 2008 2009 2009 2010 2011 2011 Power Station 1.0 (Max 7.0 (Min) 788. MW = megawatt.80 175. . 8 hours) 708. Kengtawng 14.0 206.55 24.0 (Min) 288. 2011 Firm Power (MW) 155. 3.00 25.20 5.0 (Max) 21.00 39.00 Dependable Capacity (MW) 30.0 (Min) 75.0 (Min) 30.0 (Min) 23.00 3.0 (Min) 21.0 (Max) 8. Yenwe 12.50 5.00 15. Shweli-1 15.0 (Min) 30.00 3.0 (Max) Annual Energy Generation (GWh) 595 595 165 134 200 35 30 76 117 330 911 123 120 378 4.708 GWh = gigawatt-hour.0 10.0 (Max) 50. Dapein (1) 17.05 50. Source: Ministry of Electric Power. Yeywa 16.0 (Max) 15.0 (Max) 5.00 4. 5.2 (Max) 1.1 (Min) 79. 8. 6.533.550 1.8 (Min) 28. 7.2 Installed Capacity (MW) 84 84 56 25 28 18 12 20 30 75 280 25 30 54 600 790 240 75 Existing Generating Plants for Hydropower.00 26.345.0 (Max) 27.8 (Max) 18.0 (Max) 5. Kinda Sedawgyi Baluchaung-1 Zawgyi-1 Zawgyi-2 Zaungtu Thaphanseik Mone 10. 4.0 (Max 30. Kabaung 13. Paunglaung 11. 9.0 6.00 30.526 12.0 (Max) 240.022 3.00 20.4 (Min) 12.60 (firm peak capacity.5 (Min) 28.00 174. Shwegyin Total 2.0 600.

038 1. 11.522 3.  2011 figures are estimated. 2.550 1. 10.522 0 3.268 177 141 226 36 59 62 172 334 918 129 2008 1.065 107 958 262 9. 9.578 5.233 1.090 1.823 5. 8. .663 1.190 165 134 200 35 30 76 117 330 911 123 120 378 4.273 144 149 226 42 57 69 169 291 957 152 113 11 170 2009 1.521 1. 12. 17. 4.425 2011a 588 57 98 95 55 29 52 124 181 389 66 68 182 1.446 1.739 2.529 1.3 Annual Energy Generation for Hydropower.764 7. Source: Ministry of Electric Power. 2007–2011 (gigawatt-hour) Actual Energy Generation 2007 1. 3.540 6.273 111 141 230 44 37 67 151 234 780 142 40 330 1.721 Power Station 1.011 2.52 Appendix 5 Table A5. Baluchaung-2 Kinda Sedawgyi Baluchaung-1 Zawgyi-1 Zawgyi-2 Zaungtu Thaphanseik Mone Paunglaung Yenwe Kabaung Kengtawng Shweli-1 Domestic Export Yeywa Dapein-1 Domestic Export Shwegyin Domestic Export Total a Estimated Annual Energy Generation 1. 13. 7.022 2. 5. 16.723 6.011 3. 6.520 5 243 2 3.540 2010 765 79 122 120 3 13 50 159 237 629 79 26 325 1.457 1.823 0 3. 14.969 12.913 11 277 235 5.708 15.

903.0 1. Table A5. MW = megawatt.4 Hydropower Projects Implemented by the Ministry as Sole Investment Projects Upper Paunglaung Nancho Middle Paunglaung Shweli (3) Kun Phyu Upper Yeywa Bawgata Manipur Tha-htay Ann Upper Buywa Upper Keng Tawng Total Installed Capacity (MW) 104 40 100 1.512.5 Power Projects Implemented by Local Entrepreneurs on Build-Operate-Transfer Basis Installed Capacity (MW) 120 52 29 9 64 280 6 560 Total GWh = gigawatt-hour.Power 53 Table A5. 2. 1. 7. No.500 190 120 1.150 Construction Bureau No. Projects Thaukyegat-2 Baluchaung-3 Middle Paunglaung Shweli (3) Kun Phyu Upper Yeywa Annual Energy Generation (GWh) 604.0 134.7 334. 6. Source: Ministry of Electric Power.0 236. 3. Source: Ministry of Electric Power.903 386 44 534 267 10. 4.050 60 40 280 160 380 111 10 150 51 2.572 Annual Energy (GWh) 454 152 500 3. MW = megawatt.600 500 1.4 38. 1 1 1 2 3 3 4 4 5 6 6 6 7 GWh = gigawatt-hour. 5.0 44.7 2.8 .

