NEWAGE

ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS
(Centrifugal and Axial)
Non-met allic
Containment
Gas
o
K.M. Srinivasan
(f.D NEWAGE INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHERS
ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS
(Centrifugal and Axial)
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ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS
(Centrifugal and Axial)
K.M. Srinivasan
B.E.(Hons), PhD.(USSR)
Dean (R&D) Mechanical Sciences
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Kumaraguru College of Technology
Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
PUBLISHING FOR ONE WORLD
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Published by New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers
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Visit us at www.newagepublishers.com
ISBN (13) : 978-81-224-2976-3
THIS BOOK is dedicated to THIS BOOK is dedicated to THIS BOOK is dedicated to THIS BOOK is dedicated to THIS BOOK is dedicated to
My Parents
Sri. K. MUTHUSAMY PILLAI Sri. K. MUTHUSAMY PILLAI Sri. K. MUTHUSAMY PILLAI Sri. K. MUTHUSAMY PILLAI Sri. K. MUTHUSAMY PILLAI
And
Smt. K.T. SAMBOORNAM Smt. K.T. SAMBOORNAM Smt. K.T. SAMBOORNAM Smt. K.T. SAMBOORNAM Smt. K.T. SAMBOORNAM
As well as
To my Professor and guide
Dr Dr Dr Dr Dr. A.A. LOMAKIN . A.A. LOMAKIN . A.A. LOMAKIN . A.A. LOMAKIN . A.A. LOMAKIN
And
Dr Dr Dr Dr Dr. A.N. P . A.N. P . A.N. P . A.N. P . A.N. PAPIR APIR APIR APIR APIR
Leningrad P Leningrad P Leningrad P Leningrad P Leningrad Polytechnic, Leningrad, K-21, USSR olytechnic, Leningrad, K-21, USSR olytechnic, Leningrad, K-21, USSR olytechnic, Leningrad, K-21, USSR olytechnic, Leningrad, K-21, USSR (at present called as St. Petersburg
Polytechnic, St. Petersburg, Russia)
Who brought me to this level
Comp-1/Newage/Pump-co.pm6.5—29.12.07 3.1.08
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PREFACE
It was my very long felt ambition to provide a detailed and full information about the theory,
design, testing, analysis and operation of different types of rotodynamic pumps namely Centrifugal,
Radial, Diagonal and Axial flow types. I have learned a lot during the period 1959–62 about pumps at
PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, while working as Senior Research Assistant for CSIR Scheme
on Pumps, Turbo chargers and flow meters. At the same time, I was undergoing training in foundry,
pattern making, moulding, production, testing and design for different pumps at PSG Industrial Institute,
Coimbatore and also during the period 1967 and 1975.
I cannot forget my study at Leningrad Polytechnic, Leningrad K-21, USSR (now St. Petersburg
Polytechnic, St. Petersburg, Russia), for my doctorate degree in pumps. Dr. A.A Lomakin, Dr. A.N.
Papir, Dr. Gurioff, Dr. N.N. Kovaloff, Dr. A.N. Smirnoff, Dr. Staritski, Dr. Gorgidjanyan, Dr. Gutovski
are the key professors who made me to know more about pumps from fundamentals to updated technology.
I am very much grateful to Dr. A.A Lomakin and Dr. A.N. Papir, who were my professors and guides
for my doctorate degree in pumps. As a consultant, for different pump industries in India and abroad, I
could understand the field problems. My experience, since 1959 till date, has been put up in this book to
enable the readers in industries, and in academic area, to design, to analyze and to regulate the pumps.
Complete design process for pumps, losses and efficiency calculation, based on boundary layer theory
for axial flow pumps are also given. Computer programmes for the design of pump and for profile loss
estimation for axial flow pumps are also given. All the design examples in the last chapter are real
working models. The results are also given with pump drawings.
I do hope that the reader will be in a position to understand, design, test and analyze pumps, after
going through this book. I shall be very much honoured if my book is useful in attaining this. I am
grateful to my wife Smt. S. Nalini, my sons Sri S. Muthuraman and Sri S. Jaganmohan and my daughter
Smt. S. Nithyakala, who were very helpful in preparing the manuscript and drawings.
Last but not the least I am grateful to the editorial department of M/s New Age International (P)
Ltd. Publishers for their untiring effort to publish the book in a neat and elegant form, in spite of so
many problems they come across while formulating this book from the manuscript level to this level.
Constructive criticisms and suggestions are highly appreciated for further improvement of the
book.
K.M. SRINIVASAN
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CONTENTS
PREFACE (vii)
1 INTRODUCTION 1–5
1.1 Principle and Classification of Pumps 1
1.1.1 Principle 1
1.1.2 Classification of Pumps 1
2 PUMP PARAMETERS 6–33
2.1 Basic Parameters of Pump 6
2.1.1 Quantity of Flow or Discharge (Q) of a Pump 6
2.1.2 Total Head or Head of a Pump (H) 6
2.1.3 Total Head of a Pump in a System 7
2.1.4 Power (N) 11
2.1.5 Efficiency (η) 11
2.2 Pump Construction 12
2.3 Losses in Pumps and Efficiency 15
2.3.1 Hydraulic Loss and Hydraulic Efficiency (η
h
) 15
2.3.2 Volumetric Loss and Volumetric Efficiency (η
v
) 15
2.3.3 Mechanical Loss and Mechanical Efficiency (η
m
) 16
2.3.4 Total Losses and Overall Efficiency (h) 16
2.4 Suction Conditions 16
2.5 Similarity Laws in Pumps 19
2.5.1 Similarity Laws 19
2.5.2 Specific Speed (n
s
) 22
2.5.3 Unit Specific Speed (n
sq
) 23
2.6 Classification of Impeller Types According to Specific Speed (n
s
) 24
2.7 Pumping Liquids Other than Water 26
2.7.1 Total Head, Flow Rate, Efficiency and Power Determination for Pumps 26
2.7.2 Effect of Temperature 27
2.7.3 Density Correction (ρ or γ) 27
2.7.4 Viscosity Correction 28
2.7.5 Effect of Consistency on Pump Performance 32
2.7.6 Special Consideration in Pump Selection 33
(ix)
(x) CONTENTS
3 THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 34–64
3.1 Energy Equation using Moment of Momentum Equation for Fluid Flow
through Impeller 34
3.2 Bernoulli’s Equation for the Flow through Impeller 35
3.3 Absolute Flow of Ideal Fluid Past the Flow Passages of Pump 38
3.4 Relative Flow of Ideal Fluid Past Impeller Blades 40
3.5 Flow Over an Airfoil 43
3.6 Two Dimensional Ideal Flow 45
3.6.1 Velocity Potential 45
3.6.2 Rotational and Irrotational Flow 45
3.6.3 Circulation and Vorticity 47
3.7 Axisymmetric Flow and Circulation in Impeller 48
3.7.1 Circulation in Impellers of Pump 49
3.7.2 Vorticity and Circulation Around Impeller Blades 49
3.8 Real Fluid Flow after Impeller Blade Outlet Edge 50
3.9 Secondary Flow between Blades 51
3.10 Flow of a Profile in a Cascade System—Theoretical Flow 52
3.11 Fundamental Theory of Flow Over Isolated Profile 53
3.12 Profile Construction as per N.E. Jowkovski and S.A. Chapligin 55
3.13 Development of Thin Plate by Conformal Transformation 58
3.14 Development of Profile with Thickness by Conformal Transformation 58
3.15 Chapligin’s Profile of Finite Thickness at Outlet Edge of the Profile 59
3.16 Velocity Distribution in Space between Volute Casing and Impeller Shroud 61
3.17 Pressure Distribution in the Space between Stationary Casing and Moving
Impeller Shroud of Fluid Machine 63
4 THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 65–129
4.1 Introduction 65
4.2 One Dimensional Theory 65
4.3 Velocity Triangles 66
4.4 Impeller Eye and Blade Inlet Edge Conditions 69
4.4.1 Inlet Velocity Triangle 70
4.4.2 Normal or Radial or Axial Entry of Fluid at Impeller Inlet 72
4.5 Outlet Velocity Triangle: Effect due to Blade Thickness 73
4.5.1 Outlet Velocity Triangle: Effect of Finite Number of Blades 74
4.6 Slip Factor as per Stodola and Meizel 75
CONTENTS (xi)
4.6.1 Slip Factor as Defined by Karl Pfliderer 77
4.6.2 Slip Factor as per Proscura 79
4.7 Coefficient of Reaction (ρ) 81
4.8 Selection of Outlet Blade Angle (β
2
) and its Effect 83
4.9 Effect of Number of Vanes 86
4.10 Selection of Eye Diameter D
0
, Eye Velocity C
0
, Inlet Diameter of Impeller D
1
and Inlet Meridional Velocity C
m1
89
4.11 Selection of Outlet Diameter of Impeller (D
2
) 92
4.12 Effect of Blade Breadth (B
2
) 92
4.13 Impeller Design 103
4.14 Determination of Shaft Diameter and Hub Diameter 106
4.15 Determination of Inlet Dimensions for Impeller 107
4.16 Determination of Outlet Dimensions of Impeller 108
4.17 Development of Flow Passage in Meridional Plane 109
4.18 Development of Single Curvature Blade—Radial Blades 111
4.19 Development of Double Curvature Blade System 113
4.19.1 Importance of Diagonal Impellers 113
4.19.2 A General Solution for the Flow through the Vane System 114
4.19.3 Axisymmetric Flow of Fluid 115
4.19.4 Flow Line and Vortex Line in Axisymmetric Flow 116
4.19.5 Differential Equation for the Cross-section of Vane with the
Flow Surface 118
4.19.6 Construction of Vane Surface when W
u
= 0 118
4.19.7 Construction of Vane Under Equal Velocity Construction 120
4.19.8 Construction of Vane Surface Under Equal Velocity Flow for the
Given w(s) 121
4.19.9 Conformal Transformation of Vane Surface 125
4.19.10 The Method of Error Triangles 126
5 SPIRAL CASINGS (VOLUTE CASINGS) 130–146
5.1 Importance of Spiral Casings 130
5.2 Volute Casing at the Outlet of the Impeller 131
5.3 Method of Calculation for Spiral Casing 132
5.4 Design of Spiral Casing with C
u
r = Constant and Trapezoidal Cross-section 134
5.5 Calculation of Trapezoidal Volute Cross-section Under Constant Velocity of
Flow C
V
= Constant (Constant Velocity Design) 135
5.6 Calculation of Circular Volute Section with C
u
r = Constant 137
5.7 Design of Circular Volute Cross-section with Constant Velocity (C
V
) 138
(xii) CONTENTS
5.8 Calculation of Diffuser Section of Volute Casing 139
5.9 (A) Design of Diffuser 140
5.9 (B) Calculation of Spiral Part of Diffuser Passage 141
5.9 (C) Calculation of Diverging Cone Part of the Diffuser 142
5.10 Return Guide Vanes 143
5.11 Design of Suction Casing at Inlet of the Impeller 144
5.12 Straight Convergent Cone 144
5.13 Spiral Type Approach Ring 144
5.14 Effect due to Volute 146
6 LOSSES IN PUMPS 147–163
6.1 Introduction 147
6.2 (A) Mechanical Losses 147
6.2 (B) Losses due to Disc Friction (∆N
d
) 147
6.2 (C) Losses Stuffing Box (∆N
S
) 149
6.2 (D) Bearing Losses (∆N
B
) 154
6.3 (A) Leakage Flow through the Clearance between Stationary and Rotatory
Wearing Rings 154
6.3 (B) Leakage Flow through the Clearance between Two Stages of a
Multistage Pump 159
6.4 Hydraulic Losses 161
7 AXIAL AND RADIAL THRUSTS 164–181
7.1 Introduction 164
7.2 Axial Force Acting on the Impeller 165
7.3 Axial Thrust in Semi-open Impellers 167
7.4 Axial Thrust due to Direction Change in Bend at Inlet 168
7.5 Balancing of Axial Thrust 169
7.6 Axial Thrust taken by Bearings 170
7.7 Radial Vanes at Rear Shroud of the Impeller 170
7.8 Axial Thrust Balancing by Balancing Holes 171
7.9 Axial Thrust Balancing by Balance Drum and Disc 172
7.10 Radial Forces Acting on Volute Casing 177
7.11 Determination of Radial Forces 177
7.12 Methods to Balance the Radial Thrust 180
8 MODEL ANALYSIS 182–194
8.1 Introduction 182
8.1.1 Real Fluid Flow Pattern in Pumps 187
CONTENTS (xiii)
8.2 Similarity of Hydraulic Efficiency 191
8.3 Similarity of Volumetric Efficiency 192
8.4 Similarity of Mechanical Efficiency 193
9 CAVITATION IN PUMPS 195–215
9.1 Suction Lift and Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) 195
9.2 Cavitation Coefficient (s) Thoma’s Constant 200
9.3 Cavitation Specific Speed (C) 201
9.4 Cavitation Development 201
9.5 Cavitation Test on Pumps 203
9.6 Methods Adopted to Reduce Cavitation 211
10 AXIAL FLOW PUMP 216–292
10.1 Operating Principles and Construction 216
10.2 Flow Characteristics of Axial Flow Pump 218
10.3 Kutta-Jowkovski Theorem 218
10.4 Real Fluid Flow over a Blade 222
10.5 Interaction between Profiles in a Cascade System 223
10.6 Curved Plates in a Cascade System 224
10.7 Effect of Blade Thickness on Flow Over a Cascade System 233
10.8 Method of Calculation of Profile with Thickness in a Cascade System 234
10.9 (A) Pump Design by Direct Method (Jowkovski’s Method, Lift Method) 243
10.9 (B) Design of Axial Flow Pump as per Jowkovski’s Lift Method—
Another Method 247
10.10 Flow with Angle of Attack 255
10.11 Correction in Profile Curvature due to the Change from Thin to Thick Profile 256
10.12 Effect of Viscosity 259
10.13 Selection of Impeller Diameter and Speed 260
10.14 Selection of Hub Ratio 261
10.15 Selection of
 
 
 
peri
l
t
—Aspect Ratio at Periphery 263
10.16 Calculation of Hydraulic Losses and Hydraulic Efficiency 268
10.17 Calculation of Profile Losses using Boundary Layer Thickness (δ
**
) 271
10.17.1 Notations and Abbreviations 271
10.17.2 Determination of Profile Losses and Hydraulic Efficiency 274
10.17.3 Determination of Momentum Boundary Layer Thickness (δ
**
) 277
10.17.4 Computer Programme 283
10.18 Cavitation in Axial Flow Pumps 283
(xiv) CONTENTS
10.19 Radial Clearance between Impeller and Impeller Casing 288
10.20 Calculation for Axial Flow Diffusers 289
10.21 Axial Thrust 291
11 TESTING, PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND REGULATION
OF PUMPS 293–338
11.1 Introduction 293
11.2 Pump Performance—Relation between Total Head and Quantity of Flow 293
11.3 Pump Testing 301
11.4 Systems and Arrangements 306
11.5 Combined Operation of Pumps and Systems 310
11.6 Stable and Unstable Operation in a System 312
11.7 Reverse Flow in Pump 315
11.8 Effect of Viscosity on Performance 317
11.9 Pump Regulation 232
11.10 Effect of the Pump Performance when Small Changes are made in Pump Parts 336
12 PUMP CONSTRUCTION AND APPLICATION 339–374
12.1 Classification 339
12.2 Pumps for Clear Cold Water and for Non-Corrosive Liquids 339
12.3 Other Pumps 346
12.4 Axial Flow Pumps 354
12.5 Condensate Pumps 357
12.6 Feed Water Pumps 361
12.7 Circulating Pumps 363
12.8 Booster Pumps 365
12.9 Pump for Viscous and Abrasive Liquids 370
13 DESIGN OF PUMP COMPONENTS 375–486
Design No. D1-A : Design of a Single Stage Centrifugal Pump 375
Design No. D1-A1 : Computer Programming in C
++
for Radial Type
Centrifugal Pump Impeller and Volute 381
Design No. D1-B : Design of a Multistage Centrifugal Pump 395
Design No. D2 : Spiral Casing Design 409
D2-A : Spiral Casing Design Under C
ur
= Constant and
Trapezoidal Cross-Section 411
D2-B : Spiral Casing Design with C
V
= Constant and
Trapezoidal Cross-section 414
D2-C : Design of Suction Volute 417
CONTENTS (xv)
Design No. D3 : Design of Axial Flow Pump 418
Design No. D4 : Correction for Profile Thickness by Increasing Blade
Curvature (β) 427
Design No. D5 : Calculation of Correction for Blade Thickness using
Thickness Coefficient (χ) 429
Design No. D6 : Design of Axial Flow Pump 431
Design No. D7 : Profile Losses Calculation 473
Design No. D8 : Design of Axial Flow Pump—as per method Suggested
by Prof. N.E. Jowkovski 482
APPENDICES 487–508
Appendix I : Equations Relating C
y
,
max
y
l
, δ° for Different Profiles 487
Appendix II : ISI Standards 495
Appendix III : Units of Measurement—Conversion Factors 502
LITERATURE—REFERENCES 509–518
INDEX 519–520
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1.1 PRINCIPLE AND CLASSIFICATION OF PUMPS
1.1.1 Principle
Newton’s First law states that “Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed, but can be
transformed from one form of energy to another form.”
Different forms of energy exists namely, electrical, mechanical, fluid, hydraulic and pneumatic,
pressure, potential, dynamic, wave, wind, geothermal, solar, chemical, etc.
A machine is a contrivance, that converts one form of energy to another form. An electric motor
converts electrical energy to mechanical energy. An internal combustion engine converts chemical
energy to mechanical energy, etc.
A pump is a machine which converts mechanical energy to fluid energy, the fluid being
incompressible. This action is opposite to that in hydraulic turbines.
Most predominant part of fluid energy in fluid machines are pressure, potential and kinetic energy.
In order to do work, the pressure energy and potential energy must be converted to kinetic energy. In
steam and gas turbines, the pressure energy of steam or gas is converted to kinetic energy in nozzle. In
hydraulic turbine, the potential energy is converted to kinetic energy in nozzle. High velocity stream of
fluid from turbine nozzle strikes a set of blades and makes the blades to move, thereby fluid energy is
converted into mechanical energy.
In pumps, however, this process is reversed, the movement of blade system moves the fluid,
which is always in contact with blade thereby converting mechanical energy of blade system to kinetic
energy. For perfect conversion, the moving blade should be in contact with the fluid at all places. In
other words, the moving blade system should be completely immersed in fluid.
1.1.2 Classification of Pumps
1.1.2.1 Classification According to Operating Principle
Pumps are classified in different ways. One classification is according to the type as positive
displacement pumps and rotodynamic pumps. This classification is illustrated in Fig. 1.1.
In positive placement pumps, fluid is pushed whenever pump runs. The fluid movement cannot be
stopped, otherwise the unit will burst due to instantaneous pressure rise theoretically to infinity, practically
exceeding the ultimate strength of the material of the pump, subsequently breaking the material. The
motion may be rotary or reciprocating or combination of both.
1
INTRODUCTION
Comp-1/Newage/Pump-1.pm6.5—3.5.07 4.10.07
2 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
PU M PS
Positive D isplacem ent Pum ps O ther Pum ps R otodynam ic Pum ps
Reciprocating Type Rotary Type
Jet Pump
Hydraulic Ram
Centrifugal, Mixed and
Axial Flow
Regenerative
Piston
plunger
Vane, Lobe
Screw, Gear
Perialistic,
Metering,
Diaphram,
Radial piston,
Axial piston
Fig. 1.1. Pump classfication
The principle of action, in all positive displacement pumps, is purely static. These pumps are also
called as ‘static pumps’. The pumps, operated under this principle, are reciprocating, screw, ram,
plunger, gear, lobe, perialistic, diaphram, radial piston, axial piston etc.
In rotodynamic pumps, however, the energy is transferred by rotary motion and by dynamic
action. The rotating blade system imparts a force on the fluid, which is in contact with the blade system
at all points, thereby making the fluid to move i.e., transferring mechanical energy of the blade system
to kinetic energy of the fluid.
Unlike turbine, where pure pressure or potential energy is converted to kinetic energy, in pumps,
the kinetic energy of the fluid is converted into either, pressure energy or potential energy or kinetic
energy or the combination of any two or all the three forms depending upon the end use in spiral or
volute casing, which follows the impeller.
In domestic, circulating and in agricultural pumps, the end use is in the form of potential energy
i.e., lifting water from low level to high level.
In process pumps, used for chemical industries, the fluid is pumped from one chamber under
pressure to another chamber under pressure. These chambers may be at the same level (only pressure
energy conversion) or may be at different levels (pressure and potential energy conversion).
Pumps used for fire fighting, for spraying pesticides, must deliver the liquid at very high velocity
i.e., at very high kinetic energy. These pumps convert all available energy at the outlet of the impeller
into very high kinetic energy.
In turbines, the fluid is water or steam or chemical gas-air mixture at constant pressure and
temperature, whereas, pumps deal with fluid at different temperatures and viscosities such as water,
acids, alkaline, milk, distilled water, and also cryogenic fluids, like liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen, liquid
nitrogen, liquid ammonia, which are in gaseous form under normal temperatures.
Pumps are also used to pump solid-liquid, liquid-gas or solid-liquid-gas mixtures, with different
percentage of concentration called ‘consistency’. Hence pumps are applied in diversified field, the
pumping fluid possessing different property, namely, viscosity, density, temperature, consistency, etc.
Other Pumps Positive Displacement Pumps Rotodynamic Pumps
PUMPS
INTRODUCTION 3
A third category of pump, called jet pump, wherein, the fluid energy input i.e., high head low
discharge of fluid is converted into another form of fluid energy i.e., low head and high discharge.
These pumps are used either independently or along with centrifugal pumps.
The reverse of Jet pump is ‘Hydraulic Ram’ wherein low head and high discharge of water is
converted into high head and low discharge. Hydraulic Rams are installed at hills near a stream or river.
The natural hill slope is the low head input energy. Large quantity of water at low head is taken from the
river. A portion of water is pumped at high pressure and is supplied to a nearby village as drinking water.
Remaining water is sent back to the river. This system does not need any prime mover like diesel or
petrol engine or electric motor. Repair and maintenance is easy, in hydraulic ram since moving part is
only the ram.
1.1.2.2 Classification According to Head and Discharge
Another classification of pump is according to the head and discharge or quantity of flow to be
pumped. Any customer, who is in need of a pump specifies only these two parameters. A quick selection
of the pump is made referring standard charts for selecting the pump. Fig.1.2 gives the selection of
pump according to head and discharge.
10000
H.m
1000
100
10
1 10 100 1000 10000 100000
CENTRIFUGAL
AXIAL
PISTON
Q.m /hr
3
Fig. 1.2. Pump selection as per head and discharge
1.1.2.3 Classification According to Specific Speed
Most accurate method of pump selection is based on the non-dimensional parameter called ‘specific
speed’ which takes into account speed of the pump along with head and discharge.
Specific speed, n
s
=
3/ 4
3.65
n Q
H
...(1.1)
where n
s
–specific speed, n–speed in rpm, Q–discharge in m
3
/sec, H–head in m. If pressure rise is
known instead of total head then p = γH, where p–pressure rise of pumping fluid in N/m
2
and
γ–specific weight of the fluid at the given temperature in N/m
3
. It is essential that all parameters must be
4 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
converted to equivalent water parameters before substituting them in equation 1.1. Fig.1.3, illustrates
the pump selection according to the specific speed of the pump.
N

Q
h

Q
H – Q
H
– Q
N

Q
h

Q
H
– Q
N

Q
h

Q
H
– Q
N

Q
h

Q
H
– Q
N
– Q
h

Q
D
2
b
2 b
2
b
2
b
2
D
2
D
0
= 2,5 to 1,8
D
0
D
2
= 2 to 1,8 = 1,8 to 1,4
D
2
D
0
D
2
D
0
= 1,4 to 1,2
D
2
D
0
= 0,8
n
s
= 50 ÷ 80 n
s
= 80 ÷ 150 n
s
= 150 ÷ 300 n
s
= 300 ÷ 500 n
s
= 500 ÷ 1000
Low Medium High
Centrifugal (radial flow)
Diagonal and
mixed flow
Propeller and
axial flow
D
0
D
0
D
2
D
0
D
2
D
0
D
2
D
0
D
2
Fig. 1.3. Classification according to specifc speed
From Fig.1.3, it is evident that, at low specific speeds, centrifugal pumps; at medium specific
speeds, mixed flow pumps and at high specific speeds, axial flow pumps are used. All of them are
classified as rotodynamic pumps.
At very low specific speeds, however, positive displacement pumps are used. Referring to the
equation (1.1), it is seen that positive displacement pumps are used for very high head-very low discharge
conditions. Ship propellers and aircraft propellers are of very high specific speed units beyond 1200 i.e.,
used for very low head-very high discharge conditions.
1.1.2.4 Classification According to Direction of Flow in Impeller
Another classification of pumps is according to the direction of flow of fluid in impeller of the
pump such as radial or centrifugal flow, mixed or diagonal flow and axial flow. Fig.1.4, illustrates the
position of blade system in the impeller passage of a pump.
Considering the flow of fluid in impeller, (Fig.1.4) if the flow direction is radial (2-1) and (3-1)
i.e., perpendicular to the axis of rotation, the pump is called radial flow centrifugal pump. If the flow is
axial (6-5) i.e., parallel to the axis of rotation, the pump is called axial flow pump. If the flow is partly
axial and partly radial (4-2) and (4-3) i.e., diagonal, it is called mixed flow pump or diagonal flow pump.
It is evident, from the Fig.1.4, that all these pumps are rotodynamic pumps i.e., rotary blade
passage and dynamic action of blade system in the fluid passage.
INTRODUCTION 5
a
1
III
a
2
D
s
b
2
′′
b
2
a
2
I
II
a
1
D
2
D
′ 2
D
1
D
3 D

3 ′
(a) Radial (b) Mixed
D
s
IV
(c) Axial
1
2
3
4 5 6
Outlet, Delivery
of water
Inlet, entry
of water
Shaft
90°
axis
(d) Relative location
Fig. 1.4. Position of blade system in different types of impellers
2–1 Centrifugal — Radial flow — very high head and very low flow.
3–1 Centrifugal — Radial flow — high head and low flow.
4–2 Mixed flow — Medium head and medium flow — low range.
4–3 Diagonal flow — Medium head and medium flow — higher range.
6–5 Axial flow, propeller — low head and high flow.
Radial type centrifugal pumps have higher impeller diameter ratio (outlet to inlet diameter) and the
blade is longer. Mixed flow pumps have medium diameter ratio and axial flow pumps have equal inlet
and outlet diameters.
This indicates that radial flow pumps work mostly by centrifugal force and partly by dynamic
force, whereas, in axial flow pumps, the pressure rise is purely by hydrodynamic action. In mixed and
diagonal flow pumps, however, the pressure rise is partly by centrifugal force and partly by hydrodynamic
force.
2.1 BASIC PARAMETERS OF PUMP
A pump is characterised by three parameters i.e.,
1. Total head (H),
2. Discharge or quantity of flow (Q), and
3. Power (N).
2.1.1 Quantity of Flow or Discharge (Q) of a Pump
Quantity of flow or rate of flow or discharge (Q) of a pump is the flow of fluid passing through
the pump in unit time. The rate of flow or discharge in volumetric system is expressed as
unit volume flow
unit time
i.e., m
3
/sec, m
3
/hr, lit/sec etc., and in gravimetric system as
unit weight flow
unit time
i.e.,
tons/day, kg/hr, kg/sec etc. The relation between gravimetric or weight (W) and volumetric (Q) flow
rate is given by W = γQ where γ is specific weight of the fluid.
2.1.2 Total Head or Head of a Pump (H)
Total head of a pump (H) is defined as the increase in fluid energy received by every kilogram of
the fluid passing through the pump. In other words, it is the energy difference per unit weight of the
fluid between inlet and outlet of the pump. Referring to Fig. 2.1, the energy difference per unit weight of
the fluid (E) between inlet (E
1
) and outlet (E
2
) will be
Fig. 2.1. Head measurement in pumps
p = p
1 s
Z
1

H
s
H
d
H
H
=
Z

Z
2
1
X
2
Z
2
G
V
X
1
+H
s
Z
1 Z
2
p = p
2 d
2
PUMP PARAMETERS
Comp-1/Newage/Pump-2.pm6.5—3.5.07 4.10.07
6
PUMP PARAMETERS 7
E
inlet
= E
1
=
2
1 1
1
2
- -
γ
p C
Z
g
E
outlet
= E
2
=
2
2 2
2
2
- -
γ
p C
Z
g
where p — the pressure in N/m
2
(Pascal–Pa)
Z — the level or position above or below reference level in ‘m’
C — the flow velocity of the fluid in m/sec
γ — specific weight of the fluid in kg/m
3
(or) N/m
3
g — acceleration due to gravity in m/sec
2
Suffix 1 — indicates inlet condition of the pump
2 — indicates outlet condition of the pump
Total head H will be
H = (E
2
– E
1
) =
( ) p p
2 1

γ
+ (Z
2
– Z
1
) +
( )
2 2
2 1
2
C C
g

...(2.2)
and is expressed as
kgf. m
kgf
or
N. m
N
= m.
2.1.3 Total Head of a Pump in a System
A pump installation consists of pump and system. Pumps are selected to match the given condition
of the system, which depends upon the system head (H
sy
), quantity of flow (Q), density (ρ), the
viscosity (µ), consistency (C), temperature (T), and corrosiveness of the pumping liquid. If the pumping
liquid is other than water at different temperatures and pressures such as milk, distilled water, acid,
alkaline solutions, as well as liquid ammonia, liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen, liquid nitrogen or any other
chemical solutions under higher temperatures and pressures, solid-liquid solution, liquid-gas solutions
etc., the pump parameters in liquid must be changed into equivalent water parameters.
The quantity (Q) and the total head (H) of the pump must coincide with the conditions of external
system such as pressure, and location of the system. Normally the pump is selected with 2 to 4% higher
value in total head than the normal value of system head.
A system consists of pipelines with fittings such as gate valve or butterfly valve or non-return
valve or any other valve along with bends, tee joints, reducers etc., at the delivery line of the pump as
well as foot valve, strainer, bend, etc., at the suction line of the pump. The system is an already available
pipeline in the field or at the working area, to suit the prevailing conditions in the field or working area.
It is a fixed system for that particular place. System varies from place to place. Referring to the Fig. 2.2,
the pipe 2-d refers to the delivery side and s–1 refers to the suction side of the system. For all calculations
in a pumping system, the axis of the shaft of the horizontal pump is referred as reference line. For
vertical pumps, the inlet edge of the blade of the impeller will be the reference line. Since the difference
between the inlet edge of the blade and the centre line of the outlet edge of the blade is usually small, it
is neglected and the centre line of the outlet edge of the blade is taken as reference line. Anything above
or after the reference line is called delivery side (marked with suffix ‘d’) and anything below or before
the reference line is called suction side (marked with suffix ‘s’) of a pump.
¦
¦
`
¦
'
...(2.1)
8 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Referring to Fig. 2.2, the equation for suction and
delivery pipelines of the system can be written as follows.
Since no energy is added or subtracted in these lines during
the flow through the system,
For (2 – d) delivery line E
2
= E
d
+ h
f

(2 – d)
i.e.,
2 2
2
γ 2
p C
Z
g
- -
= (2 )
2
2
f d
d d
d
p C
Z h
g

- - -
γ
For (s–1) suction line E
s
= E
1
+ h
f (s–1)
...(2.3)
i.e.,
2
2
s s
s
p C
Z
g
- -
γ
= ( 1)
2
1 1
1
2
f s
p C
Z h
g

- - -
γ
The values h
f (2 – d)
and h
f (s – 1)
include major frictional
losses and all minor losses. The total head of the pump as
per equation 2.2 is
H
p
= E
2
– E
1
=
2
2 2
2
γ 2
p C
Z
g
¸ ¸
- -
(
¸ ,

2
1 1
1
γ 2
p C
Z
g
¸ ¸
- -
(
¸ ,
= E
d
+h
f (2 –d)
– E
s
+ h
f (s – 1)
H
p
=
(2 )
2
2
f d
d d
d
p C
Z h
g

¸ ¸
- - -
(
(
γ
¸ ,

( 1)
2
2
f s
s s
s
p C
Z h
g

¸ ¸
- - −
(
(
γ
¸ ,
=
p p
d s

γ
+ (Z
d
– Z
s
) +
2 2
2
d s
C C
g
¸ ¸ −
(
¸ ,
+ h
f (2 – d)
+ h
f (s – 1)
=
p p
d s

γ
+ h
s
+ h
d
+ h
f (d)
+ h
f (s)
+
2 2
2
d s
C C
g
¸ ¸

(
(
¸ ,
= H
sy
...(2.4)
H
H
Q
O
H = f(Q)
p
H = f(Q)
syst
p – p
d s
γ
+ h + h
s d
Fig 2.3. Head of pump and system
(H = H )
sy p
Operating point
¦
¦
¦
`
¦
¦
'
Fig. 2.2. Pump in a closed system
G
2
C
2
h
d
d
p
d
p = p
d 2
h
fd
H
X
C
1
1
V
Reference
line
h
fs
p =p
s 1 S
h
s
PUMP PARAMETERS 9
Equation 2.4 shows that, if a pump is connected to a system, the pump and the system will
operate only at a point where H
p
= H
sy
. Fig. 2.3 shows graphically this condition.
For both major and minor losses combined together h
f
= constant ×
2
2
C
g
= KQ
2
,where K is the
sum of all constants (major and minor). The system head H
sy
=
d s
p p −
γ
+ h
s
+ h
d
+ (K
d
+ K
s
) Q
2
. If a
curve H
syst
= f (Q) is drawn, it will be a parabola moving upwards, i.e., increase of head when the flow
Q increases. (Fig. 2.3).
If this curve is superimposed with H–Q curve of the pump, the meeting point will be (H
p
= H
syst
)
the operating point of the pump for that system.
Different H
sy
curves can be drawn by changing h
s
or h
d
or p
d
or p
s
as well as by changing pipe size
D
p
, pipe length l
p
, in suction and delivery, or by adding or removing or changing bends. Tee, cross-
joints or by changing the valves in the system. Change of every individual parts mentioned above
changes the H
syst
–Q curve. If these curves are superimposed on pump H–Q curve, the operating point
for each system can be determined (Fig. 2.4).
Quantity m /sec, Lt/sec.
3
Q
4
Q
3
Q
2
Q
1
(H – Q)
p
P
4
P
3
P
2
P
1
H 3 – Q
syst
H 2 – Q
syst
H 4 – Q
syst
H 1 – Q
syst
Q
H
P
1
,
Operating points
H
e
a
d
m
.
H
=
h
+
h
+
s
t
s
d
p

p
d
s
γ
Fig. 2.4. Different systems operating on one pump
P
2
, P
3
, P
4
Referring to equation 2.4, if suction and delivery chamber pressures are very high, when compared
to the potential and kinetic energies, then the pump is called process pump.
If the suction and delivery chambers are open type, then p
d
= p
s
= p
atm
and if h
d
, h
s
are very high,
then these pumps are called domestic or agricultural or circulating pumps.
If velocity C
2
is very large, when compared to other parameters and p
d
= p
s
= p
atm
and h
s
and h
d
may be positive or zero, then these pumps are called fire fighting pumps, sprayer pumps.
Rearranging equation 2.2
2
p
γ
=
d
p
γ
+ (Z
d
– Z
2
) +
2 2
2
2

d
C C
g
+ h
f (2 – d)
10 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
=
d
p
γ
+ h
d
+ h
fd
+
2 2
2
2
d
C C
g

...(2.5)
If a pressure gauge is connected very close to the delivery side of the pump at point 2, it will read
the delivery chamber pressure
d
p ¸ ¸
(
γ
¸ ,
, static delivery height (h
d
) delivery line frictional losses (h
f
) (both
major and minor losses) and the difference between the velocity head or kinetic energy at delivery
chamber
2
2
d
C
g
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
and immediately after the delivery of liquid from pump i.e., at the outlet of the volute
casing
2
2
2
C
g
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
. If the delivery chamber is a closed one, then
d
p
γ
will be real and normally above
atmosphere
2
2
d
C
g
will be equal to zero. The pressure gauge P
2
will read
2
p
γ
=
d
p
γ
+ h
d
+ h
fd

2
2
2
C
g
...(2.6)
where C
2
is the velocity at the delivery pipe, and
2
2
2
C
g
will be the kinetic energy at the delivery pipe.
In case the delivery chamber is open to atmosphere then
d
p
γ
=
atm
p
γ
and
2
2
d
C
g
will be real. The
velocity C
d
= C
2
and the velocity head at the delivery pipe is
2 2
2
2
d
C C
g

= 0. The pressure gauge (P
2
)
will read

2
p
γ
= h
d
+ h
fd
(gauge pressure)
=
atm
p
γ
+ h
d
+ h
fd
(absolute pressure) ...(2.7)
If a pressure gauge is connected at the end of suction pipe and very near to the pump inlet at point
1, it will read
1
p
γ
=
γ
s
p
+ (Z
s
– Z
1
) +
2 2
1
2
¸ ¸

(
¸ ,
s
C C
g
– h
f (s – 1)
=
s
p
γ
– h
s
– h
fs
+
2 2
1
2
s
C C
g

...(2.8)
If the suction chamber is closed,
γ
s
p
will be read and C
s
= 0,
2
2
s
C
g
= 0. Then
1
p
γ
=
s
p
γ

2
1
2
s fs
C
h h
g
¸ ¸
- -
(
(
¸ ,
...(2.9)
where C
1
is the fluid velocity at suction pipe.
PUMP PARAMETERS 11
If the suction chamber is open to atmosphere then
s
p
γ
=
atm
p
γ
. The pressure
1
p
γ
will be
negative i.e., under vacuum. A vacuum gauge (V) instead of pressure gauge P
1
must be connected at
point 1. The velocity C
s
= 0 and so
1
p
γ
=
at
p
γ

2
1
2
s fs
C
h h
g
¸ ¸
- -
(
(
¸ ,
absolute
or =
2
1
2
s fs
C
h h
g
¸ ¸
- -
(
(
¸ ,
vacuum ...(2.10)
Vacuum gauge will read only vacuum. The same condition will exist if
s
p
γ
, the suction chamber
pressure is not sufficiently higher than the vacuum in the suction side of the pump. In this case also
only vacuum gauge must be connected at point 1. That’s why if the suction chamber is closed, a
pressure cum vacuum gauge and if suction chamber is open to atmosphere a vacuum gauge is connected
at point 1 i.e., at the end of suction pipe or immediately before the inlet of the pump.
Since total head of the pump (H
p
) = Total head of the system (H
syst
)
H
p
= H
syst
= P
2
+ V + X +
2 2
2 2
d s
C C
g g
¸ ¸

(
(
¸ ,
for open system
= P
2
– P
1
+ X for closed system
...(2.11)
where X is the difference in height between delivery pressure gauge (P
2
) and suction gauge
(P
1
or V). If P
2
is at a higher level than P
1
, X is positive. If P
2
is at a lower level than P
1
then X
1
is
negative. If P
2
and P
1
are at the same level X = 0.
2.1.4 Power (N)
Power is defined as the amount of energy spent to increase the energy of the fluid passing
through the pump from inlet to outlet of the pump and is expressed in
kgf.m
sec
or
N.m
sec
or watts or
kilowatts. If ‘W’ is the weight of fluid passing through the pump and the energy increase per unit
weight of the fluid between inlet and outlet of the pump is ‘H’, power N will be
N
0
=
constant
WH
=
γ
constant
QH
in kW or watts.
where W =
γ
Q, if W is expressed in kgf, the constant will be 102, and if expressed in Newton the
constant will be 1000 in order to get the power in kW.
2.1.5 Efficiency (η ηη ηη)
The power supplied to the pump will be higher than the energy spent in converting mechanical
energy to fluid energy due to various losses, namely, hydraulic, volumetric and mechanical losses. The
ratio of actual power utilized to the power supplied is called efficiency (η).
12 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
η =
0
power spent
const ( )
power supplied( )
th
QH
N
C
N
¸ ¸ γ
·
(
¸ ,
=
γ
.
th
QH
C N
or N
th
=
N
0
η
=
γ

QH
C
...(2.12)
2.2 PUMP CONSTRUCTION
Any pump consists of an impeller having specified number of curved blades called vanes, kept in
between two shrouds.
The impeller is the rotating element responsible for the conversion of mechanical energy into
fluid energy. This impeller is connected, through a shaft and coupled, to the prime mover for rotation.
The connection may be a direct drive or indirect drive, through belt or gear system. The shaft is
supported by one or two fixed bearing supports depending upon the pump duty and one floating
sleeve bearing support along with either mechanical seal or asbestos packed stuffing box. This floating
support is arranged to take care of liner thermal expansion of shaft, towards the impeller side but not
at the prime mover side and at the same time acting as load bearing unit. The mechanical seal material
or the packing material is selected according to the type of pumping liquid such as acidic, alkaline,
neutral, milk, distilled water, cryogenic liquids like ammonia, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, two phase
fluids such as solid-liquid, liquid-gas etc. A gland provided in the stuffing box keeps the packing
material or seal in position.
The impeller is rotated inside a sealed spiral casing or volute casing. Suction and delivery pipes are
connected to the suction side and delivery side of the spiral casing through respective flanges. Since
volute casing is a non rotating part and impeller is a rotating element, sufficient clearance should be
provided between them. The fluid enters the suction side of the impeller, called eye of the impeller with
low energy. Due to conversion of mechanical to fluid energy, the fluid leaving the impeller will be with
higher energy, mostly with more kinetic energy. Due to the energy difference between inlet and outlet of
impeller and due to the clearance between volute casing and impeller, a part of fluid flows from impeller
outlet to the eye of the impeller at the suction side and towards the stuffing box side at the back. In order
to control this leakage flow, wearing rings, at the casing and at the impeller at front and back side are
provided. The amount of clearance and different forms of wearing rings used depends upon the pumping
fluid (temperature, consistency etc.). The mechanical seal and the packing in stuffing box reduces this
leakage still further at the rear side. The volute casing and the impeller with shaft are fitted to the bracket
which has the bearings to support the shaft. This bracket base is mounted in a common base plate,
which has the provision to mount the prime mover. The pump and prime mover will be kept on a
common base plate.
In Figs. 2.5, 2.6 and 2.7, three types of pump assemblies are given for single suction pumps.
However, the construction differs for double suction pumps and multi stage pumps.
PUMP PARAMETERS 13
Fig. 2.5. Single bearing supported pump with split type volute casing
10 14 9
12 7
16
6
8
5
15
4
11
2
15
3
1
13
1. Suction flange
2. Delivery flange
3. Impeller
4. Volute casings
5. Bearing bed
6. Shaft
7. Deep groove ball bearing
8. Bush
9. Flexible coupling (pump side)
10. Flexible coupling (motor tside)
11. Gland
12. Bearing cap
13. Impeller nut
14. Coupling nut
15. Air cock
16. Grease cup
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
26
18
19
20
21
22
24
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
36
2
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
18
25
40
37
Fig. 2.6. Back pullout-double bearing type pump with combine volute casing
34
35
16
1. Spiral casing
2. Intermediate casing
3. Cooling room cover
4. Supporting foot
5. Pump shaft
6. Left-hand impeller
7. Radial ball bearing
8. Radial roller bearing
(only for bearing bracket)
9. Bearing bracket
10. Bearing bracket
intermediate
11. Bearing cover
12. Flat seal
13. Flat seal
14. Flat seal
15. Flat seal
16. Flat seal
17. Flat seal
18. Seal ring
19. Radial seal ring
20. Gland
21. Stuffing box ring
22. Bottom ring
23. Block ring
24. Stuffing box
25. Splash ring
26. Wearing ring
27. Shaft sleeve
28. Disk
29. Pin
30. Oil level regular
31. Hexagon screw
32. Hexagon screw
33. Stud bolt
34. Stud bolt
35. Stud bolt
36. Stud bolt
37. Locking screw
38. Threaded pin
39. Inner hexagon screw
40. Nut
41. Nut
42. Impeller nut
43. Fitting key
44. Fitting key
15
14
17
14 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Fig. 2.7. Heavy duty pump
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Basically pump construction consists of three sub-assemblies namely (1) shaft assembly (2) casing
assembly and (3) base assembly or bracket assembly.
Shaft assembly, consists of impeller, impeller key, impeller nut, shaft, bushes at stuffing box,
bearing inner races, pump coupling, key, and coupling nut, all mounted on a common shaft. The shaft
is connected to the prime mover either through belt drive, or direct. This assembly is the only rotating
assembly and hence this assembly must be perfectly balanced. But, all components in this assembly are
machined components except impeller, viz., inside surface of shrouds and the blade surfaces. These
surfaces are normally rough cast surfaces and could not be machined. Hence impeller only is balanced
and assembled on the shaft.
Casing assembly consists of suction side or front side bracket, rear side or coupling side bracket
of the volute casing. However, volute casing construction changes depending upon the pumping fluids.
For pumping high consistency liquid, two phase fluids, suction side bracket, coupling side bracket and
volute casing are made up of three separate pieces (Fig. 2.7). For ordinary pumping liquids like water,
milk, etc. suction side bracket and volute casing are single unit (Fig. 2.6). In agricultural pumps, casing
is made into two halves (Fig.2.5). Suction side bracket and one half of the casing become one part.
Coupling side bracket and other half the casing become another part. Coupling side bracket will also
have stuffing box or mechanical seal chamber.
For higher capacity pumps, the base assembly or bracket assembly consists of a bracket with
provisions for assembling front and rear bearings, and bearing caps. In agricultural pumps (Fig. 2.5),
however, the stuffing box and gland at the front side of the bracket and bearing chamber and bearing
cap on the other side of the bracket will be the normal construction. In low capacity pumps, the bracket
is fitted on a base plate along with the prime mover. The casing will be connected to the bracket. In such
pumps, the entire weight of delivery pipe with fluid, the suction pipe with fluid and all minor fitting like
valve, bend etc. will be connected to the casing delivery side and suction side respectively as a overhung
unit. In higher and medium capacity pumps, pumps with heavy liquids, two phase fluids will have the
base at the casing which is connected to the common base plate.
Such assemblies are called ‘back pull out’ assembly (Fig 2.6). This assembly is a convenient
assembly, where in all parts, except casing can be removed by pulling the entire assembly backwards
for any repair and maintenance. The pipe system need not be disturbed. However, the prime mover has
to be removed from base plate, in order to remove the pump assembly parts.
PUMP PARAMETERS 15
2.3 LOSSES IN PUMPS AND EFFICIENCY
Theoretically, all the energy supplied to the pump by the prime mover, in the form of mechanical
energy, should be converted into fluid energy. Owing to manufacturing inaccuracies and entirely different
flow conditions prevailing in pump, entire energy input (mechanical energy) is not converted into fluid
energy. Referring to Figs. 2.5, 2.6 and 2.7, 100% mechanical energy supplied at the coupling side of the
pump by the prime mover is reduced, due to energy absorption in bearings, stuffing box, disc friction.
Hence, the energy input at the impeller will be less than the energy input at the pump coupling. Due to
surface roughness inside impeller and due to the leakage flow through clearance, there will be further
reduction in the energy input to the impeller. Hence, the energy output from the pump is less than the
energy input to the pump. The difference between energy input and energy output of the pump is called
losses in pump. The ratio of energy usefully utilized for work to the energy supplied is called efficiency.
In other words, efficiency is the ratio of output energy to the input energy of the machine in doing work.
Three kinds of losses prevail in fluid machines namely, (1) Hydraulic loss (2) Volumetric loss and
(3) Mechanical loss. The sum of all losses will be the total loss. Overall efficiency is the product of
hydraulic efficiency, volumetric efficiency and mechanical efficiency.
2.3.1 Hydraulic Loss and Hydraulic Efficiency (η ηη ηη
h
)
Due to surface roughness at the inner side of the impeller, through which the fluid passes, losses
due to friction and losses due to secondary flow, take place, as a result of which energy loss take place.
Actual head developed (H
a
) will be less than the theoretical head (H
th
) by the amount ∆H = H
th
– H
a
.
∆H is called the hydraulic loss. Hydraulic efficiency (η
h
) is the ratio between, actual head to the theoretical
head.
Hydraulic loss, ∆H = H
th
– H
a
Hydraulic efficiency, η
h
=
H
H
a
th
=
H H
H
th
th
− ∆
=
H
H H
a
a th
-
= 1 –
∆H
H
th
...(2.13)
∆H = (1–η
h
) H
th
2.3.2 Volumetric Loss and Volumetric Efficiency (η ηη ηη
v
)
In order that the impeller can rotate inside the stationary casing, proper clearance is provided at the
front and rear side of the impeller at wearing rings. Due to pressure difference between impeller outlet
and impeller inlet at the front side of the impeller as well as the pressure difference between impeller
outlet and slightly higher than atmospheric pressure at the stuffing box, part of fluid coming out of the
impeller leaks through the clearances on both sides of the impeller. As a result the quantity coming out
of the pump, the actual quantity (Q
a
) will be less than the quantity passing through the impeller, i.e.,
theoretical quantity (Q
th
) by the amount of leakage quantity passing through the clearances (∆Q), i.e.,
∆Q = Q
th
– Q
a
. Volumetric efficiency (η
v
) is the ratio between actual quantity and theoretical quantity
∆Q = Q
th
– Q
a
η
v
=
Q
Q
a
th
=
Q Q
Q
th
th
− ∆
=
Q
Q Q
a
a
- ∆
= 1 –
∆Q
Q
th
...(2.14)
∆Q = (1–η
v
) Q
th
¦
¦
¦
`
¦
¦
'
¦
¦
¦
`
¦
¦
'
16 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
2.3.3 Mechanical Loss and Mechanical Efficiency (η ηη ηη
m
)
Energy loss in ball, roller or thrust bearings (∆N
B
), in bush bearings at stuffing box or in mechanical
seal portion (∆N
s
), and the disc friction losses (∆N
D
) due to the impeller rotation inside the volute casing,
which is filled with fluid are classified as mechanical losses (∆N ). The energy received at the impeller
side of the shaft, i.e., actual power (N
i
) for energy conversion into fluid energy will be less than the
energy supplied at the coupling side by the prime mover, i.e., theoretical power (N
th
), i.e., ∆N = N
th
– N
i
.
The ratio between actual power (N
i
) and the theoretical power (N
th
) is the mechanical efficiency (η
m
)
i.e., ∆N = ∆N
D
+ ∆N
B
+ ∆N
s
∆N = N
th

– N
i
η
m
=
N
N
i
th
=

th
th
N N
N

=
i
i
N
N N - ∆
= 1 –
∆N
N
th
...(2.15)
∆N = (1 – η
m
) . N
th
2.3.4 Total Losses and Overall Efficiency (h)
Total losses = Hydraulic loss + Volumetric loss + Mechanical loss = ∆H + ∆Q + ∆N.
Since η
v
=
Q
Q
a
th
, output energy (N
0
)

=
γ
Q
a
.H
a
= γQ
th

v
. H
th

h
Taking N
i
= γ Q
th
H
th
where N
i
= power available at the impeller end of the shaft, N
i
= N
th
– ∆N.
Therefore, N
0
= N
i
η
v
η
h
= N
th
η
m
.

η
v
.

η
h
. Since η
m
=
N
N
i
th
Overall efficiency, η =
N
N
th
0
= η
m
.

η
v
.