24. 28.400 1.796 552 327 769 1.54 Appendix 5 Table A5. 36. 13.440 599 775 5.685 2. 22. 32. 30.000 200 7. 29.110 1. 27. 38. 35.446 7. 10.000 1. 15. 25.200 1.360 1. 6. 4. 7.200 660 76. 37.140 14. 40. Hydropower Projects to be Implemented by Foreign Direct Investments Project Installed Capacity (MW) 6.6 No. 8.800 2. 33.290 924 35. 1. 11.700 1.476 2. 2. . 34.576 273 21.472 Myitsone Chipwi Wutsok Kaunglanhpu Renam Hpizaw Laza Chipwinge Dapein (2) Ngawchankha GawLan Wu Zhongze Hkan Kawn Tongxingqiao Lawngdin Upper Thanlwin (Kunlong) Naopha/ Mantong Naopha Mantong Upper Thanlwin (Mongton) Hutgyi Tamanthi Shwezaye Saingdin Lemro Lemro (2) Ywathit Nam Tamhpak Nam Pawn Htu Kyan Hseng Na Tha Hkwa Palaung Bawlake Taninthayi Shweli (2) Namlwe Keng Tong Wan Ta Pin So Lue Mong Wa Keng Yang He Kou Nam Kha Mawlaik Nam Tamhpak Total GWh = gigawatt-hour. 26. 14. 18.055 100 60 140 320 435 1.401 7.908 236 3.814 3. 16. 42. MW = megawatt.015 551 234 776 536 918 3. Source: Ministry of Electric Power.000 180 585 105 45 150 105 180 600 520 452 96 25 165 50 28 88 200 520 200 41. 23.106 219. 21.650 11.310 1. 20.338 6214 5. 5.265 536 138 742 274 155 483 937 3.080 10. 9. 39.276 Annual Energy (GWh) 30. 12. 3. 19.789 920 3.860 17.325 6. 17.400 1. 44.000 3.746 2.200 2.5 600 90 4. 31.900 99 168 1.730 6.770 10.

7 No.903.Power 55 Table A5.8 ? 2012 2013 Kawthoung (local entrepreneur) Yangon Coal-fired Thermal Power Plant Kalewa Coal-fired Thermal Power Plant Total GWh = gigawatt-hour. . 8 41 43 Coal-Fired Power Plant Projects to be Implemented by Foreign Direct Investments Projects Installed Capacity (MW) 6 270 600 560 Annual Energy Generation (GWh) Year of Completion 45 674~945 = 810 (average) 3. Source: Ministry of Electric Power. MW = megawatt.200 = 3.000~4.600 (average) 2.

562.007 25.799.848.234.086 20.337.471 453.071 1.210 42.060 Industrial Commercial Street Lighting Temporary Departmental Total 2.259.064 4.209.117 336.2 1.2 2.497 127.596 22. Bago (east) 8.685.418 46.659.1 100.939.972 1.742.434.306. Mandalay 3.702 815.423. Kachin 15.117 51. Shan (north) 13.886.5 3.601 34.202 34.104 26.23 2.892.867 914.384.970 0 89.396.268 41.559.966 74.193 217.306 100.919.364 38.541 429.391 198.258 834.050.247 5.114 422.184 432.558 46.378.7 0.691 8.048 2.683. Shan (east) 14.513.956.738 35.706 92.895.653 169.948 16.938 0.764 172.56 Appendix 5 Table A5.110 73.773.539 820.360 2.045 7.289 416.634.7 2.310.145.961 46.746 34.2 389.739 1.715 135.836.310 2.963.017 93.073.409.506.940 183.288 48.698 2.790 2.585 87.2 0. Mon 12.285.657 5.312.8 General Purpose 1.470.3 2.414 45.708 66.907.849.151.073.834. Kayar 16.486 3.963 94.895 2.04 36.709 67.567 5.321 548. Yangon 2.004 26.7 2.423 284.380 174.674 35.009.650 6.429.112 358.00 Electricity Consumption. Chin Total % Source: Ministry of Electric Power.753. Bago (west) 11.663 0.835 124.073.967 20.442 7.854.971.543.900 15. Naypyitaw 5.621 146.788 506.8 0.424 2.70 150 0 37.23 27.004 788.321 3.286.681 70. Tanintharyi 17.297 24.496 2.0 Location 1.112.383.241 319.781.5 0.600.800 10.582 130.074 1.119 13.879.554.975.438 1. .154.354 77.762.017.799 13.583 0 50 0 14.265 116.532.235.677 65.527 502. Sagaing 6.937 7.902.674 78.663 171.389 226.648.480 125.262 40.091 906.823 110.148.644.614 1.196 408.201 1.415.080.850.595.694.4 0.558.144 0.679. Ayeyarwaddy 7. Magway 319.608 52. April 2010–March 2011 % 45.504 376.5 7.588. Rakhine 18.985 675. Kayin 9.7 4.877 654.040.792 19. Shan (south) 10.665 147.610 2.032.210 103.331 2.64 34.653.279 169.987.483.873 295.1 0.065.671 6.17 71.530.754.972.613 16.222 215.576 87.749 265.934 193.6 3.021.738.175 66.