η
h
...(2.16)
2.4 SUCTION CONDITIONS
Normal and dependable operation of a pump depends mostly on suction conditions of the pump
i.e., pressure at the inlet edge of the impeller blade (Fig. 2.8).
Referring to the equations (2.8) and (2.9), the pressure p
1
at the impeller inlet is less than the
pressure at the suction chamber p
s
. If the suction chamber pressure p
s
is low or if the suction
chamber is open to atmosphere i.e., p
s
= p
atm
, the pressure at point 1, the inlet edge of the blade of the
impeller will be under vacuum (Equation 2.10). If this pressure, p
1
is lower than the local vapour
pressure of the pumping fluid, corresponding to the temperature of the liquid at impeller eye (p
vp
),
then the liquid at this point will be boiling. In other words, liquid will not be in liquid form, instead it
will be in gaseous form and pumping cannot be done. Hence, the pressure at the inlet of the impeller,
i.e., at the eye of the impeller, must be above vapour pressure of the flowing fluid corresponding the
temperature of the fluid.
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¦
¦
¦
¦
'
PUMP PARAMETERS 17
Fig. 2.8. Suction conditions in a pump
C
2
2g
A
H
s
C
2
0 2g
X
s
∆h
D
2
1
s
=
B
Radial
flow
Axial
flow
C
0
D
2
0
1
γ
p
=
γ
s
p

2
2
s fs
s
C
h h
g
¸ ¸
- -
(
(
¸ ,
>
γ
vp
p
or
1
¸ ¸

(
γ γ ¸ ,
vp
p
p
=
¸ ¸

(
γ γ ¸ ,
vp
s
p
p

2
2
s fs
s
C
h h
g
¸ ¸
- -
(
(
¸ ,
> 0 ...(2.17)
If
γ
s
p
=
γ
atm
p
i.e., if the suction chamber is open to atmosphere, then
1
γ γ
¸ ¸

(
¸ ,
vp
p
p
=
γ γ
¸ ¸

(
¸ ,
vp
atm
p
p

2
2
s fs
s
C
h h
g
¸ ¸
- -
(
(
¸ ,
> 0
must be greater than zero or in other words, always it should be positive i.e.,
¸ ¸

(
γ γ ¸ ,
vp
atm
p
p
>
2
2
s fs
s
C
h h
g
¸ ¸
- -
(
(
¸ ,
1
γ
− ¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
vp
p p
is termed as H
sv
and is called Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH).
γ γ
vp
atm
p
p ¸ ¸

(
¸ ,
is called
NPSH available. The two terms p
atm
and p
vp
cannot be altered, since these values p
atm
, the atmospheric
pressure at the place where pump is running and p
vp
is the vapour pressure, which depends upon the
temperature of the pumping liquid, are fixed values. The term
2
2
s fs
s
C
h h
g
¸ ¸
- -
(
(
¸ ,
is called NPSH required
which is depending upon, the pump, viz.,

flow rate, pipe length and size, and the level of suction
chamber with respect to the reference line of the pump. All these can be altered during pump erection at
site.
18 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Hence NPSH (Net) (H
sv
) = NPSH (available) – NPSH (required)
H
sv
=
γ γ
vp
atm
p
p ¸ ¸

(
¸ ,

2
2
s fs
s
C
h h
g
¸ ¸
- -
(
(
¸ ,
...(2.18)
σ =
sv
H
H
=
2
( )
2
s
atm vp s fs
C
H H h h
g
H
¸ ¸
− − - -
(
¸ ,
...(2.19)
where σ is called Thoma’s constant. All pump manufactures give this value i.e., H
sv
or σ by conducting
test on water in the laboratory. Depending upon the site conditions, pump erection is carried out so that
pump can work without cavitation.
In order to have a safe operation, a reserve in the NPSH is introduced and suction lift or suction
head is calculated accordingly.
KH
sv
= (H
atm
– H
vp
) –
2
2
s
s fs
C
h h
g
¸ ¸
- -
(
(
¸ ,
...(2.20)
Normal values of K will be 1.15 to 1.40. Therefore, h
s
will be
h
s
= (H
atm
– H
vp
) –
2
2
s
fs
C
h
g
¸ ¸
-
(
(
¸ ,
– KH
sv
...(2.21)
In case the pumping liquid is other than water
H
sv (L)
=
H
S
sv w
L
( )
=
γ
γ
w svw
L
H
...(2.22)
where S
L
is the specific gravity of the liquid
γ
L
and γ
w
are the specific weights of liquid and water respectively.
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110
Water Temperature °C
(a)
V
a
p
o
u
r

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

i
o
n

M
e
t
r
e
s

o
f

W
a
t
e
r

C
o
l
u
m
n
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
100 125 150 175 200 225
Water Temperature °C
(b)
A
d
d
i
t
i
o
n
a
l

S
u
c
t
i
o
n

H
e
a
d

i
n

M
e
t
r
e
s
Fig. 2.9. Vapour pressure of water at different temperatures
PUMP PARAMETERS 19
2.5 SIMILARITY LAWS IN PUMPS
2.5.1 Similarity Laws
A complete study of fluid flow and the flow pattern in impeller, in casing and in various other
elements of pump by theoretical means could not be achieved. Thats why, experimental coefficients are
used along with the theoretical equations to solve the problems in pumps. These experimental coefficients
are obtained by conducting experiments on different pumps and obtaining results with the help of
similarity laws and dimensional analysis.
Similarity and dimensional analysis is a process of obtaining the property and characteristics of
another similar pump from the available property and characteristics of a pump on which experiment
was carried out and the results known. A functional relationship between different parameters of the
pump tested and the pump for which the calculations are needed is established by this law. Using
dimensional analysis under geometrical similarity, different expressions, connecting pump head (H),
quantity (Q), power (N) and speed (n) with the impeller diameter (D), which is the standard reference
linear dimension for a pump, and the properties of fluid, such as density (ρ), viscosity (µ) and gravitational
acceleration (g) can be established. The following Table 2.1 gives the dimensions and units of different
parameters used for non-dimensional analysis.
TABLE 2.1: Units and dimensions
Parameter Dimensions Symbol
1. Head H metre (m) L
2. Quantity Q m
3
/second (sec) L
3
/t
3. Power N
Newton . m
sec
2
2
ML
t
4. Speed n
1
sec
1
t
5. Diameter D m L
6. Gravitational
acceleration g m/sec
2
L/t
2
7. Density
ρ
kg/m
3
M/L
3
8. Viscosity µ
kg
msec
M
Lt
As per the laws of dimensional analysis, there are 8 parameters with 3 dimensions. Hence,
(8 – 3) = 5 non-dimensional parameters can be evolved. After solving, we get the following non-
dimensional parameters.
(1)
2
µ
ρn D
which is Reynold’s number
e
VL
R
¸ ¸ ρ
·
(
µ
¸ ,
(2)
3
Q
nD
which is Struhaul’s number
¸ ¸
·
(
¸ ,
h
V
S
nL
called unit discharge K
Q
in fluid machines
20 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
(3)
3 5
N
n D ρ
called unit power (K
N
)
(4)
2
g
n D
which is Froude number
2
r
V
F
gl
¸ ¸
·
(
(
¸ ,
(5)
H
D
Multiplying non-dimensional parameters (4) and (5), we get another non-dimensional number
2 2
gH
n D
. However, since g is a constant,
2 2
H
n D
is used, in practice which is called unit head (K
H
) in fluid
machines. Based on the above non-dimensional parameters, a functional relationship between unit power
(K
N
) and the unit discharge (K
Q
) i.e., K
N
= f (K
Q
) as well as unit head (K
H
) and unit discharge (K
Q
). viz.,
K
H
= f (K
Q
) can be established.
3 5
ρ
i
N
n D
= 2 3
µ
,
ρ
Q
f
n D nD
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
= f
3
,
e
Q
R
n D
¸ ¸
(
(
¸ ,
...(2.23)
N
i
= ρn
3
D
5
f
3
,
e
Q
R
n D
¸ ¸
(
(
¸ ,
...(2.24)
where, N
i
(internal power) or the power input at the impeller unit i.e., the power input at the coupling
side minus mechanical losses in bearings, stuffing box, and disc friction.
Also
gH
n D
2 2
=
f
n D
Q
nD
µ
ρ
2 3
,
F
H
G
I
K
J = f
R
Q
nD
e
,
3
F
H
G
I
K
J ...(2.25)
or H =
n D
g
2 2
3
,
e
Q
f R
nD
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
...(2.26)
Equations (2.24) and (2.26) give the relation between the internal power (N
i
) and head (H) with
Reynold’s number and unit discharge (K
Q
). The effect of Reynold’s number is not considered, since the
tests are conducted in auto model region i.e., at high Reynold’s number (R
e
> 10
5
), where the coefficient
of friction ‘f ’ remains constant and is independent Reynold’s number (R
e
). This value H will be
approximate, since effect due to frictional losses is not considered.
Considering two identical pumps viz.,

prototype (suffix p) and model (suffix m) i.e., pumps of the
same series which are geometrically similar, i.e., linear dimensions are proportional and kinematically
similar, i.e., flow directions are same within the impeller and in casing, i.e., blade angles are same,
velocity triangles are identical.
For Head
2 2
p
p p
gH
n D
=
2 2
m
m m
gH
n D
or
2 2
p
p p
H
n D
=
2 2
m
m m
H
n D
...(2.27)
H
H
p
m
=
2 2
2 2
p p
m m
gn D
gn D
= K
2
n
n
p
m
F
H
G
I
K
J
2
where K =
p
m
D
D
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
...(2.28)
PUMP PARAMETERS 21
For Quantity
3
p
p p
Q
n D
=
3
m
m m
Q
n D
or
Q
Q
p
m
=
3
3
p p
m m
n D
n D
= K
3
n
n
p
m
F
H
G
I
K
J
...(2.29)
For Power
3 5
ρ
p
p p p
N
n D
=
3 5
ρ
m
m m m
N
n D
or
N
N
p
m
=
3 5
3 5
ρ
ρ
p p p
m m m
n D
n D
= K
5

n
n
p
m
F
H
G
I
K
J
3
ρ
ρ
p
m
F
H
G
I
K
J
...(2.30)
If the pumping liquid is same for both prototype and for model ρ
p
= ρ
m
,

then
N
N
p
m
= K
5

n
n
p
m
F
H
G
I
K
J
3
...(2.31)
Equations (2.28), (2.29) and (2.30) are called similarity equations for pumps, and include the scale
effect, i.e., include change in the effect of Reynold’s number R
e
=
µ
ρnD
2
and relative Roughness effect
ε ¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
D
.
However, exact values, which include the change in the corresponding efficiencies between prototype
and model, are given below :
Q
Q
p
m
= K
3
n
n
p
m
F
H
G
I
K
J
η
η
vp
vm
F
H
G
I
K
J
H
H
p
m
= K
2

n
n
p
m
F
H
G
I
K
J
2

η
η
hp
hm
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
...(2.32)
N
N
ip
im
= K
5

n
n
p
m
F
H
G
I
K
J
3

ρ
ρ
p
m
F
H
G
I
K
J
η
η
mp
mm
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
The value
η
η
vp
vm
F
H
G
I
K
J takes into account the change in volumetric efficiency connected with the
change in the relative values of wearing clearances, balancing holes and usually connected with the
change in scale K. The value
η
η
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
hp
hm
is the change in hydraulic efficiency which is a function of
Reynold’s number and scale K. The value
η
η
mp
mm
F
H
G
I
K
J is the change in the relative values of mechanical
losses in bearings, stuffing box and for disc friction. The equations developed under similarity laws for
pumps are most important for test result analysis and widely used in pump industries, to analyse the
U
V
|
|
|
|
|
W
|
|
|
|
|
22 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
performance of model tested in the laboratory, with the test results obtained from the prototype, tested
in industries such as test at different speeds, test at different diameters, tests on liquids other than water
etc., and also to develop new pumps.
2.5.2 Specific Speed (n
s
)
Specific speed (n
s
) is defined as the speed of a geometrically similar pump which consumes 1
(metric) hp and develops 1 m of total head, the pumping liquid being water under normal temperature
of 4°C and at atmospheric pressure of 1.0336 kgf/cm
2
, and γ = 1000 kgf/m
3
viscosity µ = 1 centipoise
or ν = 1 centistoke i.e., n = n
s
,

when N = 1 hp and H = 1 m.
Since, N (hp) =
γ
75
QH
.
Substituting the values γ = 1000 kgf/m
3
N (hp) = 1 hp, H = 1 m
Q =
1 75
1000 1
×
×
= 0.075 m
3
/sec.
Referring to equation for unit power, K
N
and substituting the values.
N
n D ρ
3 5
=
3 5
1
ρ
s s
n D
N =
3 5
3 5
ρ
ρ
s s
n D
n D
= K
5

n
n
s
F
H
G
I
K
J
3
...(2.33)
gH
n D
2 2
=
2 2
.1
s s
g
n D
or H =
n
n
D
D
s s
F
H
G
I
K
J
F
H
G
I
K
J
2 2
.
= K
2
n
n
s
F
H
G
I
K
J
2
...(2.34)
Combining equations 2.33 and 2.34
N
2
= K
10
n
n
s
F
H
G
I
K
J
6
and H
5
= K
10

n
n
s
F
H
G
I
K
J
10
H
N
5
2
=
n
n
s
F
H
G
I
K
J
4
or n
s
4
=
4 2
5
n N
H
n
s
=
5 4
n N
H
...(2.35)
Since N =
γ
75
QH
n
s
=
3/ 4
λ 1000
3.65
75 75
¸ ¸
· ⋅
(
(
¸ ,
n Q
H
Since γ = 1000 kgf/m
3
PUMP PARAMETERS 23
Hence n
s
=
n N
H
5 4 /
= 3.65
n Q
H
3 4 /
...(2.36)
Equation (2.35) is used for turbines and equation (2.36) is adopted for pumps.
2.5.3 Unit Specific Speed (n
sq
)
Unit Specific Speed (n
sq
) is defined as the speed of a geometrically similar pump delivering
1 m
3
/sec of discharge and develops 1 m head i.e., n = n
sq
where Q = 1 m
3
/s and H = 1 m, i.e.,
n
s
=
n Q
H
3 4 /
.
Combining
gH
n D
2 2
and
Q
nD
3
into one by removing ‘D’
Q ∝ nD
3
or D
3

Q
n
or D
6
=
Q
n
2
2
gH ∝ n
2
D
2
or D
2

gH
n
2
or D
6
=
g H
n
3 3
6
Therefore,
Q
n
2
2

g H
n
3 3
6
or
n Q
n g H
6 2
2 3 3 = Constant
or
n Q
g H
4 2
3 3
= Constant or
n Q
gH ( )
/ 3 4
= Constant (n
sn
) ...(2.37)
Equation (2.37) is called non-dimensional specific speed (n
sn
). Since g is a constant, it can be
taken to the right hand side.
Unit specific speed, n
sq
=
3/ 4
n Q
H
.
Similarly, combining
gH
n D
2 2
and
3 5
ρ
N
n D
into one and by removing ‘D’ in both expressions
gH ∝ n
2
D
2
or D
2

gH
n
2
or D
10

5 5
10
g H
n
N ∝ ρn
3
D
5
or D
5
∝ 3
N
n ρ
or D
10

N
n
2
2 6
ρ
So
g H
n
5 5
10

N
n
2
2 6
ρ
or
n N
g H n
10 2
5 5 2 6
ρ
= Constant
or
10 2
2 5 5
ρ
n N
g H
= Constant
24 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
or
n N
g H ρ
5 4 5 4 / /
= Constant = n
sn
...(2.38)
where n
sn
is the non-dimensional specific speed.
Since N = γ QH = ρg QH, substituting this value in the above equation
n g Q H
g H
ρ
ρ
5 4 5 4 / /
= Constant
or
3/4
( )
n Q
gH
= Constant = n
sn
which is the same n
sn
as defined earlier.
While calculating the specific speed, all efficiencies i.e., volumetric, hydraulic, mechanical and
overall efficiencies are assumed to remain same for one value of n
s
i.e., for one series, independent of
size, capacity, head of the pump, of same n
s
. This is not correct since larger size and capacity pumps
will have higher efficiency than smaller capacity units of same n
s
. This is the only drawback in the
calculation of specific speed.
Referring to the specific speed equation, it can be said that each value of specific speed, n
s
refers
to one particular series of geometrically similar pumps i.e., a number of pumps with different H, Q, n
can be developed, all having same (n
s
) specific speed.
From the above it can be concluded that each value of n
s
refers one particular series of geometrically
and kinematically similar pump, each pump in this series will be identical to the other. It can also be said
that for the same value of head and discharge (H – Q) different types of pumps in different series can
be obtained with different specific speed, by changing the speed n.
Each pump will be different in type and construction. But due to limited suction conditions and
due to cavitation and subsequent vibration, noise and damage of pump parts at higher speeds, high
speeds are not recommended unless otherwise needed. Moreover, maximum efficiency can be obtained
only at a particular speed for the given head (H) and discharge (Q) i.e., for given n
s
only at one
particular speed. In fact, the specific speed, n
s
is calculated at the maximum efficiency point only.
Normally pumps are driven by electric motor (speed will be 720, 960, 1450, 2990 rpm) or by I.C.
Engines (750 or 1000 rpm) or by Turbines (25000 to 50000 rpm). Hence, pumps are always selected or
developed to give maximum efficiency at these speeds. The value of specific speed, the type of pump
will be always selected for the given H – Q of pumps and from the speed, n of the prime mover coupled
to the pump.
2.6 CLASSIFICATION OF IMPELLER TYPES ACCORDING TO SPECIFIC
SPEED (n
S
)
The shape and type of impeller depends upon the specific speed n
s
. For the same head and
discharge, the specific speed (n
s
) is directly proportional to the speed (n). n
s
increases when the speed
is increased. When the speed increases, the shape and type of impeller change. In first approximation
the pump head (H) is directly proportional to the peripheral velocity or blade velocity (u). This is evident
from the non-dimensional equation H ∝ n
2
D
2
∝ u
2
. When speed (n) decreases the diameter (D) increases.
PUMP PARAMETERS 25
Outer diameter (D
2
) of the impeller is the characteristic linear dimension or the reference diameter D. So
increase in speed n decreases the diameter D
2
and correspondingly the size and weight of the pump is
reduced which is naturally most advantageous, provided suction conditions do not have any limitations.
The eye diameter (D
0
) or the inlet diameter (D
1
) is determined from the quantity of flow (Q). D
0
or D
1
and slightly reduces when speed is increased. So the ratio
D
D
2
0
or
D
D
2
1
reduces with the increase of n
s
.
Also for the given quantity, the diameter D
2
reduces, the breadth b
2
increases. So
b
D
2
2
increases with the
increase of n
s
. When n
s
the specific speed increases, the flow rate (Q) increases and total head (H)
decreases. High head-low discharge pumps have low specific speed. The pumps have higher value of
(D
2
/D
1
) and low value of (b
2
/D
2
). Impeller blades are in radial direction and of single curvature design.
These pumps are called radial flow centrifugal pumps.
Medium head-medium discharge pumps have medium specific speed. These pumps have medium
value of
D
D
2
1
and
b
D
2
2
. At lower range of medium specific speed, the impeller blades have double
curvature at inlet and single curvature at outlet. The outlet edge of the blade is parallel to the axis. The
inlet edge of the blade extends towards the eye of the impeller in order to reduce blade loading since
outer diameter D
2
is reduced. When the specific speed increases further the inlet and outlet edges are
inclained i.e., neither radial nor axial. The blades have double curvature design. Flow through the impeller
is neither radial nor axial, but is in mixed or diagonal direction. These pumps are called mixed flow
pumps or diagonal flow pumps.
Low head-high discharge pumps have high specific speed. Inlet and outlet edges of impeller blade
are almost perpendicular to the flow direction. The blades are of double curvature design. These pumps
are called axial flow pumps.
Very low head and very high discharge condition gives very high specific speed. The fluid flow
direction in impeller is axial. Ship propellers belong to this category.
In general, pumps are classified as radial, mixed, diagonal or axial, depending upon the fluid flow
through the impeller passage.
All positive displacement pumps have very low discharge and very high head and hence very low
specific speed.
Theoretically, specific speed changes from 0 to ∞ i.e., from zero discharge to zero head as well as
change in speed. Practically very low speed and very high speeds could not be attained, so also very low
head and very high discharge are limited and hence the specific speed.
D
D
1
D
2
D
C
A
B
n
s 80 350 450 800
Fig. 2.10. Form and shape of impeller for
2
1
D
D
26 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Figs. (1.3) and (2.10) give different forms or shapes of impellers and their range of specific
speeds as well as the range of diameter ratio (D
2
/D
1
).
impeller
2.7 PUMPING LIQUIDS OTHER THAN WATER
2.7.1 Total Head, Flow Rate, Efficiency and Power Determination for Pumps
when Pumping, Liquids other than Water
Unlike turbines; pumps are used not only for pumping clear cold water at normal temperatures,
but also for pumping liquids with different properties such as different densities, different viscosities
and different consistencies, pumping not only at normal temperatures, but also at cold or hot temperatures.
Liquids may be corrosive or non-corrosive, two phase fluids such as gas-liquid or solid-liquid mixtures,
milk, distilled water, acids, alkaline solutions, cryogenic liquids like liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen, liquid
nitrogen, liquid ammonia, molasses, tar, petrol, diesel, crude-oil etc.
It is not possible to design each pump for each liquid and test them in the laboratory with the
pumping liquid at the actual field working conditions.
Pump design is always carried out for clear water at normal temperature. Water is considered as
reference liquid for all the liquids mentioned above.
For pumping liquids with viscosity and consistency, correction coefficients K
H
, K
Q
and K
η
(or K
e
) are used for converting the liquid parameters to equivalent water parameters. These coefficients
are taken from standard recommended graphs and tables. These values are the consolidated results
from a number of experiments by many authors and recommended by International Hydraulic Institute
and Bureau of Indian Standards | 46 |.
Suitable pump is then selected from the commercially available water pumps for which performance
characteristics are known.
TABLE 2.2: Specific speed of pumps
n
s
=
365
3 4
.
/
n Q
H
2
1
D
D
n
sq
=
n Q
H
3 4 /
n
sq
=
n Q
gH ( )
/ 3 4
8–35

2–10
0.36–1.8
40–80
≈ 2.5
10–22
1.8–4.0
80–150
≈ 2
22–41
4.0–7.4
150–300
1.8–1.4
41–82
7.4–14.8
300–400
1.3–1.15
82–110
14.8–19.8
400–600
1.15–1.1
110–165
19.8–29.8
600–1200
0.8–0.6
165–330
29.8–59.5
1200–1800
and above
0.6–0.55
330–495
59.5–89.3
Type of
Positive
displacement
pumps
Centrifugal Mixed Axial
Radial Mixed
Low
discharge
Normal
discharge
Higher
discharge
Diagonal
Propeller
Propeller
Ship
propellers
PUMP PARAMETERS 27
2.7.2 Effect of Temperature
Increase in the temperature of the liquid decreases the density, viscosity and consistency and
increases vapor pressure of the liquid. Due to high temperature of pumping liquid, the dimensions of
pump parts change at running condition, due to thermal expansion of the material of the pump parts.
Extra dimensional allowances in clearances are given depending upon the temperature of the pumping
liquid and coefficient of thermal expansion of the material of the pump parts. These pumps are brought
to the running temperature by filling with the pumping liquid or by external heating, before starting of the
pump for smooth and vibration free operation. These pumps will not be started at normal temperatures
and also should not be used for liquids at other than the recommended temperature.
Increase in vapor pressure due to increase in temperature of the pumping liquid changes the net
NPSH value and also reduction in suction lift. The system at suction side of the pump must be suitably
altered for cavitation free operation of the pump. Recommended changes are given in chapter 9 of this
book.
2.7.3 Density Correction (ρ ρρ ρρ or γ γγ γγ)
Pumping pressure ‘p’ and the total head (H) are related by the hydrostatic equation p = γH = ρ g H
where ‘γ’ is the specific weight and ‘ρ’ is the density of the pumping liquid and ‘g’ is the gravitational
acceleration. For the same pumping pressure, total head of the pump changes according to the specific
weight (γ
v
) or the density (ρ
v
) or the specific gravity (S
v
) of the pumping liquid i.e.,
p = γ
w
H
w
= γ
v
H
v
= S
v
γ
w
H
v
Since r
v
= S
v
γ
w
. Suffix ‘w’ is for water and suffix ‘v’ is for the viscous liquid.
∴ H
w
=
γ
γ
v v
w
H
= S
v
H
v
Although theoretically density has no influence on flow rate i.e., Q
w
= Q
v
, practically Q
v
changes
by 2 to 3% Q
w
and even up to 5% at higher density of pumping liquid due to the influence of surface
tension.
For high temperature liquid pumping at t°C, the density of pumping liquid (ρ
t°C
) is calculated as
(equation 2.39).
ρ
t°C
=
( )
15
C
1
C 15 C
C
t t °
ρ
- β

...(2.39)
where (β
t°C
) is the coefficient and (ρ
15°C
) is the density at t = 15°C.
Table 2.3 gives the values of (β
t°C
) for different values of (ρ
15°C
).
TABLE 2.3: Density correction coefficients
ρ
15°C
0.7 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95
β
t°C
82 × 10
–10
77 × 10
–5
72 × 10
–5
64 × 10
–5
60 × 10
–5
28 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
2.7.4 Viscosity Correction
Performance of centrifugal pump changes when the viscosity of the pumping liquid changes. For
higher viscous liquids, total head (H
v
), flow rate (Q
v
) and efficiency (η
v
) reduce considerably.
Correspondingly, power consumption (N
iv
) increases. Head-discharge graph droops down more. Overall
efficiency reduces. Optimum efficiency shifts to lower flow rate condition. Power consumption increases
considerably especially at high viscous liquid pumping due to higher reduction in efficiency. However,
shut off head of viscous liquid remains same as that of water. Fig. 12.27 shows the change in pump
parameters when viscosity of the pumping liquid changes.
However, up to liquid viscosity 20 C.S., pump performance for viscous liquid pumping does not
change with respect to the pump performance pumping with water. Correction is applied only if the
pumping liquid viscosity is more than 20 C.S. Figure 2.12 gives the values of coefficient for flow rate
(K
Q
), coefficient for total head K
H
and coefficient for efficiency (K
n
or K
e
) for different values of Q
v
, H
v
and ν
v
, where ν
v
is the viscosity of liquid in (S or SSU).
If the temperature of pumping liquid is higher, viscosity (ν
t°C
) at the temperature (t°C) is calculated as
ν
t°C
(C.S.) =
0 01775
1 0 0337 0 00023
2
.
. . - ° - ° t t
...(2.40)
ν
t°C
must be taken while referring the Fig. 2.12.
However, this graph can be referred only for :
(a) Pumps of radial type centrifugal pumps under the normal operating range, having open or
closed impellers. It cannot be used for mixed and axial flow pumps or for pumps of special
design of impellers such as s-type impellers, single blade or two blade impellers or for non-
uniform liquids like, slurries paperstocks etc., since it may produce widely varying results,
depending upon the particular characteristics of the liquids.
(b) Sufficient NPSH should be available in water parameters in order to avoid cavitation.
Relation between viscous and water parameters is expressed as
Q
v
= K
Q
. Q
W
H
v
= K
H
. H
w
...(2.41)
η
v
= K
η
. η
w
N
iv
=
( )
1000
v w v v
v
S Q H × γ × ×
η
(kW)
2.7.4.1 Determination of Water Parameters for the Given Head, Quantity and Viscosity of
the Pumping Liquid
For the given total head (H
v
), quantity (Q
v
), efficiency (η
v
) and specific gravity (S
v
) at the pumping
temperature (t°C) of the viscous liquid to be pumped, equivalent water parameters (H
w
, Q
w
, η
w
, N
iw
) can
be determined referring the graph (Figures 2.11 and 2.12). The procedure is as follows:
From the point of given viscous quantity (Q
v
) (Point A) in X-axis, a vertical line is drawn to meet
the given viscous head (H
v
) line (Point B). From this meeting point of H
v
and Q
v
(Point B) a horizontal
line, either left or right, is drawn to intersect the given viscosity (ν
v
) line (Point C). From the point C, a
PUMP PARAMETERS 29
Fig. 2.11. A viscosity correction nomogram based on that quoted by (from Davidson (3), 1993,
Process Pump Selection—A System Approach, Second Edition IMechE, London)
Water pump peak
efficiency %
90
90
90
80
80
80
70
70
70
20
20
20
30
30
30
40
40
40
50
50
50
60
60
60
Water pump peak
efficiency %
100
90
80
70
60
100
90
80
70
60
50
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
H
e
a
d
C
a
p
a
c
i
t
y
E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
Water pump peak
efficiency %
300
200
150
100
75
50
40
30
20
15
10
5m
1
5
,
0
0
0
1
0
,
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
8
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
1
0
0
0
9
0
0
8
0
0
4
0
0
3
0
0
2
0
0
1
5
0
9
0
1
0
0
4
0
H
e
a
d

p
e
r

s
t
a
g
e

i
n

m

a
t

p
e
a
k

e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

f
o
r
w
a
t
e
r

a
t

a
c
t
u
a
l

o
p
e
r
a
t
i
n
g

r
.
p
.
m
.
300
200
150
100
75
50
40
30
20
15
10 15 20 30 40 50 60 80 100 150 200 300
400 600 800
1
0
0
0
1
4
0
0
1
8
0
0
2
2
0
0 m /hr
3
30 40 50 60 70 80 100 150 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 8000 imp gpm
V
is
c
o
s
it
y
8
0
30 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Hm
200
100
60
30
20
10
6
150
80
40
25
15
8
4
2
0
3
0
5
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
3
0
2
0
0
3
0
0
4
0
0
5
0
0
6
0
0
8
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
2
0
0
0
4
3
0
3
0
0
6
0
E
n
g
l
e
r
1
.
5 2
2
.
5 3
4
.
5 6 8
1
0
1
5
2
0
2
5
3
0
6
0
5
0
8
0
1
0
0
1
2
0
1
6
0
2
2
0
4
0
6
.
2
5
1
1
.
8
1
6
.
5
2
1
.
2
3
3
.
4
4
5
.
2
6
0
.
5
7
5
1
1
4
1
3
2
1
9
0
2
2
3
3
0
4
3
5
0
4
3
6
6
1
0
7
6
0
9
1
5
1
2
1
7
1
6
7
0
2
2
8
0
3
1
9
0
C
o
r
r
e
c
t
i
o
n
F
a
c
t
o
r
s
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
K
H
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
K
Q
K
η
Centistokes
Q imp gpm
Fig. 2.12. Performance correction chart for viscous liquids
vertical line is drawn to meet the correction curves K
η
, K
Q
and K
H
at peak water efficiency points D, E,
F respectively. The values K
η
, K
Q
and K
H
are the correction coefficients. By using the equation (2.41),
equivalent water parameters Q
W
, H
W
, η
W
can be calculated.
For multistage pumps, the total head (H
v
) must be the total head per stage only i.e., H
v
= [(H
V
)
multistage/number of stages]. Based on the water parameters (H
V
and Q
V
), suitable pump can be selected
from the commercially available pumps.
2.7.4.2 Determination of Viscous Parameters When Water Parameters are Known
For the given H
w
, Q
w
, η
w
values of water pump, equivalent viscous parameters H
v
, Q
v
, and η
v
can
be determined, referring the graph (Figures 2.11 and 2.12). From the performance characteristics of the
available water pump, namely H
w
= f (Q
w
), η
w
= f (Q
w
) and N
iw
= f (Q
w
), where Q
w
is the quantity at the
PUMP PARAMETERS 31
maximum efficiency condition and H
w
, η
w
, N
w
are the corresponding values at Q
w
, the values of H
w
, η
w
,
N
w
for 0.6 Q
w
, 0.8 Q
w
, 1.0 Q
w
and 1.2 Q
w
are determined. As first approximation, all the above determined
water parameters are assumed as viscous liquid parameters, so that graph (Figs. 2.11 and 2.12) can be
referred to find K
H
, K
Q
, and K
η
for all four capacities, following the same procedure as mentioned.
Using the equation (2.41), equivalent values of H
V
,

η
V
, and Q
V
can be calculated for all four Q
w
capacities.
Two graphs H
w
, η
V
, N
W
= f (Q
W
) and H
v
, η
V
, N
V
= f (Q
V
) are drawn taking shut off head is same for
water and for viscous liquid pumping. From this curve Q
V
, can be found out for the given value of Q
w
,
and other values. One such graph is given in Figure 2.13.
Fig. 2.13. Determination of viscous parameters from water parameters of pump
η
Q
1, 2 Q
N
H
N
η
H
0
, 6
Q
0, 8 Q
1, 0 Q
Water parameters
Viscous liquid parameters
Example: A water pump has the following details as per the performance graph:
Optimum efficiency condition η
W (max)
= 80% is at Q
W
= 150 m
3
/hr. Corresponding H
w
= 40 m,
N
w
= 28 kW. Pumping liquid viscosity is 57 CS. Referring to the performance characteristic of
water pump, the values of H
W
, η
W
, N
W
, for 0.6 Q
w
= 90 m
3
/hr, 0.8 Q
w
= 120 m
3
/hr and for 1.2 Q
w
=
180 m
3
/hr are found out. Referring the conversion graphs (Figs. 2.11 and 2.12), the values of K
η
,K
H
,
and K
Q
for all four capacities are determined. Using equation (2.41), H
V
,Q
V
, η
V
, and the power required
for viscous fluid pumping N
V
, are calculated. All these values are given in Table 2.4.
TABLE 2.4: Viscous parameter determination from water parameters
% Q
W
values
Parameters 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2
Flow rate m
3
/hr Q
w
90 120 150 180
Q
V
= K
Q
.Q
W
Q
V
88.2 117.5 147 176.5
Total head m H
W
44 42 40 36
H
V
= K
H
. H
W
H
V
43.2 40.8 38 33.5
Efficiency % η
W
70 78 80 77
η
V
= K
η
η
W
η
V
49 54.5 56 54
Input power kW N
W
15.7 17.9 20.9 23.1
N
V
21.6 24.6 27.6 29.8
32 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Based on the results tabulated in above table (2.4), H
V
, η
V
, N
V
= f (Q
V
) are drawn in the same scale
and in the same available performance characteristics of water pump, taking shut off head same for
both liquids. From this graph (Fig. 2.13), for any value of Q
W
, H
W
, η
W
, corresponding values of Q
V
, H
V
,
η
V
and N
V
can be determined.
2.7.5 Effect of Consistency on Pump Performance
Pumps in chemical and process industries, handle two phase fluids i.e., liquid with another non-
mixing liquid, liquids with solids in suspension, gas particles in liquids. Apparently average specific
gravity of such mixtures is different from specific gravity of liquid alone. The problem becomes more
difficult, if the liquid is other than water, which is very common in chemical industries. As a result, the
net pumping head, flow rate, power, NPSH of the mixture change. So the pump parameters of the
mixture is converted into equivalent water parameters by using experimental coefficients called
‘consistency factor’.
‘Consistency’ is defined as the percentage by volume or by weight (or specific gravity) of the
solid content or gas content or other liquid present in suspension in the whole pumping mixture. It is
the property of material by which, a permanent change of shape is resisted and is also defined by the
complete force-flow relationships.
As done for viscous fluids, the experimentally determined conversion factors are used to determine
the liquid parameters. The following equations are used for such conversion:
Water Rating (Q
w
or H
W
) =
Pulp (or) stock rating for or ( or )
Conversion factor for Q or ( or )
s s
q H
Q H Q H
H E E
H
S
= E
H
, H
W
, Q
S
= E
Q
. Q
W
Water efficiency (η
W
) × Conversion factor (E
η
) = Pulp or stock efficiency (η
s
)
η
W
× E
η
= η
s
Table 2.5 gives the conversion factor for pulp or stock pumping at different consistency conditions | 5 |.
TABLE 2.5: Consistency conversion coefficient
Pulp or stock consistency % E
Q
E
H
E
η ηη ηη
1.0 0.99 1.00 0.99
2.0 0.99 1.00 0.99
2.5 0.98 1.00 0.98
3.0 0.97 1.00 0.97
3.5 0.96 0.99 0.95
4.0 0.92 0.98 0.90
4.5 0.87 0.97 0.85
5.0 0.80 0.95 0.76
5.5 0.72 0.93 0.67
6.0 0.62 0.90 0.56
6.5 0.52 0.87 0.45
7.0 0.42 0.83 0.35
(2.42) ...
¦
¦
`
¦
'
PUMP PARAMETERS 33
Such conversion factors are available for different liquid mixtures from the manufactures such as
KSB pumps, pump manual or International Hydraulic Institute Standards. Rotodynamic pumps can be
used only up to 7% consistency. For consistencies above 7%, positive displacement pumps must be
used.
Correct design, construction and material of pump parts must be followed especially for impeller
blade shape, casing shape and location, sealing arrangement, and cooling arrangements such as external
cooling or mother liquid circulation for cooling and sealing to suit the pumping fluid and operating
conditions.
In this book, water handling pumps and their constructions are only dealt with and discussed in
chapter 13. For special pumps, however, handling hydrocarbons and other high consistency liquids,
specific manufacturer’s recommendation must be referred.
2.7.6 Special Consideration in Pump Selection
Normally pumps are manufactured as per the manufacturer’s standard of production range. Any
customer selects pump for his requirement from the available standard ranges. Sometimes, pumps are
selected according to space availability in the field such as in ships, rigs, railways, in general for transport
systems and sometimes to replace the existing pump with the new pump especially in mechanical and
process industries. In such cases, efficiency is not considered as a major factor, instead functional
applications such as fitting the pump in the space available, non-stop or continuous operation even at
emergency conditions are considered as important. Such conditions change from field to field and
installation to installation. Pumps must be designed and constructed and must work as per the requirement
of prevailing conditions at the fluid.
3.1 ENERGY EQUATION USING MOMENT OF MOMENTUM EQUATION FOR
FLUID FLOW THROUGH IMPELLER
Energy transfer from the impeller blade to the fluid, per unit mass (or weight) of fluid flow, when fluid
passes through the impeller, can be developed by using momentum equation between point ‘O’, just
before the impeller blade and point ‘3’ just after the blade. The cylindrical contour surface passing
through point O and point 3 are shown in figure (3.1). The contour circles drawn with radius ‘r
1
’ passing
through the point O and with radius ‘r
2
’ passing through point 3 are connected to the front and rear
shrouds (Fig. 3.1). Pressure and velocity forces, on both sides of the shrouds, are equal and opposite and
hence get cancelled. Only two forces, due to absolute velocities, one acting on the outer cylindrical
surface 3 and another on the inner cylindrical surface ‘O’ are responsible for energy transfer. Taking
moment of this momentum at inlet and at outlet i.e., moment of tangential component of these forces
with respect to the centre of the circle and since l
0
= r
0
cos α
0
, r
0
= r
1
, C
0
cos
0
α = C
u0
= C
u1
and l
3
= r
3
cos α
3
, r
3
= r
2
, C
3
cos α
3
= C
u3
= C
u2
, the reactive moment due to the tangential forces acting on the
cylindrical surfaces 3 and 0 will be
r
=
r
3
2
α
3
C
3
C
u3
α
0
C
0
C
u0
l
3
r
1
α
0
r
2
II I
l
0
r
=
r
0
1
3
3
0
0
Fig. 3.1. Moment of momentum equation as applied to impeller
Contour
Contour line
Moment
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1
cos M C l C r Cu r Cu r · · α · ·
Moment
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2
cos
u u
M C l C r C r C r · · α · · ...(3.1)
Taking into account, moment M
f
due to friction, created due to the fluid passing through blade
passages, total moment M will be
M = M
3
+ M
0
+ M
f
3
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS
Comp-1/Newage/Pump-3.pm6.5—9.5.07 4.10.07
34
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 35
=
2 1 2 1
( )
u u f
rQ
C r C r M
g
− -
...(3.2)
For ideal fluid flow, M
f
= 0. Energy transfer per unit weight of fluid flow through the impeller of
a pump i.e., the theoretical head developed under infinite number of blades, with infinitesimally smaller
vane thickness, will be
H
th ∞
=
M
Q
ω
γ
=
2 1 u u
C C
g
− ¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
...(3.3)
where Mω = N,
γ
Q = W and u = ω r.
Equation 3.3 is the Eular’s equation for the head developed by a pump.
3.2 BERNOULLI’S EQUATION FOR THE FLOW THROUGH IMPELLER
Eular’s equation for an elementary flow along a streamline (S) is given by
F
s

1
.
p dC C C s
s dt t s t
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
· · - ·
ρ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂

2
2
C C C C
C
t s t s
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ¸ ¸
- · -
(
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
¸ ,
...(3.4)
where, F
s
= Resolved component unit of mass along the direction of the streamline S
p = pressure
C = velocity (absolute)
ρ = density
For an elementary length ‘ds’ on the streamline the equation (3.4) can be written as
F
s
ds –
2
1

2
p C C
ds ds ds
s s t
∂ ∂ ∂ ¸ ¸
·
(
ρ ∂ ∂ ∂
¸ ,
...(3.5)
For steady flow condition


C
t
= 0.
Therefore, F
s
ds –
2
1

2
p C
ds
s s
∂ ∂ ¸ ¸
(
ρ ∂ ∂
¸ ,
ds = 0. ...(3.6)
The force due to unit mass is the gravitational force ‘g’
mg
m
¸ ¸
·
(
¸ ,
which is directed downwards.
F
g
= – g.
Taking vertically upward direction of Z-axis as +ve direction
and ( ) – cos , –
s g
dZ
F F Z ds g
ds
·
...(3.7)
Substituting this value of F
s
in equation 3.6 and changing the sign
+ g
2
1
2
dZ p C
ds ds
ds s s
∂ ∂ ¸ ¸
- -
(
ρ ∂ ∂
¸ ,
ds = 0 ...(3.8)
or
2
0 - - ·
dp C
gdZ d
ρ 2
36 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
For compressible flow, density ‘ρ’ is a function of the pressure p i.e., ρ = f ( p). Integrating the
equation (3.8) with respect to ds
gZ +
2
2
dp C
-
ρ

= Constant ...(3.9)
For incompressible fluid, the density ‘ρ’ is constant. The specific weight γ = ρg. Hence, the equation
(3.9) can be written for unit weight of fluid as,
2
2
p C
Z
g
- -
γ
= Constant ...(3.10)
Equations (3.8), (3.9) and (3.10) are called Bernoulli’s equation derived from fundamental Eular’s
equation of motion under steady absolute flow condition along a streamline.
It is evident that, this equation cannot be applied for the change of energy of ideal fluid under
unsteady absolute motion of fluid in impellers. Perhaps this equation can be applied for other elements
like approach pipe with or without inlet blades, volute casing, diffuser, return passage of multistage
pumps, which are non-moving or stationary elements, where steady flow prevails under optimum
conditions.
For impellers, however, steady flow condition can be applied for relative velocity of flow of fluid
since this velocity is actual velocity flowing past the blades. Referring the equation (3.7) the force F
s
in
impeller blades consists of the gravitational force F
g
and inertia force (since blade is moving) namely
centrifugal force F
CF
and Coriolis force F
c
.
F
s
= F
g
+ F
CF
+ F
c
...(3.11)
For unit mass flow along the streamline ‘S’, the gravitational force F
g
= – g
dZ
ds
and is directed
towards downward direction. The centrifugal force F
CF
= ω
2
r, where ‘ω’ is the angular velocity and
‘r ’ is the radius, and is directed towards radial direction. Coriolis force, F
c
= ω w sin ( ) w ω , is directed
normal to the direction of relative velocity, vector ‘w’ and angular velocity ‘ω’. Since ds = w dt along
the streamline, the resolved component of the total mass force F
s
will be
F
s
= f
g
cos (F
g
.ds) + F
CF
cos (r.ds) + F
c
cos (F
c
.ds)
W
u
W. sin ( ,w) ω
ω
u
a
cu
W
z
a
cr
W
r
W
F
c
F
cu
F
cr
Fig. 3.2. Vector diagram for Coriolis component F
a
determination of M
z
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 37
Taking axis of rotation vertically upwards as +ve direction the resolved component of the mass
force in relative motion along a streamline will be
F
s
= – g
2
dz dr
ds ds
- ω ...(3.12)
substituting the value of F
c
in equation (3.6) and since, F
cs
= F
c
cos (F
c
.ds) = 0, because of the direction
of F
c
normal to the direction of w on the elemental strip ‘ds’ where the relative velocity ‘w’ is tangential
to the streamline
– g
2
- ω
dZ
ds
ds
r
2
1
– –
2
dr p w
ds ds
ds s s
¸ ¸
∂ ∂
(
ρ ∂ ∂
¸ ,
ds = 0 ...(3.13)
Simplifying gdZ –
2 2
2
2 2
r dp w
d d
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
ω - -
( (
ρ
¸ , ¸ ,
= 0 ...(3.14)
Integrating the above equation (3.14) and since u = ωr
gZ +
2 2

2
-
ρ

dp w u
= Constant ...(3.15)
For an incompressible fluid flow, the density ‘ρ’ is constant and independent of pressure ‘p’. Hence,
the above equation can be written as
for unit mass flow
2 2
ρ 2

- -
p w u
gZ = Constant ...(3.16)
for unit weight flow
2 2
2
ρ −
- -
γ
w u
Z
g
= Constant ...(3.17)
The equation (3.16) and (3.17) represent Bernoulli’s equation for a relative flow past impeller
blades and is used for an indepth study of flow analysis i.e., interaction between blades and flow past
the impeller blade. This equation is similar to the Bernoulli’s equation derived for an absolute flow used
for analysis of all non-moving flow passages of the pump. Applying equation (3.17) between point 0
and point 1 (which lies on the inlet edge of the blade), where steady flow exists in absolute and in
relative flows.
2 2
1 1 1
1
2

- -
γ
p w u
Z
g
=
2 2
0 0 0
0
2

- -
γ
p w u
Z
g
...(3.18)
Relative velocity ‘w’ can be expressed in terms of absolute velocity ‘C’ and blade velocity ‘u’.
Referring to the velocity triangle (Fig. 4.1)
2 2 2
2
u
w C u u C · - − ...(3.19)
So,
2 2 2
1
2 2
u
C u w u C
g g g

· −
Equation 3.27 can be written as

1 1 1 1
1
2
u
C u p C
Z
g g
- - −
γ
=
2
0 0 0 0
0
2 g
- - −
u
p C C u
Z
g g
...(3.20)
38 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Since total energy E =
2
2
p C
Z
g
- -
γ
, the above equation (3.20) can be written as
E
1

1 1 u
C u
g
= E
0

0 0 u
C u
g
or
1 1 0 0
1 0
u u
C u C u
E E
g

− ·
...(3.21)
Correspondingly the energy difference between point 3 and 0 which is the total head H
m


developed
by the pump, is
H
m
= E
3
– E
0
=
3 3 0 0 u u
C u C u
g

and H
th ∞
=
2 2 1 1 u u
C u C u
g

...(3.22)
Also
3 2 3 2
,
u u
u u C C · · ,
0 1
·
u u
C C and
0 1
u u ·
This equation (3.22) is the fundamental Eular’s equation for rotodynamic pumps. H
m
is the
monometric head applied for finite number of blades with finite thickness and H
th∞
is the theoretical
head applied for infinite number of blades with infinitesimally smaller thickness.
3.3 ABSOLUTE FLOW OF IDEAL FLUID PAST THE FLOW PASSAGES OF
PUMP
The integral form of equation for the ideal fluid flow as per Gromeko-Lamb |67| is
F –
1
ρ
grad p =
C
t


+ grad
2
2
C
¸ ¸
(
(
¸ ,
+ rot C

× C

...(3.23)
where C

is the velocity vector.
Taking Z-axis in vertically upward direction as +ve direction , mass force F

under absolute flow
through the passages of pump parts, is
Mass force F

= – grad ∏= – gz ...(3.24)
where g = acceleration due to gravity, which is acting vertically downwards.
The density ‘ρ’ is a function of pressure ‘p’.
ρ = f (p) ...(3.25)
For compressible flow it depends upon the process. Under baratropic conditions, for isentropic
process ρ = (p)
1/γ
. For adiabatic process ρ = ( p)
1/k
. For isothermal process ρ = p
–1
= p. For incompressible
flow, ρ = Constant (p
0
).
In general, under baratropic condition.
P (p) =
0
( )
p
p
d
p
ρ
ρ

...(3.26)
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 39
Gradient of the above function will be
grad P =
dp

grad p =
1
ρ
grad p ...(3.27)
For the condition (equations 3.23 and 3.24) as per Gromeko-Lamb equation, (3.23) can be written
as:
C
t



+ grad
2
2
¸ ¸
- - ∏
(
¸ ,
C
P
+ rot C

× C

= 0 ...(3.28)
For absolute flow
C
t



+ grad E + Ω × C

= 0 ...(3.29)
where E =
2
2
C
P - - ∏ and rot C

= Ω.
Equation (3.29) represents the ideal fluid flow under baratropic condition (for liquids and gases)
and under potential field of mass force.
Under steady flow condition
C
t



= 0. For absolute flow stationary conditions prevailing in diffusers
volute casings etc., (non-moving parts) equation (3.29) can be written as
grad E + Ω

× C

= 0 ...(3.30)
For axisymmetric flow Ω

= 0. Such conditions prevail in approach pipe at pump inlet. So


× C

= 0, where the vortex vector Ω

is parallel to the velocity C

. Such things exist in propeller and
screw type units, because, the interaction between fundamental vortex and the flow becomes zero. The
vortex motion developed in impellers continues up to outlet also.
Integrating equation (3.30)
E =
2
2
C
P - - ∏
=
0
2
2
p
p
C dp
-
ρ

+ gZ = Constant ...(3.31)
which is the Bernoulli’s theorem for the entire stream tube which is called as Lagranze’s equation, |67|.
For incompressible fluid flow
2
2
p C
Z - -
γ
= Constant ...(3.32)
Equations (3.31) and (3.32) can be and widely used for compressible and for incompressible flow
in fluid machines.
For unsteady absolute flow, which is normally existing in impeller blades and in places where
flow is changing from stationary to moving. Integrating the equation (3.29) under axisymmetric
conditions.

Ω = rot C

= 0 and for potential function φ of velocity C

, grad φ = C

and hence grad
C
t t
∂ ∂φ
·
∂ ∂
.
40 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Equation (3.29) under axisymmetric flow condition will be
grad
E
t
∂φ ¸ ¸
-
(

¸ ,
= 0
Since
E
t
∂φ
-

=
2
2
C
t
∂φ
-

+ P + Π · f (t) ...(3.33)
This equation is called Lagrange-Koshi’s equation | 67|. The function f (t) is a function of time and
is determined from the boundary conditions. Equation (3.33) i.e., equation of Langrange-Koshi plays a
very important role in unsteady flow as similar to Bernoulli’s equation in steady flow.
Equation (3.33) for incompressible flow will be
2
1
2 γ
C p
g t g
∂φ
- -

= f (t) ...(3.34)
3.4 RELATIVE FLOW OF IDEAL FLUID PAST IMPELLER BLADES
Considering the integral form of Gromeko-Lamb equation (equation 3.23) in vector form for a
relative flow of fluid past impeller blades, absolute velocity of fluid C

before entering the impeller
blade at inlet is changed to relative velocity w

, while flowing through the impeller due to rotation of
impeller with a peripheral velocity u

. So also at outlet. The relation between these velocities can be
written as :
1 C

=
1
w

+ 1 u

and 2 C

= 2

w + 2 u

The force due to mass ‘F’ under relative flow consists of three elements namely
F

=

g
F +

CF
F +
c F

...(3.35)
where

g
F
= gravitational force acting vertically downwards

CF
F
= centrifugal force and

C
F
= Coriolis component of force acting normal to the flow at any given point on the
streamline.
The gravitational force F
g
is a potential function Π
g F

= grad ∏ = – gZ ...(3.36)
since Z-axis is the reference axis and vertically upward direction is taken as +ve.
The centrifugal force is also a potential function and expressed as
CF F

= grad
2
2
u
=
2
ω
2
grad r
2
= ω
2
r ...(3.37)
where, u = ωr, ω = angular velocity, r = the selected radius on the stream referred with respect to Z-axis,
the axis of rotation.
The Coriolis component can be written in general form as
K
F

= – 2 ( ω

× w

) ...(3.38)
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 41
The vectorial form of the relative velocity w

will be rot w

. Since C

= w

+ u

w

× rot w

= w

× rot ( C

– u

) = w

× rot C

– w

× rot u

... (3.39)
rot u

= rot ( ω

× r

) = 2ω
Same thing can be obtained by selecting or elementary contour of radius ‘r’ in the plane, normal to
the Z-axis of rotation. The resolved component of these vortex along the direction Z is
rot
z


u =
0
lim
→ r

2

π

r u
r
=
0
lim
→ r

2
2
2π ω
π
r
r
= 2ω
So w

× rot w

= w

× rot
C

+ ( ω

× w

) ...(3.40)
Substituting all the values in equation (3.23) of Gromeko-Lamb
– grad Π + grad
2
2
u
– 2 ( ω

× w

) –
1
ρ
grad p – grad
2
2
w
+
w

× rot C
+ 2 (
ω

× w

) –
dw
dt
= 0 ...(3.41)
Simplifying
grad
2 2

2
w u
P
¸ ¸
∏- -
(
(
¸ ,
+
dw
dt
= w

rot C

...(3.42)
Under steady flow conditions of relative velocity w

,
dw
dt
= 0
Integrating equation under two conditions:
(1) When axisymmetric potential flow of absolute velocity exists i.e., rot C

= O.
(2) When the vector of absolute flow vortices are parallel to the relative velocity under vortex
flow of absolute flow, i.e., w

× rot
C

= 0
So, grad
2 2

2
w u
P
¸ ¸
∏- -
(
(
¸ ,
= 0 ...(3.43)
Integrating the above equation (3.43) and since Π = g Z and P =
0
ρ
p
p
dp

ρ

dp
+ gZ +
2 2

2
w u
= Constant ...(3.44)
Equation 3.44 is the equation for the relative flow under steady potential flow conditions. For
compressible fluids the density ‘ρ’ is a function of pressure ‘p’ and depending upon the process. For
incompressible flow ρ = Constant. Changing the equation from unit mass to unit weight. γ = ρg
γ
p
Z - -
2 2

2
w u
g
= Constant ...(3.45)
42 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Equation (3.45) holds good for the entire flow in the channel for a steady and potential
(axisymmetric) flow. Applying Bernoulli’s equation between points x and y (Refer Fig. 3.3 and 3.13)
located on both sides of the impeller blade at the same radius ‘r’.
p
y
p
x
y x
r
r
r
x
y
(a)

2 2 2
1 1
p
2
p
1
r
Impeller blade passage at r′
f
(b)
Fig. 3.3. (a) Pressure variation in radial flow impeller passage
(b) Pressure variation across impeller passage of axial flow pump
ω
ω
y
x
r
(a) Theoretical (b) Actual
Fig. 3.4. Velocity distribution between blades
r

γ
x
p
+ Z
x
+
2 2
2
x x
w u
g

=
γ
y
p
+ Z
y
+
2 2
2
y y
w u
g

u
x
= u
y
and Z
x
= Z
y
since point x and y are located on the same radius and the difference in level is
negligibly small, the above equation can be written as
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 43
γ 2
x x
p w
g
-
=
γ 2
y y
p w
g
-
Useful work done by the impeller blades under finite number of blades with finite thickness is due
to the interaction between the blade and the flow of fluid and due to the local pressure difference between
leading and trailing side of the impeller blade. The pressure at the point x, located on the leading side of
the blade on the radius, is higher than the pressure at point y, which is located at the trailing side of the
blade at the same radius. In the same manner the pressure at point x′ is same as at x since both are at
leading surfaces but at adjacent blade. This means the pressure across the channel between two successive
blades (x′ – y) located at the same radius are not equal. p
x
= ( p
x′
) > p
y
. Across the channel, pressure
changes uniformly. Correspondingly, w
x
= w
x
′ < w
y
the relative velocity across the channel gradually
decreases for x′ to y. (Figs. 3.3 and 3.4).
3.5 FLOW OVER AN AIRFOIL
The flow of fluid over a blade kept in space is of three types: (1) Plain flow over the blade
[Fig. 3.5 (a)], (2) Circulatory flow [Fig. 3.5 (b)] and (3) Combination of these two flows [Fig. 3.5 (c)].
In pure plain flow, fluid flows over blade without any circulation or vortex. It is a uniform, steady,
potential (axisymmetric) flow. In pure circulatory flow, the fluid flows around the blades, encircling the
blade. There is no plain flow. The line integral of the flow velocity around their closed contour gives
circulation, sum of which is zero in an endless flow (i.e., in space where flow starts from infinity and
ends in infinity).
A
B
(a) Plain flow (b) Circulatory flow (c) Combined flow
Fig. 3.5. Fow over an airfoil
(d) Flow after the airfoil
Pure plain flow or pure circulatory flow acting individually on the blade does not produce any
force on blade. The pressures on both sides of the blade are equal in both type of flows. When these two
flows are combined together, a pressure difference is developed due to the difference in flow velocities
between two sides of the blade, by which energy transfer between fluid and the blade takes place. In
rotodynamic machines (pumps, fans, blowers, compressors and turbines) instead of one blade, a number
of blades, i.e., a cascade system is adopted for energy transfer between blades and fluid. This pressure
difference in axial flow pump is due to the flow over the cascade system with angle of attack. The flow
velocity is determined from the flow rate. But in radial flow pump this pressure difference is produced
44 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
not only from the main flow (plain flow combined with circulatory flow), but also due to the rotation of
the impeller i.e., Coriolis component. The Coriolis component does not give any flow, but increases the
velocity difference further as a result of which circulation is increased.
The relative velocity at the trailing side of the impeller blades is higher, whereas the relative
velocity at the leading side of the blade is lower (Fig. 3.7 and 3.8). Due to this, relative velocity across
the channel from trailing side of the blade to the leading side of the sucessive blade is not constant,
instead changing. Absolute velocity of flow C is axial and potential, without any rotation or vortex, but
the relative velocity is not axisymmetric i.e., with vortex, induced due to peripheral velocity u. This can
be shown by the following. Since the relative velocity
w

= C

– u

; rot w

= rot ( C

– u

) = rot C

– rot u

Since absolute velocity of flow is axisymmetric and potential rot C

= 0.
So, rot w

= rot u

= rot (ω ) r
→ →
− = 2
ω

This means the relative velocity is with vorticity or circulation. Consider the flow of ideal fluid, in
a completely closed cylindrical container and the container moves in a circular path (Fig. 3.6) with the
centre of rotation ‘O’. The fluid body AB in the closed channel keeps its position same without any
rotation at all positions when the channel is moved in a circular path. i.e., the pointer is always pointing
the same upward direction. In other words, the absolute velocity direction is without any circulation or
vortex, even when the channel moves in a circular
path with centre ‘O’. But the same line AB rotates,
if it is considered with respect to the circle. When
the circle is rotated in anticlockwise direction, at
the section I the arrow AB is perpendicular to the
circle. At section II, it is parallel to the circle. This
is repeated to section III and IV but rotated by
180° with respect to section I and II. The fluid in
the container rotates in opposite direction i.e.,
clockwise direction, with respect to the circle with
an angular velocity ‘ω’. This indicates that the
relative velocity is with circulation or vortex. The
same situation prevails in impeller channel
(Fig. 3.7) when the channel is closed at inlet and
at outlet.
Fig. 3.7. Circulatory motion of fluid in impeller blade passage (channel vortex)
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
II IV
I
III
Fig. 3.6. Relative rotary motion of fluid in a closed
channel when moving in a circular path
O
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 45
Adding the plain flow i.e., the potential absolute flow moving with constant velocity over both
sides of the blade to this relative circulating flow i.e., when the channel is no longer a closed one, the
resultant flow gives velocity difference between trailing side and leading side of the impeller, and hence
the energy transfer from blade to fluid. The velocity triangles at inlet and at outlet are shown in Fig. 3.8.
K
β′
2
B
M
C′
2
α′
2
α
2
C
2
u
2
E
ω
R
r
2
r
1
A
P
B
2
S
ω
1
ω
1
c
1
c′
1
α′
1
u
1 D
N
L
0
Fig. 3.8. Relative velocity of flow in impeller passage at normal conditions
w
2
w
1
β
2
w′
2
w
1
B
1
As mentioned earlier, different velocities at the outlet of the impeller w
2
equalises after some
distance. Constant and uniform velocity ‘w
3
’ exist after the impeller, which again shows that axisymmetric
absolute flow prevails after the impeller.
3.6 TWO DIMENSIONAL IDEAL FLOW
3.6.1 Velocity Potential
Velocity potential φ is defined as
s
C ds φ ·

between any two points in the potential field and C
s
is the velocity tangential to the elementary path connecting these two points, independent of the path
taken between two points. Such a flow is called potential flow. Circulation is equal to zero for a potential
flow. Presence of isolated vorticity does not change the potential flow. Circulation along a closed contour
not enclosing the vorticity is also equal to zero and remains constant at all times along and contour.
3.6.2 Rotational and Irrotational Flow
Two basic motions of fluid, namely translation and rotation can act either independently or
collectively. Fig. 3.9 shows such motions.
46 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

dy
dx
(a) (b)
Fig. 3.9. Translation and rotation in fluid motion
So also a deformation of a fluid element, represented by a square in Fig. 3.10, can be either linear
or angular.
Fig. 3.10. Linear and angular deformation in fluid motion
(a) (b)
All the above mentioned fluid motion can take
place either individually of collectively.
Consider a fluid motion with rotation and
translation as shown in Fig. 3.11. During the time
interval ‘dt’ point ‘A’ in the fluid element aAb moves to
point A′ and takes new position a′, A′, b′. When
deformation also takes place, the angles of rotation α
and β are not equal. Average rate of rotation ‘ω’ in
time ‘dt ’ will be ω =
2
Aa Ab
ω - ω
=
2dt
α -β
...(3.46)
Taking anticlockwise direction as positive and
taking α and β as small values ( tan
θ · θ
)
α =
Arc
Radius
=
v
x


dxdt .
1
dx
=
v
x


dt
and β =
u
y


dydt .
1

u
dy y

·

dt
So ω
z
=
2dt
α -β
=
1
2


v u
dt dt
x y
¸ ¸ ∂ ∂
(
∂ ∂
¸ ,

.