825 207.294 672 678 705 757 929 640 721 1.654 8.596 124.540 217.799 131.905.214 27.659 116. Domestic Electricity Consumption.512 Electrified (%) 63 52 37 29 27 25 22 22 18 18 16 15 15 15 12 9 9 6 24 kWh per household 1.171 18.757 1. of Households 1.968 527.219 No.662 154.549 81.650 2.247 823 1.335.293 716 954 709 267 285 1.404 53.428 556.323 862.396 311.001 113.055 770.674 .971 382. April 2010–March 2011 General Purpose (kWh) 801.270. Source: Ministry of Electric Power.Power 57 Table A5.9 Location Yangon Naypyitaw Kayar Mandalay Mon Shan (south) Bago (east) Kachin Bago (west) Sagaing Shan (north) Shan (east) Chin Magway Kayin Tanintharyi Ayeyarwaddy Rakhine Total kWh = kilowatt-hour.461 19.637 12.616 326.945 94.660 17.514 1.090 116.153 1.060.123 221.522 29.762 340.876 92.219 2.615 48.094 80.995 47.177.309 448.949 60.

especially for the summer months (February to May) when reduced water flows lessen the available hydropower generation and at the same time loads increase due to greater use 1 ADB. 2012. and (iv) to extend the low-voltage system to connect more customers.04 252.686 6. particularly in rural areas.155 2.049 32.732 3.795 17. 58 .442 5. Short Term Plans 3. 2.477 3.416 Year 2012–13 2013–14 2014–15 2015–16 2016–17 2017–18 2018–19 2019–20 2020–21 2021–22 Individual Consumption (kilowatt-hour) 203.025 15. (ii) to reinforce the transmission grid and associated substations. Manila. Table A6.096 Maximum Demand (megawatt) 2.797 20. Power Planning 1.61 440.025 5.88 550. Consultant’s Report: Assessment of Myanmar Power Sector.873 37.91 281. Ministry of Electric Power (MOEP) short-term plans provide for an increase in generation for the years 2013 through 2016.90 227. Growth in Demand 2.35 492.459 14.717 25.Appendix 6 The Government of Myanmar’s Plan for the Power Subector (September 2012) 1.683 29.1%.86 314.102 22. (iii) to improve and upgrade the low-voltage system.1.99 393.13 Source: Ministry of Electric Power. This is based on an annual increase in gross domestic product (GDP) of 10.078 3.929 4. especially in Yangon and Mandalay.426 2.91 351.1 A.5% and a population growth rate of 1.1 Estimated Growth in Power Demand Total Annual Consumption (gigawatt-hour) 12. The expected growth in demand over the next decade is shown in Table A6. The power sector in Myanmar needs significant investment (i) to address the current shortage of power generation.

(v) New HPP scheduled by March 2015: (a) Upper Baluchaung: 29 MW to generate 120 GWh. (iii) New HPP scheduled by March 2014: (a) Phyuu: 40 MW plant to generate 120 gigawatt-hour (GWh). 4. (b) relocation to Ahlone of 120 MW base GT and PPA with Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT). and (d) Baluuchaung-3: 52 MW plant to generate 334 GWh. (b) Phase 1: 500 MW GTCC project at Thaketa to generate 166 MW. and (d) supply of 115 MCF of natural gas supply for the above. (iv) Under processing for March 2014 to reinforce the Yangon load center: (a) Phase 1: 500 MW gas turbine combined-cycle (GTCC) project at Hlawga to generate 123 MW. and (d) supply of 120 thousand cubic feet (MCF) of natural gas supply for the above.5% from hydroelectric. (c) ongoing major repairs at Ywama GT (30 MW base). (c) Nancho: 40 MW plant to generate 152 GWh. thermal power plants provide 26. (b) increase generating capability of Frame-6 gas turbines (GTs) under rehabilitation process (80 MW base). the hydropower contribution increases to 76. and (b) Upper Paunlaung: 140 MW to generate 454 GWh. 5. (ii) Additional potential actions that could be completed by March 2013: (a) request Shweli-1 HPP for additional 100 MW base power purchase agreement (PPA) (total 400 MW). MOEP recognizes the need to involve independent power producers to provide additional generation and overcome the power shortage.The Government of Myanmar’s Plan for the Power Subsector 59 of air conditioning. (c) hiring of two 25-MW base mobile GTs. loads are lower in April when industries close for the annual two-week break over the Myanmar New Year. Traditionally. even though the generation costs per unit will be higher than existing. In the current generation mix during the summer months. whereas during the cooler wet period.5% of the demand compared with 73. Specific measures proposed in the short term over the next 3 years include: (i) Scheduled by March 2013: (a) increase energy purchased from the Shweli-1 hydropower plant (HPP) (100 megawatt [MW] base).9%. (c) possible relocation of two 50-MW base GTs at Ywama. (b) Thaukyaykhat-2: 120 MW plant to generate 605 GWh. and (d) construction of a 66 kV link to connect to Chibwe-nge hydropower project (HPP) (18 MW base). .

330 GWh. allow redundant power transfer to new load centers. MOEP’s long term plans provide for additional generation and strengthening of the national grid in two categories: (i) projects already under construction to be completed after 2016. and reduce transmission losses and short circuit capacity. plus optical ground wire (OPGW) and remote terminal units (RTUs) to connect existing substations and power stations. (b) Thuhtay: 111 MW plant to generate 386 GWh. and (ii) plans being developed now for completion after 2016. and reduce emissions. and (iv) Control and operation of the national grid with Supervisory. increase power quality. to reinforce the Yangon load center: (a) Phase 3: 500-MW GTCC project at Hlawga to generate 123 MW. MOEP has identified high-priority projects for consideration by ADB. and (e) Shweli-3: 1. (b) Phase 3: 500-MW GTCC project at Thaketa to generate 166 MW. Specific plans include: (i) New HPPs under construction for completion after 2016: (a) Anm: 10 MW plant to generate 44 GWh. (c) Upper Yeywa: 280 MW plant to generate 1. a new 500 MW combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) in Yangon. (v) upgrading of four single-cycle gas turbines to combined cycle to increase outputs. (ii) Plans being developed for completion after 2016.60 Appendix 6 (vi) Under processing for March 2015 to reinforce Yangon load center: (a) Phase 2: 500 MW GTCC project at Hlawga to generate 246 MW. (b) Phase 2: 500 MW GTCC project at Thaketa to generate 166 MW. (iii) Reinforcement of the national grid 500-kV backbone transmission system in order to balance system power flow. Control and Data Acquisition or Energy Management System in order to allow economic dispatch. (iii) augmentation of various grid substations and transmission lines. Long Term Plans 6.050 MW plant to generate 3. (iv) a SCADA/EMS system for installation in the proposed National Control Centre (NCC). . 3. These include: (i) (ii) a 500 kV north-south transmission link. improve efficiency. B.500 GWh. (c) 430-MW thermal power plant project. Required Assistance 7. and improve reliability. These long term plans are still subject to confirmation and should be reviewed as part of a Power System Master Plan. and (d) 800-MW thermal power plant project. and (c) supply of 120 MCF of natural gas supply for the above. (vi) additional equipment for testing digital meters. (d) Upper Kengtang: 51 MW plant to generate 267 GWh.