1 1
2 dt
·


v u
x y
¸ ¸ ∂ ∂
(
∂ ∂
¸ ,
∂v
y

x
dxdt
x
y
∂v
y
y ∂
dy dt
a′
b′
α
β
A′
dx
A b
dy
v
x
dt
a
v dt
y
Fig. 3.11. Rotation, translation and
deformation in fluid element
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 47
3.6.3 Circulation and Vorticity
Circulation ‘
Γ
’ is the line integral of velocity
around an element. A study of circulatory motion can be
understood by studying vortex motion under potential
flow condition.
The velocity components on all four sides of the
fluid element ABCD are shown in Fig. 3.12(a). The fluid
element is rotating in anticlockwise direction with an
angular velocity ‘ω’.
Since the centre of rotation is not known it is
convenient to relate the sum of the products of velocity
and distance around the contour of the element which is
the sum of the line integral of velocity around the element.
This is called ‘circulation, Γ’. Since area of the element
dA = dxdy.
Circulation Γ =
C ds
→ →

z
...(3.47)
Taking anticlockwise direction as positive direction for integration.
ABCD
udx Γ · +
v
v dx
x
∂ ¸ ¸
-
(

¸ ,
dy –
u
u dy
y
¸ ¸ ∂
-
(

¸ ,
dx – vdy = 0
=
v
x


dxdy –
u
x


dxdy
=

v u
x y
¸ ¸ ∂ ∂
(
∂ ∂
¸ ,
dxdy = 2ωdA ...(3.48)
It is evident from the equation (3.48) that the circulation around a contour of an element is equal to
the sum of vortices within the area of the contour.
θ
v
C
Fig. 3.12. (b) Circulation and vorticity
dA
This is known as Stokes theorem. Mathematically, it is represented as
C
Γ =
C ds C ds dA A
s
→ →
⋅ · · ·
z z z
cos θ ω ω 2 2
...(3.49)
Vorticity
Area
Γ
Ω · = rot C

= 2ω
A D
C B
Direction
of
integration
v
y
v
x
v
y
+
∂v
y
x ∂
dx
v
x
+
∂v
x
y ∂
dy
y
x
Fig. 3.12. (a) Circulation in fluid element
d
y
dx
48 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
is twice the angular velocity of fluid rotating as a solid body. Taking anticlockwise direction as +ve
direction, the component of vorticity in polar (r, θ, z) coordinates will be
2 2 –
r z
u u
C C
z r
θ
∂ ∂ ¸ ¸
Ω · ω · ω
(
∂ ∂
¸ ,
( ) 1
2 –
u z
r
C r C
r z
π
∂ ∂ ¸ ¸
Ω · ω ·
(
∂θ ∂
¸ ,
( ) 1
2 –
¸ ¸ ∂ ∂
Ω · ω ·
(
∂ ∂θ
¸ ,
u r
z z
r
C r C
r
For an irrotational flow
u
ω = 0. For a potential and incompressible flow C
r
= 0. Circulation along
a closed contour is constant and is equal to the intensity of vorticity. i.e.,
z
C
r


= 0 or C
z
= Constant.
In axial flow pump, the existence of potential flow gives equal flow velocity at all radii. Under
axisymmetric, potential flow condition.
∂ ∂
·
∂θ ∂θ
z r
C C
= 0.
Also
( )
u
C r
z


=
( )
u
C r
r


= 0 or C
u
r = Constant
at all radii of the impeller inlet and outlet. However, under potential flow in meridional sections only
u
ω = 0. Whereas
r
ω and
z
ω ≠
0 and henc C
u
r ≠ constant in these direction.
3.7 AXISYMMETRIC FLOW AND CIRCULATION IN IMPELLER
Ideal fluid flow through the elements of fluid machines is an axisymmetric flow. Kelvin’s theorem
and Lograngan’s theorem are the most important expressions for the study of dynamics of ideal fluid
flow. Circulation ‘ Γ’ is defined as the line integral of the velocity along a closed contour.
Γ =
q dl
c
→ →
z
where q

is the velocity vector dl

is the differential of arc length of the closed curve q

. dl

is the scalar
product of these two vectors. Kelvin’s theorem is the time rate change of circulation for a closed fluid
curve. i.e.,

D
Dt
Γ
= 0.
Kelvin’s theorem states that for a barotropic ideal fluid acted on by gravitational force with
potential, the circulation along a closed fluid contour, remains constant with respect to time. When
applied to radial flow fluid machines, the Kelvin‘s equation is written as
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 49
d
C dr
dt
→ →

= 0
where C

= q

and dr is dl.
This equation confirms the application of Eular’s equation for fluid machine design. Kelvin’s
theorem can be used only for absolute flow for both non-stationary and stationary elements, where the
gravitational force is under potential.
3.7.1 Circulation in Impellers of Pump
As per Kelvin’s theorem, if axisymmetric or potential flow exists in ideal fluid flow before entering
the impeller, then same potential flow prevails, when fluid flows through the impeller also. Circulation
along the closed contour of the fluid flow must also be equal to zero. But this statement is correct only
if the fluid flow is an unified flow, i.e., only for a fluid flow through impeller. If the closed contour
encloses, a solid body apart from the fluid, for example, impeller blades, then fluid flow cannot be taken
as unified flow and correspondingly circulation along the closed contour under potential flow cannot be
zero. This is evident from the fact that pressure at the leading side of impeller blade is higher than that at
trailing side. Correspondingly, flow velocities at the leading side is lower than that at leading side of the
blade, due to the interchange of momentum from blade to fluid (effect due to finite number of blades
with finite thickness).
3.7.2 Vorticity and Circulation around Impeller Blades
Consider a closed contour enclosing one impeller
blade 11′2′2 (Fig. 3.13) of a radial flow pump. Lines 12
and 1′2′ are two identical stream lines kept at a distance of
‘t’ the pitch
2 r
t
Z
π ¸ ¸
·
(
¸ ,
at inlet and at outlet.
1
1
2 r
t
Z
π
· and
2
2
2 r
t
Z
π
·
, where r
1
= inlet radius, r
2
= outlet radius and Z
= number of impeller blades. Lines 11′ and 22′ are the arc
of circles at inlet radius r
1
and at outlet radius r
2
respectively,
connecting the two streamlines.
Consider the absolute flow of the fluid along the
contour 11′2′2′ (Fig. 3.13). The streamlines 12 and 1′2′ are
identical, but located one on each side of the blade,
symmetrically to the blade. Circulation along the streamlines
are equal in magnitude but apposite in sign due to the change
in the direction of movement along the contour.
On integration, we get
cb
Γ = C
122 1 1 ′ ′
z
b g
ds cos (C, ds) =
2 1
22 11 ′ ′

∫ ∫ u u
C ds C ds
=
2
z
π
(C
u2
r
2
– C
u1
r
1
) ...(3.50)
x
y
x′
1′
r
1
1 r
2
2
t
2
2′
6
4
3
7
=

2
r
π
2
2
z
ds
ω
d b
5
Fig. 3.13. Vorticity and circulation along a
moving impellerl blade
50 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
where
2 u
C and
1 u
C are the average values of the tangential component of absolute velocities at radii r
2
and r
1
respectively and –ve sign for
1 u
C is due to the direction of
1 u
C opposite to
2 u
C in the closed contour.
In order to find the circulation ‘
cb
Γ ’ along the blade, the contour 47654, enclosing the blade is
connected to the previous contour 11′2′21 through the line 34.
Consider the circulation along the contour 1345674322′1′1. Since this contour does not include
the impeller blade, the flow can be considered as axisymmetric or potential. As per Kelvin’s theorem
circulation along the contour must be equal to zero.
Integrating (Fig. 3.13)
Γ
=
Γ
+
Γ
+
Γ
+
Γ
= 0
(1345674322′1′1) (122′1′1) (34) (45674) (43)
Since
Γ
= –
Γ
= –
Γ
cb
and
Γ
+
Γ
= 0
(45674) (47654) (34) (43)
and
Γ
(122′1′1) =
2
z
π
(C
u2
r
2
– C
u1
r
1
) as per equation (3.50)

cb
Γ =
2
z
π
(C
u2
r
2
– C
u1
r
1
) ...(3.51)
i.e., under axisymmetric or potential absolute flow, circulation along any contour enclosing the blade,
including the blade contour also will be constant. Since same value of Γ
cb
exist on all other impeller
blades also, circulation for the impeller, possessing Z number of blades will be
imp
Γ = Σ
cb
Γ = z
cb
Γ = 2π (
2 u
C r
2

1 u
C r
1
) ...(3.52)
3.8 REAL FLUID FLOW AFTER IMPELLER BLADE OUTLET EDGE
Let us consider the flow of fluid before and after the outlet edge of an impeller blade in a cascade
system under finite number of blades with finite thickness (Fig. 3.14).
β
0
β
3
w
3
m
w
2
m
w
2
w
3
w
2u
=
w
3u
t
w
3m
w
3
w
3u
β
3
d
C
w
2m
b
β
2
a
δ
w
1
w
2u
t - S
A
t S
Fig. 3.14. Real fluid flow after impeller blade outlet edge
The geometric and kinematic parameters of the blade system are: outlet blade angle
2
β , blade
thickness ‘δ
2
’, pitch ‘t
2
’ outlet flow velocity on the blade ‘w
2
’ and after the blade ‘w
3
’. The tangential
and normal components, of these velocities, when resolving with respect to the blade movement are
w
u2
=
2 2
cos w β ,
2 m
w =
2 2
sin w β ,
3 u
w =
3 3
cos w β and
3 m
w =
3 3
sin w β .
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 51
Fluid uniformly flows over the blades at outlet tangentially without shock. The flow area of the
passage between two successive blades before leaving the outlet edge will be (t
2
– S
2
), where
2
2
2
sin
S
δ
·
β
since the flow area is reduced due to the vane thickness.
After some distance, fluid stream coming out from both sides of a blade converges into one stream.
A no flow area prevails (marked as A in Fig. 3.14) after the blade thickness area at outlet. The flow area
is increased from (t – S) to t. Correspondingly, the flow velocity is reduced to
3m
w ·
2 2
2
2
m
t S
w
t

.
In order to find the relation between w
2u
and w
3u
, a controlled surface abcd enclosing the no flow
area A as well as covering the outlet edge of the blade is taken for analysis. The lines ‘ad’ and ‘bc’ are
two identical streamlines kept at a distance of pitch ‘t’ between them. Other two lines ‘ab’ and ‘cd’ are
parallel to the direction of movement of the cascade system.
Considering the force on the surface ‘ad’ and ‘bc’, the forces are equal and opposite at each and
every point considered along the streamline ‘ad’ and ‘bc’ respectively and hence they cancel each other
(a couple produced by these two forces are neglected).
Considering the surfaces ‘ab’ and ‘cd ’, the forces on surface ab will be
2 D
F
g
γ
· ∆Qw
2
inclined at
an angle of β
2
to the blade movement and on the surface ‘cd ’ will be F
D3
=
γ
g
∆Qw
3
inclined at an angle
of β
3
to the blade movement. Resolved components of these two forces are equal and opposite, hence
they cancel each other, i.e.,
γ
g
∆Qw
2
cos β
2
=
g
γ
∆Qw
3
cos β
3
.
Since
2 2
cos w β = w
u2
and w
3
cos β
2
= w
u3
, w
u2
= w
u3
, i.e., the tangential components of the
velocities before and after the outlet blade edges are equal. So the change in the relative velocities w
2
and w
3
is due to the flow area change from (t – S) to ‘t ’ before and after the outlet blade edge and is only
due the change in meridional flow velocities w
m2
and w
m3
and correspondingly the blade angle from β
2
to β
3
. The corresponding velocity triangles are shown in Fig. 3.14. This is effective due to the application
of finite number of blades in cascade system. The same rule is applicable to the inlet edge also.
3.9 SECONDARY FLOW BETWEEN BLADES (Fig. 3.15)
For energy transfer in pump, pressure at the trailing side of the blade should be greater than the
pressure at the leading side, correspondingly pressure and velocity difference prevails at the passage
between two blades. This pressure difference induces a circulatory secondary flow along with the main
flow in the flow passage in axial direction from inlet to outlet at the same radius. At the same time from
hub to periphery in the radial direction another circulation secondary flow exists due to the boundary
layer in real fluid flow. The circulation in radial directions increases. However, the real fluid flow more
or less concides with ideal fluid flow. Hence, the secondary flow effect is neglected normally in axial
flow pumps.
52 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
If inlet entry is normal C
u
= 0 and C
r
= 0. Circulation and hence the total head remains constant at
all radius. In practice, however, it is found that circulation slightly increases near hub and considerably
at periphery due to finite number of blades and subsequent secondary flow. However, it is very small
and hence neglected. Pumps designed with C
u
r = constant give very high efficiency (93 to 98%) in spite
of complicated three dimensional flow pattern actually existing at all radii of the impeller inlet and
outlet.
h
Fig. 3.15. Secondary flow in axial flow pump
3.10 FLOW OF A PROFILE IN A CASCADE SYSTEM—THEORETICAL FLOW
Flow over an impeller blade of a pump or airfoil of axial flow pump is with a relative velocity ‘w’,
which is resultant of absolute and peripheral velocities. (C and u)
w

= C


u

. This flow can be
considered as the flow with many vortices and circulation is due to the action of these vortices. Intensity
of such vortices acting an elementary blade length ‘ds’ in the form of circulation ‘
wb
Γ ’ will be (Fig. 3.4)
Γ
wb
=
w ds
→ →

z
Since circulation Γ is the line integral of velocity around the element. Since w

= C

– u

Γ
wb
=
C ds
s
→ →
z

=
C u ds
s
→ → →

F
H
G
I
K
J
z
.
=
C ds u ds
s s
→ → → →
z z
⋅ − ⋅
= Γ
cb
s
u ds − ⋅
→ →
z
...(3.53)
Since,
cb
Γ =
C ds
s
→ →
z

Applying Stokes theorem, which states that circulation around a contour is equal to the sum of
the vortices within the area of the contour, to the above equation
u ds
s
→ →
z
⋅ =
u ds u dA dA A
n
s s s
cos . rot θ ω ω · · ·

z z z
( ) 2 2
Hence, Γ
wb
= Γ
cb
+ 2ωA ...(3.54)
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 53
If the impeller blade or airfoil is very thin, area A will be small and hence 2ωA being very small,
when compared to ‘
cb
Γ ’ it is neglected. Hence
Γ
wb
=
cb
Γ =

z
. (C
u2
r
2
– C
u1
r
1
) ...(3.55)
In axial flow pumps, impeller blades are airfoils. For analysis, a cylindrical section of cascade of
impeller blades is considered as equal to blades with finite thickness, displaced at a distance of pitch ‘t’
between two successive blades, and spread over from (∞) to (∞). The Z-axis of the coordinates coincides
with the axis of rotation of the cylindrical section. Projection of this cylindrical section perpendicular to
Z-axis will be zero. Hence the equation (3.54) can be considered for the cylindrical section or cascade.
The boundary layer thickness ‘δ’ in real fluid flow over blades, is very small, about 1% of blade
chord length ‘l’. The relative velocity on the blade is zero. Hence, circulation will be zero. The flow
velocity beyond the boundary layer thickness can be considered as ideal fluid flow. Hence, neglecting
the circulation in the boundary layer thickness, since it is very small, the equation (3.55) can be applied
to the relative velocity of flow over impeller blades of axial flow pump also.
Head developed by the impeller blade as per Eular’s equation is
H

=
2 2 1 1

u u
C u C u
g
=
g
ω
(C
u2
r
2
– C
u1
r
1
)
=
ω
2
imp
g
Γ
π
or
2
m
imp
gH
z
π
Γ · Γ ·
ω
...(3.56)
t
t
1′
1
u
p , z
2 2
2 2′
p , z
1 1
Jowkovski’s theorem
Fig. 3.16. Flow over a profile of a cascade system
3.11 FUNDAMENTAL THEORY OF FLOW OVER ISOLATED PROFILE
Theoretical flow of fluid over a cylinder with plain flow combined with source, sink and vorticity
(circulation) is usually considered for the study of flow over isolated airfoils or hydrofoils used in axial
flow machines.
54 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
A B φ = 0
φ

=

0 φ

=

0
φ

=

0
φ

=

0
D
φ = 0
y
C
x 0
α
0 B A
C
D
– a a
x
y
(a) (b)
v
0
(c)
Fig. 3.17. (a) Plane flow with doublet (b) Plane flow with doublet and circulation (c) Actual flow
Plain straight flow with infinite velocity (C

) combined with a source and sink of same intensity
(q) kept at origin i.e., a doublet located at point ‘O’ [Fig. 3.17 (a)] leads to a flow over a cylinder. The
velocity | C | at any point on the cylinder surface, located at an angle ‘θ’ from X-axis will be | C |= 2C

sin θ. The direction of velocity | C | will be tangent to the cylinder surface at the point considered. At
point A and B, instantaneous velocity | C | = 0. Since θ · O and 180°. At points C and D velocity | C | =
| C
max
| = 2C



since θ = 90° and 270°. Applying Bernoulli’s equation, pressure at any point in the
cylinder surface can be determined from the known velocity. It is evident that velocities and pressures
are equal at symmetrical points. The vectorial sum of all pressure is zero. There is no flow separation
under theoretical flow. In practice, however, due to real viscous fluid flow, flow separation takes place
at the outer half of the cylinder, which is called Dalambir’s paradox [Fig 3.17(c)].
Due to addition of circulation (vorticity
Γ
) to the above mentioned flow, i.e., plain flow with
doublet and with vorticity located at the centre of the cylinder i.e., at the origin of the axis, the resultant
velocity at any point on the cylinder changes although symmetrical with respect to Y-axis. Due to the
introduction of vorticity, points A and B are shifted with downward direction towards point D
[Fig. 3.17(b)]. The velocity at point C is greater than the velocity at point D. Correspondingly, pressures
at point D is higher than pressure at point C, as per Bernoulli’s equation. This results in net upward force
called lift force on the cylinder. The cylinder is made to raise upward. This effect is called Magnus
effect. The higher the lift force will be, if the intensity of vorticity is higher. This lift force will be
Y = ρC

Γ ...(3.57)
where ρ is the density of the fluid, C

is the infinite velocity of approach to the profile and Γ is the
vorticity induced. This is called the theorem of Kutta-Jowkovski about lift force on a profile of any
form. The angle of shift of point A from X-axis ‘α
0
’ is given by
sin α
0
=
4

Γ
πaC
...(3.58)
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 55
where ‘a’ is the radius of the cylinder. Same condition prevails but reversed, if the rotation of vorticity
in the direction of circulation is reversed. The lift force will be towards the downward direction and the
points A and B shift towards the point C. In that case C
D
> C
C
and P
C
> P
D
. In general, the lift force Y is
determined as
2
0
0
4 sin and
4π ρ sin
aC
Y a C


Γ · π α ¦
¦
`
· α
¦
'
...(3.59)
Actually, in fluid machines flow of fluid over a profile takes place at an angle θ

to X-axis, i.e.,
with an angle of attack α

. The infinite velocity C

, is directed at an angle of α

from X-axis, when
passing over the profile [Fig. 3.18(a)].
B
A
y
x
θ

θ

C


C
x
z ζ
η
ζ
C
*
y
C

plane
plane
(a) (b)
Fig. 3.18. (a) Flow with angle of attack, (b) Conformal transformation of airfoil from cylinder
3.12 PROFILE CONSTRUCTION AS PER N.E. JOWKOVSKI AND S.A.
CHAPLIGIN
Theoretical fluid flow study on airfoils, used in fluid machines, is done from the known flow
study on cylinder using conformal transformation as suggested by Prof. Jowkovski and Prof. Chapligin.
Cylinder in Z = x + iy plane is transformed into a plate or a profile which is in ζ = ξ
xi
+ ζ plane, based
on a mathematical relation z = f (ζ). [Fig. 3.18(b)]
While doing so, the magnitude and direction of the infinite velocity C

of the fluid approaching
the blade, the circulation along the contour of the blade and the forces acting on the flow by the blade on
both blades remain same. Necessary conditions are
| f ′ (z)
z →∞
| = 1 and arg f ′ (z) = 0 ...(3.60)
or
z
d
dz
→∞
ζ
= 1
The transformation function, to meet the above condition, is given by
ζ = Z +
2
a
Z
= Z + Z′ , where Z′ ·
2
a
Z
...(3.61)
¦
¦
`
¦
'
56 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Z and Z′ are real and imaginary planes
containing circles K and K′ respectively (Fig. 3.19)
and ‘a’ is the radius of the cylinder. The relation
between the plane Z and the radius ‘a’ is given by
Z = a
i
e
θ
= a (cos sin ) i θ − θ = (x + iy)
...(3.62)
Combining equation (3.61) and (3.62)
ζ = a (cos sin ) i θ - θ + a (cos sin ) i θ − θ
= 2a cos θ ...(3.63)
It is evident from the equation (3.63) that
cylinder of radius ‘a’ is equivalent to a plate having
a distance of –2a and +2a from the origin. Plate
length is l = 4a.
The vector ζ is equal to the geometrical sum
of two vectors Z and
2
a
Z
as per equation (3.63)
Referring to Fig. 3.20. Point ‘A′ ’ of the Z′ plane,
located at the circle K′, is the inverse of point A
1
of
the Z plane, located at the circle K, with respect to
the circle Q by the relation.
Z′ = r
1
′ 1
i
e
θ
·
1
2
1
i
a
r e
θ
·
2
1
a
r
1
i
e
− θ
...(3.64)
Module | r
1
′ ¦ ·
2
1
a
r
argument θ
1
′ = – θ
1
for the complex point Z′. Points A
1
and A
2
are inversely
located with respect to the circle of radius ‘a’ in such a way that r
1
r
2
= a
2
. Module r′
1
, inverse of point
A
1
is determined as module of point A
2
, i.e., r′
1
· r
2
. The mirror image of A
2
is A′
1
with an argument
′ θ
1
= θ
1
and modules | r′
1
¦. The relation between Z
1
and its inverse Z′
1
is given as
x′+ iy′ ·
2
a
x iy -
·
2
2 2
( ) a x iy
x y

-
...(3.65)
Τhe real and imaginary parts are
x′ =
2
2 2
a x
x y -
and y′ = –
2
2 2
a y
x y -
In the same manner x =
2
2 2
a x
x y

′ ′ -
and y =
2
2 2
a y
x y

′ ′ -
...(3.66)
The radius R of the real circle K with centre at z
0
= x
0
+ iy
0
relative to the circle Q can be written
as
(x – x
0
)
2
+ (y – y
0
)
2
= R
2
...(3.67)
α
– 2a – a
+ a
+ 2a
O
v

l = 4a
Fig. 3.19. Transformation of circle to plate
Q
K
A
1
v
v
A′
1
K′
z′
0
z
0
A
2
O
Fig. 3.20. Construction of inverse of circle
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 57
From the above equations (3.66) and (3.67), the parameters for inverse circle K′ i.e., R′ x′
0
and y
0

can be determined.
( )
4 2 2
2
2 2
( ) a x y
x y
′ ′ -
-
– 2x
0

2
2 2
( )
a x
x y

′ ′ -
+ 2y
0

2
2 2
( )
a y
x y

′ ′ -
– (R
2
– x
0
2
– y
2
0
) = 0
or a
4
– 2a
2
x
0
x′ - 2a
2
y
0
y′ – (R
2
– x
2
0
– y
2
0
) (x′
2
- y′
2
) · O
or x′
2
- y′
2
-
2
0
2 2 2
0 0
2
( )

− −
a x x
R x y

2
0
2 2 2
0 0
2
( )

− −
a y y
R x y

4
2 2 2
0 0
( )
a
R x y −
= 0
This equation can be modified and rewritten in the following form:
2
2
0
2 2 2
0 0
a x
x
R x y
¸ ¸
′ -
(
(
− −
¸ ,
+
2
2
0
2 2 2
0 0
a y
y
R x y
¸ ¸
′ -
(
(
− −
¸ ,
=
( )
2 2 4
0 0
2 2 2 2 2 2
0 0 0 0
1
x y a
R x y R x y
¸ ¸
-
-
(
(
− − − −
¸ ,
=
4 2
2 2 2 2
0 0
( ) − −
a R
R x y
...(3.68)
From the above equation (3.68), equation for inverse circle K′ relative to circle Q is
R′ · R
2
2 2 2
0 0
( ) − −
a
R x y
; x′
O
· – x
0

2
2 2 2
0 0
( ) − −
a
R x y
and y ′
O
· y
0

2
2 2 2
0 0
( ) − −
a
R x y
...(3.69)
b = 4a
a a
+ 2a
– 2a
y
b
a
z
R
b
b
y
ξ
x
a
z′
– a
B
A
Fig. 3.21. Transformation of circle into thin curved plate of an arc of a circle
58 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
3.13 DEVELOPMENT OF THIN PLATE BY CONFORMAL TRANSFORMATION
For transforming cylinder circle ‘a’ into an arc i.e., a camber thin plate, the centre of the real circle
‘K’ with radius R
b
is located vertically above the centre of the cylinder circle ‘a’ on the imaginary axis
in Z-plane Z-axis (Fig. 3.21) such that x
0
= 0, y
0
= y
b
and R
2
b
– y
2
b
= a
2
. Substituting this value in equation
(3.38) (3.70) R′
b
= R
b
. x′
O
= 0 and y′
O
· y
b
which indicates that inverse circle K′

with radius R′
b
relative to
the main circle ‘a’ exactly coincides with the real circle ‘K’ with radius R
b
. Centre z
0
and z′
O
of the circles
K and K′ concides each other.
Transformation of real and imaginary circles K and K′ in Z-plane to ζ-plane is done by the
geometrical summation of vectors Z (real) and Z′ (imaginary) (Figs. 3.20, 3.21). Since in Z-plane real
and imaginary circles K and K′ coincide each other, z and Z′ vectors drawn from the origin ‘O’ meet the
same circle K and K′. Thus conversion of entire circle with radius R
b
= R′
b
represents in ζ-plane an arc
i.e., cambered thin plate, with a chord length of l = 4a.
3.14 DEVELOPMENT OF PROFILE WITH THICKNESS BY CONFORMAL
TRANSFORMATION
Prof. Jowkovski developed a cambered profile with thickness i.e., airfoil by shifting the centre z
0
of the real circle K (Fig. 3.22) along the line ab towards the negative x direction from the imaginary axis.
The radius of the circle K is equal to ‘az
0
’ and the centre of this circle is z
0
.
a
4a
a
z′
II
II
v
0
v′
0
z′
0
z
0
K
R
R′
z
ζ
b
Fig. 3.22. Transformation of circle into thick profile—Jowkovshi’s profile
From equation (3.69), we can write
tan
0
′ θ =
0
0
y
x


=
0
2 2 2
0 0
0
0
0
2 2
0
0
tan
2
2
2
¸ ¸
(
(
− −
¸ ,
· − · − θ
¸ ¸
(

(
− −
¸ ,
a
y
R x y y
x
a
x
R x y
...(3.70)
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 59
or
0
′ θ =
0
θ . Inclination of the line az
0
= arc tg
0
0
y
a x
¸ ¸
(
-
¸ ,
and inclination of the line az′
0
= arc tg
0
0

y
a x
′ ¸ ¸
(

¸ ,
.
From equation (3.70), we can write

0
0
y
a x

′ −
=
2
0
2 2 2 2
0 0 0
( ) − − -
y a
a R x y a x
...(3.71)
Referring Fig. 3.22, R
2

= y
2
0
+ (x
0
+ a)
2
So,
0
0
( )
y
a x


=
2
0
3 2
0
( )
y a
a x a -
=
( )
0
0
y
a x -
...(3.72)
i.e., points z
0
and z′
0
lie on the same straight line ‘ab’. z
0
lies at an angle of θ
0
in the negative direction,
whereas z′
0
lies at an angle
0
′ θ (= θ
0
) in the positive direction of X-axis. The inverse circle K′ passes
through the point +a′ with radius (az′
0
). The geometrical summation of lines drawn from origin ‘O’ at
the same angle with respect to X-axis meet the circle K and K′ in Z plane, gives a point on the thick
profile in ζ-plane.
The drawback in this process is that the thickness of the profile at outlet is zero, which is not
practically possible. Profile shape developed by Prof. Jowkovski for the given arc is determined by the
single parameter, namely the distance of z
0
from the imaginary axis. The magnitude of this determines
profile thickness. Profile thickness at the middle section is given by 2 (R – R′ ) = 2 (z
0
– z′
0
).
3.15 CHAPLIGIN’S PROFILE OF FINITE THICKNESS AT OUTLET EDGE OF
THE PROFILE
In order to avoid zero profile thickness at the outlet edge, Prof. Chapligin suggested the formation
of thick profile from the inverse of ellipse. He suggested that the main circle K is selected such that it
touches the real axis at point x
1
> a (Fig. 3.23). Then inverse circle K ′ will meet real axis at point
2
1
a
x
x
′ · .
The distance x
1
– x
1
′ = δ can be taken as the parameter for thickness of outlet edge. Referring the
Fig. 3.23 and the equation relating the radius and coordinates of centre of the circle K and its inverse K′
a relation can be obtained. i.e.,
R
R′
=
0
0
x
x′

=
0
0
y
y′
...(3.73)
from which ∠θ
0
′ · ∠
0
θ and

∠ 0x
1
z
0
= ∠ 0x
1
′ z′
0
=
2
θ
i.e., x
1
z
0
|| x′
1
z′
0
60 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
XI
X
IX
VIII
VII
VI
V
IV
III
II
1 1′
2′
2
1 1′
3′
3
4′
4
5′
5
6′
6
7′
7
8′
8
9′
9
10′
10
11′
x
1
δ
9′
9
8′
8
7′
7
6′
6
5′
5
4′
4
3′
3
2′
2
z
0 z′
0
0
l
R′
1
R
1
R
10′
Fig. 3.23. Profile formation with finite outlet edge thickness—Chapligin’s method
where
θ
is the angle of curvature of the centre line of the profile. For the given value of length ‘l’
thickness at the centre ‘∆’ and angle of curvature of the centre line θ, referring Fig. 3.23 and the equation
(3.73) the radius R
b
of the main circle K and the coordinates of its centre x
0
and y
0
will be
R
b
=
1
2

sec
2 l
θ ∆ ¸ ¸
-
(
¸ ,
x
0
=
cos cos
2 2
b
R
l
θ θ ¸ ¸
∆ − δ
(
¸ ,
...(3.74)
y
0
= R
b
sin
2
θ
The outlet edge thickness δ is selected as = 0.5 to 0.6 ∆. As per equation (3.68) the main circle K
is shifted from point x
1
toward the beginning of the coordinate of the parameter δ to get point x′
1
. Since
0
′ θ =
0
θ , a line parallel of x
1
z
0
is drawn from x′
1
to meet the line O z′
0
. This line is the mirror image with
respect to Y-axis of the line O z
0
. This process gives the centre of inverse circle z′
0
.

The radius R
b
of the
inverse circle K′ is determined by the line z′
O
x′
1
and is equal to R′
b
=

R
b
– ∆. Here also the point on ζ-plane
is determined from the Z-plane as the vector summation Z Z


ζ · - .
¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¦
¦
¦
'
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 61
For ease in construction of this profile, an additional circle R is drawn from the origin, with a
suitable radius which encloses the main circle K and inverse circle K′. The circle R is divided into a
number of divisions, about 20 to 26, so that, from each point of the upper half, corresponding symmetrical
point at the lower half of the circle with respect to X-axis is determined. Symmetrical points are identified
with the same designation such as I, II etc. Very near to the inlet and outlet edges more number of points
are selected. Above X-axis, the meeting of radius of supplement circle I–0, II–0 etc., with main circle K
are designated as 1, 2, 3 etc., and with inverse circle K′ with 1′, 2′, 3′ etc. Below X-axis the meeting of
radius of supplementary circle with main circle is designated as 1′, 2′, 3′ etc. and with inverse circle as
1, 2, 3 etc. Middle point of the lines joining identical points 1–1, 1′–1′, 2–2, 2′–2′ etc. gives the profile
of Chapligin. If profiles are to be drawn for actual flow condition, then the axis of the coordinates
should be rotated to an angle corresponding to, angle of attack of the profile in cascade. The coordinates
of the circle, x
0
must be shifted along X-axis towards inlet edge of the profile and co-ordinate y
0
must be
shifted towards the outlet edge.
3.16 VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION IN SPACE BETWEEN VOLUTE CASING
AND IMPELLER SHROUD
Flow through the space between volute casing and impeller shroud has the following characters:
(1) Very near to the impeller shroud, the fluid flow velocity will be equal to the shroud velocity at the
point considered. (2) Due to stationary condition, there is no flow near casing. Fluid velocity changes
from casing wall to shroud wall i.e., changes from ‘0’ to ‘u’. Apart from that due to rotation of impeller,
the fluid will be thrown out towards periphery near the impeller, but returns back towards inward direction
from periphery near the casing wall, as a result of which a vortex, circulatory flow exists along with the
mainflow Q
L1
, passing through the wearing ring clearance.
Considering an elementary radial height ‘dr’ and axial length ‘l’ with inner radius ‘r
a
’ and outer
radius ‘r
b
’ (Fig. 3.24) and applying moment of momentum equation relative to axis of the pump.
M =
.
n u
r
C dA C r ρ

...(3.75)
r
a
r
b
D
i
l
b

r
l
p
2
Q
s3
Q′ p
1
p
i
γ
u
2
2
– u′
2
2
2g
p
2
p
p
1
p′
i
p
i
r
(b) (a)
Q
sz
Fig. 3.24. (a) Flow through the space between casing and impeller shroud (b) Pressure distribution
62 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
where ρ — the fluid density
C
n
— normal component of absolute velocity C
C
u
— tangential component of absolute velocity C
M — moment of external forces acting of the surface area ‘dA’
dA — elementary surface area.
Elementary area dA is the sum total of impeller shroud, area at casing surface and outer and inner
cylindrical surfaces at r
b
and r
a
respectively. The moment of normal components of the absolute velocity
on impeller shroud surface and casing surface are equal to zero.
So, M =
.
b
r u b
A
C dA C r ρ


r
r u a
A
C dAC r ρ

...(3.76)
Under turbulent flow conditions, the flow velocity in the space will be constant but increases from
zero to this velocity near the casing boundary layer and from this velocity to the impeller shroud very
near to impeller shroud, which is rotating with a velocity ‘u’. Velocity u = ωr (Fig. 3.15). Taking
average value of the resolved component of absolute velocity C
u
, equation (3.76) can be written as
M = ( )
u
b
C r ρ ( )
b
r u a
A
C dA C r −

ρ
a
r
A
C dA

...(3.77)
But
b
r
A
C dA
∫ =
a
r
A
C dA

= Q
L1
, the leakage flow ...(3.78)

M = ρQ
L1
, [
( ) ( )
u b u a
C r C r −
] = ρQ
L1
. ( )
u a b
C r

∆ ...(3.79)
Moment of external forces M = M
I
– M
v
+ M
fa
+ M
fb
...(3.80)
where M
I
— Inducing moment of friction at impeller surface
M
v
— Breaking moment of friction at casing surface
M
fa
and M
fb
are the moment of friction of the control section A
a
and A
b
.
But M
fa
and M
fb
, the moment of friction of the control sections are negligibly small by magnitude
as well as when compared with the magnitude of M
I
and M
v
the moment of friction at impeller and
casing surfaces. Hence
M = M
I
– M
v


=
ρ
Q
L1
. ( )
u a b
C r

∆ ...(3.81)
From non-dimensional analysis, moment M can be expressed as
M = µ
2
2
C
A r
¸ ¸
ρ
(
(
¸ ,
...(3.82)
where µ — coefficient of friction
C — velocity relative to the surface
A — area of the surface
Combining equations (3.81) and (3.82)
M = M
I
– M
v
= µ.ρ.2πr dr = c
2
( )
2
u
u C −
. r – µ.ρ.2 r dr π
2
2
u
C
.r ...(3.83)
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 63
Comparing equations (3.79) and (3.83)
µ.
2
r π [(u – C
u
)
2
– C
u
2
] dr = Q
L1
.∆ (C
u
r)
a–b
...(3.84)
Since ( )
u a b
C r

∆ and Q
L1
are very small, their product is negligibly small and hence can be assumed
as zero. Simplifying
(u – C
u
)
2
– C
u
2
= 0
or C
u
=
2
u
...(3.85)
Hence, under normal conditions of wearing ring, the flow velocity in the space between casing
and impeller will be half the peripheral velocity of the impeller at the point considered.
When wearing ring clearance is fully damaged due to wear of the ring, Q
L1
considerably increases
and since ∆ (C
u
r) is too small, the product Q
L1
. ∆ (C
u
r)
a-b
can be taken as zero. Equation (3.85) can be
taken for calculations.
3.17 PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION IN THE SPACE BETWEEN STATIONARY
CASING AND MOVING IMPELLER SHROUD OF FLUID MACHINE
When fluid moves in the space between stationary volute casing and impeller shroud, which is
rotating with a velocity u, the fluid can be considered as the fluid moving as a solid body. Based on this,
pressure distribution can also be determined.
Taking r, u, z coordinates, for an elementary fluid section dr, dz, rdθ the basic hydrodynamic
equations in the space can be written as
F
r

1
ρ
p
dr

= 0

1
ρ
p
rd

θ
= 0

1
ρ
p
dz

= 0
Since the total differential of velocity
r
dC
dt
,
u
dC
rdθ
,
z
dC
dz
are is equal to zero. The mass force is the
centrifugal force ‘F
CF
’ and is directed in the radially outward direction. Hence
dp
dr
= F
CF
= ρω
2
f
r ...(3.86)
where ω
f
— is the angular velocity of the moving fluid
ρ
— density of the fluid
F
CF
— centrifugal force of the unit mass considered
r — radius of the elementary mass.
64 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Taking p
2
and p
1
as the pressures at outlet and at inlet of the impeller passage respectively, at
radius r
2
and r
1
respectively the pressure p at any radius ‘r’ can be written as
p
2
– p =
2
r
r
ρ

ω
f
2
r dr =
2
f
ρω
2 2
2 1
2
r r −
...(3.87)
Under normal flow conditions through such flow passage referring equation (3.85), the angular
velocity of flowing fluid, ‘ω
f
’ is ω
f
=
2
ω
, where ω is the angular velocity of the impeller shroud ω =
2
60
n π
=
u
r
, where u peripheral velocity of the impeller at radius ‘r’. Equation (3.87) can now be written as
2
p p −
γ
=
2
4
ω
.
2 2
2
2
r r
g

=
2 2
2 1
8
u u
g

or p = p
2
– γ
2 2
2
8
u u
g

= p
2
– γ
2
2
8
u
g
2
2
1
r
r
(
¸ ¸
(

(
(
¸ ,
¸ ¸
...(3.88)
Equation (3.88) shows a parabolic pressure distribution along the radial direction [Fig. 3.24 (b)].
Equation (3.88) is used to determine axial thrust at front and rear side of the impeller.
In case the clearance between the stationary and rotary members is damaged, the above formula
(equation 3.88) cannot be applied. The flow follows the Bernoulli’s law. Neglecting the effect at the
surface roughness, applying Bernoulli’s equation.
2
2 2
2
p C
g
-
γ
=
2
2
p C
g
-
γ
But C
2
= C
2
m
+ C
2
u
and assuming C
m
remains constant throughout the passage
2
p
γ
+
2
2
2
u
C
g

=
p
γ
+
2
2
u
C
g
or p = p
2
– γ
2
2
2
u u
C C
g
′ −
Since energy is constant throughout the passage
2 2 u u
C r C r ′ ·
and p = p
2
– γ
2
2
2
u
C
g

2
2
1
1
r
r
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
(

(
(
¸ ,
¸ ,
Taking
2
2
2
u
u
C′ ·
, which is prevailing mostly at this space and rearranging
p = p
2
– γ
2
2
8
u
g

2
2
r
r
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
2
2
1
r
r
(
¸ ¸
(

(
(
¸ ,
¸ ¸
...(3.89)
Hence, in case of damaged wearing rings, the pressure drop across the passage increases at a faster
rate by
2
2
r
r
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
times than for normal wearing ring.
4.1 INTRODUCTION
The impeller is the main element in a centrifugal pump. Entire construction of a pump depends
upon the impeller. Impeller design forms the most important part in pump design. The fundamental
equation of impeller, determines the head developed by the impeller with respect to the increase in the
moment of momentum of the fluid flowing through the impeller i.e., to get a relation between dynamic
and kinematic parameters of impeller. But this fundamental equation does not give any relation between
the form and shape (dimensions) of the blade system with the change in the moment of momentum of
the fluid in impeller.
A kinematic study of the ideal fluid flow through the impeller based on hydrodynamic action in
general is yet to be determined and found to be an unsolved problem till today. The real fluid flow
conditions are still determined from the ideal fluid flow confition only. The study of fluid flow in
impeller is done by the use of theoretical equations along with the correction factors which are determined
from experiment. For the calculation of blade system in impeller, wherein, the length of the flow passage
between two blades is much longer than the width of the passage, elementary one dimensional theory
can be used successfully. In case, the blades are kept at a distance apart i.e., the width is longer, the
interaction between two successive blades can be neglected, and the blade can be considered as an
isolated blade. Hence, two elemertary theories are existing for the impeller calculation. Application of
the correct procedure is based on the correction factors, which are determined by experiments and also
based on its boundary conditions. If the theoretical means of approach for the impeller design, coincides
with real fluid flow, the design is considered as most satisfactory design.
4.2 ONE DIMENSIONAL THEORY
Elementry one dimensional theory for the centrifugal pump design is given by the mathematician
Leonard Eular (1707–1783), member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences. His one dimensional
theory is still considered as the fundamental theory for the centrifugal pump design. In early days,
Eular’s one dimensional equation agreed perfectly with practical result due to the fact that each impeller
passage was constructed as individual tubes, and the speed of the pump was very low. Impeller flow
passage were too longer than normal. The length to breadth ratio for the impeller passages was higher.
Due to the introduction of electric motors, I.C. Engines and high speed turbines, as pump prime
movers, pump speed was increased. Correspondingly, the outer diameter D
2
was decreased. This in turn
decreased the flow passage length, the passage width remaining same. Existing one dimensional theory
did not agree with the practical results, when length to breadth ratio of impeller passage is reduced. The
flow pattern in impeller passage is completely changed.
4
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE
SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
Comp-1/Newage/Pump-4.pm6.5—14.5.07 23.11.07
65
66 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
As per the existing one dimesional theory, impeller blades are considered to contain infinite number
of blades kept at equal distant apart with infinitesimally smaller blade thickness. Practically finite number
of blades with finite thickness are adopted in impellers, diffuser etc. In order to have a complete agreement
between theoretical design and practical results, corrections are introduced in the actual design of finite
number of blades with finite thickness. Under theoretical flow, a study through impeller passage, i.e.,
for conditions of infinite number of blades, with infinitesimally smaller blade thickness, the flow is
axisymmetric. At any radius, the average flow velocity is constant in the impeller passage and is calculated
from continuity equation. The direction of fluid flow on the blade is the tangent to the blade drawn at the
point, at the given radius ‘r’, where the velocity is determined.
In real fluid flow i.e., for finite number of blades with finite thickness, Eular’s one dimensional
theory is applied for impeller design with corrections, agrees perfectly with practical results. In actual
flow with finite number of blades with finite blade thickness, the velocity at any radius across the flow
passage width between two successive blades of impeller passage is not constant (Fig. 3.4). The flow is
not axisymmetric due to the interaction between the blade and fluid. The fluid is pushed by the blade.
This is the main reason, that all the flow passages must be completely immersed within the flowing
fluid or must be filled with flowing fluid completely in all rotodynamic machines.
The theoretical head (H

), determined, as per the Eular’s one dimensional theory for infinite
number of blades will not be equal to the actual head (H
m
) determined as per finite number of blades
condition. (H

) and H
m
are related as
H

= (1 + p) H
m
...(4.1)
where, p is the correction coefficient for finite number of blades application.
Different authors developed different values of correction coefficient ‘p’ in different form. Application
of this coefficient in the equation 4.1 to determine the total head developed gives a very good result.
4.3 VELOCITY TRIANGLES
B
1
α
1
β
1
D
1
C
1u
u
1
C
1
K
0
u
1
C
1
C
u1
r
2
α
1
A
β
1
w
1
B
w
2
β
2
C
m2
C
2
u
2
C
i
C
u2
α
2
u
2
C
u2
B
2
α
2
C
m2
β
2
C
2
w
2
D
2
(b)
(a) (c)
E
α
i
C
ui
C
m1
w
1
A
2
Fig. 4.1. Velocity triangles with symbols
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 67
The following symbols are used in drawing velocity triangles : (Fig. 4.2)
u —Vane or blade velocity =
60
Dn π
(m/sec).
C—Absolute velocity of flow of fluid i.e., velocity of the fluid with reference to the earth or any
non-moving object.
w—Relative velocity of the fluid in the blade passage, i.e., the velocity of the fluid with reference
to the blade or impeller, in other words, the velocity of the fluid inside the blade passage,
when the blade velocity is brought to zero.
w

= C

– u

or C

= w

+ u

α —Absolute angle, the angle between the absolute velocity ‘C’ and blade velocity ‘u’
β —Vane angle or blade angle—the angle between the relative velocity ‘w’ and vane or blade
velocity ‘u’.
(a) (b)
C
m2
C
m3
2
B
2
C
m1
C
m
0
r
2
r
1
r
0
B
1
C
0
t
2
β
2
δ
2
t
1
r
1
r
2
δ
1
β
1
δ
S
2
S
1
Fig. 4.2. Symbols and suffices used in impeller
Suffix
0—indicates the conditions before the impeller blade entrance edge and at impeller eye.
1—indicates the conditions on the impeller blade entrance edge.
2—indicates the conditions on the impeller blade outlet edge.
3—indicates the conditions after the impeller blade outlet edge.
The relative velocity of fluid in the impeller passage ‘w’ is equal to the vectorial subtraction of
absolute velocity ‘C’ and the blade velocity ‘u’, w

=C

– u

or C

= w

+ u

(Fig. 4.1). The direction of
blade velocity ‘u’ is always tangential to the circle of radius ‘r’, whereas the direction of the relative
velocity of the fluid ‘w’ at any point on the blade will be the tangential to the blade curve at the given
68 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
radius ‘r’. These two velocities i.e., relative velocity ‘w’ is inclined at an angle ‘β’ with respect to the
blade velocity ‘u’. A parallelogram is drawn, with the relative velocity vector ‘w’ and blade velocity
vector ‘u’ at the radius ‘r’ at the point on the blade in the impeller passage. The diagonal of parallelogram
will be the absolute velocity, C, both in magnitude and in direction. If all these three velocity vectors are
drawn in position, we get a triangle called ‘velocity triangle’ (Fig. 4.1). The subtended angle between
absolute velocity ‘C’ and blade velocity ‘u’ is called absolute angle (α) and the angle subtended between
relative velocity ‘w’ and blade velocity ‘u’ is called the blade or vane angle (β).
The velocities C

, u

, w

at any radius ‘r’ between inlet and outlet of impeller blade passage can be
obtained by constructing velocity triangle at the point on the blade at radius ‘r’ (Fig. 4.1). By constructing
such triangles at different radii ‘r’ between inlet radius ‘r
1
’ and outlet radius ‘r
2
’, we can find the
velocity distribution in impeller blade system. One such velocity distribution in impeller blade passage
is given in Fig. 4.3.
w
w
30
25
20
15
10
5
C
m
θ
C
m
δ
5

m
m
r = 55
1
61 68 75 82 89 r = 95
2
δ

=

2

m
m
θ°
100
80
60
40
20
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
along the streamline
φ
1
2
2
φ
1
3
6
φ
1
5
0
φ
1
6
4
φ
1
7
8
φ
1
0
5
φ
5
0
φ
1
1
O
φ
1
9
O
11
8
γ
Meridional section
Fig. 4.3. Velocity and angle variation in impeller passage
If width of the passage is very small, as per one dimensional theory of flow, fluid enters the inlet
edge tangentially and hence there is no shock loss at entry. Fluid leaves the outlet edge tangentially and
hence there is no loss, at exit. From inlet to outlet. Fluid moves tangentially over the blade. The direction
of the fluid at any point in the impeller passage will be the direction of the blade at that point i.e., will be
the blade angle ‘β’ at that point, which is the angle between relative velocity ‘w’ and blade velocity, ‘u’.
The velocity triangles are shown in Fig. 4.4. Flow velocities w
m
and C
m
in the impeller passage are equal
and determined as
w
m0
= w
0
sin β
0
and C
m0
= C
0
sin α
0
Referring to (Fig. 4.4), the relative velocity of the fluid will be tangential to the blade at all points,
on the line AB. Actually, the fluid moves along the direction of absolute velocity (C
1
to C
2
) from α
1
to
α
2
line AB′ . The fluid at point x on the blade will be actually at x′ i.e., on the absolute velocity line. If the
time taken for the fluid to travel from point A to x on the blade is ‘t’ and if the angular velocity of the
blade is constant and is equal to ‘ω’ then the included angle θ will be θ = ωt.
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 69
The real fluid flow differs from the above mentioned theoretical one dimensional flow.
B′
x′
α
1
C′
1
w
1
β
1
A
ϕ
C′
w
u
2
α
2
C
2
B
D
2
D
1
u
α
β
2
w
2
β
Fig. 4.4. Graphical representation of velocity triangle
4.4 IMPELLER EYE AND BLADE INLET EDGE CONDITIONS
Fluid enters the impeller eye, with a velocity C
0
and is maintained constant until it reaches the
point before inlet edge. The flow velocity at the impeller eye is calculated by using continuity equation
as : (Refer Fig. 4.4).
If there is no impeller hub or shaft Q
th
= C
0
.
2
0
4
D
π
Example: End suction agricultural pumps, domestic pumps.
If the hub or shaft is protruding into the impeller eye Q
th
= C
0
. ( )
2 2
0
4
h
D d
π

where d
h
is the hub diameter.
Example: Double suction pump, multistage pump.
When the specific speed ‘n
s
’ is very low (n
s
= 40 to 50) the inlet edge of the impeller blade will be
parallel to axis of the pump after bend portion of the impeller passage.
When the specific speed ‘n
s
’ is 60 to 150, the impeller blade is extended towards the bend portion
at inlet of the impeller passage to reduce the blade loading. Blade edge at inlet will be neither parallel
nor perpendicular to the pump axis, instead it is inclined. (Fig. 3.2).
Since quantity ‘Q’ is low and the total head ‘H’ is higher for lower specific speed pumps, the
breadth ‘B
2
’ will be smaller and diameter ‘D
2


will be larger.
The meridional velocity change along the transverse section of the inlet edge i.e., from shroud to
shroud will be negligible and hence is assumed to be constant throughout the passage. For infinite
...(4.2)
¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¦
¦
¦
'
70 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
number of blades with infinitesimally smaller blade thickness, the streamlines in the impeller passage
are congruent and the flow is considered as one dimensional. The flow velocity C
m0
is determined from
the velocity (C
0
). The velocity C
0
is determined from the equation (4.2). Usually the meridional flow
velocity C
m0
is assumed to be equal to C
0
. Sometimes, it is increased, C
m0
= 1.03 to 1.05 C
0
, in order to
get smooth, uniform flow at the bend portion of the impeller passage.
In real fluid flow, however, finite number of blades, with finite thickness are used. Referring to
Fig 4.3, the blade thickness ‘δ’ will be occupying a circumferential distance of ‘s’ due to the blade angle
‘β’ and is determined as s =
δ
sin β
...(4.3)
If there are ‘Z’ number of impeller blades, the actual circumferential length available for the flow
of fluid is ( ) D Zs π − instead of πD.
4.4.1 Inlet Velocity Triangle
Due to finite vane thickness the inlet area, blocked by one vane will be s
1
=
1
1
sin
δ
β
. Total length
blocked by Z number of blades is Zs ·
1
1
sin

β
. Total available area due to this will be (πD
1
– Zs
1
)B. Due
to this the flow velocity before the inlet edge, C
m0
is increased to C
m1
on the blade, i.e., the moment fluid
touches the inlet edge.
The meridional flow velocity C
m
, the resolved component of absolute velocity C, in radial direction
at points 0 and 1 are equal to corresponding value of w
m
the resolved component of relative velocity w
in the same direction.
C
m0
= C
0
sin α
0
= w
m0
= w
0
sin β
0
...(4.4)
and C
m1
= C
1
sin α
1
= w
m1
= w
1
sin β
1
Since quantity of flow Q is same, at inlet Q
th
= πD.B.C
m0
before the inlet edge and Q
th
is equal to
= (πD
1
– zs
1
) B
1
C
m1
on the blade
C
m1
=
1
1 1
D
D zs
¸ ¸ π
(
π −
¸ ,
C
m0
= C
m0
.K
1
...(4.5)
where, K
1
=
1
1 1
π
π −
D
D zs
=
¸

¸
1
1
1
1–
π
zs
D
¸
(
(
,
=
¸

¸
1
1 1
1
1
sin D
δ

π β
Ζ
¸
(
(
,
...(4.6)
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 71
38
24
14
35
13
62
20R
φ
+ 0.000


+ 0.020
200
45
φ
1
4
.
8
1
6
.
4
1
8
.
4
2
1
.
1
2
5
22 14
28
12°
5.5
150R
14R
40
φ
76
φ
94.9
φ
35
3R
25 Hy
φ
φ-6.10
Fig. 4.5. (a) Impeller eye without hub
8.5
φ
9
φ
9.5
φ
10
φ
10.5
φ
11.5
φ
12
φ
11.5
φ
18
φ
17.5
φ
17
φ
16.5
φ
15
φ
14
φ
13
φ
12
φ
11
φ
Fig. 4.5. (b) Impeller eye with hub
72 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Since the inlet blade velocity ‘u
1
’ remains same at points 0 and 1 inlet velocity triangle A
0
, B
1
, C
1
at point O, before the inlet edge changes to A
1
B
1
C
1
at point 1 on the inlet edge of the blade (Fig. 4.6) due
to the increase in ‘C
m
’ from ‘C
m0
’ to ‘C
m1
’.
α
1
α
0
C
m
0
C
m
1
w
0
β
0
β
1
w
1
A
1
A
0
C
1
C
m
1
C
m
0
u = u
0 1
C = C
u0 u1
C
0
B
1
s 1
δ
1
t
1 β
1
(a) (b)
c = c
1,0 m1
c = c
1 m1
′ ′
w
1
w
1,0
w′
1
u
1
C
u1
C
1
R
1
R
2
s
1
β
10
β
1
β′1
β
1
β
1
β
2
B
2
B
1
(c)
Fig. 4.6. (a), (b), (c) Inlet velocity triangle—effect of blade thickness and normal entry
Practically the inlet edge is rounded off in order to make the fluid to enter the blade tangentially
without any shock. Because of this, entry losses are reduced and the hydraulic efficiency is increased.
However, in practice, the inlet blade angle B
10
is increased by an angle ‘δ’ in order to reduce shock
losses at entry and also to improve cavitational characteristics. The inlet angle B
10
is increased by
δ = 3° to 10° and in special cases up to 15°. Actual blade angle at inlet β
1
will be Fig. 4.6 (c).
β
1
= β
1, 0
+ δ = β
1, 0
+ (3° to 10°) ...(4.7)
At optimum conditions δ = 0 because, fluid flows tangentially to the blade. For the optimum
cavitational conditions, it is recommended to have β
1, 0
= 16° to 20° and after correction for vane thickness
and adding angle of attack δ, final value of β
1
= 18° to 25°.
4.4.2 Normal or Radial or Axial Entry of Fluid at Impeller Inlet
The direction of flow of fluid in approach pipe or in suction pipe before entering the impeller is
normal to the area of cross-section. The flow rate is calculated as per the continuity equation (4.2).
Q
th
=
2
0
4
πD
. C
0
(or)
2 2
0
( )
4
h
D d π −
C
0
depending upon whether the impeller hub, on pump shaft
is protruding or not. D
0
is the eye diameter or inlet diameter of pipe, d
h
is the impeller hub diameter and
d
s
is the pump shaft diameter, C
0
is the flow velocity normal to the area of cross-section, eye of the
impeller. The velocity C
0
will be in axial direction. At inlet, before entering the impeller inlet edge, the
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 73
flow direction will be radial in centrifugal pump, diagonal in mixed flow pump and axial in axial flow
pump. The flow rate is calculated as
Q =
0 0
D B π
. C
m0
=
1 1
D B π
C
m1
...(4.8)
This condition of flow is called normal entry (i.e., Axial entry in axial flow pump and radial entry
in centrifugal pump). Inlet velocity triangle, under such condition, is as shown in Fig. 4.6 (c). From the
figure it is evident that C
0
= C
m0
, C
u0
= 0, α
0
= 90°. Correspondingly C
1
= C
m1
, C
u1
= 0, α
1
= 90°.
So, the Head developed H
m
=
2 2 1 1 u u
C u C u
g

=
2 2 u
C u
g
...(4.9)
For normal entry C
u0
u
0
= C
u1
u
1
= 0. This condition is adopted in all pump designs by which blade
loading and pressure intensity on the blade will be at a reduced level.
In order to get durability and dependability in operation of pump and for stable operation of pump
sometimes α
1
is taken between 85° and 90°. This reduces slightly the inlet pressure before the impeller
entry, due to the reduced work load on impeller blades as per the equation (4.9).
In practice, however, due to the rotation of impeller, the fluid also gets rotated before the blade
inlet slightly. As a result a forced vortex is developed. Initial conditions of flow at inlet is determined,
mostly by the prewhirl developed, due to impeller rotation near impeller eye. That is why, this action is
considered as the change in the moment given by the inlet guide blade or by the influence of suction
pipe, which does not lie in the same plane. The effect of this action is the reduction in input energy due
to pressure reduction. This pressure reduction is not due to frictional losses occurring due to friction,
taking place in the rotating impeller passages. Impeller friction losses, are separately given as h
f

(1 –2)
in
the moment of momentum equation for pumps as
H
m
=
2 2 1 1

u u
C u C u
g
+ h
f

(1 – 2)
...(4.10)
In order to accommodate for shock losses reduction, the inlet blade angle β
1
is slightly increased
over and above the angle necessary to meet the reversed direction of flow at inlet. The flow rate is also
slightly increased over and above the loss of flow in clearance, and reduction in the area of cross-section
at inlet as well as for induced prewhirl. That’s why normal entry is assumed even in the absence of the
inlet guide blades. If inlet guide blades are used, the inlet pressure is reduced before the entry into the
impeller and the cavitational characteristics is also reduced. It is found, that higher efficiency is attained
when α
1
is slightly lower than 90° i.e., 85° < α < 90°.
4.5 OUTLET VELOCITY TRIANGLE : EFFECT DUE TO BLADE THICKNESS
Due to vane thickness, effective area at outlet (A
2
) is decreased. A
2
= 2
2 2
( ) D Zs B π −
where s
2
=
2
2
δ
sin

β
The flow velocity C
m2
on the outlet edge of the blade is reduced to C
m3
immediately after the
blade. Since blade velocity u
2
= u
3
and total energy remains constant at outlet C
u2∞
the whirl velocity at
outlet remains same Cu
2∞
= Cu
3∞
Q = C
m2
.
2
2
2
δ
sin
Z
D

¸ ¸
π −
(
β
¸ ,
B
2
= C
m3
( )
2 2
D B π
...(4.11)
74 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
C
m2
= C
m3
2
2
2
2
δ
( )
sin
D
Z
D

π
π −
β
= C
m3
2
2 2
1
δ
1
sin
Z
D

¸ ¸

(
π β
¸ ,
= C
m3
. K
2
...(4.12)
where, K
2
=
2
2 2
1
δ
1
sin
Z
D

¸ ¸

(
π β
¸ ,
...(4.13)
and C
m2
= C
2∞
sin
2∞
α = W
m2
= W
m2∞
sin
2∞
β
C
m3
= C
3∞
sin
3∞
α = W
m3
= W
3∞
sin
3∞
β ...(4.14)
The outlet velocity triangle before and after the outlet edge of the blade is given in Fig. 4.7.
A
2
w
2
w
3
A
3
β
2
β
3
C
m3 C
3
α
2
α
3
C
2
C = C
u2 u3
u
2
C
2
C
m
2
s
2 t
2
δ
2
β
2
B
2
(a) (b)
Fig. 4.7. Outlet velocity triangle—effect of blade thickness
In order to get higher head and efficiency, the outlet edge of the blade is made as sharp edged as
shown in continuous lines (Fig. 4.7). This reduces the area blocked by blade at outlet and the flow
resembles like flow with infinite number of blades with infinitesimally smaller thickness. However,
angle of sharpness must be properly selected, so that there should not be any flow separation.
The outlet velocity triangle A
2
B
2
C
2
due to area increase and subsequent reduction in flow velocity
C
m2
to C
m3
, will change into A
3
B
2
C
2
. Correspondingly, the direction and magnitude of absolute and
relative velocities change (Fig. 4.7).
4.5.1 Outlet Velocity Triangle: Effect of Finite Number of Blades
The direction of the flow of fluid at outlet of the impeller, under elementary theory of blade
system, must be tangential to blade position at outlet. In other words, the fluid angle will be same as
blade angle at outlet. Also under infinite number of blades with infinitesimally smaller vane thickness,
the flow velocity distribution i.e., the relative velocity w and the meridional velocity C
m
at any radius,
across the channel should be equal i.e., from the trailing side or suction side of the blade to the leading
side or pressure side of the next blade (Refer Fig. 3.3). Correspondingly, the velocity has the same value
at leading and trailing sides of the impeller blade.
Considering any blade in such a system, as per Bernouli’s equation the pressures between the
leading side and the trailing side of the blade are same due to equal velocity on both sides. Under this
condition, there cannot be energy transfer from mechanical to fluid by the blade system. In other words,
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 75
pumping will not exist. In order to have pumping or to change mechanical energy to fluid energy, the
pressure at the leading side of the blade must be higher than the pressure at the trailing side of the blade.
Correspondingly, the velocity (w and C
m
) at the trailing side will be higher than the velocity at the
leading side of the blade. When impeller rotates, the leading side of the blade exerts a force on the fluid
in contact and makes the fluid to move.
This unequal velocity distribution within the impellers passage can be considered as consisting of
two types of flow: (1) Constant velocity of flow across the entire impeller passage combined with, and
(2) A circulating velocity moving from trailing edge to the leading edge and then back to the trailing
edge (Fig. 3.6). Due to this circulatory motion, a tangential velocity is created at the outlet edge of the
blade, which is opposite to the direction of motion of blade and is in the same direction of blade motion
at the inlet edge of the blade.
Considering the outlet, the tangential velocity (∆C
u
) created in the opposite direction reduces the
original tangential velocity C
u2∞
to

C
u2
correspondingly the total head is reduced from H

to H
m
. Both
these total heads are connected by the equation H

= (1 + p)H
m
, where ‘p’ is the correction coefficient.
Various authors derived different methods to determine the value of the coefficient ‘p’.
4.6 SLIP FACTOR AS PER STODOLA AND MEIZEL |109|
Due to the flow change from theoretical to actual, in the impeller passage, outlet blade angle β
2
reduces and the relative velocity w
2
increases (Fig. 4.10).
r
a
r
2
β
2
< 90°
ω
ω
90°
r
2
r < r
a 2
r > r
a 2
Fig. 4.8. (a) Determination of effective radius
π β –
2
2
C
Main flow
ω
β
2
2
A
t
2
90°
B
∆W max
Relative
circulatory flow
Fig. 4.8. (b) Flow in impeller passage
76 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Stodola and Meizel suggested that ∆w
2
is proportional to u
2
. The blade velocity at outlet ∆w
2
=
xu
2
. In order to determine the value of x, Meizel considered the flow in impeller passages consists of (1)
flow with constant velocity in impeller passage along with (2) a circulatory flow with an angular velocity
ω, rotating opposite to the blade rotation. He assumed that maximum value of relative circulation
velocity ∆w
2max
occurs at the middle of the passage. The plain flow with equal velocity is along the
streamline, whereas the velocity vector of the circulatory flow is perpendicular to this plain flow direction,
with the result, combined velocity w
2
is changed from one end to another end in impeller passages.
Applying Stokes theorem, and referring to Fig. 4.8 (b) the circulation along the contour ABC
will be

Γ
=2ω · Γ - Γ - Γ
AB BC CA
A
where A is the area ABC. Since contour AB and BC are perpendicular to the streamline, circulation
AB
Γ = 0 and
BC
Γ = 0 and
AC
Γ = ∆w
2
t = ∆w
2
2
2πr
Z
, since t =
2
2πr
Z

Γ
=
AC
Γ = ∆w
2
2
2πr
Z
=
2 . A ω
The Area ABC =
1
2
t cos
2
β
.t sin
2
β
=
2
4
t
sin
2
β .