In addition. and Electricity Rules and recommend changes to reflect current international best practice in governance and to facilitate and encourage private participation in the power sector. shipping procedures. and (viii) augmentation of distribution systems in Yangon and Mandalay to improve service to customers and reduce losses. review of transmission protection including distance protection and multifunction digital relays. and (c) introduction of substation operation techniques including use of on-load tap charger (OLTC). inspection and factory acceptance tests. (b) safety procedures for substation operators. application of n-1 design to provide for continued supply during equipment failure. and substations in the short (1–3 years) and medium term (3–5 years) which would include a power systems model and analysis2 of the complete transmission grid inclusive of generation and load centers. . review of metering techniques. standard technical specifications for major equipment. basic first aid. Electricity Law. and extension of the medium voltage (MV) and low voltage (LV) network into unelectrified areas to connect new customers. MV & LV linemen operation. standard procedures for securing the hazard areas in a switchyard. use of International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards. including the various types of international competitive bidding (ICB) and national competitive bidding (NCB). and provision of automated features to allow remote monitoring and control. including: (a) introduction of modern international design practice for the transmission and substation systems. and so on (all to improve the quality and reliability of supply). transmission. transmission maintenance. (b) grid code: development of a grid code suitable for the Myanmar power sector based on current international best practices. 2 It is acknowledged that AF-Consultant is already assisting MOEP in this regard with an ongoing model of the transmission system using NetPlan software. standard and special conditions of contract. contract administration. there is a need for: (i) A resident adviser for capacity and institutional development within MOEP.The Government of Myanmar’s Plan for the Power Subsector 61 (vii) static volt ampere reactive (VAr) compensation equipment to improve power factor (PF) and power quality. auto-reclosers for quick clearing of transient faults. use of an oil-retention facility in the event of transformer oil spillage. and the like. (ii) A procurement adviser for training MOEP staff in ADB procedures for international procurement. and (c) rural electrification law: a review of the existing legislation for rural electrification and proposal for more appropriate requirements to facilitate and encourage rural electrification (currently this is administered by both MOEP and Ministry of Industry (MOI) through a Poverty Reduction Committee and the process needs to be better aligned between the two ministries and the procedure made more efficient). definition of appropriate guidelines and requirements for independent power producers to connect to the Myanmar national grid. (iii) A transmission and substations technical adviser to assist with modern power systems operation and maintenance. and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). (iv) A technical consultancy to assist MOEP with the preparation of a power system master plan to set out a planned development program for generation. including live-line practice. including: (a) policy and regulations: review of existing Electricity Act.

of Stations 13 7 48 68 Proposed Capacity (megawatt) 2.570 51. . (e) increasing load sharing by installing two units of transformers in primary substations. Transmission and Substations Program 9. MOEP is already undertaking a number of initiatives to increase the available hydropower and thermal generation.3 summarizes MOEP’s Short Term Three -Year Plan (from 2013–2014 to 2015–2016).2.62 Appendix 6 C. and (f) constructing a new 500 MW combined cycle power plant near Yangon. (c) analyzing the power factor and voltage drop in every power station and substation after installation of digital multifunction meters as above. (ii) Long term: (a) upgrading the system voltage to 500 kV. committed short term investments are shown in Table A5.2 Type of Investment Ministry of Electric Power Local companies on BOT basis Foreign companies on BOT basis Total BOT = build-operate-transfer. Source: Ministry of Electric Power. The potential investments are summarized in Table A6.572 560 48.702 D. The Myanmar Electric Power Enterprise (MEPE) proposes the following measures as part of its Transmission Losses Reduction Program: (i) Short term: (a) installation of reactive power compensation devices (capacitor bank. Table A6. Table A6. Generation Program 8. (b) installation of digital multi-function meters and bidirectional kWh meters at all power stations and substations for precise recording and live monitoring of energy.3. 10. (d) using automatic OLTC in main transformers at new substations. static VAr Compensator [SVC]) at grid and zone substations. (b) using quad-bundle conductors for the 230-kV transmission line. The expected timing of the potential generation components has not yet been identified by MOEP. Potential Generation Investment No. and (c) calibration and testing of existing measuring equipment at all distribution substations.