∆w
2
=

t

2
4
t
sin
2
β =
2
sin
2
ω β t
=
2 2
ω sin r
Z
π β
.
=
2
sin π β
Z
. u
2
Since ∆w
2
= xu
2
, x =
2
sin π β
Z
If
2
β is increased the value x is also increased
C
u2
= C
u2∞
– ∆w
2
= u
2

2
2∞
β
m
C
tg

2
sin π β
Z
u
2.
= u
2
2
sin
1
Z
π β ¸ ¸

(
¸ ,

2
2
m
C
tg

β
...(4.15)
The following assumptions were made by Meizel in deriving the above equation :
1. The circulatory velocity vector is perpendicular to the main flow streamline, which is not
always correct.
2. The circulatory vortex moves in a closed contour which is not correct since inlet and outlet
passages are open for flow. Only two sides of the blades act as closed contour.
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 77
3. The relative velocity w
2∞
is tangential to the blade at outlet i.e.,
2
β of flow = β
2
of the blade
and flow is parallel to each other at all points of impeller outlet passage. This is correct only
for more number of blades ( 10) z ≥ . For smaller number of blades, the correction factor
called slip factor does not agree. Also it is assumed that inlet flow conditions, will not affect
outlet flow confitions, which is also not true.
In general, the slip factor equation given by Stodola and Meizel agrees with the experimental
results for higher number of impeller blades.
4.6.1 Slip Factor as defined by Karl Pfliderer |97|
Karl Pfliderer established a relationship for slip factor based on the blade loading (Fig. 4.9) which
is based on the following assumptions :
1. Pressure drop across the unit length of middle streamline is constant in meridional section.
2. Unequal pressure and relative velocity distribution
exists in impeller passage before the outlet edge of
the impeller blade i.e., high relative velocity and
low pressure at the trailing side of the impeller blade
and low relative velocity and high pressure at the
leading side of the blade. High relative velocity at
the trailing face remains same whereas the low
velocity at the leading side gradually increases and
becomes equal to the high velocity at the outlet edge.
Hence for the normal entry condition (C
u1
= 0), Karl
Pfliderer defined a relation between H

and H
m
(equation 4.10) with a slip coefficient ‘p’ as
H

= (1 + p) H
m
where, p =
ψ
Z
2
2
r
S
Z — No. of impeller blades.
ψ — Coefficient depending upon the blade configuration.
S — Static moment of the central streamline =
2
1
r
r
r

ds.
If the blades are radial or nearly radial ds = dr
S =
2
1

r
r
rdr
=
2 2
2 1
2
r r −
and p =
ψ
Z

2
1
2
1
1
r
r
¸ ¸

(
¸ ,
...(4.16)
S
1
ds
dr
S
2
r
Fig. 4.9. (a) Slip factor as per Pfliderer
78 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Z
12
10
8
6
5
4
3
2
0 30 60 β
epad 0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 r /r
1 2
0,4
0,6
0,8
y
H
16
12
8
6
5
4
3
2
z
r
1
β
z
r
2
0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,8(r /r )
1 2
K
1,0
0,8
0,7
0,6
0,5
0,4
0,35
0,3
0,25
0,2
0,16
0,14
0,12
0,10
0,08
0,07
0,06
0,05
0,04
0,03
0,02
0,01
10
90° 45 45 25 20 15 10 5 0
(a) y = f( ) when
H
β
r
r
1
2
= 0
(b) y = f when
H

r
r
1
2
β = 90°
(c) k = f
r
r
1
2
, z, β
Fig. 4.9. (b) Correction coefficient for finite number of vanes as per S.S. Rudinoff |104|
Karl Pfliderer recommended the value of coefficient as
ψ = (0.55 to 0.68) + 0.6 sin
2
β ...(4.17)
The value of ψ, calculated as per the above equation, coincides with practical results, only for
radial type pumps, having
1
2
r
r
< 0.5 and with backward curved blades. For radial blades
2
β = 90°
ψ ≈ 1.8 i.e., nearly 50% more than normal value. For forward curved blades, it increases further. The
corrected value of ψ as recommended by Pfliderer is
ψ = (0.6 to 0.65) (1+ sin
2
β ) ...(4.18)
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 79
This equation is applicable for diffuser type pumps, where the inlet edge of the diffuser is kept
very near to the impeller outlet edge. ψ increases if this distance increases. For volute pumps and for
vaneless diffuser pumps, ψ values becomes higher. The approximate values are given below:
ψ = 0.65 to 0.85 for volute
ψ = 0.68 for vaned diffuser
ψ = 0.85 to 1.0 for vaneless diffuser
Also when α
1
≤ 10°, ψ increases approximately by 30%. A normal value of α
1
≈ 20° is
recommended for pumps for which ψ is minimum. When ψ is minimum,the power consumption is also
reduced.
Pfliderer’s slip factor gives a good result for pumps n ≤ 150 with back ward curved vanes. Slip
factor ‘p’ increases with the increase of n
S
and it depends upon the surface roughness of the flow
passage also. Extending the inlet edge towards the eye side as well as change in the static moment of the
middle streamline ‘S ’ does not change the slip factor and hence H
m
does not increase. In general H
m
calculated as per Stodota-Meizel formula is found to be nearer to the experimentally determined value
of H
m
than H
m
calculated as per Pfliderer.
4.6.2 Slip Factor as per Proscura |93|
Professor Proscura mentioned that the flow of fluid in rotating curved blades of impeller is the
combination of two flows: (1) plain flow with uniform and constant relative velocity across the entire
flow passage width from leading side of one blade to the trailing side of the next blade of a stationary
curved blade cascade system, determined by using conformal mapping from the stationary straight
blade cascade system and (2) axial vortex flow.
2. Considering the flow due to axial vortex (2ω) developed within the impeller flow passage, a
gave the relation between H
m
and H

is given
H
m
=
2
1
2 1
2
2
1
2
sin sin
1 .
1
m
r
r
H
Z
r
r
(
¸ ¸
( β - β
(
π (
¸ ,

(
¸ ¸
(

(
(
¸ , ¸ ¸
2
1
2 1
2
2
1
2
1
sin sin
1
1
r
r
Z
r
r

¸ ¸
β - β
(
π
¸ ,
-
¸ ¸

(
¸ ,
...(4.19)
Considering equation (4.1), H

= (1 + p) H
m
the value ‘p’ is
p =
Z
π
2
1
2 1
2
2
1
2
sin sin
1
r
r
r
r
¸ ¸
β - β
(
¸ ,
¸ ¸

(
¸ ,
=

Z
2
1
2
1
1
r
r
¸ ¸

(
¸ ,
80 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
where, ψ =
2
π
¸

¸
2
1
2 1
2
sin sin
r
r
¸ ¸
β - β
(
¸ ,
¸
(
,
≈ 1.6
¸

¸
2
1
2 1
2
sin sin
r
r
¸ ¸
β - β
(
¸ ,
¸
(
,
...(4.20)
which is similar to the equation (4.13) determined
by Pfliderer.
Equation (4.15) is determined only for ideal
fluid flow with finite number of blades and not for
real fluid having friction losses due to viscosity.
Before leaving the outlet edge, due to the slip factor,
the relative velocity at outlet w
2∞
deviates from the
original direction (Fig. 4.10). Since flow rate is
same C
m2∞
= C
m2
and the outlet blade angle reduces
from β
2∞
to β
2
. With the result
2
w >
2
w

, C
2
<C
2∞
,
α
2
> α
2∞
β
2
< β
2∞
, w
u2
> w
u2∞
,C
u2
< C
u2∞
m
H
H

=
(1 )
m
m
H
H p -
=
1
(1 ) p -
=
2 2
2 2
u
u
C u
C u

=
2
2
u
u
C
C

When the fluid comes out of the outlet edge, the flow velocity C
m2
reduces to C
m3
owing to the
sudden increase in area from
2
2
2
sin
Z
D
¸ ¸ δ
π −
(
β ¸ ,
B
2
to πD
2
B
2
, due to the absence of vane thickness. C
u2
remains same, as defined earlier, i.e.,C
u2
= C
u3
with the result, the outlet velocity triangle changes. Since
u
2
= u
3
, C
u2
= C
u3
, w
u2
= w
u3
, C
m3
< C
m2
,
3
α <
2
α ,
3
β <β
2
.
H
m
=
(1 )
h
H H
p

·
η -
=
3 3 0 0 u u
C u C u
g

...(4.21)
whereas, H

=
2 2 1 1 u u
C u C u
g

Figure 4.11 gives a comparison of H–Q curve with correction for the effect due to finite number of
blades by different authors.
It is suggested that the correction coefficient for the finite number of blades can be carried out as
per Stodola-Meizel, if active radius ‘r
a
’ is considered or otherwise method suggested by Karl Pfliderer
can be applied.
β
2∞
β
2
u
2
w
2
α
2∞
α
2
C
2
C
u2
w
2∞
C
2∞
C
m2
C
u2∞
= (1 + p) C
u2
Fig. 4.10. Outlet velocity triangle–effect of finite
number of blades
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 81
H
1∞
H
m
as per Pfliderer
H
m
as per Stodola-Meizel
Q
p
u
2 2
g
1


π

s
i
n

β
2








Z
u
2 2
g
1
1

+

p
u
2 2
g
H
1
Fig. 4.11. (a) Comparison of H–Q curve with different correction coefficients
a
b
c
d
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
a. G.F. Proskura
b. Pfliderer
c. Stodola-Meizel
d. Rudinoff
Fig. 4.11. (b) Correction coefficient for finite number of vanes
4.7 COEFFICIENT OF REACTION (ρ)
Total head H
m
= E
2
– E
1
=
2 1
p p −
γ
+ Z
2
– Z
1
+
2 2
2 1
2
C C
g

= H
p
+ H
dy
where H
p
=
2 1

γ
p p
+ (Z
2
–Z
1
)
and H
dy
=
2 2
2 1
2
C C
g

Also, H
m
=
3 2 0 1 u u
C u C u
g

Referring to velocity triangle
w
2
2
= C
2
2
+ u
2
2

2 2
2
u
u C
82 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
and w
2
1
= C
2
1
+ u
2
1

1 1
2
u
u C and C
u0
= C
u1
, u
0
= u
1
Hence,
1
2 2 0 u u
u C u C
g

=
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 1 2 1 1 2
+ +
2 2 2
C C u u w w
g g g
− − −
...(4.22)
H
p∞
·
2 2 2 2
2 1 1 2
+
2 2
u u w w
g g
− −
and H
dy
=
2 2
2 1
2
C C
g

...(4.23)
Pressure head H
p∞
indicates the difference in pressure and potential energy between inlet and
outlet of the pump, which is the sum of the pressure energy due to centrifugal force (Coriolis component)
and due to the flow over the blade system (due to relative velocity).
2 2
2 1
2
u u
g

is the increase in pressure
energy of the fluid within the impeller due to the rotation of the impeller, under no flow conditions i.e.,
purely by the centrifugal force, whereas
2 2
1 2
2
w w
g

is the increase in the pressure energy of the flowing
fluid over the impeller blade system due to velocity reduction from inlet to outlet, when the impeller is
stationary.
If both these flows are combined, a circulatory flow is developed, which gives a tangential
momentum at outlet and at inlet to develop total energy.
For real fluid flow with friction
2 2 2 2
2 1 1 2
+
2 2
u u w w
g g
− −
=
2 1
p p −
γ
+ (Z
2
– Z
1
) + h
fim
+ h
fv
where ‘h
fim
’ is the hydraulic loss in impeller and ‘h
fv
’ is the hydraulic loss in volute or in diffuser.
The coefficient of reaction ‘
ρ
’ is the ratio of pressure head developed to the total head
ρ
=
p
H
H


=
dy
H H
H



= 1 –
dy
H
H

¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
...(4.24)
H
dy
=
2 2
2 1
2
C C
g

=
2 2 2 2
2 1
1 2

2
u m
u m
C C C C
g
- − −
=
2 2
2 1
2
u u
C C
g

Since C
m2
≈ C
m1
and for normal entry C
u1
= 0. Hence
H
dy
=
2
2
2
u
C
g
=
2
2
2
2
m
gH
u
...(4.25)
Hence,
ρ
= 1 –
dy
m
H
H
= 1 –
2
2
2
u
m
C
gH
= 1 –
2
2
2
m
gH
u
...(4.26)
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 83
H
p
= H
m
– H
dy
=

H
m

2
2
2
u
C
g
= H
m

2
2
2
2
m
gH
u
= H
m 2
2
1–
2
m
gH
u
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
...(4.27)
4.8 SELECTION OF OUTLET BLADE ANGLE (β ββ ββ
2
) AND ITS EFFECT
Under normal entry, Total head (H) depends upon the oulet dimensions of impeller, D
2
, B
2
, β
2
,
δ
2
, Z and speed n.
H
m
=
2 2
1
1
u
C u
p g


-
=
2
2 2
1
1
u
C u
g p


-
.
where,
2 u
C

=
2
2
u
C
u

From outlet velocity triangle
C
u2∞
· u
2
– w
u2∞
· u
2

2
2
tan
m
C


β
= u
2
– C
m2
cot β
2∞
...(4.28)
· u
2

2
2 2 2
2
. tan
sin
Q
Z
D B


δ ¸ ¸
π − β
(
(
β
¸ ,
...[4.28 (a)]
H
m
=
1
1 p -

2
2
2
2 2 2
2
. tan
sin
u Q
u
Z g
D B


¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

( (
δ ¸ ¸
( ( π − β
(
( (
β
¸ , ¸ , ¸ ,
...(4.29)
For the given dimensions of impeller, H
m


is a function of 2 u C ∞ and 2 u C ∞ is function of β
2
. Blade
shape changes, when β
2
change from < 90° to > 90° for the same direction of rotation of impeller. At
outlet blades are curved backwards when β
2
< 90°, radial when β
2
= 90° and curved forward when
β
2
> 90°.
Correspondingly the flow passage between blades of the impeller also changes. Fig. 4.12 illustrates
the blade shape, and the shape of the passage when β
2
changes from < 90° to > 90°. For β
2
< 90°, blade
passage is longer, the angle of divergence is smaller. Flow can be smooth, without any flow separation.
For β
2
= 90° and β
2
> 90°, the passage length is reduced and angle of divergence is increased, which
induces flow separation and subsequent hydraulic losses due to secondary flow. β
2
< 90° is commonly
adopted for pumps, to get higher efficiency since the flow passage is divergent. β
2
= 90° is used in
turbines, and in return guide values where flow is through a convergent passage. The longer length of
the flow passage induces more hydraulic losses. Thus outlet blade angle β
2
influences considerably on
the performance of the pump. Converting all the values of head, H

, H
p∞
, H
dy∞
, ρ

, into a non-dimensional
unit, as percentage of total value of (u
2
2
/2g).
84 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
β
2
>90°
ω ω ω
β
2
=

9
0
°
β
2
<90°
(a) (b) (c)
Fig. 4.12. Blade shapes for different β ββ ββ
2
(a) β ββ ββ
2
< 90° °° °° (b) β ββ ββ
2
= 90° °° °° (c) β ββ ββ
2
> 90° °° °°
dy
H

=
2
2
( / 2 )
dy
H
u g

=
2
2
2
dy
gH
u
=
2
2
2
2
2
u
gC
gu

=
2
2
2
u
C
u

 
 
 
= ( )
2
2 u
C

...(4.30)
H

=
2
2
( / 2 )
H
u g

=
2 2
2
2
.
( / 2 )
u
C u
g u g

=
2
2 2
2
2
( / 2 )
u
C u
g u g

= 2
2 u
C

...(4.31)
H
p∞
= H

– H
dy∞
=



2
2 u
C


( )
2
2 u
C




=
2 u
C

( )
2
2
u
C

− ...(4.32)
ρ

=
p
H
H


=
2 2
2
(2 )
2
u u
u
C C
C
∞ ∞


=
2
1
2
u
C

 

 
 
...(4.33)
The following table (4.1) gives the variation of H

,

H
dy∞
, H
p∞
, ρ

for different values of
2 u
C

,
calculated as per the equations 4.30, 4.31, 4.32 and 4.33, when
2 u
C

= 0, β
2∞
= 0, when
2 u
C

= 2,
β
2∞
= 180° when
2 u
C

= 1β
2∞
= 90°. β
2∞
can also be calculated from the equation 4.34.
TABLE 4.1: Variation of H
∞ ∞∞ ∞∞
,

H
dy∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞
, ,, ,, H
p∞ ∞∞ ∞∞
, ρ ρρ ρρ
∞ ∞∞ ∞∞
,β ββ ββ
2∞ 2∞ 2∞ 2∞ 2∞
as a function of
2 u
C

u2
C

H
∞ ∞∞ ∞∞
H
p∞ ∞∞ ∞∞
H
dy∞ ∞∞ ∞∞
ρ ρρ ρρ
∞ ∞∞ ∞∞
0 0 0 0 1.0
0.5 1.0 0.75 0.25 0.75
0.75 1.5 0.9375 0.5625 0.625
1.0 2.00 1.00 1.000 0.50
1.5 3.00 0.75 2.25 0.25
2.0 4.00 0 4.00 0
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 85
2 u C ∞ =
2
2
u
C
u

=
2 2 2
2
cot β
m
u C
u
∞ ∞

= 1 –
2 m
C

cot β
2
or tan β
2
=
2
2
1
m
u
C
C



...(4.34)
A graph is also drawn referring the Table 4.1.
H
,

H
,

H
T
d
p



ρ
3,0
2,0
1,0
0
0.5 1,0 1,5 C
2u∞
H
p∞
ρ
H
T∞
H
d∞
0,75
0,5
0,25
Fig. 4.13. Graph H

∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞
, H

dy ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞
, H

p ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞
, ρ ρρ ρρ
∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞
= f

(c
2u ∞ ∞∞ ∞∞
)
The velocity triangles are shown in Fig. 4.14 for three condition namely β
2
< 90°, β
2
= 90° and
β
2
> 90°.
C

2
m
C
2
a
C
2
b
C2c
β
2a
β
2b β
2c
C
2ua
C
2ub
C
2uc
Fig. 4.14. Velocity triangles for β ββ ββ
2
< 90° °° °°, β ββ ββ
2
= 90° °° °° and β ββ ββ
2
> 90° °° °°
(a) β ββ ββ
2a
< 90° °° °° (b) β ββ ββ
2b
= 90° °° °° (c) β ββ ββ
2c
> 90° °° °°
Corresponding impeller blade shapes are also indicated in the Fig. 4.12.
Total head (H

) and coefficient of reaction ‘ρ’ are directely proportional to
2 u
C

. Dynamic head,
H
dy
is proportional to (
2 u
C

)
2
and pressure Head (H
p∞
) changes inversely to (
2 u
C

)
2
.
86 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
When β
2∞
< 90°, the blades are backward curved, the angle of divergence of flow passage in
impeller is narrow and, hence secondary flow losses are less. Hydraulic efficiency is higher. Also
H
p
> H
dy
i.e., a greater part of the outlet energy is in the form of pressure energy. Only a smaller
portion of total head i.e., H
dy
is converted to pressure energy, which is the basic requirement for
pumps. That why pumps and blowers are designed with impeller blades as backward curved blades.
Normally β
2
, the outlet blade angle lies between 20° to 35° for n
S
ranging from 50 to 400. Recommended
values are:
β
2
≤ 3O° for n
S
< 100
β
2
≤ 25° for 100 n
S
< 200
β
2
≤ 2O° for 250 n
S
< 400
Total Head increases with the increase of β
2
. The performance of pump H–Q curve gradually rises
and becomes more and more a straight line when β
2
increases. Smaller values of β
2
is selected for more
steep H–Q curves and larger values of β
2
are for more flat H–Q curves. β
2
is always selected for maximum
efficiency condition of operation. As per stepanoff | 112 | average static condition of optimum blade
angle of outlet β
2
lies, between 22°–23°. For increase in head, angle β
2
may be increased to 28° to 30°
without any sacrifice in efficiency. Minimum blade angle β
2
can be 15° to 17° and never less than this
value for pumps of any specific speed (n
S
) or any size.
4.9 EFFECT OF NUMBER OF VANES
Selection of number of blades (Z) in impellers and in diffusers (Z
d
) is very important. It influences
on the H–Q characteristics of the pump, pump efficiency as well as suction characteristics of the
pumps. Selection of less number of blades as well as shorter length of blades, give higher angle of
divergence in impeller passages, which increases secondary losses in impeller namely circulatory
losses between two blades due to large pressure differences between leading and trailing sides of the
blade as well as losses at exit due to flow separation. Cavitational characteristics of the pump also
reduces. H–Q curve will be lower than the normal curve. Blade loading will be higher. This increases
the blade thickness which again reduces the blade passage and corresponding increase in w and C
m
which increases frictional losses. Too long the impeller blades and more number of blades increase
the frictional losses, although blade loading and secondary losses are reduced due to less angle of
divergence. Hence correct selection of number of blades is absolutely necessary. In Fig. 4.15, the
effect of number of vanes on pump performance is given. It is evident from the graph that, number of
vanes influences in pump performance.
Based on the channel width in plan of the impeller and the blade length which ensures proper
angle of divergence, Karl Pfliderer | 97 | has established an expression for the determination of number
of blades (Z).
T
H
E
O
R
Y

A
N
D

C
A
L
C
U
L
A
T
I
O
N

O
F

B
L
A
D
E

S
Y
S
T
E
M
S

I
N

C
E
N
T
R
I
F
U
G
A
L

P
U
M
P
8
7
F
i
g
.

4
.
1
5
.

(
a
)

E
f
f
e
c
t

o
f

n
o
.

o
f

v
a
n
e
s

o
n

p
u
m
p

p
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e
S
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
:
H
e
a
d

:

1
2
.
8

m
F
l
o
w

r
a
t
e
:

6

l
p
s
S
p
e
e
d

:

1
4
4
0

r
p
m
n

=

6
0
S
i
z
e

=

5
0

m
m

×

4
0

m
m
s
Z

=

5 Z

=

4
Z

=

1
0
Z

=

1
0
Z

=

5
Z

=

8
Z

=

4
Z

=

1
0
Z

=

8
Z

=

5
Z

=

4
H

V
s

Q
25% 0 50%
Efficiency ( ) η
15 10 100% 20
Total head, (H)
m
(
Q
)

Q
u
a
n
t
i
t
y

o
f

F
l
o
w
,

l
p
s
Z

=

8
Z

=

6
Z

=

6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
88 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
14
14°
16°
21°
30°
44°
71°
90°
β
2
Z
Fig. 4.15. (b) Selection of number of vanes, z = f(β ββ ββ
2
) as per Pfliderer
Z = 6.5
2 1
2 1

r r
r r
-
. sin
1 2
2
β - β
...(4.35)
where, 6.5 in the constant derived from experimental results.
This expression gives nearly correct value for normal backward curved blades. If the blades are
too longand too much bent in backward direction, i.e.,for smaller values of β
1
and β
2
, this expression
gives more number of blades than normally used in practice. Karl Pfliderer, based on the results from
Hanson has given a graph for selection of number of blades as a function of outlet blade angle β
2
for
diffuser pumps. [Fig. 4.15 (b)]. In Fig. 4.15 (a) the effect of number of blades on pump performance is
given. From the graph it is seen that for best performance number of vanes are found to be between
5 and 6 for radial flow pump.
Most of the pumps of different specific speeds have number of blades between 5–8 in impeller
and 1 or 2 blades, more than impeller blades, in diffusers. For n
S
≤ 150, Z will be 6 to 8, for n
S
≥ 150
and D
2
≤ 1000 mm, Z = 6 to 7, for D
2
< 120 mm, Z = 6 to 5.
Most of the high efficiency pumps have an included angle θ between inlet and outlet edges of
blades in plan (Fig. 4.16) between 80° to 150°, optimum being 110° to 120° and θ/t
ang
between 1.2 to 2.2
where t
ang
=
360
Z
for pumps of specific speed n
S
ranging from 130 to 400 and D
2
ranging from 100 mm
to 300 mm.
3
2 4
1
5
70
80
90
n%
E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
Angular displacement / θ
av ang
t
θ
av ang
/ t
For n = 300 to 400
(1) D = 300 mm
(2) D = 116 mm
For n = 180 – 250
(3) D = 116 mm
For n = 130 – 180
(4) D = 116 mm
(5) for n = 60 to 100
D = 300 mm
s
2
2
s
2
s
2
s
2
Fig. 4.16. Selection of number of vanes from the graph, η ηη ηη = f
θ
a
ang
s 2
t
n , D
F
H
G
I
K
J
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 89
4.10 SELECTION OF EYE DIAMETER (D
0
), EYE VELOCITY (C
0
), INLET
DIAMETER OF IMPELLER (D
1
) AND INLET MERIDIONAL VELOCITY (C
m1
)
Impeller eye diameter D
0
and impeller inlet diameter D
1
are selected for best hydraulic efficiency and
for best cavitational characteristics of the pump.
Impeller eye velocity C
0
for pumps with protruding shafts and hubs such as multistage pumps, double
suction pumps is given by
Q
th
=
η
v
Q
=
π
4
(D
2
0
– d
2
h
). C
0
...(4.2)
where d
h
is the hub diameter.
∴ C
0
=
2
2
0
2
0
4
1–
¸ ¸
π
(
(
¸ ,
th
h
Q
d
D
D
...[4.2 (a)]
For pumps without protruding shaft and hub i.e., d
h
= 0 such as end suction, single stage, single
entry pumps
C
0
= 2
0
4
π
th
Q
D
...[4.2 (b)]
From similarity laws unit discharge (K
Q
) is defined as
K
Q
=
Q
nD
3
or D
0
=
3 3
1
th
Q
Q
K n

=
3
th
Q
K
n
⋅ ...(4.36)
where, K =
3
1
Q
K
Substituting the value of D
0
from the equation (4.36) into equation [4.2 (a)]
C
0
=
2
3 2
2
0
4
1
th
th h
Q
Q
Q d
K n D
(
(
π
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
(

( (
(
¸ ,
¸ ,
¸ ¸
=
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3 2
4
1
Q
h
K
Qn
Q
d
D
¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸ ¸ ,
¸ ¸
π −
( (
¸ , ¸ ,
= constant (K
1
)

.
Q n .
2 3
...(4.37)
where, K
1
=
2 / 3
2
2
4
1
Q
h
K
d
D
¸ ¸
π −
(
(
¸ ,
90 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
For better cavitational characteristics and hydraulic efficiency, C
0
= 2 to 4 mps and the meridional
velocity (C
m1
) before the blade inlet edge C
m1
= C
0
or 1.05 to 1.10 C
0
, since increase in velocity C
m
reduces the efficiency and cavitation effect.
From inlet to outlet in the impeller passage, the relative velocity w, meridional velocity C
m
and
hence the absolute velocity C gradually reduces. This means the blade passage is a divergent passage.
For better results, angle of divergence should be within 10°. This is achieved when
1
2
w
w
= 1.05 to 1.15
and C
m2
= 0.85 to 0.9 C
m1
. From inlet velocity triangle for normal entry
w
2
1
= C
m1
2
+ u
1
2
=
2
2
0
4Q
D
¸ ¸
(
π ¸ ,
+
πD n
1
2
60
F
H
G
I
K
J
Taking, C
m1
= C
0
,
π
4
D
0
2
=
π
4
(D
1
2
– d
h
2
)
or D
1
2
= D
0
2
+ d
h
2
∴ w
1
2
=
2
2
0
4
¸ ¸
(
(
π
¸ ,
Q
D
+
2

60
n π ¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
(D
2
0
+ d
h
2
) ...(4.38)
D
2
0 opt
D ( )
2
0
m
2
w
2
1
w
2
1
M
sec
2
π
60
2
n D = u
2
2
1
2
1
4
π
2
D
2
1
– d
2
h
Q
2
= C
2
m1
Fig. 4.17. Determination of optimum eye diameter graph, w
2
1
, C
2
m
, u
2
1
= f (D
2
0
)
For good cavitational characteristics w
1
must be minimum. Differentiating equation (4.38) with
respect to D
0
i.e.,
1
0
dw
dD
= 0 and simplifying
2 2
2
6
0
π 4
2
60
n Q
D
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

( (
π ¸ , ¸ ,
= 0 or D
0
= K
3
Q
n
...(4.39)
which is same as equation (4.36).
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 91
From experimental results, the constant K is ranging from 3.6 to 5.0. For single stage end suction
pumps of D
1
> 70 mm, K = 4.0 to 4.5 and for same pumps if D
1
< 70 mm, K = 4.5 to 5.00. For all
multistage pumps except for Ist stage K = 3.6 – 3.9 | 76 |.
As per Karl Pfliderer | 97 |, Lomakin | 69 |, Stepanoff | 112 |, and Karrasik | 54 |, the best inlet blade
angle without including the angle of attack for better cavitational characteristics and for better hydraulic
efficiency is
β
10
= 15° to 20°.
Taking this into consideration and from the inlet velocity triangle (Fig. 4.1), under normal entry
condition,
tan β
10
=
1
1
m
C
u
=
0
1
C
u
=
2
0
0
4
60
Q
D
D n
π
π
=
2 3
0
60 4 × ×
π
Q
D n
=
2 3
0
240 Q
n
D

π
= tan 15° to tan 20°
or D
0
3
=
( )
2
240 1
tan 15 to 20
Q
n
× ⋅
π
D
0
=
( )
1/ 3
3
2
240 1
.
tan 15 to 20
Q
n
¸ ¸
(
π ° ° ¸ ,
= 4.5 to 4.0
3
Q
n
...(4.40)
Correspondingly finding the value of C
0
from the above equation,
Q
th
=
π
4
D
0
2

2
0
1
h
d
D
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
(

(
(
¸ ,
¸ ,
C
0
or D
0
=
2
0
0
4
1
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
(
π −
(
(
¸ ,
¸ ,
th
h
Q
d
C
D
tan β
10
=
1
1
m
C
u
=
0
0
60 C
D n π
=
0
60 C
n π
2
0
0
1
4
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
(
π −
(
(
¸ ,
¸ ,
h
th
d
C
D
Q
tan (15° to 20°) =
2
3/ 2
0
0
30
1
h
th
d C
D n Q
¸ ¸
− ⋅
(
¸ , π
C
0
=
2 / 3
2
0
tan (15 to 20 )
30
1 –
th
h
n Q
d
D
( ¸ ¸
π ° °
(
(
( ¸ ¸
(
(
( (
¸ , ¸ ,
(
¸ ¸
92 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Substituting the values for tan β
10
= tan (15° to 20°) = 0.268 to 0.364
C
0
= 0.063 to 0.077
2
3
th
Q n
= 0.06 to 0.08
2 3
Qn ...(4.41)
4.11 SELECTION OF OUTLET DIAMETER OF IMPELLER (D
2
)
As a first approximation D
2
, the outer diameter of impeller is determined from fundamental
Eular’s equation. For normal entry
H
m
=
h
H
η
=
2 2 u
C u
g
C
u2
can be selected from (0.8 to 0.5) u
2
for n
S
ranging from 150 to 250.
Hence, H
m
=
2 2 u
C u
g
= (0.8 to 0.5)
2
2
u
g
or u
2
=
(0.8 to 0.5)
m
gH
Having known the speed n, D
2
=
2
60 u
n π
This diameter D
2
is used to determine β
2
, Z, p. From the value p
H

= (1 + p) H
m
is determined.
From outlet velocity triangle, for normal entry condition
H

=
2 2 u
C u
g

= u
2
2
2
2
tan
m
C
u
¸ ¸

(
β
¸ ,
from which u
2
=
2
2
2tan
¸ ¸
(
β
¸ ,
m
C
+
2
2
2
2tan

¸ ¸
-
(
β
¸ ,
m
C
g H
...(4.42)
The diameter D
2
determined under second approximation by equation (4.42) is corrected again
after finalizing the correct value of area reduction coefficient ‘Κ
2
’ and outlet blade angle ‘β
2
’.
4.12 EFFECT OF BLADE BREADTH (B
2
)
For the given value of Q,H and the determined optimum value of β
2
, and C
m2
, maximum diameter
at outlet of the impleller D
2
is determined. Minimum value of Β
2
, the breadth at outlet can be determined
from Q, D
2
and C
m2
. This is achieved when the coeficient of reaction ‘ρ’ is maximum by which C
m2
is
maximum. Since β
2
is independent of n
S
, β
2
is selected mostly from the practical results.
The total head

H will be

H = (1 + p) H
m
= (1 + p).
h
H
η
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 93
where H
m
=
2 2 u
h
C u H
g
·
η
for normal entry at inlet
=
( )
2 2
1+
u
h
p C u
g

η
Referring to the outlet velocity triangles, the total head (H) is given as
H
m
=
2 2 u
C u
g
=
2
u
g
(u
2
– w
u2
) =
2
u
g
=
2
2
2
tan
¸ ¸

(
β
¸ ,
m
C
u
=
2
u
g
2
2
2 2 2

tan
th
K Q
u
D B
¸ ¸
(
π β
¸ ,
=
2
u
g
2
2
2
2 2 2

tan
th
K Q
u
D B
(
(
π β (
¸ ¸
...(4.43)
where
2
B =
2
2
B
D
Introducing non-dimensional coefficients unit discharge
3
Q
Q
K
nD
¸ ¸
·
(
¸ ,
and Unit Head
2 2
¸ ¸
·
(
¸ ,
H
H
K
n D
into the equation (4.40), we get
2 2
H
h
K n D
η
=
2
D n
g
π
3
2 2
2
2
2 2 2
. . tan
Q
v
K K nD
D n
D B
(
π − (
η π β
(
¸ ¸
Introducing specific speed n
s
=
( ) 3/ 4
3.65n Q
H
=
( )
( ) 3/ 4
219
Q
H
K
K
or K
H
=
4 / 3
219
Q
s
K
n
¸ ¸
(
(
¸ ,
into the above
equation and simplifying
2
B =
( )
( )
2
2 / 3
4 / 3
2
2
4 / 3
1
(219)
tan –
Q
Q
v
s
K K
g K
n
(
(
η β π
(
η
(
¸ ¸
...(4.44)
For radial type centrifugal pumps n
s
ranges from 40 to 300, K
Q
ranges from 0.02 to 0.22, K
2
ranges from 1.05 to 1.25, β
2
ranges from 20° to 30°.
94 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04
1
0

2
0

3
0

4
0

5
0

6
0

7
0

8
0

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

(
)
η
(K ) Unit Discharge
Q
B = 12
B = 9
B = 6
B = 16
0
Fig. 4.18. (a) Efficiency—unit discharge characteristics
(η ηη ηη – K
Q
)
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 95
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04
0
.
1

0
.
2

0
.
3

0
.
4

0
.
5

0
.
6

0
.
7

(
K
)

U
n
i
t

H
e
a
d
H
(K ) Unit discharge
Q
B = 16
B = 12
B = 9
B = 6
Fig. 4.18. (b) Unit head—unit discharge characteristics
(K
H
– K
Q
)
96 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
40 45 50 55 60 70 80 90 100 115 130 150 175 200 250 300
0.3
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
η
s
K
Q
Fig. 4.18. (c) Allowable range of K
Q
for different specific speeds (Data collected from
different pumps working η ηη ηη ranges from 65% to 81%)
0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.20 0.22
K
Q
0.3000
0.8000
K
H
40
45
50
55
60
70
80 90
100 115
130
150
175
200
Fig. 4.18. (d) Allowable range of K
Q
and K
H
for different specific speeds of Radial type centrifugal
pumps (Data collected from pumps working η ηη ηη ranges from 65% to 81%)
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 97
40 45 50 55 60 70 80 90 100 115 130 150 175 200 300 250
0.0000
0.0400
0.0800
0.1200
0.1600
0.1400
0.1000
0.0600
0.0200
n
s
B
Fig. 4.18. (e) B

vs n
s
for K
2
= 1.05, η ηη ηη
h
= η ηη ηη
v
= 0.84, β ββ ββ
2
= 22° °° °°
40 50 60 80 100 130 175 250
0.0000
0.0400
0.0800
0.1200
0.1000
0.0600
0.0200
n
s
B
Fig. 4.18. (f ) B

vs n
s
for K
2
= 1.05, η ηη ηη
h
= η ηη ηη
v
= 0.84, β ββ ββ
2
= 30° °° °°
9
8
R
O
T
O
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C

P
U
M
P
S

(
C
E
N
T
R
I
F
U
G
A
L

A
N
D

A
X
I
A
L
)
TABLE 4.2: Selection of impeller blade breadth at outlets
B
B
D
2
2
2
·
F
H
G
I
K
J
K
2
= 1.05
η ηη ηη
h
= η ηη ηη
v
= 0.84 η ηη ηη
h
= η ηη ηη
v
= 0.90
β ββ ββ
2
= 22 β ββ ββ
2
= 30 β ββ ββ
2
= 22 β ββ ββ
2
= 30
η ηη ηη
s
K
Q
B K
Q
B K
Q
B K
Q
B K
Q
B K
Q
B K
Q
B K
Q
B
40 0.02 0.0395 0.013 0.0111 0.02 0.0276 0.013 0.0077 0.02 0.0272 0.013 0.0093 0.02 0.0191 0.013 0.0065
45 0.025 0.0473 0.015 0.0116 0.025 0.0331 0.015 0.0081 0.025 0.0331 0.015 0.0098 0.025 0.0231 0.015 0.0069
50 0.031 0.0596 0.02 0.0167 0.031 0.0417 0.02 0.0117 0.031 0.0414 0.02 0.0140 0.031 0.0290 0.02 0.0098
55 0.037 0.0679 0.023 0.0182 0.037 0.0475 0.023 0.0127 0.037 0.0479 0.023 0.0154 0.037 0.0335 0.023 0.0108
60 0.042 0.0670 0.027 0.0211 0.042 0.0469 0.027 0.0148 0.042 0.0491 0.027 0.0179 0.042 0.0344 0.027 0.0125
70 0.053 0.0704 0.034 0.0247 0.053 0.0493 0.034 0.0173 0.053 0.0540 0.034 0.0212 0.053 0.0378 0.034 0.0148
80 0.067 0.0832 0.043 0.0304 0.067 0.0582 0.043 0.0213 0.067 0.0648 0.043 0.0262 0.067 0.0454 0.043 0.0183
90 0.081 0.0923 0.053 0.0366 0.081 0.0646 0.053 0.0256 0.081 0.0733 0.053 0.0316 0.081 0.0513 0.053 0.0221
100 0.097 0.1050 0.062 0.0411 0.097 0.0735 0.062 0.0288 0.097 0.0842 0.062 0.0357 0.097 0.0589 0.062 0.0250
115 0.118 0.1128 0.077 0.0488 0.118 0.0789 0.077 0.0342 0.118 0.0926 0.077 0.0427 0.118 0.0648 0.077 0.0298
130 0.134 0.1109 0.092 0.0558 0.134 0.0776 0.092 0.0391 0.134 0.0933 0.092 0.0490 0.134 0.0653 0.092 0.0343
150 0.164 0.1245 0.112 0.0645 0.164 0.0872 0.112 0.0451 0.164 0.1062 0.112 0.0570 0.164 0.0743 0.112 0.0399
175 0.193 0.1295 0.14 0.0770 0.193 0.0906 0.14 0.0539 0.193 0.1123 0.14 0.0684 0.193 0.0786 0.14 0.0479
200 0.222 0.1364 0.158 0.0812 0.222 0.0954 0.158 0.0568 0.222 0.1196 0.158 0.0727 0.222 0.0837 0.158 0.0479
250 0.257 0.1345 0.193 0.0905 0.257 0.0941 0.193 0.0633 0.257 0.1202 0.193 0.0817 0.257 0.0841 0.193 0.0572
300 0.284 0.1341 0.225 0.0990 0.284 0.0938 0.225 0.0693 0.284 0.1211 0.225 0.0900 0.284 0.0847 0.225 0.0630
T
H
E
O
R
Y

A
N
D

C
A
L
C
U
L
A
T
I
O
N

O
F

B
L
A
D
E

S
Y
S
T
E
M
S

I
N

C
E
N
T
R
I
F
U
G
A
L

P
U
M
P
9
9
TABLE 4.3: Selection of impeller blade breadth at outlets
B
B
D
2
2
2
·
F
H
G
I
K
J
K
2
= 1.25
η ηη ηη
h
= η ηη ηη
v
= 0.84 η ηη ηη
h
= η ηη ηη
v
= 0.90
β ββ ββ
2
= 22 β ββ ββ
2
= 30 β ββ ββ
2
= 22 β ββ ββ
2
= 30
η ηη ηη
s
K
Q
B K
Q
B K
Q
B K
Q
B K
Q
B K
Q
B K
Q
B K
Q
B
40 0.02 0.0470 0.013 0.0132 0.02 0.0329 0.013 0.0092 0.02 0.0324 0.013 0.0110 0.02 0.0227 0.013 0.0077
45 0.025 0.0563 0.015 0.0138 0.025 0.0394 0.015 0.0096 0.025 0.0394 0.015 0.0117 0.025 0.0275 0.015 0.0082
50 0.031 0.0709 0.02 0.0199 0.031 0.0496 0.02 0.0139 0.031 0.0493 0.02 0.0167 0.031 0.0345 0.02 0.0117
55 0.037 0.0808 0.023 0.0217 0.037 0.0566 0.023 0.0152 0.037 0.0570 0.023 0.0184 0.037 0.0399 0.023 0.0128
60 0.042 0.0798 0.027 0.0251 0.042 0.0558 0.027 0.0176 0.042 0.0585 0.027 0.0213 0.042 0.0409 0.027 0.0149
70 0.053 0.0838 0.034 0.0294 0.053 0.0586 0.034 0.0206 0.053 0.0643 0.034 0.0252 0.053 0.0450 0.034 0.0176
80 0.067 0.0990 0.043 0.0362 0.067 0.0693 0.043 0.0253 0.067 0.0772 0.043 0.0311 0.067 0.0540 0.043 0.0218
90 0.081 0.1099 0.053 0.0436 0.081 0.0769 0.053 0.0305 0.081 0.0873 0.053 0.0377 0.081 0.0611 0.053 0.0264
100 0.097 0.1250 0.062 0.0489 0.097 0.0875 0.062 0.0342 0.097 0.1003 0.062 0.0425 0.097 0.0702 0.062 0.0297
115 0.118 0.1342 0.077 0.0581 0.118 0.0939 0.077 0.0407 0.118 0.1102 0.077 0.0508 0.118 0.0771 0.077 0.0355
130 0.134 0.1320 0.092 0.0665 0.134 0.0924 0.092 0.0465 0.134 0.1110 0.092 0.0584 0.134 0.0777 0.092 0.0409
150 0.164 0.1483 0.112 0.0767 0.164 0.1038 0.112 0.0537 0.164 0.1264 0.112 0.0678 0.164 0.0884 0.112 0.0475
175 0.193 0.1542 0.14 0.0917 0.193 0.1079 0.14 0.0642 0.193 0.1337 0.14 0.0815 0.193 0.0936 0.14 0.0570
200 0.222 0.1623 0.158 0.0967 0.222 0.1136 0.158 0.0677 0.222 0.1424 0.158 0.0866 0.222 0.0997 0.158 0.0606
250 0.257 0.1601 0.193 0.1077 0.257 0.1120 0.193 0.0754 0.257 0.1430 0.193 0.0973 0.257 0.1001 0.193 0.0681
300 0.284 0.1596 0.225 0.1179 0.284 0.1117 0.225 0.0825 0.284 0.1441 0.225 0.1071 0.284 0.1009 0.225 0.0750
100 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
40 45 50 55 60 70 80 90 100 115 130 150 175 200 300 250
0.0000
0.0400
0.0800
0.1200
0.1400
0.1000
0.0600
0.0200
n
s
B
Fig. 4.18. (g) B

vs n
s
for K
2
= 1.05, η ηη ηη
h
= η ηη ηη
v
= 0.90, β ββ ββ
2
= 22° °° °°
40 45 50 55 60 70 80 90 100 115 130 150 175 200 300 250
0.0000
0.0200
0.0400
0.0500
0.0700
0.0900
0.0800
0.0600
0.0300
0.0100
n
s
B
Fig. 4.18. (h) B

vs n
s
for K
2
= 1.05, η ηη ηη
h
= η ηη ηη
v
= 0.90, β ββ ββ
2
= 30° °° °°
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 101
40 45 50 55 60 70 80 90 100 115 130 150 175 200 300 250
0.0000
0.0400
0.0800
0.1200
0.1600
0.1800
0.1400
0.1000
0.0600
0.0200
n
s
B
Fig. 4.18. (i) B

vs n
s
for K
2
= 1.25, η ηη ηη
h
= η ηη ηη
v
= 0.84, β ββ ββ
2
= 22° °° °°
40 50 60 80 100 130 175 250
0.0000
0.0400
0.0800
0.1200
0.1000
0.0600
0.0200
n
s
B
Fig. 4.18. (j) B

vs n
s
for K
2
= 1.25, η ηη ηη
h
= η ηη ηη
v
= 0.84, β ββ ββ
2
= 30° °° °°
102 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
40 45 50 55 60 70 80 90 100 115 130 150 175 200 300 250
0.0000
0.0400
0.0800
0.1200
0.1600
0.1400
0.1000
0.0600
0.0200
n
s
B
Fig. 4.18. (k) B

vs n
s
for K
2
= 1.25, η ηη ηη
h
= η ηη ηη
v
= 0.90, β ββ ββ
2
= 22° °° °°
40 45 50 55 60 70 80 90 100 115 130 150 175 200 300 250
n
s
0.0000
0.0200
0.0400
0.0800
0.1200
0.1000
0.0600
B
Fig. 4.18. (l) B

vs n
s
for K
2
= 1.25, η ηη ηη
h
= η ηη ηη
v
= 0.90, β ββ ββ
2
= 30° °° °°
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 103
Overall efficiency of pumps ranges form
η
= 65% to 81%, η
v
is assumed as equal to η
h
and is
taken as = η . Using excel programme, the values of
2
B for the above mentioned variations were
calculated and graph
2
B = f (n
s
) were drawn (Figs. 4.18 c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l), for different values of
K
Q
, K
2
, η
h
, η
v
and β
2
. These graphs can be referred for the selection of outlet blade breadth for radial
flow impellers.
An experiment on a radial type centrifugal pump was also conducted. The blade breadths (B
2
and
B
1
) at inlet and at outlet were changed keeping the inclination of the shrouds with vertical same at all
time. The results are given in Figs. 4.18 (a), (b) in K
H
– K
Q
and η – K
Q
graphs.
Experimental results agree with the theoretically determined values.
Normally
2
B will be smaller for diffuser pumps, when compared to volute casing pumps.
4.13 IMPELLER DESIGN
Three fundamental parameters namely (1) Total Head ‘H’, (2) quantity of flow ‘Q’ and (3) either
speed of the pump ‘n’ or suction head ‘H
S
’ are necessary for impeller design.
The speed of rotation ‘n’ however, is related to the size of the pump, and cavitational characteristics
of the pump.
If suction head ‘H
S
’ is known, the speed can be determined from suction specific speed (C). From
the known value of H, Q , n, specific speed ‘n
s
’ for the pump is calculated by which the type of pump can
be determined.
When speed ‘n’ is increased for the given value of Q and H. specific speed ‘n
s
’ increases. The type
of pump changes such as radial, or diagonal or mixed or axial flow. Also the overall size of the pump is
reduced.
It is found that maximum hydraulic as well as overall efficiencies are attained between n
s
= 150 to
200 for radial type centrifugal pumps. Fig. 4.19 gives the relation between efficiency (η) as a function of
specific speed ‘n
s
’ for different eye diameters of the impeller.
12%
100
50
0
85 200 250 400 420 600 800 875 n
s
c
a
b
Fig. 4.19. Graph h = f (n
s
, D
O
)
(a) D
O
> 200 mm, (b) D
O
= 50 to 200 mm, (c) D
O
= 10 to 50 mm
Suction head ‘H
s
’ is reduced, when speed is increased. Cavitational specific speed ‘C’ can be
taken as C = 800 to 1000 from which suction head ‘H
s
’ can be determined under first approximation
using the formula.
H
s
=
γ
atm
p

γ
vp
p

4 / 3
¸ ¸
(
(
¸ ,
p
n Q
C
...(4.45)
Comp-1/Newage/Pump-4a.pm6.5—14.5.07 23.11.07
104 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
where,
p
atm
—atmospheric pressure
p
vp
—vapour pressure and
γ —specific weight of liquid
Detailed analysis on cavitation is dealt with in chapter 9. Correct suction head ‘H
s
’ or speed ‘n’
can be established by applying cavitation conditions.
In pump industries, pump is selected mostly from among the available models manufactured in
the industry. For the available data of H, Q, pump model, so selected, must be capable of meeting the
hydraulic and constructional requirements of the field conditions. For example, impellers of multistage
pump having hub extended into the impeller eye should not be selected for a single stage end suction
pump, since the entry in multistage pump impeller is different from entry of liquid in single stage end
suction impellers. In single stage end suction pumps entry is radial, whereas in multistage pump entry at
suction need not be radial. By applying model analysis, the available models are selected to suit the new
requirements. If pumps are not available from the existing models, new designs are made using systematic
design procedure. Total head of single stage pumps with standard speed of rotation 1440 rpm (n
s
≈ 40)
will be H ≤ 30 m, in order to keep the impeller size and weight of the pump within the limit. If head for
the single stage pump is more than 30 m, then the impeller size and corresponding the total weight of the
pump considerably increases. Hence, head and quantity for a single stage pump should be selected up to
miximum of 30 m for n = 1440 rpm. If pumps are in series, then head per stage will be H =
T
H
i
where
H — Head of single stage pump, H
T
— Total head of the multistage pump, i is the number of stages. If
the pumps are in parallel then quantity of flow per pump will be Q
p
=
T
Q
i
, where Q
p
—quantity of flow
for one pump, Q
T
—Total quantity required and i—Number of pumps to be kept in parallel. If a double
suction pump is used then Q =
2
T
Q
. In case of single stage pump, excess quantity is required to take care
of axial thrust, leakage through wearing rings, stuffing box cooling, etc. Actual quantity must be
increased by an extra of 3 to 10% i.e., Q
p
= Q
act
= (1.03 to 1.1) Q when selecting pumps for usage in
field. Multistage pumps are used for boiler feed, mines etc.
When high suction characteristics are essential such as condensate or for gas-liquid pumping,
speed of rotation must be selected a little lower than normal. A double suction pump is preferred. If a
multistage pump is used for such conditions, the first stage impeller must be specially designed.The
suction head H
s
is determined as per the equation 4.45.
For the calculated specific speed, approximate overall efficiency (η) can be obtained by referring
the graph (Fig. 4.19). The power of the prime mover will be N
i
=
γ
η
QH
.
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 105
N%
100
95
90
85
80
75
0
70 140 210 240 350 420 490
6
5
5
a
5
b
n
s
30
25
20
15
10
5
%
h
N
1
2
3
4
Fig. 4.20. Energy balance for pumps of different n (1) Mechanical loss
(2) Impeller loss (3) Discfriction loss (4) Volumetric loss (5) Hydraulic
loss 5a. Volute loss 5b. approach pipe (6) useful output
s
4
3
5
2
1
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
30
25
20
15
10
5
0 100
95
90
85
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
Fig. 4.21.
nor
Q
Q
% Energy balance for a pump (1) Mechanical loss (2) Volumetric loss
(3) Hydraulic loss (4) Useful power (5) Recirculation loss.
Fig. 4.20 gives an energy balance for different specific speeds of pump and Fig. 4.21 for one
pump. Referring to these figures the mechanical losses, volumetric losses and hydraulic losses, and
106 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
corresponding efficiency can be determined. Overall efficiency η = η
v
× η
m
× η
h
, where η
v
, η
m
, η
h
are
the volumetric, mechanical and hydraulic efficiencies respectively. It is necessary to reduce the volumetric
eifficiency by 1 to 2% depending upon the conditions, in case excess volume is used for axial thrust
balancing and stuffing box cooling. Prof. A.A. Lomakin (69) has suggested that volumetric and hydraulic
efficiencies can be determined as per the equation given below. Mechanical efficiency can be assumed
as 1% for larger pumps and 1.5% for smaller pumps. Volumetric efficiency ‘η
v
’ is given by
1
η
v
= 1 + 0.68 (n
S
)
–2/3
...(4.46)
and Q
th
=
η
act
v
Q
where Q
act
is the quantity of flow for one pump. η
v
the volumetric efficiency lies between
85% and 95% for pumps. Hydraulic efficiency (η
h
) is given by
η
h
= 1 –
2
0( )
0.42
(log – 0.172)
Nom
D
...(4.47)
where, D
0(nom)
= (4.5 to 4.0)
3
Q
n
(metres)
and H
th
=
η
act
h
H
where H
act
– total head for one pump. η
h
the Hydraulic efficiency lies between 75% to
95% and depends upon the shape of the vane passages, surface roughness of the passages and size of the
impeller.
Mechanical efficiency η
m
lies 1% for larger pumps and 1.5% for smaller pumps.
Based on the head, quantity of flow, the power required to drive the pump, N
i
=
γ
η
QH
, where γ is
the specific weight of the pumping liquid. The above equation can be written in different forms such as
N
i
=
η
WH
since γQ = W, weight of the pumping liquid flowing per unit time. Also, N
i
=
PQ
η
, since
γH = p, the total pressure required for the pumping liquid. N
i
is the power input to the pump at coupling
and is equal to the power output from the prime mover (N
op
). If the efficiency of the prime mover (η
pr
)
is known, the power input to the prime mover N
ipr
=

η
op i
pr
N N
.
4.14 DETERMINATION OF SHAFT DIAMETER AND HUB DIAMETER
Having known the total head, quantity of flow and power, the shaft diameter ‘d
S
’ can be determined
based on the material selected for shaft, its yield strength for bending and the torque to be transmitted. A
factor of safety of 2 to 6 is used depending upon the type of operation of the pump.
In order to take care of the operation of pumps under overloading condition, a 10% to 15% extra
power, over and above normal rated power is taken for shaft diameter design.
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 107
Power ‘N’ required is (1.1 to 1.15) N
i
= Tω where T is the torque transmitted in N.m and ω is the
angular velocity of the shaft, ω =

60
n
, where n is the speed rpm. If ‘f
u
’ is the ultimate strength of the
shaft material selected, the yield strength ‘f
s
’ for bending, fatique and shear operating condition,
f
s
=
u
f
FS
, where FS is the factor of safety (2 to 6). Shaft diameter d
s
is determined from the formula
3
16
s
d π
f
s
= T.
Hub diameter ‘d
h
’ will be d
h
= 1.2 to 1.3 d
s
...(4.48)
depending upon the pump capacity. It is necessary to select the hub diameter to accommodate impeller
key with sufficient space especially for smaller pumps.
4.15 DETERMINATION OF INLET DIMENSIONS FOR IMPELLER
Normally the eye velocity C
0
will be 3 to 5 mps. However, it can be determined as,
C
0
= 0.06 to 0.08
2 3
Qn ...(4.41)
Eye diameter ‘D
0
’ is determined as
Q
th
= C
0

.
π
4

(D
2
0
– d
2
h
) or = C
0
π
4

D
2
0
...(4.2)
depending upon type of construction of the pump such as multistage pumps or double suction pumps or
single stage end suction pumps. Eye diameter D
0
, is rounded off to the nearest standard pipe size and
then correct value of C
0
is again determined from the continuity equation (4.2).
The position of the inlet edge of the blade in impeller must be selected based on the required
cavitational characteristics. Radial type, low specific speed, centrifugal pumps will have the inlet edge
of the impeller parallel to thie axis. At higher ranges of specific speeds (n
s
= 150 to 250) the inlet edge
of the impeller is extended into impeller eye, in order to provide better cavitational characteristics. The
inlet edge of the impeller blade will be inclined (diagonal) instead of purely parallel to shaft axis. In
other words, the inlet edge of the impeller blade gradually extends from purely axial to diagonal when
specific speed of radial type centrifugal pumps increases, in order improve the cavitation characteristics
of the pump.
Diameter D
1
is selected as D
1
= 0.70 to 1.1 D
0
, when specific speed ranges from 300 to 70.
Taking, C
m0
the meridional velocity before the blade inlet as C
m0
= C
0
or 1.05 to 1.1 C
0
the
breadth ‘B
1
’ at inlet is calculated from the continuity equation.
Q
th
= π D
1
B
1
C
m0
or B
1
=
1 0
π
th
m
Q
D C
...(4.49)
The inlet blade angle β
1
is determined as
tan β
10
=
1
1
m
C
u
=
1 0
1
m
K C
u
...(4.50)
108 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
and C
m1
= K
1
C
m0
=
1 0
10
sin
m
D C
Z
D
π
δ
π −
β
=
0
10
1.
δ
1
π sin β
m
C
Z
D

=
10
δ
sinβ
t
t −
...(4.51)
where, t =
1
D
Z
π
.
Selection of number of blades may be carried out referring Figs. 4.15 and 4.16. Normally number
of vanes is selected as Z
i
= 6 to 8 depending upon the specific speed. The pitch or blade spacing (t) can
be calculated as t
1
=
1
πD
Z
. Vane thickness can be selected for strength and at the same time as minimum
thickness as possible to get more flow passage area between any two blades and also to get proper vane
shape while casting in foundary.
As first approximation β
10
is determined from equation (4.50). This value is substituted in equation
(4.51) and the coefficient K
1
is calculated.
This value is now substituted in equation (4.48) to get new value of β
10
.This value is substituted
in equation (4.49) to get new value of K
1
. This value of K
1
is now substituted in equation (4.48) to get
the second value of β
10
. This process is repeated until two successive values of β
10
and K
1
are same.
The blade angle β
1
is determined by adding the angle of attack ‘δ

’ i.e., β
1
= β
10
+ δ

as mentioned earlier.
Final value of C
m1
is determined from C
m1
= K
1
C
m0
. Thus, all parameters for impeller blade inlet D
1
, B
1
,
C
m1
, K
1
, u
1
,

β
1
and β
10
, Z are available for further the calculation to determine the parameters at impeller
blade outlet.
4.16 DETERMINATION OF OUTLET DIMENSIONS OF IMPELLER
The relative velocity ‘w
1
’ at inlet will be
w
1
=
1 1 0
1
( )
sinβ
·
m m
C K C
...(4.52)
The meridional velocity at outlet C
m2
is selected as C
m2
= 0.8 to 0.9 C
m1
and the relative velocity
at outlet w
2
is determined as
1
2
w
w
= 1.1 to 1.15, since the blade passage is a divergent passage. It is also
necessary to take uniform change of w and C
m
between inlet and outlet of impeller passage, in order
determine the blade angle β

at different radii between inlet and outlet of the impeller blade passage. Also
the blade shape and flow passage between blades form, more uniformly, by which impeller secondary
losses will be less and hydraulic efficiency will be higher.
Outlet parameters are determined by approximate method, and then corrected, since the coefficient
ψ and p to determine the total head reduction due to finite number of blades, determination of number of
blade, are all function of outlet blade angle and outlet diameter.
As first approximation
2 u
C is selected as
2 u
C = 0.8 to 0.5 for specific speeds 75 to 250.
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 109
Manometric Head H
m
=
η
h
H
=
2 2 u
u C
g
=
2
2 2 u
C u
g
for normal entry at inlet
or u
2
=
2
m
u
gH
C
and D
2
=
2
60
π
u
n
D
2
determined from first approximation, is used to determine outlet blade angle β
2
, number of
blades Z and the head correction coefficient ψ and p. From velocity triangles at inlet and at outlet,
w
1
=
1
1
sinβ
m
C
and w
2
=
2
2
sinβ
m
C
from which
2
1
w
w
=
2 1
2 1
sin β
sinβ
m
m
C
C

=
2 2 3 1 1
1 2 1 0 2
sinβ sinβ
sinβ sinβ
m m
m m
C K C
C K C
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
or sin β
2
=
2 2
1 1
m
m
C w
C w

sin β
1
=
2 3 2
1 0 1
m
m
K C w
K C w

sin β
1
...(4.53)
Since β
1
is known,
2
1
m
m
C
C
,
2
1
w
w
, value β
2
can be determined. Values ψ, p Z are determined from
equations 4.18 and 4.19. The value H

= ((1 + p) H
m
is determined. The outlet vane velocity u
2
is
determined from equation (4.39) and then D
2
=
2
60
π
u
n
. Outlet breadth, B
2
is determined as
K
2
=
2
2
2
2
δ
sinβ
t
t −
and C
m3
=
2
2
m
C
K
Q
th
= π D
2
B
2
C
m3
Relative velocity at outlet w
2
=
2
2
sinβ
m
C
.
If D
2
value determined by I and II and approximation vary too much, then D
2
determined from
IInd approximation should be substituted in all equations to determine the outlet dimensions and the
process should be repeated until successive values of D
2
are same.
4.17 DEVELOPMENT OF FLOW PASSAGE IN MERIDIONAL PLANE
After determining inlet and outlet parameters of impeller blade, the development of flow passage
in meridional plane (elevation) should be determined before developing the blade shape in plan.
Selection and formation of flow passage depend upon the specific speed of the pump. The radius
of curvature at the bend portion must be as large as possible in order to provide a smooth change over
from axial to radial direction. The criteria for construction of such flow passage is to provide an uniform
110 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
change in area from eye to outlet of impeller and at the same time providing velocity C
0
at eye, C
m0
at
inlet C
m3
at outlet.
From the established dimensions at inlet and at outlet for the impeller, a graph indicating the
variation of C
m
, w, β, δ, B, from inlet to outlet as a function of diameter D should be prepared. The
uniform change in C
m
and w is suitably assumed between inlet and outlet and the graph is drawn.
(Fig. 4.3). Referring this graph C
m
and w for any diameter can be found out. The blade angle β will be
β = sin
–1
m
C
w
. Similarly, the blade thickness ‘δ’ can be assumed. Blade thickness is always determined
based in the blade loading and the facility available at foundry to cast as minimum thickness as possible,
which provides more flow passage area. Normally blade thickness is gradually increased from inlet to
some distance approximately up to 1/3 to 2/5 of the blade length and then decreases up to outlet. Usually
4 mm to 6 mm for smaller pumps and 10 mm to 12 mm for larger pumps are selected. A graph δ = f (D)
is drawn. The breadth of the blade at any diameter can be determined from the equation.
Q
th
=
δ
π
sinβ
¸ ¸

(
¸ ,
Z
D
B.C
m
.
The value β, δ, C
m
are taken from the graph for the selected diameter ‘D’ A graph B = f (D) is
drawn in the same graph.
From impeller eye to blade inlet edge, the graph can be extended to get complete the flow passage.
The continuity equation at impeller eye portion will be Q
th
=
2
0
4
D π
.C
0
for end suction pumps.
This can be changed as Q
th
=
2
0
4
D π
C
0
· πD
m
B C
0
, where D
m
is mean diameter =
0
2
D
and B is
the equivalent breadth B =
0
2
D
.
Similarly, Q
th
=
π
4
(D
2
0
– d
2
h
).C
0
for double suction and multistage pumps. This can be modified as
Q
th
=
π
4
(D
2
0
– d
2
h
).C
0
= πD
m
BC
0
where, D
m
=
0
2
-
h
D d
and B =
0

2
h
D d
Depending upon the specific speed, the shape of the middle stream line (D
m
from eye to inlet and
D from inlet to outlet) is drawn. It should be remembered, that the radius of cruvature at the bend, where
the flow direction changes from axial to radial must be as large as possible at inner and at outer shrould
for better performance. On this streamline, a number of circles are drawn, at frequent intervals, selecting
different diameters of impeller passage. The diameter of these circle drawn on the streamlines is equal
to the breadth ‘B’. For the selected diameter (D) this value of B can be obtained from the graph. Lines
are drawn at both ends of the circle such that the line drawn must be tangent to all cirlces (Fig. 4.22).
These two lines form inner and outer shrouds of the impeller.
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 111
If an arc is drawn connecting the meeting tangent points on
shrouds and the centre of circle the angle between the arc and tangent
should be 90° i.e., normal (Fig. 4.22). A graph can be drawn between
area ‘A’, A = f (S). Which must have the shape as shown in the Figs.
4.5 (b) and 4.22.
For better cavitational characteristics the rate of area increase
at the bend portion, where the flow changes from axial to radial
direction must be at a larger rate than the area increase at the radial
portion. By providing considerable increase in area at the inlet section,
the rate of increase in area at the radial direction will be at a lower
rate. Moreover, significant increase in area at inlet compensates the
area reduction due to vane thickness at inlet.
Radius of curvature at the bend portion of the meridional passage
at the outer side must be as large as possible since smaller radius of
curvature at this point yields high velocity of flow as well as flow
separation after the bend, which drastically reduces cavitational
property and hydraulic efficiency. Flow separation at this point will
create very poor flow in the following radial portion as well as at inlet
of the impeller, all will reduce the hydraulic efficiency.
In general, meridional flow passage development must possess,
1. Smooth, streamlined and uniform area change from eye to the outlet must be ensured.
2. The radius of curvature at the outer side of the bend portion must be as large as possible.
3. Contour of flow passage must be in the same pattern as that recommended for that specific
speed.
The diameter
2
1
D
D
reduces, when specific speed n
S
increases. When
2
1
D
D
< 1.6, the surface area of
the vane significantly reduces if the inlet edge of the blade lies in the radial portion of the passage. The
blade loading will be higher, which inturn, reduces the cavitational characteristics. Hydraulic losses are
increased. To overcome this, the blade inlet is extended into the bend portion. The inlet edge of the
blade, instead of being parallel to axis, will be inclined. The blade passage changes from diagonal at
inlet to radial at outlet.
This inturn reduces the blade velocity and relative velocity at inlet. This reduces hydraulic losses
and improves cavitational characteristics and reduces blade loading. Due to the inclined location of inlet
edge, the radius from hub to outer changes. Since meridional velocity C
m
is constant throughout the
inlet cross-section, blade angle β
1
reduces from hub to periphery. Blade curvature changes, from single
curvature to double curvature. The inlet edge will be diagonal and outlet edge will be parallel to axis for
specific n
s
= 200 to 300. When specific speed increases still further i.e., for n
s
= 350 to 500 the outlet
edge also becomes inclined and the pumps will be mixed or diagnal type in stead of radial.
4.18 DEVELOPMENT OF SINGLE CURVATURE BLADE—RADIAL BLADES
Single curvature blade or plane vane development is adopted for pure radial blades, where the
inlet and outlet edges lie parallel to axis. The specific speed ‘n
s
’ of such pump will be less than 100 i.e.,
n
s
< 100 and normally the diameter D
2
< 70 to 100 mm.
d
s
S
2
d
r
r
2
r
1
r
D
0
Fig. 4.22. Vane development in
meridional section
112 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Vane development, either by single or by double arc method or by step by step method called as
point by point method, must provide uniform variation in relative velocity ‘w’, meridional velocity C
m
and angle of divergence from inlet to outlet along the flow passage i.e., from S
1
to S
2
(Fig. 4.23).
β
2
D
S
2
β
1

r
i
A
S
1
θ
r
0
r
i
B
G
E
H
β
S
2 β
dr
θ
r dθ
θ
k
r
k
δ
Fig. 4.23. (a) Single curvature plane Fig. 4.23. (b) Vane development by
vane development point by point method
Blade thickness ‘δ’ is selected either constant or changing from inlet to outlet, smaller thickness at
inlet and at outlet end and higher thickness at the middle. However, blade thickness is determined based
in the blade loading and the type of casting adopted in foundry for casting the impeller. The vane
thickness will be a little higher at inlet than that at outlet and will be rounded off at inlet for shockness
entry. For smaller pumps the blade thickness will be 3 mm at inlet, 5 mm to 6 mm at the middle and 1
mm to 2 mm at the outlet. For larger pumps blade thickness is increased up to 10 to12 mm. Selection of
minimum thickness provides a larger flow passage between blades. The velocities C
m
and w in the flow
passage is reduced, which yields to higher hydraulic efficiency. Flow is also without separation for a
wide range of flow rate. Now-a-days airfoils are used, for maximum economy and for better anticavitating
property. These profiles are positioned on the stream line ‘S
1
to S
2
’ determined by point by point method.
Referring to Fig. 4.23 the differiential equation at any point between ‘S
1
to S
2
’ for the central
steam line in plan can be written as
tan β =
θ
dr
rd
or dθ =
tanβ
dr
r
Taking θ = 0 when r = r
1
and ‘β’ from the graph (Fig. 4.3) β = f (D) and integrating.
θ =
θ
0
θ d

=
2
1
tanβ
r
r
dr
r

...(4.54)
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 113
Integration is carried out by step by step summation of dθ
Taking,
1
tanβ r
= B (r)
∆θ =
1
2
i i
B B - -
∆r
i
where ∆θ and ∆r are the increment in central angle and radius B
i
and B
i+1
are the integrals at the
beginning and at the end of selected radius. Total value of θ will be
θ
i
=
1
1

2
i i
i i
i
i
B B
r
·
·
- -

∑ ...(4.55)
All calculations are carried out in Tabular form.
TABLE 4.4: Plane vane development
The values of S or r can be arbitrarily selected for which C
m
, W, β can be taken from the velocity
distribution graph (Figs. 4.23 and 4.3). The middle streamline is constructed from the table where θ and
the corresponding r are known. Blade thickness is added on the streamline, to get the blade in complete
shape.
4.19 DEVELOPMENT OF DOUBLE CURVATURE BLADE SYSTEM
4.19.1 Importance of Diagonal Impellers
Increase in speed of the impeller reduces the overall dimensions, total weight and the cost of the
pump. The specific speed of the pump n
s
increases. Diameter ratio D
2
/D
1
reduces.
If radial vanes are provided when D
2
/D
1
< 1.6 and specific speed is 150 ≤ n
s
≤ 250, the specific,
load on the vane increases, due to the reduction in the effective vane area. Cavitational property of the
pump also reduces. In order to overcome this, the vane is extended into the impeller eye i.e., vane will be
diagonal at the inlet instead of radial.
S
.
N
o
.
S
r
bC
m
w
δ
2
r
t
Z π
·
s
i
n

β

=
m
C
w
t δ
¸
¸
-

(
¸
,

β
t
a
n

β
B
i

=
1
t
a
n
r
β

S

o
r


r
B

=

1
2
-
-
i
i
B
B

θ

=

B

×


s
θ
i

=
Σ

θ

r
a
d
θ

d
e
g
114 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
If the increase in specific speed is still further, 300 ≥ n
s
≥ 600 the outlet edge of the vane also
becomes diagonal. Each streamline of the vane will have its own configuration, i.e., the vane angles β
1
and β
2
are different from hub to periphery. The vane will be in the twisted form i.e., double curvature.
Due to the change in direction of flow for axial, to diagonal, uniform steady flow no longer exists.
The velocity field considerably changes at the inlet and at outlet. This complicates the pattern of flow.
Existing elemental theory of pumps with average velocity assumption along the circumferential and
along the radial directions cannot be assumed. A simple but considerably accurate scheme has to be
developed. Axisymmetric flow, i.e., flow with infinite number of vanes is commonly adopted for this
type of flow.
Theoretical investigation under axisymmetric flow with infinite number of vanes in meridional
section of flow will be equal velocity construction. This has been suggested by so many authors.
One of the methods of construction for diagonal type of impellers is the assumption of constant
head along all surfaces of revolution where the flow line lies. By applying Kelvin’s theorem, a vortex
free flow i.e., potential flow ω
u
= 0, suggested by Bowersfield is attained in the vane system as a result
of which the circulation along any contour is constant.
4.19.2 A General Solution for the Flow Through the Vane System
Considering general flow conditions, due to the perpendicularity of the normal n
f
to the surface f
and the relative velocity vector

w, the flow on vane surface ‘f ’ in a relative form can be written in the
form,
cos ( , )
f
n w = 0
By applying cosine law between two crossing lines in the cylindrical coordinates (r, θ, z).
cos ( , )
f
n w = cos ( , )
f
n r cos ( , ) w r + cos (
_
,
f
n u ) . cos ( , ) w u + cos ( , )
f
n z . cos ( , ) w z
...(4.56)
Equation (4.56) can be written as
r
f
w
r

-

u
f
w
r

∂θ
+ z
z
f
w


= 0 ...(4.57)
Cosine angle of the normal n
f
to the coordinates is proportional to the partial differential of the
function (r, θ, z) along the corresponding coordinates and cosine angle of the vector wwith the coordinate
is proportional to the corresponding components of the velocity.
Taking into account the relation between absolute and relative velocities.
f
r


C
r
+
f
r

∂θ
(u – C
u
) +
f
z


C
z
= 0 ...(4.58)
The vector Ω of the vorticity is also perpendicular to
f
n , since the surface f is a vortex surface.
Similarly, the condition of perpendicularity f
n
, and Ω can be written as
f
r



r
+
f
r

∂θ

u
+
f
z



z
= 0 ...(4.59)
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 115
Considering an element
__
dS on the surface ‘f ’ which lies tangential to the surface and perpendicular
to n
f
and designating
__
dS components as dr, rdθ and dz, we get
f
r


dr +
f
r

∂θ
rd θ +
f
z


dz = 0 ...(4.60)
From the relativity theory equations 4.56, 4.57, 4.58 can be written in the form
r u z
r u z
dr rd dz
C u C C
θ

Ω Ω Ω
= 0 ...(4.61)
This differential equation expresses the condition for the flow of vanes under vortex free absolute
flow of fluid without any boundary limitations. However, the components of velocities can be determined
only under axisymmetrical relative flow.
4.19.3 Axisymmetric Flow of Fluid
Axisymmetric flow can be conveniently determined in cylindrical coordinates.
Continuity equation in cylindrical coordinates can be obtained, considering the flow through the
surface of elementary volume with dr, rdθ and dz as boundaries. [Fig 4.24 (b)].
If q is the flow through one side:
q
abcd
= ρC
r
rdθ, dz, dt
q
efgh
=
(ρ )
r
r
C
C dr
r
∂ (
ρ -
(

¸ ¸
dθ, dz, dt
Correspondingly:
q
adhe
= ρC
u
drdzdt
q
begf
=
(ρ )
u
u
C
C d
∂ (
ρ - θ
(
∂θ
¸ ¸
dr
u
, dz, dt
and q
aefb
= ρC
Z
rdθ dz dt
q
ehgc
=
( )
Z
Z
Z
C
C
( ∂ ρ
ρ -
(

¸ ¸
rd θ dr dt
The total flow through all sides of the elementary volume will be
dt
n
f
C ρ

df =
( ) ( ( ) ∂ ρ ∂ ρ ∂ ρ (
- -
(
∂ ∂θ ∂
¸ ¸
u r z
C C r C
r
r z
dr dθ dz dt
where C
r
, C
u
, C
z
— the component velocities on the cylindrical coordinates.
C
n
— Projection of velocity along the direction of the normal to the elemental surface df.
116 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Increase in the mass flow inside the given volume is
t
∂ρ

dr, rdθ dz, dt. This equation of balance
is divided on both sides by dr, rdθ dz, dt. Continuity equation in cylindrical coordinates is obtained.
t
∂ρ

+
1
r
( )
r
r C
r
∂ ρ

+
1
r
( )
u
C ∂ ρ
∂θ
+
( )
z
C
Z
∂ ρ

= 0 ...(4.62)
For incompressible flow where ρ = constant
( )
r
r C
r


+
( )
u
r C
r

∂θ
+
( )
z
r C
Z


= 0 ...(4.63)
For axisymmetric flow
( )
u
r C
r

∂θ
= 0
Hence,
( )
r
r C
r


+
( )
z
rC
Z


= 0 ...(4.64)
r
h
r
m
r
0
2
3
4
5
S
i
σ
k
d
σ
1
I
I
2 3 4
I
I
I
I
I
I
5
1
a
b
h
d
c
g
f
j
k
rdθ
dz
(
r
+

d
r
)

d
θ

r
dr
Fig. 4.24. (a) Flow pattern in mixed Fig. 4.24. (b) Elementary section for the determination
flow pumps of continuity equation and vorticity components
in cylindrical co-ordinates system
d
θ
dl
dR
R
r
d
r
t
ds
h
f
R
s
1
s
2
θ
r
dr
Fig. 4.24. (c) Construction of vane section on the flow surface
4.19.4 Flow Line and Vortex Line in Axisymmetric Flow
The flow function ψ in axisymmetric flow will be
rC
r
=
Z
∂ ψ

; – r C
z
=
r
∂ ψ

...(4.65)
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 117
From equations (4.64) and (4.65), we get
2
r Z
∂ ψ
∂ ∂
=
2
Z r
∂ ψ
∂ ∂
The streamline equation for a two dimensional flow will be
r
dr
C
=
z
dz
C
or C
r
dz – C
z
dr = 0 ...(4.66)
from which rC
r
d
Z
– r C
Z
dr =
zdz
∂ψ

+
r
∂ψ

dr = dψ = 0
This means that ψ function is constant along flow line. The streamline in meridional section
corresponds to the flow surface in space.
The components of vorticity Ω of absolute velocity in cylindrical coordinate can be determined
from the circulation along the contour of the elemental volume considered above.

r
= rot
r
C =
u z
C C
r z
∂ ∂

∂θ ∂

u
= rot
u
C =
r z
C C
z r
∂ ∂

∂ ∂

z
= rot
z
C =
( )
u r
rC C
r r r
∂ ∂

∂ ∂θ
...(4.67)
For axisymmetric flow

r
=

( )
u u
C C r
z r z
∂ ∂
· −
∂ ∂

u
=
r z
C C
z r
∂ ∂
· −
∂ ∂

z
=
u
C r
r r


...(4.68)
The meridional component of the vector

m
=
r
Ω +
z
Ω ...(4.69)
The equation of vortex line Ω
m
is
r
dr

=
z
dz

or
z
Ω dr –
r
Ω dz = 0 ...(4.70)
From equations 4.68 and 4.70, we get

z
dr – Ω
r
dz =
( )
u
r C
r r


dr =
( )
u
r C
r z


dz =
1
r
d ( rC
u
) = 0
From which we get that vortex line coincides with the line r C
u
= constant
118 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
4.19.5 Differential Equation for the Cross-section of Vane with the Flow Surface
The vane surface f is determined by crossing points of line 1 with the surface S. The relative
velocity is tangential to both vane surface f and flow surface S. Hence, it is directed along the line of
crossing of those two lines which represents flow line. [Fig. 4.24 (c)].
Let us construct a conical surface tangential to the flow surface S, such that it contains an element
ds. The differential equation of flow line 1 on the surface S [Fig. 4.24 (c)] can be represented in the form
of
m
ds
w
=
θ
u
Rd
w
...(4.71)
where R and θ are the corresponding radius and angle along the spreaded cone surface.
Transferring from relative velocity to absolute velocity, we get
ds
Rdθ
=
m
u
w
w
=
m
u
C
u C −
...(4.72)
From the figure 4.24 (c), we get
Rdθ = rdθ
Since the elemental circumferential line in conical surface and in plan are equal.
Equation 4.71 can now be written as
tan β =
ds
Rdθ
=
ds
rdθ
=
n
u
C
u C −
...(4.73)
which is the differential equation of line crossing the vane on the flow surface S. The above function can
be rewritten as
ds =
2
2
ω −
n
u
r C
r C r
= dθ ...(4.74)
4.19.6 Construction of Vane Surface when Ω ΩΩ ΩΩ
u
= 0
The simplest construction of vane surface is obtained when we consider Ω
u
= 0 which means the
increase in energy of flow in impeller is proportional to change in the moment C
u
r , and Ω
u
is independent.

u
=
r
C
z



z
C
r


= 0 ...(4.75)
Potential function Φ of the meridional velocity C
m
C
z
=
r
∂ Φ

and C
r
=
Z
∂ Φ

...(4.76)
Considering both, we get
2
r Z
∂ Φ
∂ ∂
=
2
Z r
∂ Φ
∂ ∂
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 119
The equipotential lines (Φ = constant) are determined as
dΦ =
r
∂ Φ

dr +
Z
∂ Φ

dz = C
r
dr + C
z
dz = 0
or
z
dr
C
=
r
dz
C
...(4.77)
a
b
c
d
e
1
.
5 2
.
0 2
.5
3
.
0
3
.
5 4.5
4
.0
5.0
w m/sec
2 C
m

w(s)
a
b c d
e
v
1
m
a
b d
c
e
40 80 120 160 160 200 240 280 320360400
0
2,0
4,0
6,0
8,0
10,0
12,0
(a) (b)
s
mm
Fig. 4.25. Potential flow pattern in vane passage and the velocity distribution along the streamline
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2 1
0 0 1 2 3
4
5
6
7
8
9
a
b
c
d
e
Fig. 4.26. Vane construction under Ω ΩΩ ΩΩ
u
= 0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
a
b
d
e
c
6
5
n
l

a
σ*
a
δ σ ( )
II
II
II
II
F
σ* ∆
b
σ* σ* ∆
c

d
b c d e
(a) (b)
Fig. 4.27. (a) Graph f (σ σσ σσ) (b) Construction of ‘s’ lines and s lines for equal velocity flow
120 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

u
= 0 construction is theoretically based. Practical results coincide, if the meridional flow pattern
is uniform. If flow separation prevails, this condition cannot be obtained.
Uniform flow can be obtained if radius of curvature is large in meridional section, which at the
same time increases the size of impeller in axial direction.
TABLE 4.5: For the calculation of flow line under equal velocity flow
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
i
k r
∆σ
r
a
v
=

r
i

+


σ
2


σ
F

=


r
a
v
F

=

Σ

F
1
i
σ
Σ


σ

=


σ
*
δ

σ

σ

σ

(
)

=















*
δ

σ
(
)

σ
1
0
0
σ
*
a
1
2
3
4
5
4.19.7 Construction of Vane Under Equal Velocity Construction
Since potential flow does not agree, especially for pumps, another method, what is called, equal
velocity distribution is adopted. This construction for pump is an extension of the method used for radial
impellers. This is based on the principle that the calculation for each streamline is based on the equal
meridional velocity C
m
in the impeller passage, under the known value of H

. Due to inadequate theoretical
background it is more or less done based on experimental results-obtained from best impellers. Using
trial and error method, for the given C
m
, the flow line S is determined as first approximation. For this the
entrance area to exit area f is divided into a number of equal areas. By eye judgement the position of S
and equipotential line σ
x
at the intermediate places are located [Fig. 4.27 (b)].
The flow through σ
x
is equal to
Q
1
=
1
n
mx
C

2 π rdσ = 2 πC
mx

1
n
rdσ

...(4.78)
Since C
m
is constant along σ
x
the velocity in the section σ
x
is equal to
C
mx
=
1
2
0
1
2
n
Q
r rd π σ

...(4.79)
where, r =
0
R
r
and

=
0
d
r
σ
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 121
The ratio C
mx


to C
0
is given by


mx
C
=
0
mx
C
C
=
2
1
1
2
hub
n
r
rd

σ

=
2
1
2
h
r
F

...(4.80)
The values F =
1
n
rdσ
∫ is determined by integration (Table 4.5).
As per the table, F (σ) is constructed [Fig.4.27 (a)] and then this value F is divided into (n – 1)
equal parts, which is equal to n flow lines. The value ∆σ* is determined by second approximation and
on it the new position of flow line in section σ is established along which the first approximation flow
line S for the entire surface is constructed [Fig. 4.27 (a)].
The second approximation of flow line S is determined by constructing all σ lines. For that the
flow line k = 1 is divided into m – 1 equal parts corresponding to the assumed m σ lines [Fig. 4.27 (b)].
Then σ lines are constructed and the table is developed. The positions of flow lines ‘S’ and fr lines to S
are now corrected. The same is continued for third time. The lines fr to σ are equal velocity lines
[Fig. 4.27 (b)].
4.19.8 Construction of Vane Surface Under Equal Velocity Flow for the
Given w(s)
From the calculation of vane surface under equal velocity constructions, the change in w = f (S) is
determined. Each vane section (flow lines) is calculated separately. These are common for all these
lines and is the head H

. The vane surface at the entrance is formed as twisted in order to provide
shockless entry for some discharge Q
δ
= 0 = m Q′ at all entrance edges. The coefficient m is determined
from the angle δ; selected along one flow line, usually the leading edge.
The shockless entry for the leading edge (marked K =1) is determined as
tan β
110
=
11 11
11
m
K C
u
...(4.81)
K
1
— correction coefficient for vane thickness
u
1
— peripheral velocity
Taking angle of attack δ
1
, for the first line, we get
β
11
= β
110
+ δ
1
and tan β
11
=
11 1 δ = 0
11
( ) ′
m
K C
u
...(4.82)
where (C

m1
)
δ = 0
is the meridional velocity corresponding to shockless entry at the inlet edge.
The ratio
1 δ 0
1
( )
·


m
m
C
C
=
11
110
tan
tan
β
β
=
0
(δ )
δ·

′ Q
= m
0
122 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
which is constant for twisted surface at entrance. The entrance angle β
1K
for all entrance edges lying in
a flow s
k
is determined by
tan β
1K
= m tan β
1K
, 0. ...(4.83)
, m K
C
=
,
0
m k
C
u

,
1k
u =
1
0
k
u
u
=
1
0
ω
ω
k
r
r
=
1k
r
tan β
1h
= m K
1k
1
1
m k
k
C
r
...(4.84)
C
m1k
is determined from the equal velocity construction. If entrance edge lies on the orthogonal
line then it is constant along the entrance edge.
P
1
= 2 πr
1k
tan β
1k
...(4.85)
The entrance edge location is based on specific speed and experience and then subsequently
corrected.
The calculation β
1K
+ w
1n
along flow lines are carried is a tabular form (Table 4.6). The value K
1
is assumed, corrected and then w
1K
is determined. The exit edge is usually parallel to axis. If inclined,
the same procedure is followed for outlet edge also.
TABLE 4.6: Method of calculation for vane entrance
K S r
1

1
γ
1
v
*
m
1
K
k
1
,
t
a
n

β
1
0
,
k
m
t
a
n


=
β
1
,
0
,
k
1
,
k

K
v
*
m
,
k

ξ
k

=


k
c
o
s

γ
k
t
k



s
k
s
i
n
/
p
k
K
*
1
k
w
1
k
K
v
1
1
k
m
K

s
i
n

β
1
k
=
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
s
i
n

β
1
k
c
o
s

γ
k

β
s

/

s
i
n

1
k
t
k

=

2
p
r
k
z
β
1
k
t
a
n


=
β
1
,
k
m

t
a
n

β
1
0
k
W

1n
=
0
in
u
ω
= K
1k

1
1
sin
m n
k
C
β
...(4.86)
w
1n
=
1
0
n
w
u
·
1
1
sinβ
m n
k
C
w
2k
· K
2k
2
2
sin
m K
K
C
β
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 123
2
1
K
k

ω
ω
is usually selected as 1 to 0.75
sin β
2k
·
1
2 ∞
k
k
w
w
,
2
1
k
k
K
K
,
1
m
m
C
C
γ
sin β
1k
...(4.87)
H

·
2
0
2gH
u

...(4.88)
from which
2
0
u
u
=
2
2 2
2
0 2 0 2 0
1 1
2tanβ 2tanβ
m m
C C gH
u u u
¸ ¸ ∞
⋅ - -
(
¸ ,
from which
2
r =
2 2
2
2tan
m
K C
β
+
2
2
2
2tan 2
γ

¸ ¸
- (
(
β
¸ ,
m
K C
H
...(4.89)
Similarly, for other sections; for constant values of H

and for the assumed value of
2
r
the
values
2 2
2
tan
m
K C
β
from equations 4.89 is found out from which β
2K
is calculated.
tan β
2K
= tan β
2
2 2
2 2
k m k
m
K C
K C
...(4.90)
Calculation is done in a tabular form (Table 4.7). The coefficient K
2k
is assumed suitably.
The construction of vane is carried out as per the pattern of change of w(S) along the flow line S.
The procedure of w(S) is obtained as per the relative velocity at entrance (Table 4.6) and at exit
(Table 4.7) such that change of w along (S) is uniform. The presence of maximum and minimum velocity
at intermediate points indicate the losses due to conversion of kinetic energy to pressure.
TABLE 4.7: Method of calculation for vane exit
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
K
S
2
r
2

2
γ
2
t
a
n

K
2
m
*
2
t
a
n

β
2
c
o
s

β
s
i
n

β
2
c
o
s

γ

S
t
k
2

π
r
k
z
=

S
s
i
n

β
2
k
t

k


S
s
i
n

β
2
k
K
*
2
k
w
2
k

=

K
*

2
k
v
m
k
2
s
i
n

β
2
1
2
4
R
O
T
O
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C

P
U
M
P
S

(
C
E
N
T
R
I
F
U
G
A
L

A
N
D

A
X
I
A
L
)
TABLE 4.8: Method of vane surface for the given value of ( ) ws
Note : 1. Circles are indicated the N of tabular column.
While calculating, put the exact values.
2. (21) to (22) are for conformal transformation.
2
l S
1
r
1
v
m1
w
∞1
m-2
m-1
m
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
l
u

l
u
=

Σ




θ
l
u
r

=


a
v
r
a
v

=

r
r
1
1

+

θ
2

Σ

θ

=

B

=

1
r

t
a
n

β
t
a
n

β
β

θ

=

1
8

1
7
s
i
n


6

+

1
2
β

s
t

/



s
c
o
s

γ
γ
D
v
m
*
w

w

v
m
*
r
S
B
a
v

s
t
l
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 125
The calculation of vane as per w(s) is carried out in the tabular form normally adopted for radial
vanes, corresponding to the methods explained above, or in the form Table 4.8 (in non-dimensional
form).
The calculation is carried out from arbitrarily selected exist edge, to the inlet edge, which is
obtained from the calculation. The pattern of change of w(s) and the thickness ∆(s) is obtained such that
the position of entrance edge of the vane lies at the desired level and also not so much deviated in the
value of central angle θ
lk
(which is shown in the plan). The change of θ
lk
from the leading edge to the
trailing edge must also be uniform, to ensure the uniform surface. The change of vane thickness ∆ (s) for
all streamlines must be agreed upon correspondingly so as to get uniform change at the meridional
section.
4.19.9 Conformal Transformation of Vane Surface
The obtained form of vane with streamlines and thickness is constructed in plane surface by
conformal transformation (Fig. 4.28). In conformal transformation the angle of inclination of vane β is
kept constant and is used for construction.
Since tan β =
θ
ds
rd
=
u
ds
dl
= 0
where dl
u
is the projection of elemental length dl along the direction tangential to ‘u’ i.e., dl
u
= rdθ
The relation between r and θ is obtained from Table 4.8. Taking step integration method, we can
write
l
u10
=
1
1
2
i m
i i
i
r r
·
-
·
-

δθ.
h
1 2 3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
12 3 4
5 6
7
δ a
1
a
2
r
1
p
1
γ

s
s
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
12 14 11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
123 4 5 6 7
∆ θ s . r d

θ
∆s
rdθ

z

kz
∆θ ·
r
Fig. 4.28. Conformal transformation of vane surface
Which is carried out in a tabular form (Table 4.8), column 21, 22, 23. As per the values S, ∆
u
the conformal transformation in plan is constructed.
126 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
The interdisplacement of streamlines is carried out based on the experience. The most advantageous
are: (1) The entrance edge at plan must be radial or slightly inclined (point of entrance edge of leading
edge) by an angle of 10–15° toward the opposite side of rotation of impeller. (2) The exit edge is parallel
to axis or the lag. The edge point of the impeller may be inclined towards the direction of rotation.
Two methods are adopted for mixed flow pump design. The first rather old method is one in
which the vane inlet and outlet edges are developed on a cone as a plane cylindrical vane and then
transferred to the plan view from which patterns are made.
In the second developed by Kaplan and called as ‘error triangles method’ the vane is developed
with true angularity, length and thickness. The flow lines are then replotted in plan view. The second
method will be discussed in detail here. In order to layout the vane in plan and in meridional section it is
necessary to have the following quantities:
(a) Meridional velocities at inlet and at outlet i.e., C
m1
and C
m2
respectively.
(b) The impeller outer diameter D
2
or peripheral velocity u
2
.
(c) Vane angles at inlet and at outlet i.e., β
1
and β
2
respectively.
The following points are most useful:
1. The vane can be extended with the impeller eye which will (a), improve the overall efficiency
of the pump since overlap is more (b), reduces the outer diameter and (c), less shock and disc
friction losses.
2. The profile in meridional section will be drawn for uniform change over from C
m1
to C
m2
.
3. The flow lines a
1
, a
2
represent the true radial sections of the flow lines, which should be
gradual to avoid sharp corners.
4. Number of flow lines selection depend purely on experience. These are selected based on
equal area construction. Further, it is assumed that the meridional velocity is constant along the
normal and is equal to the average velocity. Naturally the velocities at inlet and at outlet edges
are same provided they lie along the normal. Usually normals are draw first by eye and then
these are divided into parts based on the law. 2πr
1
b
1
= 2πr
2
b
2
.
4.19.10 The Method of Error Triangles
Any flow line shown in a perspective view can be conveniently divided into number of parallel
planes. The curve C
1
, C
2
with the parallel circles, a number of meridional planes can be divided into a
number of sections f
1
, f
2
....The intersection of the planes with the surface of the shroud will form a
number of parallel circles. Through the points of intersection of the curve C
1
, C
2
be drawn which will
section the shroud surface along the curved lines at g
1
, g
2
.... These lines together with the section of
parallel circles h
1
, h
2
.... and the curve C
1
, C
2
form a number of curved triangle. The accuracy of the line
C
1
, C
2
will be more if greater number of sections are taken.
On elevation the lines C
1
, C
2
will appear as shown in Fig. 4.29 (b), whereas in plan the same
line will appear as shown in Fig. 4.29 (d). The true representation of the lines C
1
, C
2
is given by
Fig. 4.29 (c). Where in all the curved triangles are transferred to a plane such that h
1
, h
2
.... of the parallel
circles form horizontal parallel lines and the sections g
1
, g
2
..... of the curved vertical lines will become
flat vertical lines. The following procedure is adopted for the impeller vane lay out by error triangle
method.
1. The meridional section (elevation) of the impeller passage is drawn [Fig. 4.30 (b)].
2. Different streamlines are constructed based upon the methods indicated.
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 127
3. The vane development on the plane [Fig. 4.30 (b)] is drawn which corresponds to the exact
vane angle at inlet and at outlet and vane length. Vane thickness is also added. The selection of
vane thickness depends upon the moulding facility available. For normal conditions it is assumed
as 5 to 6 mm.
In order to draw vane development, flow line (a
1
, a
2
or b
1
, b
2
or c
1
, c
2
) is divided into a
preferably a number of equal parts such as 1
a
, 2
a
, 3
a
. The parallel lines g
1
, g
2
..... are drawn the
distances between them corresponds to the distance between 1
a
, 2
a
, .... 1
b
, 2
b
...,1
c
2
c
....
It is always better to draw vane sections of several flow lines in this relative positions. This will
enable us to determine the inlet edge of the vane.
4. The vane sections are now transferred from the vane development to the plan view.
[Fig. 4.30 (c)]. In the plan view an arbitrary point is selected. The arcs of the parallel circles are
drawn with the radii taken from the elevation 1
a
, 2
a
...
The displacement of one point with respect to the other is taken from the vane development
(h
1
, h
2
...). By joining the points with a smooth curved line the plan projection of the flow line
is obtained. Usually leading edge is taken for the vane development. In order to get the trailing
edge, vane thickness is measured in the plane vane development along the parallel circles at
the required point and laid out at the corresponding points along the circumference. The line
joining all these points will give us the trailing edge. Same procedure is to be followed for
other streamlines also.
5. The next procedure is to draw pattern section for the construction of which the flow lines on
the elevation and plan view are taken as preliminary guidelines. Since these lines are not sufficient
enough to prepare vane pattern sections a second set of construction lines are constructed.
A number of equispaced lines are drawn in the elevation view as indicated in Fig. 4.30 (d) i.e.,
A, B, C, D... The intersection of these lines with meridional streamlines are transferred to the
plan view.
Line joining these transferred point must be smooth, on the plan view. If these lines do not
form smooth, and uniformly spaced, it is an indication that the change in the angularity on the
vane development was too abrupt in any of the flow lines.
The second set of construction lines can also be drawn starting from the plan view. This is done
by drawing different radial lines I, II ... [Fig. 4.30 (e)] and then transferring them to elevation.
Here also the line joining the intersecting points must be smooth. However, the first method is
more advantageous since the second set of construction lines can be taken for pattern making.
6. The next procedure is to get vane pattern sections for which the contour lines on the plan view
are taken. Wooden boards of thickness A, B, C, D .... are cut to the shape along the corresponding
contour lines and then stacked one over the other in the proper order. We get the resulting vane
pattern section in steps [Fig. 4.30 ( f )]. These steps are now filled with wax to get a smooth
surface leading edges. Similarly, the same procedure is adopted for trailing edge also.
7. The best form of impeller channel will be one where in the vane makes 90° with the channel.
This channel form can be improved by moving the flow lines on the plan view [Fig. 4.30 (e)]
through a certain angle.
128 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
h
1
h
2
h
3
h
4
h
5
r
1
r
4
h
6
r
6
r
7
h
1
h
2
h
3
h
4
h
5
h
6
c
1
f
1
f
2
f
3
f
4
f
5
f
6
c
2
g
1
g
2
g
3
g
4
g
5
g
6
h
6
c
2
c
1
f
1
f
2
f
3
f
4
f
5
f
6
(a)
(b)
(c) (d)
g
1
r
1
r
2
r
3
r
4
r
5
r
6
r
7
s
2
g
6
g
5
g
4
g
3
g
2
g
1
C
1
g
2
g
3
g
4
g
5
g
6
h
1
h
2
h
4
h
5
Fig. 4.29. Impeller flow line development on a plane
c
2
g
1
g
2
g
3
3
c
4
c
5
c
6
c
7
c
8
c
9
c
10
c
11
c
c
1
b
1 10
b
1
b
2
b
3
b
4
b
5
b
6
b
7
b
8
b
1
a
2
a
3
a
4
a
5
a
6
a
7
a
8
a
r
1a
r
2a
r
3a
r
4a
r
5a
9
b
h
1
h
2
g
1
h
3
g
2
h
4
g
3
h
5
h
6
h
7
h
8
a
1
b
1
c
1
a b c
2 2 2 s
u
s
u1
s
u2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
c
1
b
1
a
1
g
3
h
3 g
2
g
1 h
2
h
1
s
u
D
2
r
1a
r
2a
H G F E D C B A
VIII
VII VI
V
IV
III
II
I
a
2
b
2
c
2
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
C
1
(a) (b)
(c) (d)
b
1
a
1
a
2
b
2
1
c
2
c
a
1
s
u2
γ′ 4a γ
4a
γ′3a
γ
3a
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 129
I
II
III
IV
I
II
V
III VI
VII
VIII
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
C
D
E
F
G
c
1
B
G
F
E A
B
C
D
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
E– D
F–G
G – H
F – E
B – C
a
1
a
2
C.D.
(e) (f)
Fig. 4.30. (a) to (f) Mixed flow impeller profile and plane vane development
5
SPIRAL CASINGS (VOLUTE CASINGS)
5.1 IMPORTANCE OF SPIRAL CASINGS
Spiral or volute casing is an approach or suction channel kept before the impeller inlet as well as
a delivery channel kept after impeller outlet. The channel passage may be in the form of vaneless spiral
casing or in the form of vaned or vaneless divergent passage called diffuser or return guide passage.
Design of casing or diffuser must ensure the following:
1. Axisymmetric and equal velocity distribution of flow must always be ensured, since at optimum
conditions, the flow in impeller is axisymmetric. Hydraulic efficiency is also higher.
2. Must uniformly and efficiently convert kinetic energy coming out from the impeller outlet into
useful pressure energy.
3. Momentum at the outlet of impeller must be completely converted in volute casing and
momentum at the casing outlet should be zero.
Fig. 5.1 depicts different forms of casings adopted in pumps. Normally about 25% of kinetic
energy is converted into pressure energy in casings.
Diffuser
with
blades
Return
guide
vanes
Concentric passage
with diffuser
blades
Volute or
spiral casing
Discharge
cone
(a) Volute (b) Diffuser (c) Concentric with diffuser blades
Fig. 5.1. Different forms of casings
Comp-1/Newage/Pump-5.pm6.5—21.5.07 24.11.07
130
SPIRAL CASINGS (VOLUTE CASINGS) 131
Impeller
Diffuser
Casing
Fig. 5.2. Diffuser pump
5.2 VOLUTE CASING AT THE OUTLET OF THE IMPELLER
Dynamic head available at the outlet of the impeller can be expressed as
H
dy
= (1 – ρ) H
m
=
2
2
2
m
gH
u
...(5.1)
If the coefficient of reaction ρ is high, the kinetic energy will be higher at outlet of the impeller.
The casing must be properly designed to convert this high kinetic energy into useful pressure energy.
Volute casings at outlet are of two types:
(1) Spiral shaped, vaneless form of casing and
(2) Diffuser type vaned system of casing.
ρ ρ
ρ
b
3
α
α
α
R
3
(a) Circular (b) Circular
α = 180° α = 35°to 45°
(c) Trapezoidal
b
3
b
3
Fig. 5.3. Shapes of volute cross-sections
Technical and constructional features are different for each type of casing.
Spiral casing at outlet consists of spiral shaped channel 02′4′68 followed by a diffuser passage 8–
9 (Fig. 5.4). The spiral portion connects the impeller outlet to the diffuser 8–9 under axisymmetric flow.
It not only collects the fluid coming out around the circumference of the impeller but also converts
about 75% of kinetic energy into pressure energy. The remaining 25% of kinetic energy is converted at
the diffuser. Casing plays a major role in improving hydraulic and overall efficiencies.
Lateral cross-section of the casing passage will be either trapezoidal or circular (Fig. 5.3) connected
by two tangents, with an angle of divergence at the inlet α approximately = 35° to 45°. Spiral form of
volute cross-section gradually increases along the flow direction due to gradual increase in flow.
132 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Experimental investigation shows that trapezoidal cross-section gives higher hydraulic efficiency than
circular cross-section at higher specific speeds and vice versa at lower specific speeds. Experiments
indicate that spiral casing gives higher efficiency than diffusers at all partial flow conditions either
lower or higher than optimum conditions. But, at optimum condition, diffuser gives higher efficiency
than spiral casing. Spiral casing design is adopted for variable flow operations, whereas diffuser design
is adopted for fixed optimum flow conditions of operation. Spiral casings are used for single impeller
design whereas diffusers are used for multistage pumps to reduce pump weight.
5.3 METHOD OF CALCULATION FOR SPIRAL CASING
Total energy remains constant after the impeller and also when flow passes through casing or
diffuser. Two methods are adopted for volute design i.e.,
(1) the velocity of flow C
u
changes according to free vortex pattern when passing through casing
i.e., C
u
r = constant. The flow is assumed to be axisymmetric and ideal and
(2) constant velocity, C
u
= constant, in the spiral casing.
In practice it is found that constant velocity design gives higher efficiency than free vortex
design for pumps and vice versa for hydraulic turbines, due to increase in area of flow.
Considering an element 1234 of the fluid, with a mass ∆m moving in the spiral passage (Fig. 5.4),
external forces acting on the mass are : (a) tangential force ‘P
Au
’ and (b) normal force ‘P
An
’ developed
due to hydrodynamic pressure. In ideal fluid, the tangential force inside the fluid friction is equal to zero
i.e., ± P
Au
= 0. The normal force ‘P
An
’ acting on surfaces 1–3 and 2–4, due to symmetry in pressure
under axisymmetric flow condition is P
An
1–3 and P
An
2–4. Moment of these forces, with respect to
point ‘O’ are equal and opposite. The direction of the forces acting in the surfaces 1–2 and 3–4 pass
through the point O and hence moment of these forces about point ‘O’ is zero. Thus the moment of all
surface forces acting on the elementary volume of fluid in the spiral casing is zero i.e., ± ∆M
z
= 0. Thus
the moment of momentum remains constant in the elementary fluid i.e.,
∆M
z
=
( )
u
d mrC
dt

= 0
or ∆mr C
u
= Constant
or C
u
R = C
u3
R
3
= C
u2
R
2
= Constant ...(5.2)
For normal entry at pump inlet, C
u1
= 0 and H
m
=
u
C u
g
=
C u
g
u2 2
C
u
R = C
u2
R
2
=
m
gH
ω
=
2
B
Γ
π
where Γ
B
= 2πR
2
C
u2
and is constant throughout spiral passage of the casing. With the increase in radius
‘R’ in spiral passage the tangential velocity decreases, correspondingly the pressure energy increases.
The flow rate gradually increases and proportional to the volute angle θ (Fig.5.4). Since there is
no flow perpendicular to the spiral section under steady flow condition, applying continuity equation,
total mass flow at any section will be
W
g
=
1 1
...
K
n n n n
S f S f
C dA C dA C dA C dA ρ = ρ + ρ + + ρ
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
= 0
SPIRAL CASINGS (VOLUTE CASINGS) 133
Mass flow through the section between volute angle θ
1
and θ
2
will be

1
W
g
=
1
n
A
C dA ρ

and
2
W
g
=
2
n
A
C dA ρ

Under axisymmetric flow the velocity C
n
= C
r3
at the surface ‘A
3
’ the flow will be

3
n
A
C dA ρ

= – ρ C
r3
b
3
R
3

2
– θ
1
)
and W
θ2
– W
θ1
= ρ
g
C
r3
b
3
R
3

2
– θ
1
) =
2
2
W
π
π

2
– θ
1
)
where W

= ρg C
r3
b
3
2πR
3
which is the total flow of the pump at entrance to the spiral channel. Taking
θ = 0 at the tongue of the volute section.
θ
1
θ
2
R
3
R
2
C
u2
p
2
p
c
u
6
d
r
3
4
2
d
θ
0
4′
f
k
A2
2′
0
8
9
b
3
R
3
R

R
b
3
b
r
d
r
1
α
A1
R
2
R
3
∆R
Fig. 5.4. Scheme for spiral casing at outlet
θ
1
= 0 and W
θ1
= 0
W
θ
= W

2
θ
π
or Q
θ
= Q

×
360
θ°
°
...(5.3)
Flow, thus, increases along the spiral passage in proportion to the angle of the volute ‘θ’, referred
with respect to the initial tongue.
Flow across the elementary area ‘dA = bdR’ will be
dθ = bdR C
u
= bdR
2
Γ
π
B
R
...(5.4)
Integrating within the limits R
3
– r
Q =
2
B
Γ
π
3

r
R
b
R
dr ...(5.5)
Integration is carried out by step by step method in tabulation form (Table 5.1). The function
B
i
=
i
i
b
r
. Elementary flow rate through the area dA = b∆r is determined as
134 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
∆ Q
i
=
2
B
Γ
π

( 1)
2
i i
B B
+
+
∆R
i
and total quantity of flow Q is determined as
Q =
2
B
Γ
π

( 1)
1
2
i n
i i
i
B B
=
+
=
+
∑ ∆R
i
...(5.6)
5.4 DESIGN OF SPIRAL CASING WITH C
u
r = CONSTANT AND TRAPEZOIDAL
CROSS-SECTION
Flow from the impeller enters the circumferencial section of volute having a radius R
3
, which is
determined as
R
3
= (1.03 to 1.05) R
2
...(5.7)
in order to get uniform flow across the section at R
3
, since, uneven flow velocity and quantity exists at
radius R
2
i.e., at impeller exit, due to finite number of impeller blades.
Breadth b
3
at the entrance of the spiral section at the radius R
3
is taken as
b
3
= b
2
+ (0.04 to 0.05) D
2
...(5.8)
in order to take care of disc friction losses and trouble free running of pump. Fluid leaves the impeller
at radius R
2
with an absolute velocity C
3
and at an angle α
3
. Corresponding velocity at the entry into
spiral casing at radius R
3
is determined as
C
3
R
2
= C
4
R
3
Taking volute cross section divergent angle ‘α
V
’ as 35° to 45° and breadth ‘b
3
’ as per the equation
5.8 and since these values are constant at all circumferencial portions, (Fig. 5.5) construction of trapezoidal
cross-section under C
3
R = constant and the quantity of flow Q at any section is determined from equation
(5.6). Calculations are carried out in tabular form (Table 5.1).
b
360
b
i

R
R
3
R
1
3
5
°
b = b
3 4
α
3
4
Tongue R = R + R
4 3

Q
360°
Q
315°
Q
225°
Q
45°
Q
135°
Q
i
Q
r
i

r
R
3
R
4
α
b = b
3 4
b
θ
h′
θ
Q
360°
A =A
b a
∆Q
(old)
(new)
Fig. 5.5. Volute construction for trapezoidal cross-section and free vortex
design, C
u
r constant and also for C
v
= constant
SPIRAL CASINGS (VOLUTE CASINGS) 135
TABLE 5.1: Calculation of volute section—Trapezoidal cross-section and C
u
R =constant
(Free vortex design)
S. No. R b B =
b
R
∆ ∆∆ ∆∆R
i i +1
B +B
2
∆ ∆∆ ∆∆Q
i
= ( ) ( )
B
×6 ×5

Q
i
=∑∆ ∑∆ ∑∆ ∑∆ ∑∆Q
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 0
2
Referring the table 5.1, A graph r = f (Q) (Fig. 5.5) is drawn. X-axis i.e. the value Q is now
divided into definite number of equal parts normally 8 equal sections such as Q
45°
, Q
90°
, Q
135°
, Q
180°
,
Q
225°
, Q
270°
, Q
315°
, Q
360°
. Projecting these points upwards to meet the R = f (Q) curve and then drawing
horizontal lines from these meeting point to y-axis i.e., ‘R’ axis, the radius at which corresponding
quantity of flow through the trapezoidal cross-section can be determined. By projecting these horizontal
lines futher to meet the trapezoidal cross-section gives the corresponding areas for the corresponding
quantity Q
θ
.
Final section for Q
360°
. Starts at R
4
= R
3
+ ∆
t
, where ∆
t
is the volute tongue thickness. Normally

t
= 2 to 3 mm. Due to this, the quantity of flow at the last section Q
360
will be higher than the normal
Q
360
taken as per the graph r = f (Q). This is represented in the Fig. 5.5 Q
360
(new) = Q
360
(old) + ∆Q at
tongue.
In some of the volute designs the tongue starts after some angle θ from initial position of θ = 0.
This is due to the fact that huge noise and subsequent vibration takes place due to the fluid passing
through the gap between the impeller outlet diameter and volute starting point at θ = 0 at high velocity
since this gap acts as nozzle. To avoid this, volute tongue starts a little away from the point θ = 0.
Normally this

value will be θ
t
= 17° to 21°. The contour of the trapezoidal cross-section obtained will
have sharp corners which increases the hydraulic losses. Also, flow does not exists at the corner point.
In order to reduce hydraulic losses and ensure flow through entire area of trapezoidal cross-section, the
sharp edged corners are rounded off in such a way that the area added at the middle ‘A
b
’ will be equal to
the area reduced due to rounding off at the corners ‘A
a

A
a
C
ua
= A
b
C
ub
, A
a
2
b
a
r
Γ
π
= A
b
2
b
b
r
Γ
π
hence,
a
b
A
A
=
a
b
r
r
where R
a
and R
b
are the radius of centre of gravity of areas A
a
and A
b
.
5.5 CALCULATION OF TRAPEZOIDAL VOLUTE CROSS-SECTION UNDER
CONSTANT VELOCITY OF FLOW C
V
= CONSTANT (CONSTANT
VELOCITY DESIGN)
Constant velocity of flow through all volute sections C
V
is determined as C
V
R = C
u2
R
2
, where R is
the radius of the centre of gravity of the last volute cross-section.
136 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Area of the last volute section will be
A
360°
=
V
Q
C
Area of any volute cross-section at angle θ from the tongue will be
A
θ
= A
360°
360
θ°
°
Construction of volute section will be same as that mentioned in the previous section.
The velocity C
V
can be determined by the law of similarity as C
V
= Φ
V
2gH .