(iv) 650 km of rehabilitation and extension of the LV overhead distribution system.4 – 15.1 48.150 11/0.0 12.2 7.5 1.1 24.6 19.5 15.4 18.7 25. Source: Ministry of Electric Power. (vi) replacement of 4.4 36.7 64.7 33.3 9.5 1.8 28. with 34 units of 500 MW each. 240 kilometer (km) of rehabilitation and extension of the 33 kV overhead distribution system.6 58.0 16.8 538.7 12.9 3. Note: Totals may not add up due to rounding.7 119. Mandalay Division of the Electric Supply Enterprise has submitted a proposed program of works which include: (i) (ii) 7 CCGT stations located around Mandalay District.9 42.1 14.6 – 521.3 State/Division Kachin State Kayar State Kayin State Chin State Mon State Rakhaing State Shan State (South) Shan State (North) Sagaing Division Mandalay Division Magway Division Bago Division (East) Bago Division (West) Ayeyarwaddy Division Yangon Division Tanintharyi Division Potential Transmission and Substation Investment ($ million) 2013–2014 86. Mandalay City 11.8 – 28.0 15.1 46.4 15.7 309. Distribution Program 1.5 27.7 16.6 – 38.0 101. (iii) 310 km of rehabilitation and extension of the 11 kV overhead distribution system.4 12.5 28.9 200. and (vii) various other associated works.6 Total Project Cost ($) 247.7 74.4 kV distribution transformers.6 12.1 76.The Government of Myanmar’s Plan for the Power Subsector 63 Table A6.0 34.5 41.2 2014–2015 109.700 MW.4 12.385 wooden power poles with concrete poles.8 18.1 26.6 35. (v) installation of 1.7 13.369.8 2015–2016 51. totaling 1. .5 6.4 130.7 46. E.1 – 10.5 53.4 57.6 158.6 – = unknown.5 144.8 1.0 12.2 97.2 20.

637 3.981 3.719 13.64 Appendix 6 2.7 70.5 Project Summary of Yangon City Electric Supply Board’s Priority Projects for Yangon City. Source: Yangon Electricity Supply Board. . AMR.8 89.5 summarizes Yangon City Electric Supply Board’s proposed priority projects selected from the 2013–14 projects.0 84. Source: Yangon Electricity Supply Board.1 Table A6. Table A6.359 12.216 Total 10. Yangon City 12.8 222.657 162 360 38 3.432 Installation Cost 2.026 33. and insulated cable Total Note: Totals may not add up due to rounding.266 6.5 73. Material Cost 67. Table A6.8 3.5 Installation Cost 5.4 Summary of Yangon City Electric Supply Board’s Proposed 2013–2016 Program for Yangon City ($ million) Year FY2013–14 Projects FY2014–15 Projects FY2015–16 Projects Total FY = fiscal year. 2013–2014 ($ thousand) Material Cost 7. Note: Totals may not add up due to rounding.8 237.6 Total 73.104 6.0 14.648 66 kV substation and related work 33 kV substation and related work 66 kV UG cable and OH line subjects Replacement of OMR.4 shows total proposed projects from 2013 to 2016 for Yangon City from their FiveYear Plan.989 30. Table A6.8 5.

Its main instruments for helping its developing member countries are policy dialogue. and possible future ADB assistance. Mandaluyong City 1550 Metro Manila. it remains home to two-thirds of the world’s poor: 1. Asian Development Bank 6 ADB Avenue. Based in Manila. needs.7 billion people who live on less than $2 a day. and technical assistance. recognize the potential of energy resources development. past ADB support. This energy sector initial assessment outlines development issues.adb. Despite the region’s many Printed on recycled paper Printed in the Philippines . grants.25 a day. This publication also aims to help stakeholders understand energy situations in Myanmar. Its mission is to help its developing member countries reduce poverty and improve the quality of life of their people. with 828 million struggling on less than $1. priority development constraints. environmentally sustainable growth. ADB is committed to reducing poverty through inclusive economic growth. About the Asian Development Bank ADB’s vision is an Asia and Pacific region free of poverty. equity investments. guarantees. loans. This assessment is a working document that helps inform the development of country partnership strategies. including 48 from the region. and regional integration. The product serves as a basis for further dialogue on how ADB and the government can work together to tackle the challenges and opportunities to ensure efficient and effective use of energy resources for sustainable development of the energy sector in Myanmar in coming years.Myanmar: Energy Sector Initial Assessment The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is preparing sector assessments to help align future ADB support with the needs and strategies of developing member countries and other development partners. including knowledge support and investments. Philippines www. the government’s strategy and plans. and enhance regional cooperation for inclusive and sustainable economic development of Myanmar. and strategic assistance priorities of the Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar for ADB’s reengagement. ADB is owned by 67 members. It highlights sector performance.

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