The value Φ
V
can
be determined from the graph, Φ
V
= f (n
S
), (Figs. 5.6, 5.7, 5.8). These values are determined based on
the experimental results by different authors. |4|, |12|
Considering the trepezoidal cross-section (Fig. 5.4)
Area A
θ
=
1
2
h
θ
(b
θ
+ b
3
). Angle α can be selected as α = 35° to 45° in order to avoid flow
separation due to divergence. Selecting the value α.
( )
θ
θ

3
2
b b
h
= tan
α
2
or b
θ
=
F
H
G2 h
θ
tan
α
2
+ b
3
I
K
J
A
θ
=
1
2
h
θ
(b
θ
+ b
3
) =
1
2
h
θ

F
H
G2 h
θ
tan
α
2
+ b
3
+ b
3
I
K
J
=
F
H
G h
θ
2
tan
α
2
+ h
θ
b
3

I
K
J = h
θ
F
H
G h
θ

tan
α
2
+ b
3
I
K
J
.
Q
θ
= C
V
× A
θ
= h
θ

F
H
Gh
θ

tan
α
2
+ b
3

I
K
J × φ 2gH ...(5.9)
By selecting h
θ

from minimum to maximum up to the value Q
360
, a graph h
θ
= f (Q
θ

) can be drawn
similar to Fig. 5.5. From this graph Q
θ

for Q

= 45°, ....... 360° can be determined for different values of
h
θ
. As a check the values a
q

= f (Q
θ

) can also be drawn and checked with the constructed values. The
construction of trapezoidal cross-section for C
V

= Constant is same as for C
u
r = constant. (Same as Fig.
5.5). Entire calculations can be brought out in a tabular form (Table 5.2)
TABLE 5.2: Calculation for area and flow rate under C
V

= constant and trapezoidal cross-section
C
V

=φ φφ φφ
V
2gH = α αα αα =° b
3
=mm.
S.No. h
θ θθ θθ

mm A
θ

=h
θ

F
H
G
h
θ

tan
α
2
+b
3
I
K
J
Q
θ

=A
θ

×C
V
a
θ

=2h
θ

tan
α
2
+b
3
5
10
15
up to a value until For check up
Q
θ

> Q
360

= Q total
SPIRAL CASINGS (VOLUTE CASINGS) 137
TABLE 5.3: Calculation of flow rate at different θ θ θ θ θ values
(C
V
= const., trapezoidal cross-section)
S.No. θ θθ θθ Q
θ
0 0
45° to 360° at constant Q = Q
360
interval
The height of the last trapezoidal section is determined as
h
360
= (K
p
×

r
2
) – r
3
. where K
p
is an experimental coefficient given in Fig. 5.5.
The value of K
p
given are for double suction pumps. For single suction pumps the value K
p
will
be less by 10 to 15%.
5.6 CALCULATION OF CIRCULAR VOLUTE SECTION WITH C
u
r =CONSTANT
Applying equation 5.5 for a circular cross-
section (Fig. 5.6) volute design with C
u
r =constant.
Quantity Q
θ

at an angle θ from initial position
will be
Q
θ
=
1

B
Γ
3
( )
R
r
b r
r

dr
=
1
π
( )
1 2
1
i
i i
a
i
B
a
r a
r

− ρ
ρ − −
Γ

dr
=
B
Γ




a
i

2 2
ρ
i i
a −



Since, b (r) = 2
2 2
ρ ( )
i i
r a − −
Since Q
θ
=
θ
360
. Q
360
.
Substituting this value in the above equation
θ° =
360
360
B
Q
Γ

F
H
G
a –
2 2
ρ a −
I
K
J
= K
F
H
G
a –
2 2
ρ a −
I
K
J
where K =
360
360
B
Q
Γ
=
720π
ω
g
.
360
m
H
Q
Since a = r
3
+ ρ, substituting this value and after simplification
ρ =
θ
K
°
+ 3
θ
2 r
K
°
. ...(5.10)
1
2
3
r
3
r
R
a
d
r
b
p
0
1
f
v
2
3
4
5
6
7
v
r
3
8
Fig. 5.6. Volute design with circular cross-
section and free vortex (C
u
r = const.)
138 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Calculations are made in Tabular form (Table 5.4). θ° values are normally selected as 45°, 90°,
135°, 180°, 225°, 270°, 315° and 360°.
TABLE 5.4 : Calculation of circular volute with C
u
r =constant
K =

360
720πg
ω
m
H
Q
r
3
=
S. No. θ° θ° θ° θ° θ°
θ°
K
θ°
2
K
r
3
4
ρ ρρ ρρ =(3) +(5)
1 2 3 4 5 6
θ° – selected
uniformly at 45°
interval
As mentioned earlier, final area at spiral outlet before entering the diffuser will be the sum of
calculated area and the tongue area.
5.7 DESIGN OF CIRCULAR VOLUTE CROSS-SECTION WITH CONSTANT
VELOCITY (C
V
)
Flow velocity in spiral casing is taken as C
V
= φ
V
2gH.
The value φ
V
is taken from the Nomogram (Figs. 5.6, 5.7, 5.8).
Area at final section and corresponding radius of volute section will be
f =
2
πρ =
T
V
Q
C
and ρ =
π
T
V
Q
C
Quantity at any section will be proportional and will be
Q
θ
=
360
T
Q
.θ°
From the quantity Q
θ
, ρ
θ
at any section is calculated.
50 100 150 200 n
s
1
1,5
2,0
D /D
3 2
b /b
3 2
φ
v
φ
d
φ
vi
1
1,1
1,2
1,3
D
D
3
2
b
b
3
2
φ φ φ
v d vi
, ,
0
0,2
0,4
0,5
Fig. 5.7. Design constants as suggested by Artisikoff |4|
SPIRAL CASINGS (VOLUTE CASINGS) 139
40 100 150 200 300 400
n
s
1,0
1,1
1,2
1,3
1,4
1,5
0
01
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
0
1
2
3
4
5
D /D
3 2
K
1p
K
rs
φ
v
φ
v
D
D
3
2
K ,K
p rs
Fig. 5.8. |4|
D
2
D – D
3 2
3
4
6
8
10
20
30
40
50
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.5
× 100
k × 100
2
3
Volute angel degrees α
v
k
3
42 57 71 106 142 212 263 354 595 424 495 565 706 1060
α
v
V
o
l
u
t
e

v
e
l
o
c
i
t
y

c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t

k
3
(n ) specific speed
s
Fig. 5.9. Volute constants C
v
= C
3
= k
3
= 2gH as per A.J. Slepanoff |112|
5.8 CALCULATION OF DIFFUSER SECTION OF VOLUTE CASING
Diffuser connects spiral casing outlet with the delivery pipe of the pump. Velocity of flow C
d
gradually reduces from C
V
at final section of spiral section of volute to C
d
the velocity at delivery pipe
(C
d
= 3 to 5 m/sec.). In order to ensure uniform flow without any separation the angle of divergence is
normally selected as ε° = 8 to 10°. If the shape of spiral section at the last stage is not circular, the shape
140 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
is determined by assuming equal area of circular cross-section for the inlet of the diffuser and calculations
are made accordingly such that the axis is in a straight line. However, the final length of the diffuser
should be decided taking into account the construction feasibility of pump delivery flange with pipe
flange.
ε
2
°
=




p f
R R
L



where R
P
and R
f
are the radial length of the pipe and final spiral section of the volute casing, with
respect to the axis of the diffuser. Velocity at the diffuser outlet can be determined by the equation
C
d
= φ
d
2gH . Value φ
d
can be obtained from Figs. 5.6, 5.7, 5.8.
5.9 (A) DESIGN OF DIFFUSER
As similar to spiral casing the diffuser is also receiving the fluid from the impeller outlet and
converting the available kinetic energy of fluid into useful pressure energy (Fig. 5.10). It consists of a
number of diffuser passages kept at equal space around the circumference from inlet to outlet of the
diffuser. Each channel consists of a spiral section abc and diffuser section bcde. Spiral section of the
diffuser is constructed with constant width b
3
= b
2
+ (0.04 to 0.05) D
2
. The diffuser part forms a straight
channel with angle of divergence either in one plane or in both planes perpendicular to each other with
either straight or curved axis.
A – B
III III
II II
I I
b
3
b
3
I I
a
3
I
I
I
I
III
III

3
α
3
a
c
r
c
ε
d
A
Passage 1– 2 – 3 – 6 6 – 3 – 4 – 5
6
1
(b)
(a)
ε
0
2 4
3
b
e
d
θ
θ
b
θ
t θ
d
r
5
Fig. 5.10. Diffuser and return guide vanes for radial type centrifugal pumps (a) Diagonal (b) Radial
SPIRAL CASINGS (VOLUTE CASINGS) 141
The diffuser passage is formed between two walls of the stage and is connected to the return
passage. The return passage guides the outcoming fluid from the previous stage diffuser to the next
stage impeller suction. The diffuser vanes and return guide vanes are often cast as a single unit.
The diffuser is of two types: diagonal and radial. In radial type diffuser the return passage is
connected by vaneless U-shaped passage, where in the fluid turns through 180°.
In diagonal type of diffuser, the diffuser and return blades are kept one after another with no
space in between them. Referring the Fig. 5.10, the section II–II, the channel, deviates in axial direction
and connects the return passage [Fig. 5.10 (a)]. These type of diffusers possess smaller dimensions in
radial direction and also gives higher hydraulic efficiency when compared to radial type diffusers.
Diffusers with return guide vanes are used in multistage pumps by which overall dimensions and
weight of the pump reduces considerably. At the same time, axial thrust at the impeller is balanced at all
regions of operation of pump.
5.9 (B) CALCULATION OF SPIRAL PART OF DIFFUSER PASSAGE
Referring to Fig. 5.10 under axisymmetric plane, ideal fluid flow conditions, the wall ‘a – c’ of
the spiral passage consists of cylindrical surface formed parallel to z-axis of the diffuser. Contour ‘a – c’
in its own plane perpendicular to z-axis, is the streamline of plane axisymmentric flow. Differential
equation of the streamline ‘a – c’is determined from the condition, that the flow of the fluid dr and rdθ
as per the coordinates is proportional to the corresponding resolved components of the absolute velocity
C
r
and C
u
.
θ
dr
rd
=
r
u
C
C
In axisymmetric flow the tangential component of absolute velocity is determined C
u
r = C
u2
R
2
or
C
u
= C
u2
2
R
r
. From continuity equation, the radial component of absolute velocity C
r
is determined as
C
r
=
3

Q
r b
k
3
= k
3
2 2 2
3


m
R b C
r b
= k
3 2 m
C′
2 2
3
b R
b r
Therefore,
θ
dr
rd
= k
3

2
3
b
b

2
2
m
u
C
C

= tan α
3
, is a constant
tan α
3
= k
3
2
3
b
b

2
2
m
u
C
C

= Constant
also
dr
r
= tan α
3

Integrating between limits θ
1
= 0 when R
3
= r and R
3
= θ when r = r, the equation for the
streamline
a – c is r = R
3
e
θ tan α
3 ...(5.11)
which indicates that the streamline is logarithmic spiral. Thus, the spiral part of the diffuser is designed
as logarithmic spiral.
142 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
5.9 (C) CALCULATION OF DIVERGING CONE PART OF THE DIFFUSER
The diverging cone part of the diffuser bcde follows immediately after the logarithmic part of the
diffuser. In this cone remaining kinetic energy is converted to pressure energy. The lateral cross-section
of the cone is designed as straight cone. The height of the cone at inlet a
3
is determined by the triangle
bch [Fig. 5.10 (a)] as
a
3
=
3
3

cosα
C
R R
– ∆
3
where R
C
is the radius at point C of the spiral canal, ∆
3
blade thickness of inlet edge.
The inlet edge is always rounded off for shockness entry. R
C
will be
R
C
=
3
tan
3
C
R e
θ α
where θ
C
=

d
Z
– ∆θ—angle at the centre of spiral canal. Angle ∆θ is determined approximately from
the triangle ‘bch’ and the triangle abc.
R
3
∆θ =
__
bc sin α
3
=
3

d
R
Z
sin
2
α
3
or ∆θ =

d
Z
sin
2
α
3
So, a
3
=
3
3
cosα
R

3
π
sin 2α
1
zd
e
 

 
 



3
...(5.12)
Number of Diffuser vanes Z
d
will be between 3 to 8. It will be always 1 or 2 blades more than
impeller blades. The best efficiency of diffuser can be attained when the entry section of the diverging
cone is in the form of a square i.e., a
3
= b
3
.
The reduction in length due to blade thickness at entry is
3 3
3
a
a
+ ∆
≈ 1.1 to 1.15.
The angle to divergence ε = 10° to 12° at one plane, if the other plane is straight. If both the planes
diverge, then ε = 6 to 8°. Curved form of divergence cone axis enables to reduce the outer diameter of
the diffuser, which inturn reduces the weight of the pump. Hydraulic efficiency, however, reduces to a
certain extent. E.V. Dondoff [4], assuming that C
u
r = constant at inlet divergent cone, suggests that
height of entry section of divergent cone can be determined by the equation.
a
3
= (R
3
+ ∆
3
)
2
3
2
1 1
k
A
b
 
− −
 
 
 
...(5.13)
where A
2
=
ω
d m
Q
Z H g
=

Γ
b d
Q
Z
and K = Correction coefficient determined as a function of the specific speed ‘n
s
’ (Fig. 5.12)
SPIRAL CASINGS (VOLUTE CASINGS) 143
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
4
2
3
5
6
c
A B
18
16
D

=

3
0
8
2D

=

3
7
5
5
D

=

3
1
5
4
(b)
α
4
Blades constructed
by point by point method
Return guide
passage 9 vanes
7
8
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
α
5
11 Blades
α
ε
8
+
+ 90°
α
8
Blades constructed by
circular arc method
α
8
ε
12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1112 13 141516 17
c
5
α
Blade construction and graph
– – as per circular arc method
– point by point method
Diffuser Vaneless Return guide vane
passage (c)
section AA–CC section CC–EE
s
ϕ
r
( ) a
(b)
l
Fig. 5.11. Diffuser, vaneless passage, return guide vanes design and construction
(a) Vaneless ring between diffuser and return guide vanes
(b) Another construction of vaneless ring
(c) Velocity, angle of flow in passages.
70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105
0,7
0,8
0,9
1,0
1,1
1,2
1,3
1,4
K
n
s
Fig. 5.12. Correction coefficient for the divergent passage of the diffuser
5.10 RETURN GUIDE VANES
Return guide vanes are used in multi-stage pumps. It is located immediately after the U-shaped
bend in the diffuser. Normally spiral shaped portion and the divergent portion of the diffuser are kept on
one side of a plate and the return guide vanes on the other side of a plate and are cast in manufacture as
one piece. This facilitates easy casting in foundry as well as easy machining. A circular plate forms as
144 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
disc between rear side of the impeller and spiral shaped diffuser passage as well as another similar
circular plate forms as disc between front side of the impeller and return guide vanes. These two
plates form the cover between impeller and diffuser. All other designs are used for single stage pumps.
(Figs 5.10 and 5.11)
5.11 DESIGN OF SUCTION CASING AT INLET OF THE IMPELLER
Suction or approach casing for a pump (Fig. 5.11) consists of (1) a straight convergent cone
(2) bend type curved convergent pipe (3) ring type chamber (4) spiral shaped chamber or casing and
(5) return guide vanes. (Fig. 5.13)
5.12 STRAIGHT CONVERGENT CONE
Straight convergent cone with angle of convergence ε = 17° to 21° are fitted infront of the suction.
Sometimes radial ribs 4 to 6 Nos, called ‘baffles’ are fitted to ensure uniform, axisymmetric normal
flow at suction (C
u1
= 0). An increase in velocity by 15–20% between inlet and outlet of the convergent
section is normally recommended.
If the space before the pump suction is limited, bend type convergent pipe is used with or without
radial ribs at the exit of the bend.
Ring type casing consists of a circular chamber of constant area followed by a converging type
annular ring kept before the impeller eye. In these types, shaft is extended from the impeller to the
suction side bearing through the ring casing. These pumps have bearings on both sides of the impeller.
However, flow velocity decreases due to gradual reduction in quantity, the area of flow remaining
constant along the ring. Due to uneven velocity distribution around the ring, fluid approaches impeller
inlet edge with non uniform, unequal velocity and also with vortex motion C
u1
≠ 0. Due to centrifugal
force, at the bend C
u1
is not constant from shaft to inlet periphery. These type of casings are used mostly
in multistage pumps.
5.13 SPIRAL TYPE APPROACH RING
Spiral type approach ring followed by annular convergent ring at suction are used to overcome
the drawbacks in ring type constant area suction casings. Constant velocity at all point of the flow
passage in the spiral channel is maintained.
Spiral shaped suction casing or approach channel consists of an entry tube ‘10–9’ followed by
‘864 20’ spiral channel and a convergent annular rings ‘ab’ (Fig. 5.13). Spiral shape ends with a radial
rib, which avoids the fluid to enter back to the inlet approach tube. Total quantity ‘Q’ enters the chamber
at ‘10’ and passes into ‘point 9’. After point 9, almost half the quantity enters directly into the impeller
through convergent cone. Remaining quantity passes through the spiral passage of the casing, where
quantity gradually reduces due to uniform entry into impeller along the spiral passage. Flow velocity
‘C ’ gradually increases in the passage 10 to 9 and remains constant in the spiral passage i.e., from 9 to
0. Flow velocity ‘C
C
’ increases

to impeller eye velocity ‘C
0
’, when fluid passes through convergent
annular bend ring ‘ab’. Normally the velocity before the annular ring C
C
= (0.7 to 0.85) C
0
. Impeller
will be suspended between two bearings. The shaft passes through the suction casing to the suction side
bearing. Uniform velocity is ensured at the impeller eye in this type of design. It is recommended that
SPIRAL CASINGS (VOLUTE CASINGS) 145
(a) (b)
(c)
(d)
a
a
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
9
8
6
4
2
0
9
10
10
a
a R
g
R
8
b
b
b
b
Fig. 5.13. Different forms of suction casing for centrifugal pump
(a) Approach bend with converging passage
(b) Concentric ring with constant area of cross-section
(c) Symmetrical half spiral casing
(d) Single spiral casing
1
2
f
1
b
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
9
3
8
f
1
1
4
f
1
1
8
f
1
D
4
10
D
0
f =
1
π
4
(D – d )
2 2
1 b
α
D
5
D
1
d
b
D
φ
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
f
4
Fig. 5.14. Suction volute casing
146 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
R
8
= (k
rs
– 1)
0
2
D
, R
0
= (0.5 to 0.6) R
8
R
4
= 0.75 R
8
, R
9
= 1.5 R
8
Coefficient k
rs
is a function of ‘n
S
’, the specific speed. The value k
rs
can be taken from the graph
[Figs. 5.7, 5.8 (b)].
The velocity C
vi
is calculated as C
Vi
= Φ
Vi
2gH
,
where φ
Vi
is taken from the graph (Fig. 5.7).
84,0 84,5 84,5
100
80
60
40
20
0
0 0,02 0,04 0,06 0,08 0,10 0,12 0,14 0,16
ϕ
0,35
0,40
0,45
0,50
0,55
0,60
ψ
Flow coefficient = φ
C
m2
u
2
E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
%
η
/
η
m
a
x
u
2 2
H
e
a
d

c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t


=
ψ
Fig. 5.15. Performance variation due to three different volutes with same impeller
5.14 EFFECT DUE TO VOLUTE
It is found that the increase in volute cross-section area is attained when volute is designed by
constant velocity method than by C
u
r = constant method.
Increase in area of volute cross-section by about 5 to 7% may increase the overall efficiency by 2
to 5%. Optimum efficiency will shift to higher flow rate point.
Decrease in volute area decrease the maximum efficiency and shifts optimum efficiency point
towards lower flow rate. Shut off head slightly increases at higher specific speeds. Fig. 5.15 shows the
test results of the same impeller tested with three volutes.
6.1 INTRODUCTION
Losses in pumps can be classified as:
1. Hydraulic,
2. Volumetric, and
3. Mechanical.
Determination of hydraulic losses by theoretical means is still not possible. Intensive research is
still going on. Since volumetric losses and mechanical losses can be determined accurately by theoretical
means, hydraulic efficiency is determined from volumetric, mechanical and overall efficiencies. However,
empirical formula for the determination of hydraulic losses is available by which hydraulic efficiency
can be approximately determined.
6.2 (A) MECHANICAL LOSSES
Power input ‘N
I
’ available from the prime mover output i.e., at the coupling side of pump shaft,
gets reduced by an amount of ‘∆N’ due to losses in bearings ‘∆N
B
’, due to losses in stuffing box, ‘∆N
S

and losses due to disc friction, ‘∆N
d
’ i.e., ∆N = ∆N
B
+ ∆N
S
+ ∆N
d
. Correspondingly power available at
the impeller side of the pumpshaft, N
i
= N
I
– ∆N.
Mechanical efficiency, η
m
=
i
I
N
N
=
I
I
N N
N
− ∆
=
i
i
N
N N - ∆
...(2.15)
6.2 (B) LOSSES DUE TO DISC FRICTION (∆ ∆∆ ∆∆N
d
)
Losses created due to the rotation of a solid body, inside a closed and fluid filled chamber, is
called “Disc friction losses”. Pump impeller rotates as a solid body inside spiral casing chamber, which
is filled with fluid, possesses the same phenomena and hence losses created by the rotating impeller
inside a water filled spiral casing is the disc friction losses of the pump, ∆N
d
.
Fluid inside the space between impeller shroud and casing wall rotates at half the velocity of the
impeller velocity. The induced moment of friction of fluid on the disc is equalised by the frictional
moment of the fluid on casing wall. Due to centrifugal force, fluid near impeller shroud is thrown
towards pheripery. This fluid returns back near the casing wall. As a result, a circulation i.e., a secondary
vortex flow prevails in this space.
6
LOSSES IN PUMPS
Comp-1/Newage/Pump-6.pm6.5—26.5.07 24.11.07
147
148 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
From dimensional analysis, the moment of friction of disc, on one side, can be written as
M = C
f
ρ ω
2
r
2
5
where, C
f
— coefficient of friction.
ρ — density of the fluid.
ω — angular velocity of the disc (impeller).
r
2
— outer diameter of the disc (impeller).
Coefficient of friction, C
f
depends upon the type of flow and hence Reynold’s number ‘R
0
’ =
2
2
r ω
ν
for the disc.
(a) For laminar flow (R
e
< 2 × 10
4
) | 67 |
C
f
=
π
e
R
.
2
r
S
+ R
e
3
2
S
r
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
2
0.0146 0.1256
S
r
( ¸ ¸
-
( (
( ¸ , ¸ ¸
...(6.1)
where, S — the distance of the casing hall from the wall of the rotating disc.
(b) For transition flow R
e
= 2.10
4
to 10
5
| 67 |
C
f
=
1.334
e
R
...(6.2)
(c) For turbulant flow
C
f
=
0.0465
5
e
R
A graph, C
f
= f

(R
e
), is drawn in Fig. 6.1 for all the three regions of operation.
3 4 5 6 7
0,1 – 3
0,3 – 3
0,5 – 3
0,7 – 3
0,9 – 3
0,1 – 2
0,3 – 2
0,5 – 2
0,7 – 2
0,9 – 2
0,1 – 1
0,3 – 1
r
2
l
g f
C
l
g e
R
Fig. 6.1. C
f
= f (R)
e
LOSSES IN PUMPS 149
Power lost in disc friction losses
N
d
=
2 ω
constant
M
= 2 ρC
f
ω
3
r
5
...(6.3)
6.2 (C) LOSSES STUFFING BOX (∆ ∆∆ ∆∆N
S
)
Stuffing box consists of a chamber ‘4’ containing a
flexible asbestos packing ‘1’. Packing is kept in position
by the gland ‘2’. By tightening the gland bolts, the gland
is axially moved towards the chamber and compresses the
packing. This packing has direct contacts with the shaft
or shaft sleeve,‘3’. Since shaft or shaft sleeve is a rotating
element a small clearance will be existing between packing
and shaft sleeve or shaft, through which fluid passes from
the impeller outlet through the space between casing and
rear impeller shroud. This leakage flow can be adjusted
by compressing the packings, with the help of gland since
packing is stuffed inside a chamber. This chamber is called
stuffing box. Although theoretically no flow through
stuffing box can be made, practically small quantity of
water as droplets must come out through stuffing box in
order to avoid (1) air entering into impeller through
stuffings box, (2) to cool the packings. Since this leakage
quantity is very small, it is usually neglected.
Due to flexibile nature of packings the axial force σ
x
created due to tightening the gland is changed
into radial for σ
r
acting on shaft in radial direction.
σ
x
= Kσ
r
...(6.4)
where K is the coefficient depends upon the packing property and is always > 1. In order to maintain
leak proof σ
x
> p
0
, the pressure at the inner side of the casing and impeller shroud and very near to the
shaft. Pressure σ
x
must gradually reduce from the gland to the impeller side. Considering an elementary
thickness ‘dx’ (Fig. 6.2) of the packing, equilibrium is maintained.
When, 2π (R +r) µ σ
r
dx = – π (R
2
– r
2
) dσ
x
...(6.5)
where µ
1
is the frictional coefficient of packing. Combining equations 6.4 and 6.5 and rearranging.
When,
σ
σ
x
x
d
= –
1

( ) R r K −
dx.
Taking σ
x
= P
0
and integrating ‘x’ up to length ‘l’.
log
0
σ
x
P
= –
1

( )
l
x
K R r −

dx = –
1

K
( )
( )
l x
R r


2 3 4
1
s
p
0
Rrσ
r
σ
x
x dx
σ
x
p
H
p
0
x
Fig. 6.2. Stuffing box
150 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
or σ
x
· ·· ··
( ) 2µ
0
( )
l x
R r
P
− ¸ ¸
(
− ¸ ,
...(6.6)
where
1
µ
K
= µ
2
It is evident, that the pressure p, gradually increases and is maximum when x = l. It will be
p
max
= σ
x
= 0 =
2

( )
0
l
R r
p e


=
2

0
l
S
p e
=
2

0
z
p e
...(6.7)
Where, S is the thickness = (R – r) and Z is the number of packing rolls inside stuffing box =
l
S
.
Elementary friction force, dT = 2π r dx µ
1
σ
x
T = 2π r µ
1
p
0
2
µ
0
l x
e
s
e

= π rS
1
2
µ
µ
2

0
l
S
p e
¸

¸
2

1
l
s
e


¸
(
,
...(6.8)
Power N
S
= Tωr =
2
const
r s π
.
1
2
µ
µ

2
2
2
2 1
0
l
a
l
e
s
p e
− µ
¸ ¸
(
µ −
(
¸ ,
watts. Coefficient µ, is 0.02 to 0.1. About
5 to 7 (= Z) packing rolls are used for normal pumps. Practically frictional coefficient, µ considerably
reduces due to the introduction of cooling water as mentioned earlier.
(a) Normal
(b) With lantern ring at the middle
(c) With cooling circulation
(d) With cooling
(e) External cooling
B
E
D
0
p
0
5
A
3
2 1
s
4
d
(f) External and internal cooling
l
p
0
D
p
l
n 7
p
0
d
n
p
0
6
6
l
u4
δ
g
p
0
10
Fig. 6.3. Different types of stuffing box arrangements and with cooling systems
LOSSES IN PUMPS 151
Fig. 6.4. Stuffing box with the classic cooling water jacket
cooling the outer diameter of the gland
Fig. 6.5. Stuffing box with unclear lantern ring for sealing water supply
Fig. 6.6. Stuffing box with externally cooled circuit to reduce the
temperature of the pumped medium in the gland area
152 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Fig. 6.7. Stuffing box with lantern type end ring for cold water injection
Fig. 6.8. Stuffing box of special design with hollow shaft sleeve
to cool the inner diameter of the gland
Fig. 6.9. Stuffing box with double cooling effect and duplicate cooling
feed cooling inner and diameter of gland
LOSSES IN PUMPS 153
Fig. 6.10. Stuffing box with double cooling effect and single cooling
feed cooling inner and outer diameter of gland
2 1 1
, ,
u u
C C r
Fig. 6.11. Stuffing box with double cooling effect and single cooling feed
and also introducing cooling liquid upstream of the packing
end ring for cooling inner and outer diamter of gland
Fig. 6.12. Gland area of feed pump with injection type shaft, intensive
cooling and differential type balancing device absorbing pressure
fluctuations of feed pump suction pressure sealing water pressure
154 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
6.2 (D) BEARING LOSSES (

N
B
)
Bearing losses depend upon the type of bearing used such as, ball, roller, angular contact, thrust
bearing. Based on the hydrodynamic theory of lubrication in bearings, power loss in bearings can be
calculated.
One such formula is given below. Power loss ∆N
B
in bearing will be
∆N
B
=
ω .
constant
r T
=
2π.η
constant
(ωr)
2
.
δ
r
. l ...(6.9)
where torque T = η
δ
u
2πrl
η — Coefficient of viscosity of the lubricating oil used.
u · ωr — Velocity of ball or roller centre.
r and l — Radius and length of the ball or roller.
δ — Radial clearance in the bearing.
6.3 (A) LEAKAGE FLOW THROUGH THE CLEARANCE BETWEEN
STATIONARY AND ROTATORY WEARING RINGS
Leakage flow is controlled by the clearances ‘b’. b = 0.003r, for smaller pumps and b = 0.2
+ (D
1
– 100) 0.001 in mm for larger pumps. ‘b’ normally lies between 0.15 and 0.25 mm. Larger
clearance leads to higher volumetric losses and corresponding lower volumetric as well as overall
efficiencies. Figs. 6.13 and 6.14 indicate the change in the performance due to increased clearance.
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
20
40
60
80
100
120
2
H
η
1
100
200
300
400
500
600
Q in % of Q
norm
H
,


i
n

%

o
f

(
H
,

)

n
o
r
m
η
η
A
x
i
a
l

f
o
r
c
e

i
n

%

o
f

f
o
r
c
e

u
n
d
e
r

Q
n
o
r
m
Fig. 6.13. Effect of clearance at shaft between 2 stages H, η ηη ηη and axial thrust
(1) Axial thrust under normal clearance 0.2 mm
(2) Under increased clearance 1.5 mm
LOSSES IN PUMPS 155
0.45 MM
0.575 MM
0.64 MM
0.74 MM
Without
balancing
holes
2
0
1
4
1
0
1
6
1
8
8
6
4
2
1
2
With
balancing
holes
0.74 MM
0.64 MM
0.575 MM
0.45 MM
Average flow is 6.6 gpm/hole 26.4 gpm for all 4 holes
T
o
t
a
l

h
e
a
d

i
n

m
e
t
r
e
s
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Quantity of flow in Ips.
Fig. 6.14. Effect of wearing ring clearance and balancing holes
156 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Referring of Fig. 6.15 the flow through the clearance Q
L1
can be determined from one dimensional
theory Q = K. AV = K. A . 2gH .
(a) (b) (c) (d)
(f) (g) (e)
Y X
Fig. 6.15. Different types of wearing rings
Applying this principle to the flow through the clearance ‘Q
L1
’ or called as leakage flow, will be
Q
L1
= µ A
i
2
i I
p p
g
r

= µπ D
i
b
2
pi
gH
...(6.10)
where, A
i
— Area of the clearance
D
i
— Clearance diameter
b — Clearance width
p
i
— Pressure before clearance
p
1
— Pressure after clearance, at suction side of the impeller
H
pi

1
γ
i
p p −
head loss in clearance
µ — Flow coefficient.
Normally b = 0.003 r and should never be less than 0.15 mm for any type of wearing ring
construction.
The pressure drop across the wearing ring [Fig. 6.15 (a)] between any point inside wearing ring
and inlet
H
pi
=
1
γ
i
p p −
=
2 1
γ
p p −

2
γ
i
p p −
= H
p

2
γ
i
p p −
...(6.11)
Substituting the value for
2 i
p p −
γ
from the equation (3.89)
H
pi
= H
p

2
2
γ
8
u
g
2
2
1
r
r
(
¸ ¸
( −
(
(
¸ ,
¸ ¸
for normal wearing ring ...(6.12)
= H
p

2
2
γ
8
u
g
2
2
r
r
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
2
2
1
r
r
(
¸ ¸
( −
(
(
¸ ,
¸ ¸
for damaged wearing ring ...(6.13)
Referring to the figure [6.15 (a)], the losses through the wearing ring consists of loss at entry, loss
in the passage and loss at exit.
LOSSES IN PUMPS 157
h
c
= Loss at entry due to sudden entry = 0.5
2
2
L
V
g
h
e
= Loss at exit, due to sudden exit = 1.00
2
2
L
V
g
Loss in the passage having length ‘l’ and clearance ‘b’ and diameter ‘D’.
h
f
= λ
2
8
L
lV
gR
where, V
L
is the velocity in the clearance =
π
L
i i
Q
Db
R = the Hydraulic Radius =
Area
Perimeter
=
2
i i
i
Db
D
π
π
=
2
i
b
So, h
f
=
2
λ
4
L
I
lV
gb
Total loss h
L
= h
e
+ h
f
+ h
c
= H
pi

H
pi
=
λ
0.5 1.00
2
i
i
l
b
¸ ¸
- -
(
¸ ,
2
2
L
V
g
=
2
1
λ 1
1.5
2 2
i L
i i i
l Q
b Db g
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
- ⋅
( (
π ¸ , ¸ ,
Q
L1
=
1
λ
1.5
2
i
i
l
b
-
. πD
i
. b
i
.
2
pi
gH
...(6.14)
where H
pi
is calculated as per the equation (6.12) or (6.13). Comparing equations (6.14) and (6.11) µ
will be
µ =
1
λ
1.5
2
i
i
l
b
-
For high pressure pumps H
pi
will be higher due higher delivery pressure. The clearance cannot be
altered since efficiency has to be maintained at high level as well as for ease in manufacture. So the
leakage flow Q
L1
will be higher. Correspondingly, the volumetric efficiency and overall efficiency
reduce. To maintain efficiency at higher level, Q
L
has to be reduced. This is achieved by increasing the
length of leakage path. Correspondingly, for the fixed value of area, µ value is changed. Different
wearing ring forms are shown in Fig. 6.15. Referring to Fig. 6.15.
158 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
γ
I x
p p −
=
2
1
2
1 1
1
2 (µ . )
L
Q
g A
γ
x y
p p −
=
2
1
2
2 2
1
2 (µ . )
L
Q
g A
2
( )
γ
y
p p −
=
2
1
2
3 3
1
2 (µ . )
L
Q
g A


H
pi
=
2 i
p p −
γ
=
2
1
2
L
Q
g

¸
2
1 1
1
(µ ) A
+ 2
2 2
1
(µ ) A
+ 2
3 3
1
(µ ) A
(
(
¸
=
2
1
2
1
1
2
L
Q
g A
2 2
3 3 1 1 2 2 1 1
1 2 2 3 3
λ . λ λ .
1.5 1.5 1.5
2 2 2
l l l A A
b b A b A
(
¸ ¸¸ ¸ ¸ ¸¸ ¸
(
- - - - -
( ( ( (
(
¸ ,¸ , ¸ ,¸ ,
¸ ¸
µ =
2 2 2 2
3 3 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1
1 2 2 3 3 2 3
1
λ λ λ
1.5 1
2 2 2
l l l A A A A
b b A b A A A
(
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
( - - - - -
( ( ( (
(
¸ , ¸ , ¸ , ¸ ,
¸ ¸
...(6.15)
In the similar manner, µ can be calculated for other configurations.
The value for λ is calculated similar to the procedure followed for pipes.
Equivalent pipe diameter ‘d’ for the clearance b will be d = 4R = 2b
Reynold’s number for the clearance b is determined as
R
e
=
ν
ud
=
2
2 1
2 . ν
2
ν
s
u
b
¸ ¸
-
(
¸ ,
...(6.16)
since the velocity of the fluid, u
i
=
2
u
.
Normal value of λ will be 0.04 to 0.08. For low viscous fluids, λ = 0.4.
For pumps of D
i
> 100 mm

l
i
the length of clearance passage
I
l
D
= 0.12 to 0.15 and µ = 0.5 to 0.6.
When D
i
< 100 mm
i
l
D
= 0.2 to 0.25. Model analysis does not carried out for clearances. For proto-
types, keeping clearance width ‘b
i
’ same, the length ‘l
i
’ is increased. Increase in length l
i
increases the
losses and reduces the leakage Q
L1
. When
1
i
l
D
> 0.25, µ reduces only to a smaller extent, but l
i
increases
considerably. The type of wearing ring construction used depends upon pump construction. l
i
should
always be ≥ 20 mm and µ ≤ 0.65 considering techno-economical condition.
LOSSES IN PUMPS 159
Prof. A.A. Lomakin |69| recommends that volumetric efficiency, η
vol
can be calculated as
1
η
V
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
· 1 - O.68 n
S
–2/3
.
6.3 (B) LEAKAGE FLOW THROUGH THE CLEARANCE BETWEEN TWO
STAGES OF A MULTISTAGE PUMP
H
p3
=
1 i
p p ′ ′ −
γ
where p′
1
= P
1
+ γH
i
, H
1
= total head, and p′
1
= pressure at the hub of the impeller.
H
p3
=
2 2
2
2 1
1

γ 8
h
u u
p p
H
g


− -
=
2
2
2
1
2
+ 1
8
h
p
r u
H H
g r
(
¸ ¸
( − −
(
¸ , (
¸ ¸
=
2
2
2
2
2 2
1
8 2
m h
gH r u
g r u
(
¸ ¸
( - − −
(
¸ , (
¸ ¸
Since, H
1
– H
p
= H
dy
Q
L3
= µ . πd
h
b .
3
2
p
gH
...(6.17)
d
R
Vu
Fig. 6.16. Vortex formation at bend Fig. 6.17. Vortex formation due to sudden contraction
Fig. 6.18. Flow in divergent passage Fig. 6.19. Flow separation at imepller
outlet due to shroud
160 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
B
C
u
C
r
A
1 2
Fig. 6.20. Velocity distribution at Fig. 6.21. Flow separation and return flow at the outlet
outlet of impeller edge of impeller due to break effect
q = 0,15 q = 0
Fig. 6.22. Secondary flow at q =
Q
Q
norm
< 1
x y
A–A
r
A
A
y
x
Fig. 6.23. Secondary flow between shrouds Fig. 6.24. Flow separation at impeller outlet
LOSSES IN PUMPS 161
Diffuser blade
leading edge
Impeller blade
trailing edge
Gap "A"
Gap "B"
Casing
Leakage
flow
Inlet
guide
vane
Impeller blade
leading edge
Impeller
Fig. 6.25. Secondary flow in pump impeller at Fig. 6.26. Vortex on finite blade length
partical flow conditions
6.4 HYDRAULIC LOSSES
Hydraulic losses are the losses due to: friction in the main flow when fluid passes through:
(a) suction or approach pipe, (b) impeller vane passages, (c) diffuser or volute casing flow passages and
(d) outlet passage or discharge cone of the spiral casing of a pump. Friction arises due to (1) fluid flow
over the surface roughness of the above mentioned pump parts. Heat developed by friction is carried
away by water and (2) secondary flow prevailing at places of unequal distribution of pressure in the
flow passage. (3) vortex λ formation along the inner side of blade configuration, (4) wake formation
after the blades. Shock entry are a few examples for the secondary flow. Exact study on hydraulic losses
has not so far being done, as it is extremely difficult. Theoretically developed equations along with the
experimentally determined coefficients are used to determine the hydraulic losses.
In general, the shape of flow passage of each element is designed not only as per dimensions but
also to provide stream lined flow passages at entry as well as at exit of each elements of the pump in
order to ensure minimum hydraulic losses. For example, uniform flow at casing can be ensured only if
uniform flow exists at the outlet of the impeller. Similarily flow must be stream lined, steady and uniform
at the exit of the approach pipe, so that same type of flow can exist at the inlet as well as at the impeller
passages.
Hydraulic losses can be classified as follows: (1) Losses under steady flow conditions (a) relative
flow through impeller (b) absolute flow in casing, approach and exit passages (2) Losses due to unsteady
flow and (3) Losses of hydraulic nature but attributed to mechanical losses.
Surface roughness of the flow passage in pump parts, such as approach pipe, impeller, spiral
casing and exit pipe is the main cause for hydraulic losses. Smooth surfaces give lower hydraulic losses.
162 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Impeller flow channel losses can be calculated taking relative velocity ‘w’. Average value of relative
velocity should be taken, since relative velocity in impeller across the circumferencial length is not
constant due to circular secondary flow prevailing due to finite vanes (Figs. 6.21, 6.22, 6.23, 6.24 and
6.25). Flow separation from the outlet edge of impeller due to insufficient kinetic energy in the boundary,
larger at all regions of operation except at optimum flow rate condition and subsequent increase in
losses in casing due to improper flow from impeller, are the causes for the development of secondary
flow. Spannhake | 110 | has given a detailed analysis about the secondary flow in impeller passages.
Experimental investigation in spiral casing has clearly indicated, the presence of unequal pressure
and velocity distribution not only due to non symmetrical flow from impeller, but also due to curvature
of the casing. Experiments conducted indicate about 2% velocity variation along the radial direction at
optimum flow region, and about 40% at Q = 0.4 (optimum region). So also under unsteady flow a higher
percentage of deviation in pressure and velocity exists at the return passage due to the presence of bend
kept after the diffuser of multistage pumps, which creates non uniform flow at the suction of the next
impeller.
At partial flow regions of operation, the pressure variation across the radial direction changes to a
larger extent at inlet of the pump impeller. Flow reverse takes place from hub to periphery. Due to the
presence of bend in the impeller, flow could not follow the passage, instead it again deviates from the
main stream, which again creates reverse flow at the outlet of the impeller (Fig. 6.25). Flow velocity
through the channel increases due to the restricted flow area. Apart from that due to larger difference in
pressure and velocity between leading and trailing surfaces of the impeller channel at partial flow regions,
the flow reverse takes place at the outlet of the impeller. It gradually extends in both direction along the
flow passage of the impeller, then to the casing on one side, extending to suction side of the impeller on
the other side. Due to this effect, the steepness of head discharge curve increases at higher specific
speeds. Rate of increase in steepness is higher for higher specific speed pumps.
as per A.A. Lomakin
as per Stodila-Meizen
0 100 200 300
50
75
100
D MM
q
η
h
%
η
h
η
h
As per A.J. Stepanoff
Fig. 6.27. Comparison of hydraulic efficiency as recommended by different authors
LOSSES IN PUMPS 163
2
1
3
0 70 140 210 280 350 420 n
s
2
4
6
8
10
12
%
NN
T
(1) Disc friction (2) Volumetric (3) Bearing and stuffing box
Fig. 6.28. Power loss = f (n
s
)
All flow passages in pumps are diffuser type passages, where in flow area gradually increases.
The velocity is changed into pressure. Angle of divergence of the diffuser passage must be between 5°
to 10°. Radius of curvature of bend portion R should be more than 7 to 8 times the width of the passage
R = 7 to 8 (Fig. 6.16). Losses ‘h
f
’ due to sudden contraction and due to sudden expansion can be
calculated by using the standard formula,
For sudden contraction h
f
(contraction) = 0.5
2
2
V
g
and = 0.15 to 0.35
2
2
V
g
for gradual contraction.
For best results i.e., for minimum hydraulic losses, angle of convergence can be 17° to 21°.
For sudden expansion h
f
(exp) = φ
2
( )
2
ent exi
V V
g

...(6.18)
where φ the coefficient is ‘1’ for sudden expansion and 0.4 to 0.5 for gradual expansion if the angle of
divergence 8 to 10°. Since hydraulic losses are complicated, in nature, it is always calculated from the
experimental results.
Approximately hydraulic efficiency is assumed as η
h
= η , where η
h
= hydraulic efficiency and
η

= overall efficiency, A.A. Lomakin suggests that
η
h
= 1 –
2
0
0.42
(log 0.172)
n
D −
...(6.19)
and prototype efficiency is calculated as
η
hp
= 1 – ( 1– η
hm
)
2
1
1
log 0.172
log 0.172
¸ ¸

(
(

¸ ,
nom
nop
D
D
...(6.20)
7.1 INTRODUCTION
The impeller of the pump, when running inside casing, which is filled with the fluid, is acted on
by a number of forces. Sometimes these forces are significant in pumps either at all regions of operation
of pumps or when operated at other than optimum regions of operation. These forces must be properly
taken care of by proper construction of the pump.
These forces are divided into two types : (1) mass force i.e., weight of pump parts and weight of
the fluid filled inside the pump space and inertia force i.e., the centrifugal force and forces due to
coriolis acceleration and (2) surface force, acting on the pumps due to the fluid pressure and its reaction.
Total weight of the pump and the weight of the fluid inside casing, will be acting at its centre of
gravity in the downward direction, whereas hydrostatic pressure will be acting in upward direction as
buoyant force.
Inertia force is the centrifugal force of the rotating parts.
F
c
=
W
g
ω
2
r
where,
W — weight of moving parts.
ω — angular velocity of the moving parts.
r — the eccentricity between centre of gravity of moving part and the centre of the axis of the
shaft.
If the centre gravity of impeller falls exactly on the shaft axis then r = 0 and the centrifugal force
is zero. This is achieved by dynamically balancing all rotating parts. Since inside surface of the impeller
is the only unmachined part among all rotating parts, only impeller is dynamically balanced, before
assembly.
The surface force ‘F ’ by the flowing fluid on impeller and casing consists of ‘F
Z
’, the axial force
and ‘F
r
’ radial force. Axial force acting on the impeller is considerable whereas axial force on casing
equalises each other and hence zero. Correspondingly radial force acting on impeller, due to uniform
and constant flow at each and every point of impeller circumference, is zero, but radial force acting on
the casing is not zero as this force changes in magnitude and direction from tongue to delivery mouth of
the casing due to gradual increase in flow from impeller to casing.
7
AXIAL AND RADIAL THRUSTS
Comp-1/Newage/Pump-7.pm6.5—31.5.07 24.11.07
164
AXIAL AND RADIAL THRUSTS 165
7.2 AXIAL FORCE ACTING ON THE IMPELLER
Referring to Fig. 7.1, the flow at outlet of the impeller consists of (1) main flow ‘Q
a
’ into the
casing, (2) leakage flow at the front end of the impeller, passing through the clearance between casing
and impeller front shroud, then through the wearing ring clearance and finally reaching the suction side
at impeller eye and (3) leakage flow at the rear end of the impeller passing through the space between
rear shroud of the impeller and casing wall, then through rear wearing ring clearance and finally either
passing through the stuffing box to atmosphere or passing through the balancing hole back to impeller
eye.
p
1
z-axis
r
r
p
R
p
L
p
2
p
2
r
Contour
r
2
r
0
p
R
– p
L
r
h
Shaft
axis
A
1
A
2
Fig. 7.1. For axial thrust calculation
This fluid pressure acts on both shrouds and on both sides of the shroud i.e., at inner and at outer
side of the impeller shrouds. If F
Z0
is the force due to fluid pressure at the outer side of the impeller
shroud and F
Zi
is the force due to fluid pressure at the inner side of the impeller shrouds and since these
pressures are acting parallel to Z-axis, i.e., shaft axis, the total force acting in the impeller will be
F
Z
= F
Z0
+ F
Zi
.
F
Zi
the internal force is calculated by applying impulse momentum equation to the unit mass
passing through the impeller. If A
T
is the surface area of the two sides of shrouds and blades of the
impeller, and A
1
and A
2
are the area at the suction and delivery surfaces of the impeller, neglecting the
weight of the of the impeller and the weight of the fluid enclosed at outside and inside the impeller
passage the resolved component of net hydrodynamic force, applying Eular’s law, is written as,
F
Z A 1
+ F
Z A 2
– F
Zi
= –
W
g
(C
Z2
– C
Z1
) ...(7.1)
where F
Z A 1
and F
ZA 2
are the axial component of the pressure force on surface A
1
and A
2
of the impeller
respectively
W = γQ – Weight flow rate
F
Z A 1
and F
ZA2
are the axial component of the absolute velocity at entrance and at exist respectively.
Axial force at the inner surface ‘F
Z1
’ cannot be determined, since pressure distribution at the inner
surface is not known due to the presence of the impeller vane. It can be determined, however, with the
help of Eular’s equation. In Eular’s equation, the blade induces force on fluid. The same force prevails
with negative sign if the fluid induces force in the surface, hence, the negative sign on the equation
(7.1). The direction of the force ‘F
Z A 2
’ at the surface A
2
at the outlet edge of the impeller is perpendicular
to axis since C
Z2
is perpendicular to axis. Hence, it is zero. The force ‘F
Z A 1
’ will be
166 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
F
ZA1
=
1

A
pdA =

c
h
R
i
R
p
2πrdr=p
1
. π (R
O
2
−R
1h
2
) ...(7.2)
where, p
1
is the pressure at impeller inlet and is equal to h
S
the suction pressure. R
1C
and R
1h
are the
radius at periphery and at hub of the impeller eye. For normal entry the fluid velocity C
Z1
= C
0
.
Pressure p
1
at the impeller eye is the suction pressure which is negative, hence the direction of F
Z1
will be opposite i.e., opposite to the fluid flow direction at impeller eye and is parallel to Z-axis (shaft
axis). Equation (7.1) can be written as
p
1
π (R
2
10
– R
2
1h
) – F
Z1
= –
w
g
. C
0
= –
γQ
g
C
0
or F
Zi
=
γQ
g
C
0
+ p
1
π (R
2
1c
– R
2
1h
) ...(7.3)
Axial force ‘ F
Z0
’ acting on the outer surface will be integral of elementary hydrodynamic force
pdA cos ( ) p z on the surface i.e.,
F
Z0
=
0
A
p

dA cos ( ) pz
The value dA cos ( ) pz is the projection of the external surface dA along the direction
Z, dA
Z
= rdθ dr.Therefore
F
Z0
=
2 2
0
R 2 2
0 0

h
R
F R
R R
rdr p d rdr p d
π π
π θ
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
...(7.4)
where, p
F
and p
R
are the pressure at the frontside and backside of the impeller outer surface.
Since the space is a free surface at any radius r the angular velocity of fluid ‘ω
f
’ will be half of the
impeller angular velocity ‘ω’ i.e., ‘ω
f
’ =
ω
2
Referring to the equation (3.69), pressure at the space at any radius will be
p = p
2
– γ
2
2
8
u
g
2
2
1
r
r
(
¸ ¸
(

(
(
¸ ,
¸ ¸
...(3.69)
Therefore, the pressures at front and rear side space between impeller and casing, from outer
radius R
2
to the eye radius R
0
are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction and hence cancel each
other.
But the pressures at the rear end of the impeller from R
0
and R
h
changes as per equation (3.69),
whereas the pressure at the front and of the impeller is the suction pressure p
S
= p
1
. Equation (7.4) can be
written as
F
Z0
=
0
2
2
2
2
2
γ 1
8
H
R
R
u r
p
g R
( ¸
¸ ¸
( (
− −
(
( (
¸ , ¸
, ¸ ¸

2πr dr
AXIAL AND RADIAL THRUSTS 167
= ( )
2 2 2
2 2 0 2
0
2
2
1
γ 8 2
h
h
R R p u
R R
g R
( ¸ ¸
-
γπ − − − (
(
¸ ,
(
¸ ¸
...(7.5)

Net force F
Z
= F
Z0
+ F
Zi
j
F
Z
= ( )
2 2 2
2 2 0 2 1
0 0
2
2

1
γ 8 2
h
h
R R p p u Q
R R C
g g R
( ¸ ¸
- γ
γπ − − − − (
(
¸ ,
(
¸ ¸
=
γπ R R H
u
g
R R
R
rQ
g
C h p
h
A B
0
2 2
2
0
2 2
2
2
0
8
1
2
− − −
-
F
H
G
I
K
J
L
N
M
M
O
Q
P
P
− ⋅
d i

...(7.6)
The value marked ‘A’ is normally very large when compared to the value ‘B’ in the equation (7.6).
Hence, the value B is usually neglected. The direction of this axial force will be opposite to the direction
of flow at suction i.e., the tendency of this force F
Z
is to remove the impeller from the shaft. This force
is carried over to rear bearing of the pump through the impeller nut and pump shaft.
When the wearing ring clearance is in fully damaged condition. Equation (3.70) should be
considered instead of equation (3.69).
p
2
=
2 2 2
2 2 2
2
2 2
2
1
8
u R r
p
g
r R
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
− γ −
( (
¸ , ¸ ,
...(3.70)
There, F
Z02
=
2
0
2
( )
R
f
R
p p −

2π rdr
=
2
0
2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 γ 1 2 1
8 8
R
R
u R u r r
p p rdr
g r g R R
( ( ( ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
¸ ¸
( π − − − π − γ − ( (
( ( (
¸ ,
¸ , ¸ , ( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

= ( )
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
2
2 2 2 2
2 2
ln 2
8 2
h
h
h h
R R u R R
R R
g R R R R
¸ ¸
-
γπ − - −
(
− ¸ ,
...(7.7)
Net Axial force F
Z
= F
Z02
(as per equation) (7.6) + F
Z
(as per equation) (7.7) ...(7.8)
Due to continuous operation of pump, erosion at the inlet and at the outlet of wearing ring passage
gradually removes the material of the wearing ring, as a result of this, wearing ring clearance increases.
This wear is more in high pressure units for low specific speed pumps, n
S
= 50 to 80 and
2
C
R
R
< 0.5.
7.3 AXIAL THRUST IN SEMI-OPEN IMPELLERS
Axial thrust in semi-open impellers will be more than that in closed impellers, due to the fact that
the axial thrust on the rear shroud is partially balanced from (Point 2 to point 1) outlet edge to inlet edge
of the impeller due to equal pressure variation at both ends of rear shroud (Fig. 7.2). Net pressure at the
rear shroud will be
168 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
F
ZR
= γ (A
2
– A
s
)
2 2
2
2
– 1
8 2
S
u u
H
g
(

(
(
¸ ¸
...(7.9)
where A
2
and A
S
are the surface area at radii R
2
and
R
S
.
At the front side i.e., at the suction side of the
impeller since there is no shroud, it is assumed that
the pressure between outlet and inlet edge of the
impeller i.e., from R
2
to R
1
varies in a straight line
form. Axial thrust will be
F
Z f
= (A
2
– A
1
)
2
γ
2
H
...(7.2)
The resultant axial thrust will be
F
Zi
= F
ZR
– F
Zf
= γ (A
2
– A
s
)
2 2
2
2
1
8 2
S
u u
H
g
(


(
(
¸ ¸
– γ

¸
(A
2
– A
S
)
2
2
H (
(
¸
...(7.10)
7.4 AXIAL THRUST DUE TO DIRECTION CHANGE IN BEND AT INLET
Actual axial thrust will be lower than the value calculated as per the equation (7.10) due to the
centrifugal force created at inlet due to the direction change from axial to radial in centrifugal pumps.
Since, there is no blade in this space only absolute velocity should be considered. Centrifugal force can
be calculated as
P
t
= k
γ
g
QC
0
...(7.11)
where k is the experimental coefficient 0.85 to 0.45 for n
S
= 50 to 250. This centrifugal force acts
opposite to the main axial thrust. Net axial thrust P will be
P
Net
= P
Zi
– P
t
...(7.12)
For higher n
S
pumps F
t
is small and hence
neglected. For single stage radial type centrifugal
pump, axial force can be determined as
P

=
π
4
(D
2
wi
– d
2
h
) H
3
γ ...(7.13)
where D
wi
is the diameter of impeller wearing
ring, d
h
hub diameter and H
3
is the average static
head H
3
= 0.6 H for n
S
< 60 and 0.8 H for n
S
60
to 200. Experiments were conducted by the
Institute of Hydraulic Machines Moscow |131| based on the above equation. The above equation in final
form is written as
P = K
t
γH
π
4
(D
2
w
– d
2
h
) ...(7.14)
The experimental coefficient K
t
is given in Fig. 7.3.
H
2
H
2
r
hr
1
r
2
Fig. 7.2. Axial thrust in semi-open impellers
50 100 150 200 250 n
s
0,5
1,0
K
t
d
h
D
cp
D
W
Fig. 7.3. Coefficient to calculate axial thrust due to
direction change at inlet of impeller (at bend)
AXIAL AND RADIAL THRUSTS 169
7.5 BALANCING OF AXIAL THRUST
Balancing of axial thrust is carried out by the following methods:
(a) By proper use of rear bearing i.e., bearing near coupling side of the pump, such as ball
bearing, angular contact bearing, tapered roller bearing, or thrust bearing.
(b) By providing radial vanes at the outer side of rear shroud i.e., at the space between impeller
rear shroud and the casing wall [Fig. 7.5 (d)].
(c) By providing balancing holes, below the inlet edge of the impeller at the rear shroud. [Fig.
7.6 (c)]
(d) By providing balancing disc or balancing drum. [Fig. 7.6 (b)]
(e) By arranging opposed impellers either suction end facing each other i.e., single suction at the
middle and double delivery at both ends or suction end opposing each other i.e., double
suction and single delivery. This may be embedded into one unit as in double suction pumps
or individual impellers. [Figs. 7.4, 7.5 and 7.6 (a)]
F
Z
F
Z
Fig. 7.4. Balancing by individual two Fig. 7.5. Balanced individual opposed impellers
suction facing impellers
Suction
connection
tube
(a) Double suction (b) Balancing disc (c) Balancing hole (d) Radial blades
Q Q
D
C
Fig. 7.6. Different methods of balancing axial thrust
Arrangement c, d are provided for single stage pumps whereas arrangements a and b are provided
for multistage pumps. Double suction pump is a single stage opposed impeller pump [Fig. 7.6 (a)].
170 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
1 2 3 4 5 6
1 2 3 4 5 6
1 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5 6
1 2 3 4 5 6
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(a) Balancing disc or drum
(b), (c), (d), (e), self balancing by impeller
positioning
2 6
Balancing by
Fig. 7.7. Different balancing methods by impeller position in multistage balancing.
7.6 AXIAL THRUST TAKEN BY BEARINGS
Coupling side bearing of the pump is always designed to take care of the axial thrust. For smaller
axial loads deep groove ball bearings are used. For higher axial thrusts, deep groove ball bearings are
replaced by angular contact ball bearings. For still higher axial thrusts the bearing is replaced by tapered
roller bearing or a pure thrust bearing along with ball bearing. Use of suitable bearing, keeps the pump
bearing housing compact, thereby pump weight is considerably reduced and also the cost.
7.7 RADIAL VANES AT REAR SHROUD OF THE IMPELLER
Location of radial blades at the rear shroud is shown in Fig. 7.8. The magnitude of axial thrust
reduction depends purely upon the size of the radial blades as well as the clearance between casing wall
and the radial blade. Extra power consumed due to this additional radial vanes does not exceed the
power spent for the additional clearance provided at the rear shroud to control leakage. This power
always remains constant. The blade width will be normally 3 to 4 mm. But it is difficult to maintain the
clearance between casing wall and the radial blade, since casing wall is an unmachined surface.
AXIAL AND RADIAL THRUSTS 171
r
0 C ∆p
b
a
p
2
r

8
m
p
2
Fig. 7.8. Axial thrust balancing by radial blades
a = p –
2
γ
u – u
2 p
2 2
8g
u – u
p
2 2
2g
b = γ
u – u
2
2 2
8g
c = γ . ; ;
Due to the presence of rear radial blades, which is rotating at a blade velocity ‘u’ the fluid also
rotates at a velocity of ‘u’ instead of
1
2
u as in the case of without radial blades condition. This reduces
the pressure at the rear space. At any radius ‘r
p
’ the pressure drop ∆p will be
∆p =
3
8
γ
g
(u
2
p
– u
2
) ...(7.15)
when radial blades are present the radial thrust reduces to
∆F
zp
= ( )
2 2
2 2
3 γ
8 2
p h
p h
u u
r r
g
¸ ¸

⋅ π −
(
¸ ,
...(7.16)
In order to have perfect axial thrust balancing
F
Zi
= ∆F
zp
. ...(7.17)
The diameter of the radial blades can be determined from equation (7.16) and (7.17).
In some of the pump constructions, the radial blades are provided in casing wall instead of at
impeller rear shroud. Since blade is stationary, the fluid velocity will be
1
2
u instead of ‘u’. In practice,
it is found that fluid velocity is slightly more than ‘
1
2
u’.
7.8 AXIAL THRUST BALANCING BY BALANCING HOLES
This method of balancing is done by providing an orifice hole below the inlet edge of impeller
blade, connecting the chamber kept between the impeller rear shroud and casing wall [Figs. 7.6 (c), 7.9].
Referring to the pressure distribution prevailing on both sides of impeller, non balancing of axial thrust
exists only at impeller eye area. The pressure is suction pressure (negative pressure) at the front side of
the impeller shroud below the inlet edge of the impeller, whereas, pressure at the rear side of the impeller
shroud is +ve (space C). Perfect balancing can be attained if these two pressures are made equal by
providing an orifice type hole (D) connecting these two spaces. Although theoretically the axial thrust is
balanced, practically a slight unbalanced force exists either +ve or –ve. This is due to the fact that, the
pressure drop across the front and rear wearing rings A and B are not equal owing to the difference in
172 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
wearing clearance at A and at B due to gradual wear in
running. The flow q
L1
and

q
L3
are also not equal. The
pressure at chamber D is always slightly greater than
the suction pressure at impeller eye, due to hydraulic
losses in orifice. But magnitude of this axial thrust is
very small, and it is taken care of by bearing. This facility
enables to provide smaller capacity bearings.
The diameters of wearing ring ‘D
i
’ at both ends
of the impeller are selected as equal. The sum total of
the area of orifices ΣA
Ori
must be more than the wearing
ring area ‘A
w
’, in order to have perfect balancing.
Normally ΣA
Ori
≥ 4 to 5 A
w
for better cavitational
property.
Although this process is simple and easy for manufacture, the flow quantity ‘q
C3
’ through the
orifice is larger than the normal ‘q
L3
’ through stuffing box, as a result of which the main flow ‘Q
act
’ is
smaller and the flow through the impeller Q
th
is larger. Volumetric efficiency η
v
, overall efficiency η
and the total head ‘H’considerably reduce. Vacuum before the inlet edge of the impeller is also reduced.
Correspondingly, the cavitational characteristics also reduce, due to reduction in allowable H
Vac
for a
wide range of operation of pump. Due to this drawback, this method is not recommended and not
followed for pump having low quantity and low head.
7.9 AXIAL THRUST BALANCING BY BALANCE DRUM AND DISC
Axial thrust balancing by balancing drum and by balancing disc provides perfect balancing. This
method is adopted in multistage pumps and is fitted after the last stage of the pump. The main advantage
of the arrangement is that, perfect balancing is achieved at all points of operation automatically and also
it can be used for any number of stages in pump. For trouble free running, provision must be given to
allow the rotating system to move slightly in axial direction in both directions (≈ 0.5 mm). Balancing
drum [Fig. 7.6 (a)] consists of a chamber, where the drum is located. This chamber is connected by a
p
4
Q
Q
p
2
p
5
∆p
d
p
3
p
5
p
5
ϕ∆p
d
p
4 F
d
b
b
2
b
q
3
ΣF
zi
p
s
R
sh
R
e
R
a
R
b
l
d
2
K
1
K
2
Tube T
Fig. 7.10. Axial thrust balancing by balancing disc
D
C
Fig. 7.9. Axial thrust balancing by
balancing holes
AXIAL AND RADIAL THRUSTS 173
pipe to the impeller eye of the I stage impeller. The size of the drum is selected such that ΣF
Z
, the total
axial thrust of all the impellers, of the multistage pump is equalised by the axial force (F
D
) developed by
balancing drum in the opposite direction.
Practically, there may be a very small amount of unbalanced axial thrust, which is developed due
to fluctuation in the leakage flow q
3
. Also, there will be unequal balancing of axial thrust, when the
clearance between rotary and stationary number of the drum wears out, due to aging. Such unbalanced
forces are taken care of by bearings.
Balancing disc works under the same principle as that of balancing drum (Figs. 7.11 and 7.12).
The leakage flow q
3
of the fluid from the last stage of the impeller enters the chamber (K
1
) located
between balancing disc (1) and stationary ring (2) through the axial clearances b. The chamber ( K
2
) is
connected to the impeller eye area of the I stage with the help of pipe.
When pump is running, the leakage flow (q
3
) from the main flow (Q
th
) through the impeller, under
the pressure p
3
flows through the axial clearance (b) to the disc chamber K
1
where the pressure is p
4
and
then through the clearance (b
1
), with certain losses. Flow then enters the chamber outlet K
2
, from which
flow passes through the tube T, enter the eye of the impeller. The pressure drops from p
5
to p
1
which is
greater than the suction pressure P
S
(i.e., P
5
> p
1
> p
S
).
p
0
p
1
Suciton
d
y

d

q
3
Q
F
zD
F
zI
Q
Fig. 7.11. Balancing drum (another form) Fig. 7.12. Axial thrust balancing by balancing drum
Pressure (p
4
) in the chamber (K
1
) induces a force at the bottom of the disc clearance passage. If
this pressure (p
4
) is larger than total axial thrust Σ F
Z
, the moving disc moves away from the stationary
ring. The disc clearance (b
1
) now increases. This in turn increases the leakage flow (q
3
) and also the
losses in the clearance. As a result of this, the pressure (p
4
) drops down and the disc moves towards the
stationary ring which in turn reduces the clearance (b
1
) and losses in the disc. This process repeats and
the clearance (b
1
) goes on changing, until the pressure (p
4
) equalises the axial thrust ΣF
Z
.. At this stage
the clearance b
1
remains constant. The leakage quantity (q
3
) flows through the tube to the impeller eye
of the first stage of the impeller.
The pressure drop (p
4
– p
5
) at the disc clearance, the leakage flow (q
3
), the dimensions of the
clearance, the connecting pipe dimensions to carry the leakage quantity q
3
back to the inlet of the Ist
stage impeller are to be determined as follows:
The pressure drop, ∆ p (p
4
– p
5
) across the disc clearance, to get complete balancing of axial thrust
will be
∆P =
2 2
( )
Z
a h
F
R R
Σ
ψ π −
...(7.18)
174 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
where, Ψ is the coefficient depending upon the pressure distribution across the disc Ψ < 1, R
a
is outer
diameter of disc and R
h
is the outer diameter of the shaft sleeve.
Taking an uniform change of pressure across the clearance ‘b
1
’, the coefficient Ψ depends upon
the dimensions of the disc only
ψ =
2 2
2
(1 ) 1 (1 2 ) 3
3 1
e e b
a a a
b
a
r r r
R R R
r
R
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
− φ - - - φ −
( ( (
¸ , ¸ , ¸ ,
¸ ¸

(
¸ ,
...(7.19)
where, φ the coefficient depends upon the pressure drop at the entry to and exit from disc clearance and
the losses in the clearance and is taken as φ = 0.18 to 0.25.
The leakage quantity (q
3
) will be
q
3
= µ2 π r
e
b
1
2
γ
p
g

...(7.20)
The flow coefficient µ will be
µ =
2
2
1
1
( )
0.5
2
a e e e
a a
R r r r
R b R

λ - -
...(7.21)
The pressure p
4
before the disc can be determined from the pressure drop across the axial clearances
b. i.e.,
(p
3
– p
4
) =
2
2 2
2
ω
( 1) ( )
8
p S
H Z H R r
g
(
γ − - − −
(
¸ ¸
– ∆P – (p
5
– p
s
) ...(7.22)
where, H — Head developed per stage.
Z — Number of stages.
p
s
— Suction pressure at impeller eye of 1st stage.
p
5
— The pressure in the balancing chamber outlet (not more than 5 to 8 kg/cm
2
so
that the stuffing box can work without any trouble).
The pressure drop (p
3
– p
4
) across the axial clearance (b) will be
q
3
= µ
s
A
s
3 4
2
γ
p p
g

...(7.23)
Knowing q
3
from equation (7.20) and the pressure drop from equation (7.19) the area
µ
s
A
s
=
3
3 4
2
γ
q
p p
g

...(7.24)
AXIAL AND RADIAL THRUSTS 175
For better operation the clearance b
1
= (0.0010 to 0.0012) R
a
and will be 0.6 to 0.8 mm. Now,
hence the length ‘L’ for the clearance can be determined.
The radius R
a
of the disc is selected slightly less than the outer radius of the impeller. The diameter
R
b
= (1.2 to 1.5) R
sh
where R
sh
= the shaft radius. The inner radius R
e
is fixed, based on the sufficient
length (l
d
) of the disc.
The pressure drop ‘Ψ∆p’ is taken as constant. The coefficient ψ is determined from the condition
that the force F
d
determined from the actual pressure distribution is equal to the pressure distribution on
the complete surface of the disc i.e.,
∑F
zi
=
( )
2 2
d d a b
F p R R · ψ ∆ π − =
2
a
b
R
R
p rdr ∆ π

= 2
e
b
R
d
R
p ∆ π

rdr + 2
a
e
R
R
pd rdr ∆ π

...(7.25)
The pressure distribution on both sides of the disc and the pressure drop ∆p change according to
radius. Pressure on the right side of the disc p
5
is constant and approximately 4 to 8 kg/cm
2
, for trouble
free operation of stuffing box. The pressure ‘p
4
’ at the left side of the disc is also constant. The pressure
drops from p
4
to p
5
due to losses in the balancing disc clearance φ∆p where the coefficient φ will be
φ =
2
1.5
. 0.5
2
d a e
d e a
l R R
b R R
¸ ¸
- -
(
¸ ,
λ
...(7.26)
where l
d
= R
a
– R
e
and λ, the coefficient of friction, depends upon the Reynold’s number of the flow ‘R
e

R
e
=
2
2
2
2
2
a
a
u
b C
¸ ¸
-
(
¸ ,
ν
...(7.27)
where C
a
is the flow velocity at entrance and ν the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. Normally λ = 0.4 to
0.8 and φ will be 0.15 to 0.25. The pressure drop (∆p) in the disc clearance can be taken as proportional
to radius of the disc. It can be expressed
∆p = ∆p
d
(1 – φ)
a
a e
R r
R R


...(7.28)
Substituting this value of ∆p in equation (7.21)
F
d
=
e
b
R
R


P
a
2π rdr +
a
e
R
R


P
a
(1 – φ)
a
a e
R r
R R


2π rdr
=
( )
( )
( )
2 2
2 2
1
2 2
(1 ) (1 2 ) 3
3
e b
a a a
e d
a b
R R R R R
R R p
R R
(
− φ - - - φ −
π − ∆
¸ ¸

176 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
from which
ψ =
2 2
2
2 (1 ) 1 (1 ) 3
3 1
e e b
a a a
b
a
R R R
R R R
R
R
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
φ − - - - − φ
( ( (
¸ , ¸ , ¸ ,
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
(

(
(
¸ ,
¸ ,
...(7.29)
The flow q
3
= µ
d
A
3
2
γ
d
p
g

= µ2π R
e
b
2
2
γ
d
p
g

...(7.30)
where, µ
d
=
2
2
1
. 0.5
2
d e e
a a
R R
b R R
- -
λ
.
The length of the clearance ‘l
y
’ at the shaft sleeve before the disc will be
q
3
= µ
y
A
y
3 4
2
γ
p p
g

= µ
y
2π R
h
b
y

3 4
2
γ
p p
g

...(7.31)
where, b
y
is the radial width of the clearance and µ
y
the coefficient is
µ
y
=
1
1.5
2
y
y
l
b
λ
-
The pressure drop (p
3
– p
4
) = (p
2
– p
5
) – (p
2
– p
3
) – ∆

p
d
p
2
= p
1
+ γ [H (Z – 1) + H
p
] ...(7.32)
H — Total head of the pump
Z — Number of stages
(p
2
– p
3
) = γ
2
2
8
u
g
2
2
2
1
b
R
R
¸ ¸

(
(
¸ ,
...(7.33)
The length of the tube ‘l
t
’, connecting the suction side of the Ist stage and outlet chamber of the
disc is approximately the length of the pump assembly. The tube diameter d
t
is determined from the
equation (7.34)
q
3
= µ
t
A –
5 1
2
γ
p p
g

=
2
5 1
π
2
γ λ
4 1.5
t
t
t
d p p
g
l
d

-
...(7.34)
AXIAL AND RADIAL THRUSTS 177
7.10 RADIAL FORCES ACTING ON VOLUTE CASING
Radial forces in spiral casing, occur only where axisymmetry is not maintained in flow at the
impeller outlet. Theoretically, axisymmetry can prevail only at the optimum efficiency conditions.
Practically, axisymmetry cannot be maintained due to uneven flow velocity across the breadth at the
outlet of the impeller. At partial flow conditions due to less flow, the flow is in the form of diffuser, due
to larger area of casing, whereas at higher flow the flow passage becomes smaller and forms a convergent
passage. In all these cases, flow cannot be axisymmetric. In Fig. 7.13, the pressure distribution at the
inlet of the spiral casing and the location of minimum (F
1
) and maximum (F
2
) forces acting on the
casing are illustrated. The net radial force acting on the rotating shaft creates fatigue and deflection. The
clearance provided between wearing rings and between shaft sleeve and shaft must take care of this
deflection while the pump runs from minimum to maximum flow. The impeller side bearing or the front
bearing must be designed to take this radial load.
180 360
270
90
p
2
(a) (b)
360 180
270
90
0
F
1
F
2
Fig. 7.13. Pressure distribution across volute
7.11 DETERMINATION OF RADIAL FORCES
Forces acting on the external (F
e
) and internal (F
i
) surfaces in x and y coordinates can be determined
as,
F
xe
=
e
A
p

dA cos (nx)
F
ye
=
e
A
p

dA cos (ny)
where n is the normal to elementary surface considered
p is the pressure, taken from the known pressure distribution.
Applying moment of momentum equation between inlet and outlet, in order to determine the
internal forces.
for external surface ...(7.35)
178 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
– F
xi
=
e
A
ρ

C
n
dA C cos (C x) –
1
ρ
A

C
n
dA C cos (C x)
– F
yi
=
2
A
ρ
∫ C
n
dA C cos (C y) –
3
ρ
A

C
n
dA C cos (C y)
...(7.36)
where, A
1
and A
2
are the inlet and outlet area of the impeller C and C
n
are the absolute velocity and its
components, resolved normal to the surface dA.
ρ is the fluid density.
Since the fluid exerts a force on impeller, the negative sign is given for F
xi
and F
yi
. For normal
entry at inlet C = C
0
and is parallel to axis. Hence, C
n
= 0. The integral for the area ‘A’ becomes zero.
The equations are reduced to
– F
xi
=
2
A
ρ
∫ C
n
dA C cos ( ) C x
and – F
yi
=
2
A
ρ
∫ C
n
dAC cos (C y) ...(7.37)
Total forces, F
x
= F
xe
+ F
xi
and F
y
= F
ye
+ F
yi
and F =
2 2
x y
F F - and angle θ · Arc tan
y
x
F
F
...(7.38)
Experimental investigation on different pumps shows that the pressure is almost constant around
the circumference of the impeller outlet (or at inlet to spiral casing) at optimum efficiency condition i.e.,
flow is axisymmetric. At high flow rate, (above normal flow) the pressure falls from tongue to outlet of
spiral casing. At below normal flow conditions the pressure increases from tongue to outlet end of spiral
casing. At very small flow rate, the flow reversal takes place near the tongue due to high pressure. For
calculation purpose, it can be assumed that pressure variation is uniform i.e., in straight line, from
tongue to outlet of spiral casing at below normal and above normal flow rates (Fig. 7.13).
Total head is the sum of pressure head (H
p
) and dynamic head (H
dy
). Considering a uniform
straight line variation around the circumference of the impeller, the pressure at any angle θ of the volute
can be written as
p = γH
m
= γ
¸

¸
H
p
+ H
dy
θ

¸
(
,
...(7.39)
and dA = b
2
R
2
d θ and cos (nx) = cos θ in equation (7.31). The radial thrust on the external side will be
(F
xe
)
F
xe
=
e
A
p

dA cos (n x) = –

0
γ

θ

¸ ¸
-
(
¸ ,
p dy
H H b
2
r
2
dθ cosθ
= –

0
γ


θ

H
dy
b
2
r
2
dθ cos θ
AXIAL AND RADIAL THRUSTS 179
= –
γ

dy
H
b
2
r
2

0
θ

cos θ dθ –
2
Hdy γ
π
b
2
r
2
[ θ sin θ + cos θ]
O

= 0
...(7.40)
Since,

0
cos

θ dθ = 0
The external force in y direction F
ye
will be
F
ye
= –

0
γ

θ

¸ ¸
-
(
¸ ,
dy
p
H H
b
2
r
2
dθ sinθ =

0
γ

θ

H
dy
b
2
γ
2
d θ sinθ
=
2 2
2
dy
H
b r
γ

π
2
0
sin d
π
θ θ θ

=
2 2
2
γ

π
dy
H
b r
[ ]
2
0
cos sin
π
− θ θ - θ
· –
γ

dy
H
b
2
r
2
(–2π ) = r H
dy
b
2
r
2
...(7.41)
The forces F
xe
and

F
ye
calculated as per the equation (7.35) are directed in radial direction towards
axis, near the tongue i.e., towards the smaller sections of spiral casing. The radial forces at the internal
surface F
xi
and

F
yi
can be determined from the experimental results. From the analysis, it is found that
the tangential component C
u2
at the outlet of the impeller is constant at all point around the circumference
Since
2
C

=
2 r
C

+
2 u
C

– F
xi
=
2
ρ
A

C
r2
dA C′
2
(C
2
x) =
2
ρ
A

C
2
r2
dA cos (C
r2
x)
+
2
ρ
A

C
r2
dA C′
u2
cos (C′
u2
x) and
– F
yi
=
2
ρ
A

C
r2
dA C′
2
cos (C
u2
y) =
2
ρ
A

C
2
r2
dA cos (C
r2
y)
+
2
ρ
A

C
r2
dA cos (C
r2
y)
Taking the radial velocity at the outlet of the spiral casing as C
r20
=
2 2
π
Q
D b
, radial velocity at any
angle θ of the spiral casing will be
C
r2
=
θ
1

¸ ¸

(
¸ ,
C
r20
So, F
xi
=

0
ρ

C
r20
θ
1

¸ ¸

(
¸ ,
b
2
r
2
d

θ cos θ –

0
ρ

C
r20
×
θ
1

¸ ¸

(
¸ ,
× C′
u2
b
2
r
2
d

θ sin θ
= ρ C
2
r20
r
2
b
2

0
θ
1

¸ ¸

(
¸ ,

cos θ d

θ – ρ C
r20
b
2
r
2

0
θ
1

¸ ¸

(
¸ ,

sin θ dθ
...(7.42)
180 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
= 2b
2
r
2
γ
2
20
2
r
C
g
2
20
1
π
u
r
C
C
′ ¸ ¸

(
¸ ,
b
2
D
2
γ
2
20
2
r
C
g
2
1 1
tan π
α′
¸ ¸
− (
(
¸ ,
...(7.43)
– F
yi
=

0
ρ

C
2
r20
2
θ
1

¸ ¸

(
¸ ,
b
2
r
2
d

θ sin θ +

0
ρ

C
r20
×
2
θ
1

¸ ¸

(
¸ ,
C′
u2
b
2
d

θ cos θ · ρC
2
r20
b
2
r
2
2

0
θ
1

¸ ¸

(
¸ ,

sin

θd

θ
+ ρ C
r20
C′
u2
b
2
r
2

0
θ
1

¸ ¸

(
¸ ,

cos θd

θ
= – 2b
2
r
2
γ
2
20
2
r
C
g
= – b
2
D
2
γ
2
20
2
r
C
g
...(7.44)
where, C

u2
=
2
m
gH
u
, C
r20
= radial velocity at impeller outlet at optimum efficiency condition, α′
2
is the
absolute angle at outlet of the impeller. tan α ′
2
=
20
2
r
u
C
C′
.
While calculating the forces acting on outside surfaces of the impeller, only the cylindrical surface
of the impeller outlet is considered. The calculated value will be slightly lower than the actual. The
direction of the resultant will deviate about 20° with respect to vertical towards the volute tongue. The
derived equations can also be applied for other regions of operation either for part loaded or for over-
loaded conditions.
A.J. Stepanoff |112| recommends following empirical rule for the radial thrust in pumps
F
r
= 360
2
1
opt
Q
Q
(
¸ ¸
(
− (
(
(
¸ ,
¸ ¸
Hb′
2
D
2
...(7.45)
where H — Total head, D
2
— outer diameter of the impeller b′
2
= b
2
+ 2t
b
2
— Outlet breadth of impeller and
t — thickness of shroud at outlet.
7.12 METHODS TO BALANCE THE RADIAL THRUST
Hydraulically balancing the radial thrust at all regions of operation is achieved by providing flow
symmetry in casing design. Dividing the volute flow passage into two equally, symmetrical channels,
each channel covering 180° of flow and kept opposite to each other provides complete symmetry at all
regions of operations. Radial forces developed in each channel are equal in magnitude, but acting opposite
to each other at any point around the circumference, at all regions of operation.
In the same manner, number of channel can be increased. Provision of a number of vaned channels
more than two called, diffuser, provides perfect symmetry and equalises the radial thrust.
AXIAL AND RADIAL THRUSTS 181
In some of the volute designs for single stage pumps two volutes, each covering 180° of total
flow angle, are provided, with two outlet mouths (Fig. 7.14). In some other designs, two half volutes
are provided each covering 180° of flow area from impeller outlet (Fig. 7.14). The total flow enters a
single outlet mouth of volute. In both cases, the radial thrust created at any point equalises between two
half volute thereby net radial force is zero.
In multistage pumps, the outlet flow from the impeller enters two spiral passage, which are kept
180° apart, which equalises the radial thrust.
d
i
f
f
u
s
e
r

s
e
c
t
i
o
n
(a) (b)
Fig. 7.14. Volute designs to balance radial thrust
8.1 INTRODUCTION
Actual pump parameters differ from the theoretical values, due to the presence of viscosity in real
fluid and complicated flow passages in pumps. Two identical pumps differ in quality due to the presence
of different dimensions of surface roughness in flow passages. Model analysis and model testing of
pumps give an option to overcome all the above mentioned difficulties and also gives all necessary
information to design new pumps, so that, these pumps can be operated in a wide range of operation,
with quality.
Two pumps, model and prototype units, can be identical, if these pumps are similar geometrically,
kinematically and dynamically. Geometrical similarity indicates linear proportionality of all dimensions
including surface roughness of pump parts between model and prototype units. Kinematic similarity
indicates that fluid flow direction in all elements of model and prototype, at identical points remain
same. Combining these two similarities, we get that the absolute, relative and blade velocities between
model and prototype are proportional but in the same direction. Dynamic similarity indicates the
proportionality of the forces acting at the identical points of model and phototype units. Referring the
Navier-Stokes equation for a three dimensional incompressible fluid flow, geometrical similarity and
kinematic similarity are included, if dynamic similarity is considered. Most important non-dimensional
parameters such as Reynold’s number (R
e
), Froude number (F
r
), Struhaul’s number (S
h
) and Eular’s
number (E
u
) are considered for dynamic similarity for incompressible viscous flow through pumps.
These numbers must be same for model and for prototype.
A
B
B
A′
u
A′
C
A′
C
A
u
A
w
A
w
A′
Model
Prototype
β
A′
β
β A
A
=
′ α α
A A
=

C
A
w
A′
w
A
=

C
A′
Fig. 8.1. Geometrical and kinematic similarity
MODEL ANALYSIS
8
Comp-1/Newage/Pump-8.pm6.5—31.5.07 24.11.07
182
MODEL ANALYSIS 183
Reynold’s number R
e
=
Vl
ν
=
Inertia force
Viscous force
Froude number F
r
=
2
V
gl
=
Inertia force
Gravitational force
...(8.1)
Struhaul’s number S
h
=
V
nl
=
Inertia force
Unsteady, periodical forces
where V is the velocity, l is the linear dimension, ν is the kinematic viscosity, and n is the speed. During
model test, all the above three non-dimensional numbers cannot be studied simultaneously. Since these
three numbers do not depend on each other, they are studied individually. Reynold’s number is studied
for a pressure flow, closed conduit flow of viscous fluid, such as flow in fully submerged condition,
flow in pipes and flow of fluid through pumps under completely filled condition. Froude number is
studied for a free flow such as open channel flow, flow of ship in water. In pumps, this number is studied
under fully developed cavitation condition, where flow separation exists. Struhauls number is used for
unsteady, periodical flow, in pumps, impeller as a whole, propulsion of ships.
When volumetric forces are not considered, Reynold’s number and Froude number can be studied
together by another number called Eular’s number (E
u
).
Eular’s Number E
u
=
2
p
V ρ
=
Pressure force
Inertia force
where p is the pressure drop.
Since geometric similarity is the proportionality of linear dimensions of identical parts of model
and prototype, using suffices ‘p’ for prototype and ‘m’ for model for all equation hereafter,
p
m
l
l
= λ
l
p
m
D
D
=
p
m
B
B
where ‘l’ is the linear dimension, D is the diameter, B is the breadth and ‘λ
l
’ is the proportionality
coefficient.
Kinematic similarity in pumps indicate that flow directions are same for model and for prototype,
i.e., flow angles namely absolute angle ‘α’ and blade angle ‘β’ remain same in model and in prototype
i.e., α
m
= α
p
and β
m
= β
p
. Since linear dimensional are already proportional between model and prototype,
velocity triangles are similar i.e.,
p
m
C
C
=
p
m
w
w
=
p
m
u
u
=
mp
mm
C
C
=
up
um
C
C
p
m
u
u
=
π
π
p p
m m
D n
D n
= λ
l
p
m
n
n
...(8.2)
Theoretical Flow rate,
thp
thm
Q
Q
=
π
π
p p mp
m m mm
D B C
D B C
= λ
3
l
p
m
n
n
...(8.3)
184 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
For geometrical similarity,
p
m
D
D
=
p
m
B
B
Hence,
p
m
Q
Q
=
3
3
p p
m m
D n
D n
...(8.4)
Actual flow rate, Q
a
= η
v
.Q
th
,
ap
am
Q
Q
= λ
3
l
=
.
.
vp
p
vm m
n
n
η
η
=
3
3
ν
η
η
p p p
m m m
D n
D n
ν
...(8.5)
Theoretical total head,
thp
thm
H
H
=
up p
um m
C u
C u
=
2
2
p
m
u
u
=
2
2
2
p
l
m
n
n
λ =
2 2
2 2

p p
m m
D n
D n
...(8.6)
Actual total head, H
a
= η
h
H
th
.
Hence,
ap
am
H
H
= λ
2
l
2
2
η
η
hp p
hm m
n
n
=
2 2
2 2
η
η
hp p p
hm m m
D n
D n
...(8.7)
Theoretical power, N
th
= γQH and actual power, N
a
= ηN
th
ap
am
N
N
=
η
p thp
m thm
N
N

η
=
η γ
γ
p p p p
m m m m
Q H
Q H η
=
3
2 2
3 2 2
η
η
p
p p p p p
m m m m m m
D n
D n
D n D n
γ
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
γ
=
3 5
3 5
η γ
η γ
p p p p
m m m m
n D
n D

=
3
5
3
η γ
η γ
p p p
l
m m
m
n
n
⋅ ⋅ λ ⋅
...(8.8)
If pumping fluid is same in prototype and in model γ
p
= γ
m
.
In order to compare the performance of different pumps, and also to get complete characteristics
of one series of pumps a term specific spread (n
s
) is used. It is defined as the speed of a pump which is
geometrically similar for one pump series and consumes 1 hp of power under 1 m of total head. The
efficiencies of these pump series remain constant independent of its sizes i.e., n = n
s
when N = 1 hp and
H = 1 m.
N (hp) =
γ
75
QH
(where Q in m
3
/sec H in m and γ = 1000 kg/m
3
From similarity laws for power
H ∝ η
h
n
2
D
2
or D
2
∝ 2
h
H
n η
; D
5

5/ 2
2
η
h
H
n
 
 
 
 

5/ 2
5/ 2 5
η
h
H
n
Ν ∝ η n
3
D
5
or D
5

3
N
n η
MODEL ANALYSIS 185
Combining both by removing ‘D’
3
η
N
n

5/ 2
5/ 2 5
η
h
H
n
or n
2

5/ 2
5/ 2 5
h
H
n
η
η
90%
x
=
1
0
,0
0
0
x

=
1
,0
0
0
85%
x
=
1
0
0
80%
70%
x

=
1
0
0 100 200 300 400
10
100
1,000
10,000
Specific speed (n )
s
Fig. 8.2. (a) Efficiency change for different sizes
x = 10 x = 100 x = 1,000 x = 10,000
Fig. 8.2. (b) Size of the unit (x)
186 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
n = n
S
if H = 1 m and N = 1 hp, Designating η as η
s
(efficiency of the series) and η
h
as η
hs
.
where suffix ‘s’ indicates one series of pumps having same value of n
s
.
s
n
n
=
1/ 2
5/ 2
5/ 2
η .1 η
.
η .1 η
s h
hs
N
H
 
 
 
=
5/ 4
5/ 4
η η
η η
s h
hs
N
H
...(8.9)
If efficiencies are same for all pumps of same series i.e., for one value of n
s
,
η
s
= η and η
hs
= η
h
. So, n
s
=
5/ 4
n N
H
...(8.10)
Substituting the value N =
γ
75
QH
=
1000
75
. Q.H
n
s
=
1000
75
.
3/ 4
n Q
H
=
3/ 4
3.65n Q
H
...(8.11)
Characteristics linear dimension in pump is the diameter D. So replacing l and D
Struhaul’s No. S
h
=
V
nD
or n =
.
h
V
S D
Eular’s No. E
u
=
2
ρ
p
V
. Since p = γH or γ = ρg, E
u
=
2
gH
V
or H =
2
V
g
. E
u
The flow rate Q = AV
n
s
=
3/ 4
3.65n Q
H
= 3.65
.
h
V
S D
.
3/ 2
. A V
V
3/ 4
3/ 4
( )
u
g
E
=
3/ 4
.
u
K
Sh E
...(8.12)
where, K =
3/ 4
3.65 A g
D
which is constant for one series of pump, since
A
D
is constant for one series
of pump. The specific speed, n
s
is a function of similarity of Struhaul’s and Eular’s numbers and hence
similarity of Struhaul’s, Reynold’s and Froude numbers.
Each value of n
s
designates one series of pump, which has its own operating region at which
overall efficiency is maximum and hence the form, shape of pump of one series will be same for one n
s
value. But forms and shapes will be different for each series. Specific speed n
s
completely defines the
characteristics of one series. (Fig. 8.3) shows impeller shape for each value of n
s
.
n = 40 80
s
÷ 80 150 ÷ 150 300 ÷ 300 600 ÷ 400 600 ÷ 600 1200 ÷ 1200 2000 ÷
D

=

D
0
1
D
2
D
0
D
1
D
0
D
2
D
1
D
2
D
0
D
1
D
2
D
6
T
D D
6
T
D D
6
T
D
Fig. 8.3. Impeller shapes for different n
s
MODEL ANALYSIS 187
The test results of a model pump i.e., a pump from one series having one value of n
s
, can be used
for developing other pumps in the same series (same n
s
value), if it is brought out in a non-dimensional
form. In pump industries, unit head (K
H
), unit discharge (K
Q
), and unit power (K
N
), are the non-
dimensional parameters used to study the pump characteristics of one series.
Quantity of flow, Q = η
V
.πDB.C
m
For geometrically similar pump, B ∝ D and hence, DB ∝ D
2
.
For kinematic similarity in pump, C
m
∝ u and u= πDn. (n-speed is rps).
So, Q ∝ η
V
πD
2
Dn or Q ∝ nD
3
K
Q
=
3
Q
nD
is constant for one series of pump and is called unit discharge.
Similarly total head, H =
u
C u
g

h
. Since, C
u
α u α nD, H α n
2
D
2
K
H
=
2 2
H
n D
is constant for one series of pump and is called unit head.
Power N =
γ
75
QH

γ
75
nD
3
n
2
D
2
α n
3
D
5
K
N
=
3 5
N
n D
is constant for the series of pump and is called unit power. Test results of the
model pump conducted at different speeds are reproduced in these three non-dimensional parameters
namely σ, η, K
H
, K
N
= f (K
Q
). This is called universal characteristics of pump and remains same for one
series of pump i.e., for pumps having same n
s
but with different n, Q and H. Substituting values K
Q
and
K
H
in specific speed n
s
equation, Q = K
Q
n D
3
, H = K
H
n
2
D
2
.
n
s
=
3
2 2 3/ 4
3.6560
( )
Q
H
n K nD
K n D
=
3/ 4
219
( )
Q
H
K
K
...(8.13)
8.1.1 Real Fluid Flow Pattern in Pumps
Real fluid flow pattern prevailing in pumps, at all regions of operations i.e., below optimum,
optimum and above optimum regions, is complicated and is far different from the theoretical flow
pattern. This necessitates proper streamlining of flow passages, and bringing the same while
manufacturing. Also identical flow pattern should be maintained for pumps of same specific speed, but
possessing different sizes.
One of the effective methods adopted, in practice is MODEL ANALYSIS based on mechanical
similarity of real fluid flow. Complete mechanical similarity cannot be achieved. For example, Reynold’s
number (R
e
) of flow cannot be maintained same at identical points of operation for different pumps of
same specific speed. This inturn changes the frictional coefficient (h
f
) and correspondingly the hydraulic
losses and efficiency. This is overcome by operating the pumps in automodelling region, where frictional
coefficient remains same for all Reynold’s numbers.
188 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Also absolute value of surface roughness purely depends upon the manufacturing techniques
adopted. This value will remain same independent of the pump size. So the relative roughness
ε
D
 
 
 
will
be higher for small pumps and lower for larger pumps. As a result, the frictional coefficient ( f ) will be
lower for larger pumps, and higher for smaller pumps even though the pumps operate at same Reynold’s
number. Hydraulic losses will be higher and hydraulic efficiency will be lower in smaller pumps and
vice versa in larger pumps. This scale effect is taken into account by using theoretical equations with
practical experimental coefficients. Figs. 8.4, 8.5, 8.6 and 8.7 show the increase in efficiency of same
pump when relative roughness is reduced.
0 25 50 75 100 125 Q,m /hr
3
H
M kW
N
50
40
30
20
10 0
η%
0 80
60
40
20
0
2
1
H
N
η
Fig. 8.4. Effect of surface roughness on pump performance
(1) Original from foundry casting (2) After smoothening the flow passage
60
40
20
1
8
1
2
6

m
H
e
a
d

(
H
)

m

a
n
d

e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

%
0 3 6 9 12
Discharge (Q) LPS
Fig. 8.5. Effect of improving surface finish of the impeller shrouds on pump performance
– – – Machined and polished
—— Rough surface 0.5 mm grain size
MODEL ANALYSIS 189
6
3
0
6
0
1 5
1
0
2
1
0
2
0
3
1
5
3
0
4
2
0
4
0
5
2
5
5
0
N

(
h
p
)

i
n
p
u
t

H

(
m
)

t
o
t
a
l

h
e
a
d
%

e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
Discharge lps
Effect due to roughness change in impeller surface
Pump type
2 × 1½ SB 33
Due to reduction in
grain size of moulding
sand by 50%
Fig. 8.6. Effect of roughness on performance
– – – – Reduced roughness
——— Original
190 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
1
1
0
2 5
2
0
3
3
0
4
1
0
4
0
5
5
0
6
1
5
6
0
7
0
h
p

i
n
p
u
t
2
0

m

t
o
t
a
l

h
e
a
d
%

e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
Discharge lps
Effect to reduction in relative roughness in impeller passage
Pump type
2½ × 2 SB 26
by reducing the grain
size of the moulding
sand by 15%
Fig. 8.7. Effect of roughness on performance
– – – – Fire sand
——— Regular sand
MODEL ANALYSIS 191
Convergent flow takes place in turbines whereas divergent flow prevails in pumps. Laws applied
to turbine cannot be applied to pumps. The relative values of volumetric and mechanical losses are
more in pumps.
As per model analysis, the total head of a pump increases with the square of the speed of pump,
theoretically, but practically a little lower. This equation is defined, based on the assumptions that
efficiency of model and prototype are same when operated at identical points. Actually, when speed
increases, cavitation characteristics of pump reduces, which inturn reduces the efficiency to a certain
extent.
This is confirmed by many authors. So also viscosity of the pumping liquid influences on hydraulic
efficiency.
8.2 SIMILARITY OF HYDRAULIC EFFICIENCY
Head loss ∆H ∝
2
2
V
g
= λ.
2
2
V
g
Hence, η
h
= 1 –
m
H
H

= 1 – λ.
2
2
m
V
gH
= 1 – const. λ
Since
2
2
m
V
gH
is same for model and for prototype.
Prof. Nikuradse |67| stated that under auto model region of operation, the frictional coefficient λ
can be expressed as,
λ =
2
1
1.74 2log
ε
R  
+
 
 
...(8.14)
and hydraulic efficiency (η
h
) can be written as,
η
h
=
2
Const.
1.74 2log
ε
R  
+
 
 
...(8.15)
Since absolute value of surface roughness (ε) is constant as it depends upon the manufacturing
process, whatever may be the pump size, a general form of hydraulic efficiency can be expressed as,
η
h
=
2
( log . )
A
B D +
...(8.16)
Prof. A. A. Lomakin has suggested that A = 0.42 and B = – 0.172
η
h
=
2
1
0.42
(log 0.172)
nom
D −
...(8.17)
192 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
where, D
1 nom
is the reference inlet diameter calculated as per the equation (8.15) and is expressed in mm
based on the equation (8.17). Hydraulic efficiency for prototype from model efficiency can be written
as,
η
hp
= 1– (1– η
hm
)
2
1 .
1
log 0.172
log 0.172
nom m
nomp
D
D
 

 
 

 
...(8.18)
In Fig. 8.8 the curve is drawn as per equation (8.17) for the diameter 350 mm. Practically, the drop
in efficiency is found more due to non auto model effect. Graph B,
p m
h h h ∆η = η − η is calculated as per
equation (8.18) for the same diameter 350 mm. This graph gives an idea of change in hydraulic efficiency
between prototype and model. This value can be taken for actual design.
B
A
10 20 40 60 100 200 400 600 1000 2000 4000 6000 10000
Dmm
∆η
h
%
4,5
4,0
3,5
3,0
2,5
2,0
1,5
1,0
0,5
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
η
h
%
Fig. 8.8. Hydraulic efficiency of pumps (A) and increase in hydraulic
efficiency between prototype and model (B)
8.3 SIMILARITY OF VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY
Volumetric efficiency, η
V
=
a
a
Q
Q Q + ∆
or,
1
η
V
= 1 +
a
Q
Q

where, Q
a
is the actual quantity of flow and ∆Q is the leakage flow through clearance, which can be
expressed as
∆Q = φA
L
2
L
g H ∆
where, φ = the flow coefficient, A—area of the clearance and ∆H
L
is the pressure drop across the
clearance. Flow coefficient φ depends upon the linear dimensions of the clearance and frictional
coefficient. Assuming the frictional coefficient is constant for prototype and for model and since absolute
values of clearance dimension are same for model and prototype.
φ
p
= φ
m
Suffix ‘p’ refers prototype and m refers model.
MODEL ANALYSIS 193
For geometrical similarity, linear dimensions of model and prototype are proportional i.e.,
A
p
= K
2
A
m
, where K is constant of proportionality for linear dimension. The pressure drop ∆H
L
is
proportional to the total head of the pump i.e., ∆H
L
∝ H ∝ n
2
D
2
.
So,
Lp
Lm
H
H


=
p
m
H
H
= K
2

2
p
m
n
n
 
 
 
p
m
Q
Q


=
. 2
. 2
p p Lp
m m Lm
A g H
A g H
φ ∆
φ ∆
= K
2

2
2 p
m
n
K
n
 
 
 
= K
3
p
m
n
n
 
 
 
...(8.19)
Therefore,
1
η
VP
= 1 +
p
p
Q
Q

= 1 +
3
3
.
p
m
m
p
m
m
n
K Q
n
n
K Q
n

= 1 +
m
m
Q
Q

=
1
Vm
n
or η
VP
= η
Vm
Thus, volumetric efficiency of model and prototype remain same, when clearance dimensions are
same for model and for prototype and the flow through the clearance is fully turbulent. If the leakage
clearances are different, these values are determined as per equation (8.19). Correspondingly, volumetric
efficiency of prototype will slightly change from that of model. Since, clearance change will be negligibly
small, it is usually neglected.
8.4 SIMILARITY OF MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY
Mechanical efficiency, η
m
is expressed as
η
m
=
γ
γ
th m
th m m
Q H
Q H N + ∆
...(8.20)
where, ∆N
m
is the total mechanical losses consisting of losses due to disc friction ‘∆N
d
’, losses in
stuffing box, ∆N
S
and losses in bearing, ∆N
B
. Losses in bearings are proportional to square of speed (n
2
)
and losses in stuffing box is proportional to speed n (Equation 6.8). Losses due to disc friction occupies
considerably a longer percentage of mechanical losses whereas losses in bearings and stuffing box are
very small and hence it is neglected. Total mechanical losses are taken as disc friction losses only.
Equation (8.20) can be written as
1
η
m
=
1
γ
d
th m
N
Q H

+
...(8.21)
∆N
d
∝ γn
3
D
5
= C
f
γn
3
D
5
194 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
where, C
f
is the frictional coefficient. Assumining C
fp
= C
fm
dp
dm
N
n


=
3 5
3 5
γ
γ
p p
fp p
m m
fm m
C n D
C n D
= K
5

3
3
γ
γ
p
p
m
m
n
n
...(8.22)
Power ratio,
p
m
N
N
=
γ
γ
p thp mp
m thm mm
Q H
Q H
=
γ
γ
p
m
K
5

3
p
m
n
n
 
 
 
...(8.23)
1
η
mp
= 1
γ
dp
p thp mp
N
Q H

+
= 1 +
5 3
3
3
5
p p
dm
m m
p p
m thm mm
m m
K n
N
n
n
k Q H
n
γ

γ
γ  
γ
 
γ
 
=
1
η
mm
...(8.24)
Hence, η
mp
= η
mm.
i.e., Mechanical efficiency of model and prototype remains same. So also disc
friction losses for model and for prototype has the same power ratio. Combining all the three efficiencies,
overall efficiency η will be
η η η η
η η η η
p mp vp hp
m mm vm hm
=
=
=
vp hp
vm hm
η .η
η .η
...(8.25)
η
vp
and η
vm
remain same for same clearance ratio for model and for prototype. If not the volumetric
efficiency differs. Prof. A.A. Lomakin has recommended the following empirical law to determine the
mechanical efficiency and volumetric efficiency in terms of the specific speed (n
s
) of the pump.
Volumetric efficiency,
1
η
ν
= 1 + 0.68 n
s
–2/3
Mechanical efficiency,
1
η
m
= 1 +
2
820
s
n
...(8.26)
where, n
s
=
3/ 4
3.65 n Q
H
.
9.1 SUCTION LIFT AND NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD (NPSH)
Allowable suction lift (H
S
) is referred as the vertical
height difference between pump axis and water level in
suction sump. Referring to Fig. 9.1, suction lift h
s
= Z
0s
– Z
su
.
Reference line for the calculation of suction lift, to determine
cavitation characteristics for different pump installations is
given in Fig. 9.2. For horizontal pumps, pump axis is always
taken as reference line. All measurement measured above
pump axis are referred as ‘delivery’ and all measurements
measured below pump axis are called ‘suction’. Energy in
suction line i.e., from suction sump (su) to the impeller inlet
edge of the pump (o) remains constant. So also the energy in
delivery line is constant. Mechanical energy is converted into
hydraulic energy in impeller and added to the available energy
at impeller ‘blade’. Referring to Fig. 9.1, the energy equation
between suction sump and the impeller inlet, before the inlet
edge of the blade can be written as
0
γ
p
+ Z
0
+
2
0
2
C
g
+ h
f

(s – 0)
=
γ
su
p
+ Z
su
+
2
2
su
C
g
0
γ
p
+
2
0
2
C
g
=
γ
su
p
+ (Z
su
– Z
0
) +
2
2
su
C
g
– h
f

(s – 0)
Since, (Z
su
– Z
0
) = – h
s
, and C
su
the velocity of fluid in suction sump, is zero
0
γ
p
+
2
0
2
C
g
=
γ
su
p
– ( h
s
+ h
f s
) ...(9.1)
In order to have a perfect cavitation free operation, the suction pressure ( p
0
) must be greater than
the vapour pressure (p
vp
) of the pumping fluid at the pumping temperature i.e., p
0
≥ p
vp
or
0
γ
p

γ
vp
p
≥ 0
9
CAVITATION IN PUMPS
Comp-1/Newage/Pump-9.pm6.5—4.6.07 24.11.07
195
h
fs
C
s
P
at
h
s
z
s
,
0
Z
s
u
V
p
0
sump [su]
Z
su
Fig. 9.1. Suction lift determination
196 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
i.e., must be always positive. Substituting this condition in equation (9.1). The Net Positive Suction
head of the pump (NPSH)
p
= H
sv
=
2
0 0
2
vp
p p
C
g
−  
+
 
γ
 
will be greater than zero or always positive.
Pump centerline
(c) Double suction vertical
Datum elevation
Pump centerline
and datum elevation
Pump
centerline
(b) Single suction-vertical
Datum elevation
outer diameter of inlet edge
Center line of the outlet edge
Fig. 9.2. Reference level for suction head measurement
i.e., H
sv
=
2
0
0
γ 2
vp
p p
C
g
−  
+
 
 
 
0 ≥
Combining equation (9.1) and (9.2)
H
sv
=
γ
su vp
p p −  
 
 
– ( h
s
+ h
fs
) ≥ 0 ...(9.2)
or
γ
−  
 
 
su vp
p p
≥ ( h
s
+ h
fs
)
Taking
γ
−  
 
 
su vp
p p
as (NPSH)
A
i.e., net positive suction head available and (h
s
+ h
f s
) (NPSH)
R
i.e., net positive suction head required, the condition required for cavitation free operation will be
CAVITATION IN PUMPS 197
(NPSH)
A
> (NPSH)
R
. Rearranging equation (9.2) and taking
γ
−  
 
 
su vp
p p
= H
su
– H
vp
suction lift (h
s
)
will be
h
s
= H
su
– H
vp
– H
sv
– h
fs
...(9.3)
For safe operation of pump, i.e., for net (NPSH)
p
, a reserve in H
sv
is added and is written with a
coefficient φ . Normally φ = 1.15 to 1.4 and safe suction lift will be
h
s
= H
su
– H
vp
– φH
sv
– h
fs
...(9.4)
If the sump is open to atmosphere H
su
= H
atm
. Atmospheric pressure at any altitude ‘∆’ can be
written as
H
atm.
= H
atm0

900
∆  
 
 
where H
atm0
is the atmospheric pressure at sea level. H
atm0
= 10.336
MWC = 760 mm of mercury column. If the pumping liquid is other than water p
atm0
= γ
w
H
w
= γ
l
H
l
or H
w
=
γ
γ
l l
w
H
= S
l
H
l
where S
l
is the specific gravity =
γ
γ
l
w
. Suffix ‘w’ refers to water and ‘l’ refers to liquid.

h
sw
=
0
900
atm vp sv fs
H H H h

− − − φ − ...(9.5)
Corresponding liquid column h
sl
=
sw
l
h
s
TABLE 9.1: Atmospheric pressure at different altitudes
∆ 0 500 1000 2000
H
atm
10.336 9.7 9.2 8.1
The value of H
vp
depends upon the temperature of the pumping fluid. It increases when the
temperature is increased. Fig. 2.9 gives the vapour pressure value at different temperatures for water.
Table 9.1 gives the atmospheric pressure at different altitudes.
Net positive suction head ((NPSH)
p
= H
sv
) of a pump is defined as the total pressure at stagnation
condition at inlet of the pump above the vapour pressure of the pumping fluid at the pumping temperature.
Referring to the inlet of the pump and since
2
2
 
 
+
  γ
 
p C
g
=
st
p  
 
  γ
 
, stagnation
Condition,
0
γ
p
+ Z
0
+
2
0
2
C
g
=
γ
ost
p
+ Z
0
198 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Absolute flow is axisymmetric in suction pipe i.e., from the fluid level in suction chamber, (point
‘su’) to the impeller inlet edge (point 1), whereas relative flow is axisymmetric on the impeller blade
surface, i.e., from inlet edge, (point 1) to outlet edge (point 2).
At the impeller edge (point 1), both absolute and relative flows are axisymmetric.
Writing down the Bernoulli’s equation between point ‘O’ and point 1, i.e., points immediately
before the impeller inlet edge and on the inlet edge of the impeller blade, and since absolute flow is
axisymmetric,
0
γ
p
+ Z
0
+
2
0
2
C
g
=
1
γ
p
+ Z
1
+
2
1
2
C
g
+ h
f

(0 – 1)
...(9.6)
In the same manner, writing down the Bernoulli’s equation between point ‘1’ and point ‘x’ [Fig.
9.3 and Fig. 9.6 (b)] on the impeller blade and since relative flow is axisymmetric.
C
2
0
2g
C
2
1
2g
p
γ
C
2
2g
h
fs
h
s
B
l
a
d
e
l
o
a
d
i
n
g
P
r.
s
id
e
Cavitation
S
u
c
t
i
o
n

s
i
d
e

h
vp
h
at
S
u
c
t
i
o
n

t
a
n
k
p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

h
s
c
M
e
a
s
u
r
i
n
g

p
o
i
n
t
I
m
p
e
l
l
e
r

e
y
e

(
s
u
f
f
i
x


o

)
I
n
l
e
t

e
d
g
e
o
f

b
l
a
d
e

(
s
u
f
f
i
x


I

)
P
o
i
n
t

o
f

m
i
n
.
P
r
.

o
n

b
l
a
d
e

i
n
l
e
t





(
s
u
f
f
i
x


x

)
(
o
r
)
Fig. 9.3. NPSH determination and cavitation inception at inlet
1
γ
p
+ Z
1
+
2 2
1 1
( )
2
w u
g

=
γ
x
p
+ Z
x
2 2
( )
2
x x
w u
g


+ h
f

(1 – x)
...(9.7)
Referring the inlet velocity triangle,
w
2
1
= C
2
1
+ u
2
1
– 2u
1
C
u1
(or)
2 2
1 1
2
w u
g

=
2
1
2
C
g

1 1 u
u C
g
...(9.8)
Combining equations (9.7 and 9.8) and rearranging
1
γ
p
+ z
1
+
2
1
2
C
g

1 1 u
C u
g
=
γ
x
p
+ Z
x
+
2 2
( )
2
x x
w u
g

+ h
f

(1 – x)
...(9.9)
CAVITATION IN PUMPS 199
Combining equations (9.6 and 9.9)
0
γ
p
+ Z
0
+
2
0
2
C
g
=
γ
x
p
+ Z
x
+
2 2

2
x x
w u
g
 
 
 
+
1 1 u
u C
g
+ h
f

(0 – x)
...(9.10)
For cavitation free operation, minimum pressure p
x
≥ p
vp
the vapour pressure. At minimum pressure
p
x
= p
x

(min)
, velocity
2 2

2
x x
w u
g
 
 
 
=
2 2

2
x x
max
w u
g
 
 
 
. Adding (– p
vp
) on both sides of equation (9.10) and
rearranging.
2
0
0
( )
γ 2
vp
p p
C
g

+
=
( )
2 2
1 1
0 (0 )
( )
γ 2



+ − + + +
x vp
x x u
x f x
p p
w u u C
Z Z h
g g
...(9.11)
But
0
( )
γ
vp
p p −
+
2
0
2
C
g
= H
sv
and (Z
x
– Z
0
) is taken as = 0, since it is very small,
1 1 u
u C
g
= 0 for
normal entry in pumps. p
x min
= p
vp
. Under critical condition for cavitation free operation. Equation
(9.11) will be
(H
sv
)
cr
=
2 2

2
x x
max
w u
g
 
 
 
+ h
f

(0 – x)
...(9.12)
Since point (0) and point (x) are very near to each other at suction.
2
0
0
0
γ 2
p C
Z
g
+ + =
0
0
γ
st
p
Z +

=
γ
xst
x
p
Z +
...(9.13)
Combining equations (9.10) and (9.13)
γ
xst
x
p
Z +
=
( )
2 2
1 1
0
γ 2
x x x u
x f x
p w u u C
Z h
g g

 

+ + + +
 
 
γ
xst x
p p −  
 
 
=
0
γ
p ∆
= ∆h
0
=
2 2

2
x x
w u
g
 
 
 
+
1 1 u
u C
g
+ h
f

(0 – x)
...(9.14)
(∆h
0
)
max
=
2 2

2
x x
max
w u
g
 
 
 
+ h
f

(0 – x)
...(9.15)
Comparing equations (9.12) and (9.15), it can be written as
(H
sv
)
cr
= (∆h
0
)
max
where, (∆h
0
)
max
is called as Maximum Dynamic Depression. It is evident that (H
sv
)
cr
is a function of
kinetic energy of the flow at suction. Hence, dynamic similarity law can be applied between model and
prototype values of (H
sv
).

h
f (0 – x)
is neglected, since it is very small because of convergent flow pattern
between points 0 and x.
200 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Dynamic depression can also be expressed in some other form. All functions, as far as cavitation
is concerned, take place at suction side and on the inlet edge of the blade (from point 0 to point ‘x’ on the
blade). Referring inlet velocity triangle under normal entry condition C
u0
= C
u1
= 0, C
0
= C
m0
,
C
1
= C
m1
, u
2
0
+ C
2
m0
= w
2
0
and u
2
1
+ C
2
m1
= w
2
1
. Due to vane thickness flow velocity increases
C
m1
= K
1
C
m0
where, K
1
is the vane thickness coefficient
(

h
0
)
max
=
2 2
2
x x
w u
g

=
2 2
1
2
x
w u
g

=
2 2 2
1 1
2
x
w w C
g
− +
=
2 2
1
2
x
w w
g

+
2
1
2
m
C
g
=
2 2
2 2
1
1 0
1 0
1
2 2
x m m
m
w C C w
w g C g
 
   
− +  
   
     
 
...(9.16)
Taking, m =
2
1
0
m
m
C
C
 
 
 
and n =



2
1
x
w
w
 
 
 
– 1



...(9.17)
Substituting this value in equation (9.16)
(∆h
0
)
max
= n
2
1
2
w
g
+ m
2
0
2
m
C
g
...(9.18)
Experiments conducted on different pumps by different authors, indicate that m = 1.0 to 1.2 and
n = 0.3 to 0.4. Since, m and n are velocity ratios; similarity laws can be applied. Values of m and n
remain constant for pumps of same specific speed.
9.2 CAVITATION COEFFICIENT (σ σσ σσ) THOMA’S CONSTANT
Prof. Thoma |97| has defined cavitation coefficient (σ) as
σ =
0
( )
svcr max
H h
H
= ∆
...(9.19a)
which is a non-dimensional number. Substituting H =
2 2 u
C u
g
,
sv
H
H
=
2 2
2 2
2
x x
u
w u
g
C u
g
 

 
 
 
 
 
indicates that σ represents velocity ratios, which is constant for model and prototype of same specific
speed, i.e., σ
m
= σ
p
.
However, this coefficient has certain drawbacks. For example, two pumps having identical inlet
conditions but different outer diameters, H
sv
will remain same but H will differ and hence the value σ
CAVITATION IN PUMPS 201
changes. This is overcome by defining another non-dimensional expression, called Cavitation Specific
Speed (C).
Moscow Power Institute | 58 | recommends a relation between σ and n
s
as
σ =
4 / 3
( )
4700
s
n
...(9.19b)
Based on intensive experimental investigation on cavitation on axial flow pumps, Leningrad
Polytechnic Institute |105| recommends the following equation to determine σ :
σ =
2
2
δ 4
(1 β) 1 –
π
2
m
w u
l
gH

 
 
+ +
 
 
 
 
 
...(9.19c)
where, β—curvature and δ
m
—maximum thickness.
9.3 CAVITATION SPECIFIC SPEED (C)
Professors Rudnoff | 104 |, Wislicenus | 133 |, Watson | 103 | and Karrassik | 54 | defined cavitation
specific speed (C).
C =
3/ 4
5.62
( )
sv
n Q
H
, or H
sv
= 10
4 / 3
n Q
C
 
 
 
 
...(9.20)
This expression is similar to that of specific speed and hence called cavitation specific speed (C).
Normally, pump speed is selected based on cavitation specific speed. Increase in speed for the given
head and discharge of a pump, reduces the size of the pump. Due to reduction in area, the flow velocity
increases, which inturn increase the main friction losses and increased secondary flow losses. The
cavitational property reduces considerably.
In order to improve cavitational property, flow passage especially suction side of the pump must
be improved and well designed for better streamlined flow. This can be done only by proper construction
and efficient manufacturing technology. Since improvement in manufacturing of pump has its own
limitations, for example, surface roughness cannot be reduced below certain limit unless costlier
manufacturing processes are adopted. That’s why cavitation specific speed (C) has a narrow range of
operation unlike normal specific speed which ranges theoretically from ‘0’ to ∞, practically from 10 to
2500.
Cavitation specific speed (C) ranges from 800 to 1100. To improve C above 1100, improved
manufacturing and construction techniques must be adopted. Pump cost also considerably increases.
For normal design ‘C’ can be taken as 900 to 1100 depending upon the manufacturing process available
and speed is determined. For special pumps C is selected as C = 1200 to 1500.
9.4 CAVITATION DEVELOPMENT
When pressure at the point ‘x’ (Figs. 9.3 and 9.10) on the leading side of the impeller blade of the
pump, falls below vapour pressure of the liquid for the prevailing temperature of the pumping liquid, the
pumping liquid becomes vapour, 1 cc of liquid in the form of water, when converted into vapour,
202 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
occupies approximately 1780 cc of water vapour. Since the space available in between impeller blades
is very small, pressure instantaneously raises to a very high value. This pressure rise makes the vapour
to condense to liquid. Now the pressure falls below the vapour pressure and the liquid changes into
vapour. Likewise the pressure changes from high positive to high vacuum instantaneously, many times
in a second. The pressure rise is approximately in the order of 100 to 300 atmospheres. This sudden high
instantaneous fluctuating pressure rise gives a heavy hammer blow on impeller blades, like shock waves.
When pressure exceeds elastic limit of the material of the blade, metal is gradually removed from the
blade. This pressure fluctuation followed by metal erosion and subsequent corrosion is called cavitation.
Due to cavitation, impeller blades, shrouds, especially at inlet leading edge as well as other parts of
pump like suction side of casing get damaged. Flow does not follow streamlined or axisymmetric pattern.
Hydraulic losses increase; hydraulic efficiency and overall efficiencies considerably decrease. Huge
noise and heavy vibrations are produced. Life of the pump reduces. Under severe cavitation condition,
pump fails to work. At high vacuum, oxygen present in the fluid is released from the liquid, gets reacted
with the material of the impeller and other parts of the pump. The metal is converted into metal oxide.
This metal oxide, in the form of powder being weak, is carried away by the flowing fluid. Thus, corrosion
adds to the erosion in reducing the metal thickness increasing the roughness of the surface.
No metal is resistant to cavitation. Low strength metals gets corroded at a faster rate, whereas high
strength materials gets corroded at a slower rate. Phosphor bronze gun metal have more elastic and anti
corrosive property but possess low strength and smooth surface. Cast iron, malleable iron possess high
strength but gets corroded at a faster rate. Stainless steel SS304 and SS316 an anti corrosive and high
strength material is also used for pumps having more cavitating characteristics. Carpenter, Alloy 20 Ni
hard, Ni resist materials possess still higher strength and high anti corrosive quality.
Initial stage of cavitation does influence on parameters of pumps namely head, discharge, power,
efficiency and speed. When cavitation increases the rate of drooping down property of H-Q curve is
noticed. Entire system becomes unstable when pump runs under severe cavitation. Pump cannot be run
at this condition. Rate of flow, total head, power, efficiency and speed drops down suddenly and fluctuates.
Fig. 9.4 (a) shows a typical performance characteristics of pump under normal and at cavitation
operating conditions. (H-Q) and (η-Q) curves start droping down suddenly at certain flow rate when
H
N
η
Q
Normal
Cavitation
H, N, η
2
4
50
60
80
70
10
20
30
40
50
10 20 40 50 60 70 30
Flow Q [L/S]
H
e
a
d

(
m
)
C
r
i
t
i
c
a
l

N
P
S
H

(
m
)

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

% H
η h =
0.5 m
s
h = 2 m
s
Critical
NPSH
h

=

3
.
5

m
s
h

=

5
.
5

m
s
h

=

7

m
s
1
2 4
8
NPSH
Fig. 9.4. (a) Pump performance under Fig. 9.4. (b) The effect of cavitation on a centrifugal
normal and cavitating condition pump performance (effect of suction
lift h
s
and NPSH)
CAVITATION IN PUMPS 203
cavitation occurs. No further increase in flow is possible. When suction lift (h
s
) increases or NPSH
decreases (H-Q) and (η-Q) curves drop down more and more at a lower flow rate (Q) than the previous
value Fig. 9.4 (b). So also power discharge (N-Q) curve also drops down. The point, where it starts
droping down suddenly, indicates the inception of cavitation.
9.5 CAVITATION TEST ON PUMPS
Cavitation test is the process of the determination of the point of osciliation in Q, H, N, η, n, when
suction lift (h
s
) or NPSH (H
sv
) or dynamic depression (or anti cavitating reserve) ∆h is changed from
maximum to minimum, when pump is running at one point of H-Q curve [Figs. 9.5(a) and 9.5(b)]. For
every operating point of the pump, there is one value of H
sv
below which cavitation starts. Cavitation
test ends, the moment (H
svcr
), the critical value of H
sv
or ∆h or h
s
is determined for all selected point of
operation. A curve joining all H
sv
or h
s
values, obtained for different operating points gives the complete
characteristics (H
sv
) = f (Q) or C or σ = f (K
Q
) (Fig. 9.11).
In closed test rigs, cavitation test is conducted by reducing the pressure in the space above water
level in the closed reservoir with the help of a vacuum pump.
Fig. 9.6 illustrates a schematic sketch of a cavitation test set up and Figs. 9.7 and 9.8 show the
actual cavitation test rigs for centrifugal pumps and axial flow pumps.
Essentially a cavitation test rig consists of a closed tank to which suction and delivery pipe lines
are connected. The delivery pipe has a venturimeter to measure the flow through the pump, a gate valve
to control the flow rate and a tapping point to measure the delivery head of the pump. The suction pipe
has a tapping point to measure the suction head of the pump and another tapping point to measure the
temperature of water. A mercury manometer is connected to the delivery and suction head measuring
points to measure the total head of the pump. Another mercury manometer is connected to the venturimeter
to measure the flow rate of the pump. All the measuring points are located with sufficient upstream and
downstream straight pipes (3D to 6D where D is the diameter of the pipe) before and after all flow
obstructions. A vacuum pump is connected to the closed tank to change the vacuum in the tank. A
mercury manometer is connected to the suction tapping point to measure the vacuum at the inlet of the
pump. Pump, to be tested is kept at the adjustable test bed. A variable speed DC dynamometer is connected
to the pump through a flexible coupling. Speed is measured by a tachometer. Torque output from the
DC dynamometer to the pump is measured by a dial indictator. Proper cooling arrangement is provided
at the stuffing box to avoid air entry into the pump through stuffing box and at the same time keep the
stuffing box at low temperature. Additional supply of water to the tank and removal of water from the
tank are carried out by separate gate valves. This arrangement is essential to keep the water temperature
constant as water gets heated due to constant circulation. The temperature of water is measured by a
thermometer fitted at the suction pipe.
Cavitation test is conducted as per the method suggested here. From the load test performance
graph, (i.e., H-Q and η-Q graphs) a few operating points are selected very near to maximum efficiency
point for (NPSH)
p
determination value (points 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 in Fig. 11.3). Pump is started with gate valve
in closed condition for radial flow centrifugal pumps, whereas gate valve in opened condition for mixed
and axial flow pumps. Speed is adjusted to run always at constant speed. The gate valve is adjusted so
that the pump runs at point 1. After attaining steady flow condition, suction head i.e., vacuum before the
impeller, total head, quantity power, speed are taken and efficiency is calculated. All the readings are
entered in a tabular form (Table 9.2).
204 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
TABLE 9.2: NPSH (H
sv
) determination for H = ...., Q = ...., N = ...., η ηη ηη = .....
S.No. Suction Total Flow Power Effy η Speed n (NPSH)
p
head h
s
head H rate Q N H
svp
Net positive suction head of the pump, H
svp
is calculated by the formula
H
svp
=
γ
su vp
p p −
– (H
s
+ H
fs
)
=
γ
su
s fs
p
h h
 
− −
 
 

γ
vp
p
= Vacuum manometer reading – Vapour pressure
Now, the suction head ‘h
s
’ is increased by operating the vacuum pump and the vacuum in kept
constant at one level. All values, mentioned above, are measured and entered in Table 9.2. In the same
manner, suction head ‘h
s
’ is increased further in step by step and experiment is conducted until unsteady
condition is attained.
Discharge, total head, power and efficiency remains same, up to critical value of (H
svp
). At H
svp
critical, all readings suddenly drop down and fluctuates. Pump runs with noise and vibration. This
indicates that the pump is running under severe cavitation. No further increase in vacuum is possible
and no further test on pump could be conducted. The vacuum is reduced and the pump is brought to the
normal operating condition. Now, by adjusting the flow control valve, point ‘2’ is set in the test. The
experiment is repeated as mentioned earlier until (H
svp
) critical point is reached. Likewise the experiment
is repeated for points 3, 4, 5, i.e., for all selected points. A graph H, Q, n, η = f(H
sv
) (or) h
s
(or) ∆h is
drawn taking values from the conducted test results for all points from Table 9.2. One such graph is
given for one operating point in Fig. 9.5 (a).
Since exact point of the beginning of severe cavitation could not be determined, 1 to 2% drop in
the values of normal flow rate, total head, power and efficiency i.e., 98 to 99% of normal flow rate, total
head, power and efficiency is taken as (H
svp
) critical and this is the value of (NPSH)
p
of the pump at
operating point 1 in load test curve of the pump. In the same manner, from the tests conducted (NPSH)
p
at other selected points (points 2, 3, 4, 5) are determined. All (NPSH)
p
values are now plotted on the load
test graph to get H
sv
= f (Q) curve. The minimum most point in this curve is the best point of operation
of the pump for cavitation free operation, which corresponds to maximum value of ‘h
s
’(Fig. 9.5).
Best cavitation free operating point need not be the best efficiency point of operation. For long life
of the pump, it is always better to run the pump at best cavitation free operating point, than at best
efficiency point.
In open test rigs, the cavitation test is conducted by closing the gate valve at suction line, keeping
the delivery gate valve at one position constant throughout the test. The experiment is repeated for
different positions of delivery gate valve.
Critical values of H
svcr
or (∆h
cr
or h
smax
) depends upon the type of impeller i.e., specific speed (n
s
)
of the pumps. For low specific speed pumps n
s
< 100, H, Q, η, N curves remain constant with the
decrease of H
sv
(or increase h
s
) until critical point is reached. At critical point i.e., when cavitation starts,
CAVITATION IN PUMPS 205
all these values suddenly drop, i.e., horizontal lines change to vertical lines in the graph. When n
s
is
increased, i.e., n
s
= 100 to 350, these values H, Q, η, N gradually reduce until critical point is reached
and then suddenly drops. In axial flow pumps n
s
> 450, there will not be a sudden drop after critical
point instead it will be gradual. Correct critical point, infact, cannot be determined.
H
svmin
1 to 2%
H
sv
η
H
Q
η
H
Q
∆h (or) h (or)
s
H
N
Q
η
H
s(cr)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 H
s
m
65
70
75
80
η%
30
35
40
45
50
55
20
25
30
35
40
N, kW
Q
lit/sec
10
15
20
25
(a) Schematic diagram (b) Centrifugal pump
2 4 6 8 10 12 H
sv
5
10
15
Q
10
20
30
40
50
60
15
10
5
0
N,kW
60
70
80
η%
H
m
H
η
N
Q
H
sv(min)
L/S
1
2 3 4 5
7
6 8
9
10
11
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 H ,m
s
1,0
1,1
1,2
H,m
60
70
80
η,%
170
180
190
Q. lit/sec
(c) Centrifugal pump (d) Axial flow pump
Fig. 9.5. Actual cavitation characteristics of pump
2 1
p
1
p
s
p
a
∆h
1
Fig. 9.6. Schematic diagram of cavitation test rig
1. Control valve, 2. Flow measurement
2
0
6
R
O
T
O
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C

P
U
M
P
S

(
C
E
N
T
R
I
F
U
G
A
L

A
N
D

A
X
I
A
L
)
Power
measurement
Pump
for test
S
p
e
e
d
m
e
a
s
u
r
e
m
e
n
t
Manometer
total head
Manometer
vacuum
D.C. Dynamometer
Manometer
flow
measurement
Thermometer
Delivery
Orifice
meter
Control
valve
Vacuum pump
Collecting tank
Suction
h
Fig. 9.7. Cavitation test rig for centrifugal pump
C
A
V
I
T
A
T
I
O
N

I
N

P
U
M
P
S
2
0
7
1. Power measurement
2. Speed measurement
3. Torque arm
4. DC Dynamometer
5. Pump under test (Axial flow)
6. Delivery pipe
7. Manometer for flow measurement
8. Inlet cone (suction)
9. Manometer—total head measurement
10. Vacuum manometer
11. Base level-manometer
12. Vacuum box
13. Suction pipe
14. Suction chamber
15. Control value
16. Vacuum chamber
17. Vacuum chamber level indicator
18. Vacuum tank
19. Air removal pump
20. Circulating pump
21. Water supply pump
22. Outlet tank
23. Venturimeter
24. Inlet tank
Fig. 9.8. Cavitation and load test rig for axial flow pump
14
15
B
C
B
A
B
B
16
17
18
19
20
21
C
A
22
23
24
Size 15 m × 6 m
B
9
11
B
B-Reference level for all
measurement
1 2 3 4
5
A
3
8
6
7
B B
B
12
B
13
10
208 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
The gradual drop in pumps of higher specific speed is due to the decrease in efficiency at a faster
rate than in low specific speed pumps even before reaching the critical point of H
sv
. That’s why critical
values of H
sv
in these pumps are always determined from the efficiency graph η = f (H
sv
), instead of
from the graph H, Q, N, = f (H
sv
). Referring to the consolidated graphs (η-Q, H-Q) of different pumps of
different specific speed (Fig. 11.4) that for low specific speed pumps the η-Q and H-Q curves are more
inclined towards horizontal lines i.e.,more flat, whereas for high specific speed pumps the (H-Q) and
(η-Q) curves are more inclined towards Y-axis, which indicates that the percentage drop of efficiency in
high specific speed pumps are more than the drop in efficiency for low specific speed pumps. For the
same range of (Q
min
to Q
max
) operating region, efficiency variation in high specific speed pumps are
more than that in low specific speed pumps. This effect changes, the H, Q, η, N = f (H
sv
) graph. Even
under cavitation in such high specific speed pumps, there may not be noise heard or vibration presence
felt or even cavitation erosion seen. That’s why, these pumps are not economical when operated under
cavitation.
The change in the appearance of cavitation and subsequent erosion in pumps depends upon the
impeller construction. In pumps with smaller specific speed, flow passages are radial. The length of the
flow passage depends upon the blade angle β, number of blades (Z) and the diameter ratio (D
2
/D
1
). At
the time of cavitation, the pressure at the inlet edge at the suction side of the blade, will be equal to
vapour pressure (h
vp
). For any further reduction in total head or increase in flow rate, this low pressure
(vapour pressure) area spreads over the entire area across the channel. No further reduction in pressure
is possible. Flow cannot be increased any further even the vacuum is increased further since the pressure
side and suction side pressure and hence the difference in pressure remains same, which is equal to the
difference between inlet pressure and vapour pressure, which exists across the complete flow passage
width between blades at inlet.
In impellers of high specific speed the passage area between two successive blades are wider but
with shorter lengths of blades. The vapour pressure will not cover completely the entire area at suction
side instead only partly, as a result of which further drop in pressure is necessary so that vapour pressure
can cover the whole passage area at inlet which results in for a higher flow rate.
Normally in axial flow pumps, two successive blades do not overlap. Hence, the drooping tendency
exists for more area before cavitation starts. Even at the time of cavitation, there exists a flow passage
between two vapour pressure regions, the area being approximately equal to the area prevailing between
blades at full closed condition of blades. In this passage the pressure is larger than vapour pressure and
there exist a flow even after cavitation, which results in the gradual drop instead of sudden drop at
critical point.
In pumps of smaller specific speed the term
2
0
2
C
g
 
 
 
is more predominant than
2
1
2
w
g
 
 
 
 
. In fact
2
1
2
w
g
does not have any importance. In pumps of higher specific speed, the term
2
1
2
w
g
 
 
 
 
is more predominant
than
2
0
2
C
g
 
 
 
 
, since
2
1
2
w
g
depends upon the pump head (H) [and hence the speed (n)] and number of
CAVITATION IN PUMPS 209
blades (Z). The relative velocity w
1
at inlet reduces when speed (n) is reduced or the total head (H) is
reduced or when number of blades are increased. In pumps of medium specific speed, maximum flow
rate for the given suction head at inlet can be increased by increasing the blade length i.e., extending the
blade into the impeller eye area at inlet and rounding off the inlet edge (Fig. 9.10). This increases the
inlet area and reduces the inlet velocity (C
1
). The blade, instead being purely radial at inlet becomes a
double curvature type, due to change in the inlet diameter D
1
from hub to periphery. At outlet, however,
the blade is radial.
D
2
D
1
D
H
D = D
0 s
b
1
b
2
D
2
D
D
1
D
H
D = D
S 0
3
2
2
o
x
Fig. 9.9 Impeller with cylindrical Fig. 9.10 Impeller with vanes extended into impeller
vanes (pure radial) eye at inlet (Double curvature at inlet)
In multistage pumps such as feed water pumps and in condensate pumps, the cavitation effect
is taken care of only for the Ist stage. The reduction in H, Q, Ν, η = f (H
sv
or ∆h) curve is at a lower rate
than in single stage pumps. The reduction in these curves is due to the presence of vapour pressure at
inlet due to release of air and vapour, at low boiling point.
The deciding factor for cavitation inception is not the absolute value of unit hydraulic energy but
the value above the vapour pressure at inlet for the pumping liquid conditions. The value of unit hydraulic
energy above vapour pressure is called Dyamic Depression or anti cavitating reserve of suction (∆h) for
the pumping liquid at pumping temperature. When pumping liquids of high temperature such as boiling
water by feed water pump or by condensate pump, this anti cavitating reserve is attained by providing
higher suction pressure or higher suction head.
Sometimes in the graphs H, Q, N, η = f (H
svp
) efficiency curve alone slightly raises and then drops
down Fig. 9.5 (c), under critical cavitation, while all other curves drops down from normal values
[Figs. 9.5 (b) and 9.5 (c)].
Under critical cavitation condition, maximum relative velocity at the inlet edge of the impeller
blade occurs at point x (Fig. 9.6). Flow separation also takes place, and the losses increase. As a result,
efficiency drops down. Sometimes, flow separation and vortex formation does not take place at the
point of maximum relative velocity even under critical cavitation condition. This result is slight increase
in efficiency before sudden drop of efficiency.
Similar to equal efficiency ‘O’ curves equal ‘C’cavitation specific speed ‘O’curves are also drawn
on universal characteristics. Fig. 9.11 gives one such curve.
Figs. 9.12 and Fig. 9.13 give the normal places in impellers of different pumps, where cavitation
usually occurs and places of cavitation erosion, that usually occurs in axial flow pumps.
210 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
ϕ = 0°
ϕ = – 5° ϕ = – 7,5°
η = 50%
5000
4000
ϕ = +10°
3500
ϕ = + 20°
n = 3000
s
2500
2000
1700
1500
1200
1000
900
n
s
=

8
0
0
C
=
3
0
0
4
0
0
5
0
0
6
0
0
7
0
0
8
0
0
9
0
0
0

=

9
5
0
85
88
87
86
85
83
80
75
70
60
83
80
75
70
η
=
6
0
%
0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0 1,1 K
Q
0,02
0,04
0,06
0,08
0,10
K
H
Fig. 9.11. Universal characteristics of axial flow pump in K
H
-K
Q
co-ordinates with ‘η ηη ηη and C’ O-curves
Axial flow
Suction side inlet Outlet Inlet
Centrifugal pump
Axial flow
Centrifugal pump
Peripheral radial clearance Double suction Single suction
Mixed flow
Centrifugal pump
Volute
Impeller and
diffuser inlet
Volute tongue Suction tongue
Fig. 9.12. Places affected by cavitation in different pumps
CAVITATION IN PUMPS 211
90°
3 mm
5 mm
Erosion depth
2
m
m
up to 4
75°
Inlet Outlet
up to 4
6 – 8
4
< 1
2 – 3
1½ – 2
Fig. 9.13. Erosion in axial flow pumps due to cavitation
9.6 METHODS ADOPTED TO REDUCE CAVITATION
(a) Increasing Suction Pipe Size
Referring to equation (Eqn. 9.2) H
svp
, the net positive suction head of pump can be positive if the
frictional losses h
fs
is reduced. Increasing the suction pipe diameter (d
s
) reduces the suction pipe velocity
(C
s
). This considerably reduces the frictional looses (h
fs
) and velocity head
2
2
s
C
g
at suction, thereby H
svp
can be made positive. This is done in all pumps mostly in agricultural, chemical process pumps, etc. The
suction pipe size is always greater than the delivery pipe diameter.
(b) Reducing the Suction Lift
Referring to equation (9.2), H
svp
can be positive if suction lift (h
s
) is reduced. This is done by
lowering down the pump with respect to the fluid level in suction sump. If suction lift reduction is
insufficient the pump level can be brought down below the fluid level in suction tank. Suction lift will
be negative (– h
s
). This is called suction head or positive suction. This is followed in industries, such
as furnance, oil pumping, boiler feed pumps, chemical process pumps etc.
(c) Increasing the Suction Tank Pressure
In case of pumping high temperature gaseous fluids at ordinary pressures and temperatures, vapour
pressure of the fluids will be very high. The term (p
su
– p
vp
) becomes negative. In order to
overcome this condition, suction tank is closed and the tank pressure is increased above the vapour
pressure of the fluid at the pumping temperature. This procedure is adopted in chemical industries,
especially where high temperature fluid pumping is carried out.
(d) Increasing the Width at Inlet of the Impeller
Similar to that of increasing the suction pipe size, the impeller inlet width is considerably increased
in axial direction. This method has been proved experimentally a good viable method. The minimum
212 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
pressure at point X on the inlet edge of the blade is
found to be higher than the vapour pressure which
avoids cavitation (Fig. 9.14). Cavitation specific
speed ‘C’ considerably increases. The area at inlet
A
0
(= πD
0
b
1
) ≈ 2.5 to 3.0 A
1



=
π
4
( D
2
0
b
2
h




. By
increasing the breadth, b
1
the percentage of quantity
of flow (Q) passing through every point of inlet edge,
with respect to the total quantity (Q
t
) entering the
inlet v =
t
Q
Q
 
 
 
is less. Also the blade velocity u
0
decreases. The inlet edge is extended into the
impeller eye area. Inlet edge of the blade is inclined
instead of horizontal. The blade velocity u
0
from
hub to periphery increases as a result of which, the blade becomes a two dimensional and twisted,
instead of purely cylindrical at inlet. Due to reduced blade velocity at periphery, maximum relative
velocity w
max
also reduces by which the cavitational characteristics of the pump ‘C’ increases. At the
periphery of the inlet edge, a reverse flow prevails and axial vortex exists before the inlet edge, which
also improves the cavitation property. The inlet edge is made sharp, because of this, flow separation at
inlet edge exists. Axisymmetric potential flow no longer prevails. Due to this effect, minimum pressure
is higher than vapour pressure. Unsteady vortex reversed flow at inlet mixes with the main flow and
goes back to the blade inlet. There is a constant and continuous exchange of energy in the liquid. The
cavitation specific speed ‘C’ increases even up to 2200 to 2500, from normal value of 800 to 900.
However, hydraulic losses increase the flow velocity C
m
does not change uniformly from inlet to outlet
edge.
(e) Provision of Inlet Guide Blades
Maximum dynamic depression ∆h
max
is deter-
mined by the maximum relative velocity prevailing at
the entrance edge (Eqn. 9.18). Even by providing an
angle of attack at inlet, a reduction of local maximum
relative velocity could not be achieved. However, it
can be shown that by providing a prewhirl before the
inlet edge i.e., provision of Γ
1
a circulation at inlet, a
reduction in w
1max
is obtained. This is achieved by
providing inlet guide blades, (Fig. 9.15) before impeller
eye at approach channel. Prewhirl increases ∆h
max
by
an amount
1 1 u
u C
g
as per the total head equation. Total head, however, should not be changed due to
this prewhirl addition. Such Prewhirl is obtained by adding a circulatory flow to the main axial flow.
This circulating motion is achieved by the impeller rotation at a velocity u
0
. Moreover, when inlet width
is higher a reverse flow also occurs at the periphery of blade inlet. Liquid coming out of the blade
Fig. 9.14. Increased inlet width for non-
cavitating operation
Fig. 9.15. Fitting with inlet guide blades
CAVITATION IN PUMPS 213
H,N
η, %
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
100 200 Q, L/S
2
1
2
1
η
H
3
2
1
A
x
i
a
l

c
l
e
a
r
a
n
c
e

=

0
.
1
D
0
Fig. 9.16. Influence of inlet guide blade on performance
(1) without inlet blade (2) with inlet guide blade
at periphery receives considerable circulatory motion and mixes with the main flow entering the impeller.
Fluid is rotated and thus a prewhirl is developed. Experiments show that C increases up to 1200 to 1500
from normal value of 900–1000. Hydraulic efficiency is achieved by bringing back to normal velocity
at impeller blade outlet. If by the prevailing manufacturing process, surface finish of the impeller could
not be improved to get a good cavitational property, Prewhirl can be adopted by fitting inlet guide
blades. Cavitation specific speed ‘C’ is improved to a considerable value in cylindrical or radial blades.
( f ) Provision of Axial Prewhirl Impeller (Inducers)
Provision of axial Prewhirl impeller, before the main impeller increases the pressure and also
gives a tangential component of velocity i.e., a circulatory motion. The reverse flow at the periphery of
the main impeller blade is shifted to the axial Prewhirl impeller (Fig. 9.18).
Inducer
Fig. 9.17 Pump fitted with inducer Fig. 9.18. Inducers
214 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Cavitation characteristics is well improved from C = 900–1000 to 1200–1500 and in special cases
C is increased up to 2500 to 3000.
In Figs. 9.19, 9.20 and 9.21, a graph σ = f (n
s
) as recommended by Prof A.J. Stepanoff | 112 | is
given, which can be used for design.
500 1000 2000 4000 6000 10,000 20,000
Hydraulic institute
values of
Single suction
Double suction
σ
500 1000 2000 4000 6000 10,000 20,000
35 71 142 285 428 713 1427 Metric
Specific speed, single suction
British
Specific speed, double suction
Fig. 9.19. Cavitation constant σ σσ σσ versus specific speed for
b.e.p. as recommended by A.J. Stepanoff
CAVITATION IN PUMPS 215
η
λ
, %
70
75
80
85
88
92
90
0
.
7
0
0
.
8
0
0
.
8
5
0
.
9
0
0.10
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.15
0.09
0.08
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.015
25 30 40 50 607080 100 150 200 300
η
λ
σ
Fig. 9.20. Cavitation constant σ σσ σσ versus specific speed (metric units) for different efficiencies.
To convert n
s
to English units multiply by 14.15; η ηη ηη
λ λλ λλ
is hydraulic efficiency (Rutschi)
0 500 1000 1500 2000
142
2500 3000 3500 British
35 71 178 214 250 Metric
Specific speed
0
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
C
a
v
i
t
a
t
i
o
n

c
o
n
s
t
a
n
t
,

σ
2430 r.p.m.
2920
3540
b
.
e
.
p
.
b.e.p.
8½′′
6 3. stage ′′
9¼ impeller ′′
0.20
3 8. stage ′′
3550 r.p.m. 9½′′
3300 r.p.m. 9½′′
2880 r.p.m. 9½′′
106 142
Fig. 9.21. Cavitation constant σ σσ σσ versus specific speed for a constant speed head capacity curve
10.1 OPERATING PRINCIPLES AND CONSTRUCTION
Basically, axial flow pump consists of an impeller with impeller blades rotating inside a concentric
cylindrical annular housing. The impeller is followed by a diffuser with blades. A bell mouth shaped
suction inlet precedes the impeller. In some of the pumps, suction blades are provided with or without
suction hub. Suction hub has a sleeve bearing to support the pump shaft. The diffuser is followed by a
straight pipe and a bend or only bend depending upon the site conditions. Pump shaft is supported by a
main ball or roller bearing along with thrust bearing kept at the top of the delivery bend as well as by
(bush) sleeve bearing supports kept at the diffuser and at the bend before the stuffing box. The stuffing
box is located at the delivery bend in between the sleeve bearing and main bearing. In some of the
pumps, the pump shaft is also supported by a sleeve bearing at the suction hub, if the impeller weight is
high and it cannot be overhung as cantilever support.
Suction
casing
Impeller
Diffuser
Stuffing box
Delivery
casing
Fig. 10.1. Axial flow pump
10
AXIAL FLOW PUMP
Comp-1/Newage/Pump-10.pm6.5—11.6.07 3.12.07
216
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 217
Diffuser blades
Outlet bend
Approach pipe
Variable pitch
impeller
Impeller
housing
Sleeve bearing
Sleeve bearing
Seal
Fig. 10.2. Axial flow pump (vertical)
Impeller blades of axial flow pumps have double curvature form at inlet and at outlet due to the
change in diameter from hub to periphery. Absolute flow before and after the impeller and relative flow
along the impeller passage are axisymmetric and potential. There is no radial mixing. Under this condition,
each streamline is parallel to the axis of the pump. Fluid passes parallel to the pump axis i.e., along the
streamline. At any streamline u
1
= u
2
and C
m1
= C
m2
. Flow lines are in the form of a concentric tube or
circular cylinder. By spreading out the cylindrical tube, a plane surface is obtained, wherein blades are
located at equal distant apart starting from infinity and ending at infinity. The distance between two
successive blades is called pitch (t) and is equal to t = 2πr/Z, where ‘r’ is the radius of the streamline of
the cylinder and Z is the number of blades in the cylinder stream tube surface.
Basically, the principle of operation of the pump is the force of interaction and energy transfer
from the impeller blades to the fluid. There is no centrifugal force in these pumps. Energy transfer takes
place purely from kinetic energy to pressure energy i.e., diffuser effect. But diffuser pattern of flow has
its own limitations. Angle of divergence (x) should not exceed 8° to 10° and a strictly smooth streamlined
218 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
flow passage must exist, otherwise, flow separation at the boundary layer and corresponding flow
mixing between streamlines take place. Axisymmetric and potential flow no longer prevails. Thats why,
the design of axial flow pump is more complicated than the design of centrifugal pump.
For the given flow rate (Q), axial flow pumps possess, lesser dimensions and size, than all other
pumps. These pumps are adopted for low head and high discharge conditions. The surface of the blades
and flow passages are manufactured with high smoothness i.e., with very low surface roughness. Even
at high speed, these pumps give a very high efficiency due to less friction and less area of contact of
fluid with pump parts. However, at partial flow conditions, these pumps give a lower value of efficiency
than centrifugal pumps due to high secondary flow prevailing at all elements of the pump.
10.2 FLOW CHARACTERISTICS OF AXIAL FLOW PUMP
Basic requirement of hydraulic design of axial flow pump is to determine the dimensions and
shape of all flow passages of pump to get high efficiency at all regions of operation for the given value
of total head (H), flow rate (Q) and cavitation characteristics (s). Theoretically, maximum efficiency is
obtained when the flow is axi-symmetric and potential (irrotational and vortex free)
Under potiential flow condition, circulation (G
b
) along the contour of blades of axial flow pump is
directly proportional to flow rate (Q) and the angular velocity of the fluid (ω
f
),

not only at optimum
regions, but also at non-optimum regions of operation. Due to this, circulation and hence, total head
remain constant at all streamlines from hub to peripery.
10.3 KUTTA-JOWKOVSKI THEOREM
Forces acting on the blades of axial flow pump can be determined from the fluid flow over a plane
cascade system, obtained by spreading over the cylindrical section of flow passage of axial flow pump
(Fig. 10.3).
t
t =
2 r
z
π
α
α
l
β
u
δ
m
Fig. 10.3. Profile in a cascade system
Flow in the radial direction i.e., perpendicular to the cylindrical section does not exist i.e.,
C
r
the radial velocity is equal to zero. Flow is purely axial at all cylindrical sections, i.e., at all streamlines
flow pattern form is a plane flow or a two dimensional flow. The blades may be moving with a
circumferencial velocity ‘u’ perpendicular to the axis, which is equal to the peripheral velocity of the
impeller blades or stationary as in diffuser blades. Accordingly, relative velocity ‘w’ should be considered
for a moving blade system, whereas absolute velocity ‘C’ must be considered for a stationary blade
system. Assuming flow is incompressible, i.e., density ‘ρ’ is constant, the circulation ‘Γ
b
’ around one
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 219
w
2m m
=w
C
β
2 p
2
w
2u
t
t
β

w
1
β
1
d
a w
1
m
m

=

w
w
1u
p
1
w
1u
w
2u
B F
w
m
β
β
β


2
1
w
1
w

w
2
D A
b
E C
P
u
P
P = P
m z
Fig. 10.4. Pressure and velocity acting on a cascade system
blade of the plane cascade system can be determined by the closed contour abcd enclosing the blade.
Referring to Fig. 10.4 lines ab and cd are same lines located symmetrically with respect to the blade, at
a distance ‘t’, called pitch. Linear integral along these two flow lines are equal, but opposite in direction,
hence gets cancelled. Lines ‘bc’ and ‘da’ are parallel to the direction ‘u’ flow lines are opposite in
direction. Circulation G
b
around the blade is
b
Γ =
cos( , )
abcd
wds w s


= cos( , )
ab
wds w s

+ cos ( , )
bc
wds w s

+ cos( , )
cd
wds w s

+
cos( , )
da
wds w s

=
cos( , )
bc
wds w s

+
cos( , )
da
wds w s

Γ
b
= (w
1u
– w
2u
) t, taking unit width perpendicular to the paper and
anticlock-wise direction as positive. ...(10.1)
Flow through the blade

Q = htw
1m
– htw
2m
where ‘h’ is the height of the blade from hub to
periphery =
2
h
D d −
, where D is the outer diameter, d
h
is the hub diameter and w
m
is the axial flow
velocity. Net force ‘P’ acting on the blade system can be resolved into two components, tangential (P
u
)
and axial (P
z
). Applying momentum,
P
u
= ρ∆Q (

w
1u
– w
2u
) = ρht w
1m
(w
1u
– w
2u
) = ρhw
m
Γ
b
P
z
= ρ∆Q (w
2m
– w
m
) + ht (p
2
– p
1
) = ht (p
2
– p
1
)
...(10.2)
Since w
1m
= w
2m
i.e., axial flow velocity is constant throughout the impeller blade, and applying
Bernoulli’s equation between points ‘1’ and ‘2’ and since Z
2
= Z
1
, where Z is the level from a reference
point, the pressure
¦
`
'
220 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
p
2
– p
1
=
1
2
ρ
2 2
1 2
( ) w w − =
2
ρ
2 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
( – – )
u m u m
w w w w -
=
2
ρ
2 2
1 2
( )
u u
w w −
=
2
ρ
1 2
( )
u u
w w -
1 2
( )
u u
w w −
Therefore, P
z
=
2
ht ρ
1 2
( )
u u
w w -
1 2
( )
u u
w w −
...(10.3)
since the blade velocities are same at inlet and at outlet (u
o
= u
1
= u
2
= u
3
), due to axial flow. In order to
obtain the value
1 2
2
u u
w w - ¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
, inlet and outlet velocity triangles are combined into one.
u = u
1 2
C
u2
w
u2
w
u1 C
u1
α
2
α

C
2
C

C
1
α
1
∆β
β

β
1
β
2
w

w
1
w
u∞
w + w
u2 u1
2
=
C – C
2
u2 u1
C – C
2
u2 u1
C = C
m z
w
2
A D B
C
Fig. 10.5. Combined velocity triangle
Referring to Fig. 10.5 the vectors AC = w
1
and CB = w
2
. Vector CD = w

is the geometrical
average of vectors AC and CB . Point D is the middle point on the line CD. Blade angles are β
1
at inlet,
β
2
at outlet and correspondingly β

for vector velocity w

, i.e., for the line CD. From the velocity
triangle. (Fig. 10.5)
1 2
( )
2
u u
w w -
=
FD
= w
u∞
=
tan
m
w

β
...(10.4)
Hence, P
Z
=
u b
hw

ρ Γ
and P
u
=
m b
hw

ρ Γ
Since, w
1m
= w
2m
= w
m
= w
m∞
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 221
Total force on one blade, P =
u
P +
z
P = b
hw

ρ Γ
...(10.5)
Since,
u m
w w
∞ ∞
- = w

For unit height, (h =1) P
u
=
m b
hw

ρ Γ
P
m
=
m b
hw

ρ Γ and P =
b
w

ρ Γ ...(10.6)
P
P
z
β

β

π
2
P
u
w∞
Z
u
Fig. 10.6. Forces acting on a blade in a cascade system
under ideal fluid flow condition
Force P in equation (10.6) is independent of the pitch ‘t’ of the blade. It remains same even when
pitch increases to infinity (∞) i.e., when cascade blade system changes to isolated blade. Also, circulation
‘Γ
b
’ remains constant inspite of increase in flow due to increase of pitch ‘t’. The magnitude and direction
of the flow w

and β

remain same, at all points, i.e., before the blade from infinity, on the blade and
after the blade up to infinity. Equation (10.6) is called Kutta-Jowkovski equation. This equation also
indicates that the lift force P is perpendicular to the flow direction. However, exact location of the force
P on the blade can be determined only by experimental investigation. The equation (10.6) can also be
applied for conditions where the flow velocity C
m
is not constant.
Lift force (Y
p
), the force perpendicular to the flow direction of w

, P = ρw

Γ
b
. Drag force,
X
p
parallel to the flow direction of w

is zero.
Total head, H
m
=
2 2 1 1
( )
u u
C u C u
g

=
2 1
( )
u u
u C C
g

Since, u
1
= u
2
= u
From velocity triangle, C
u
= (u – w
u
)
2 1 2 2 1 1 1 2
( – ) ( )
u u u u u u
C C u w u w w w · − − - · − =
b
t
Γ
H
m
=
u
g
b
t
Γ

Circulation on one blade,
b
Γ =
m
gH t
u
= .
m
gH
u
2 r
Z
π
=
2
m
gH
Z
π
ω
Total circulation on all blades,
Γ
=
b
ZΓ =
2
m
rgH
u
π
=
2
m
gH π
ω
...(10.7)
222 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
10.4 REAL FLUID FLOW OVER A BLADE
While determining the force P
z
in equation (10.5), Bernoulli’s equation (10.3) was written for an
ideal fluid flow. Equation for a real fluid flow can be written as
1
1
p
Z - -
γ
2 2
1 1

2
w u
g
=
2
p
γ
+ Z
2
+
2 2
2 2
2
w u
g

+
(1 2) f
h

( )
fp
h ·
where, h
fp
= h
f (1–2)
is the profile loss in impeller.
Since, u
1
= u
2
, Z
1
= Z
2
in axial flow pumps and γ = ρg
p
2
– p
1
=
1
2
ρ (w
1
2
– w
2
2
) – γh
fp
and actual force, R
z
=
2
fp
th ρ
(w
1
2
– w
2
2
) – ρth
fp
= P
Z
– γth
fp
= ρhw
u∞
Γ
b
– γth
fp
for unit height, (h = 1) R
z
= ρw
u∞
Γ
b
– γth
fp
...(10.8)
i.e., the real axial force R
Z
is reduced and is less than the ideal axial force P
z
by frictional losses γth
fp
.
The tangential force R
u
= P
u
= Γw
z∞
Γ
b
remains same, since the head developed remains unaltered.
P
z
P
Y
γ
t
h
f
p
R
β λ

+
λ
R
z
X
u
β

R = P
u u
Z
Fig. 10.7. Hydrodynamic forces acting on a blade of cascade
system due to real fluid flow condition
The total force, R = (
u
R + ) z R turns towards the flow direction of ‘w

’ by an angle ‘λ’
(Fig. 10.7), where λ is the angle of incidence. Resolving the total force R into two forces, one parallel
and another perpendicular to the flow direction of ‘w


Lift force, Y
p
= R cos λ and Drag force, X
p
= R sin λ and tan λ =
p
p
X
Y
.
Loss of head ( )
fi fp
h h · , the profile loss in impeller is the work done by drag force X
p
per unit
weight of the fluid (γtw
z∞
) along the direction of the velocity w

i.e.,
h
fi
= h
fp
=
p
Z
X w
tw


γ
=
sin
sin
w R
tw

∞ ∞
λ
γ β
=
sin
sin
R
t

λ
γ β
...(10.9)
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 223
Head developed, H
m
is the work done by the force R
u
per unit weight of the fluid
H
m
=
u
z
uR
tw

γ
=
sin (β λ)
γ sinβ
uR
tw

∞ ∞
-
...(10.10)
Impeller efficiency, η
i
=
m fp
m
H h
H

= 1–
fp
m
h
H
=
sin
1
sin ( )
w
u


λ
− ⋅
β - λ
...(10.11)
When angle of incidence λ increases, the drag force X
p
increases. Correspondingly losses increase
and efficiency reduces.
From aerodynamics of airfoils the lift (Y
p
) and drag (X
p
) of an airfoil are given by
Y
p
= C
y
.
2
.
2
w
l

ρ ...(10.12)
X
p
= C
x
2
.
2
w
l

ρ
where ‘C
y
’and ‘C
x
’ are the coefficients of lift and drag respectively and ‘l’ is the chord length of profile.
Manometric head, H
m
=
sin ( )
sin
uR
tw

∞ ∞
β - λ
γ β
=
sin ( )
cos
m
uY
C t

β - λ
γ λ
...(10.13)
Combining equation (10.12) and (10.13) and rearranging
y
l
C
t
=
2
2 cos
sin ( )
m m
gH C
u w
∞ ∞
λ
⋅ ⋅
β - λ
...(10.14)
10.5 INTERACTION BETWEEN PROFILES IN A CASCADE SYSTEM
Thin Straight Plates in Cascade System
Interaction between straight, thin plates in a cascade system was studied by many authors. Most
important is the work done by Prof Shlihandl | 67 |. Circulation Γ, given by plate cascade, is determined
by the formula.
Γ
pl.ca
= Γ
pl
. L
p
= L
p
π l w

sin i
where, L
p
is the coefficient accounting for the deviation in flow of thin plate in a cascade system with
respect to the flow of thin isolated plate. In Fig. 10.6, the values of L
p
determined by Shlihandl |67| as a
function of angle of attack (α
p
) and relative pitch t/l are given.
The coefficient L
p
depends only upon the geometric parameters of the cascade system. This graph
can be used to determine the camber line of the real profile as first approximation. While determining
the value of the coefficient L
p
, the following condition must be observed.
l
plate
= 2l
prof
. (or)
t
l
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
plate
=
1
2
t
l
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
prof
and α
plate
= α +
2
β
.
224 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,8 2,0 t/l
0
1
0
1
5
2
0
25
30
35
40
50
60
90
25
30
35
40
α

=

1
0
°
0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1,0
1,2
1,4
1,6
1,8
2,0
2,2
2,4
L
p
15
20
Fig. 10.8. Coefficient L = f
( )
t
,
l
α for thin straight plate
10.6 CURVED PLATES IN A CASCADE SYSTEM
Flow over a curved thin plate cascade system adopted for axial flow machines as given by Prof.
E.N. Voznisenski | 130 | and further developed by V.F. Pekin | 84 |, A.F Lisohin | 65 | L.A. Semanoff
| 66 | and N.A. Kolokolsoff | 84 | is given below. While deriving the cascade theory, it is assumed that
(1) Profile thickness is neglected i.e.,the profile is a thin plate and (2) the curvature of the plate is an arc
of a circle. (Fig. 10.9)
u
w
1
C = C
1 m1
T T T
β y
0
w
x
w
y
r
s
C = 0
u1
l
α
y
u
w
2
C
2
C
u2
ds
x
0
t
Fig. 10.9. Thin curved plate in the form of an arc of a circle
in a cascade system (mean of a thick profile)
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 225
Two methods are adopted for the cascade design namely,
(i) Flow parameters are determined for the given boundary conditions (called direct method)
and
(ii) Geometrical characteristics of the developed cascade are determined as per the given flow
parameters under infinite conditions (called indirect method).
The integration method, given by Prof. Voznisenski, | 130 | determines the flow conditions of the
cascade system over a thin curved plate in the form of an arc of a circle i.e., direct method. Prof. Pekin
and Prof. Kolokolsoff developed systematic procedure to design the pumps by Indirect method.
Under integration method, the thin profile is considered as a vortex passage consisting of two
flows : (1) Plane flow over a cascade with equal velocity everywhere and (2) a vortex flow due to the
presence of circulation distributed over the entire length of the plate.
Net flow function ψ(t) at a point (s) situated at a distance ‘t’ from the starting point is the sum of
both vertices
ψ (t) = ψ
0
(t) + ψ
1
(t)
where, ψ
0
(t) is the plane undisturbed flow and ψ
1
(t) flow due to circulation and is given as
ψ
1
(t) =
0
2
t

π
∫ ln r(s, t)
dΓ= d Γ (s) = v(s) ds is the circulation
v(s) =
d
ds
Γ
—vortex intensity at the point s on the plate, r—distance from the considered point on
the profile to the adjacent point with an elementary circulation dΓ(s)
So, ψ

(t) =
0
0
1
( )
2
t
t ψ -
π

v (s) ln r(s, t) ds = constant ...(10.15)
However, the absence of infinite velocity at the outer end of the profile i.e., postulate Chapligin
indicates
ν(l) = 0
The flow equation for the cascade system, from an isolated curved thin blade is obtained by
modifying the integral equation (10.15) available for isolated profiles.The undisturbed plain uniform
steady flow function ψ
0
is determined, from the geometrical average velocity w

, instead of undisturbed
velocity from infinity before the blade inlet edge C

and simple function ‘ln r’ in the integral equation
(10.15) for the vortex flow located on isolated blade, which is determined by 1
2
vds
dψ ·
π
ln r , a more
complicated flow function developed by the vortex flow i.e., circulation located on the elementary
distance ds of all profiles in cascade system is used i.e.,

1
=
lim
n → ∞

2
ds ν
π
k a
k a
· -
·−
∑ ln r
i
...(10.16)
where,
i
r is the distance between flow point Z, where the flow function ψ is determined and the points
‘s’ on each blade of the cascade system.
Infinitesimal summation of logarithm leads to infinitesimal transformation under logarithm, which
can be expressed as trigonometric function.
226 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
The final form of flow function as given by Prof. Pekin in his paper | 84 | when l =1 i.e., relative
pitch, T
0
=
t
l
is
ψ (t) = 0
0
1
( ) ( ) ln
2
l
t v s K ds ψ -
π

...(10.17)
where K =
2 2
0 0
sin ( ) ( )
t s t s
x x sh y y
T T
π π
− - −
and
0
( )
l
v s ds

=
1
0
l
Γ
...(10.18)
where l
0
=
0
sin
β
β
, the length of the curved plate with unit chord length and curvature β. The general
form of the integral equation (10.17) is a function of various parameters given by
v(s) = f (T
0
, s, α, β, w
∞x
, w
∞y
, C)
where, α is the angle between the cascade axis (direction of blade velocity u) and the direction of
velocity w

i.e., α
1
. Taking into account equation (10.18), the above function can be rewritten as
1
0
l
Γ
= f
1
(T
0
, α, β, w

, C)
where C is the constant of integration and can be obtained from the condition v(l) = 0 i.e., by applying
Postulate Chapligin.
So,
1
0
l
Γ
= f
2
(T
0
, α, β, w

) ...(10.19)
The disturbed flow due to the introduction of circulation on all the blades of the cascade system,
changes the flow direction by an angle ∆α = α – α
1
. Angle ∆α takes into account the influence of flow
on the profile by other profiles in the cascade system. The final form of the equation (10.19) is written as
0
W l

Γ
= f
3
(T
0
, α, β, ∆α) ...(10.20)
∆α is the angle between the direction of velocity w

and the chord of the profile. Equation (10.20) is
the final form of the integral equation (10.17) and (10.18) by which the flow over a cascade system is
determined by direct method. Prof. V.F Pekin and Prof. N.A. Kolokolsoff gave a systematic calculation
for a cascade flow under an additional condition of shockless entry (i.e., δ = 0) as given by Prof. I.N.
Voznicenski, which provides a simplified approach for the design as well as to develop pumps with
better load and cavitational characteristics. Shockless entry i.e., δ = 0 indicates no circulation at inlet
edge, which is written as v (0) = 0. The condition v(l) = v (0) = 0 leads one and the same design
procedure for pump and turbine. The equation (10.20) can be written as
L =
1
1 0,
0
( , )

Γ
· α β f T
w l
and, ∆α = f
2
(T
0
, α, β) ...(10.21)
Equation (10.21) is solved by step by step integration of equations (10.17) and (10.18) by providing
(n +2) linear equations with (n +2) unknown values and with (n +1) points on the blade curve, determined
by geometric parameters of the cascade.
A
X
I
A
L

F
L
O
W

P
U
M
P
2
2
7
0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
T =
0
t
l
80°
70°
65°
60°
55°
50°
40°
35°
15°
10°
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
Γ
1
w l
∞ 0
β
20°
45°
30°
25°
Fig. 10.10.
Γ
1
0
w l

β
= f (T
0
, α)
228 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Calculations were done for n = 4, 6, 8. It is found that, for a wide range of curvature β, the value
1
0
w l

Γ
χ ·
β
depends upon only T
0
and α. A graph has been drawn χ = f (T
0
, α) (Fig 10.10). Also, it is
found that ∆α is +ve for all operating ranges of cascade parameters. For small ranges of α and β under
the condition
0
T
T
l
· >1, which corresponds to peripheral section of the blade of axial flow pumps of
higher specific speed such as ship propellers, ∆α change is very small, not exceeding 1°. ∆α increases
when curvature β increases and when α and
0
T decreases (i.e., where l/t increases). When
α < 34 to 40°, ∆α mostly depends upon β and
0
T (Fig. 10.11). When α > 45°, which is mostly for
diffusers and hub sections of impeller blades, ∆α value increases up to 15° and depends not only upon
α and
0
T , but also β. Following figures (Figs. 10.12 to Fig. 10.22) illustrate these variations for β changing
from 20 to 40°, at the interval of 2°.
t = 0,75
t = 0,8
t = 0,85
t = 0,9
t = 0,95
t = 1,0
t = 1,05
t = 1,1
t = 1,15
t = 1,2
t = 1,25
t = 1,35
t = 1,4
t = 1,45
t = 1,5
t = 1,6
t = 1,7
t = 1,8
t = 1,9
t = 2,0
t = 2,2
t = 2,5
t = 3,0
7°8° 10° 12° 14° 16° 18° 20° 22° 24° 26° 28°
β




∆α

∆α β β = f(T , )
0
t = 1,3
Fig. 10.11. ∆α ∆α ∆α ∆α ∆α = f (T
0
, β ββ ββ)
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 229
0
1
2
3
4
50 60 70 α°
∆α α β °= f( , T , )
0
45
T = 0,5
0
0,6
0,7
0,9
1,0
1,25
1,5
2,0
3,0
Fig. 10.12. ∆α ∆α ∆α ∆α ∆α for β ββ ββ = 20°
0
1
2
3
4
5
∆α α β °= f( , T , )
0
3,0
2,0
1,5
1,25
0,9
0,8
0,6
0,7
T = 0,5
0
50 60 70 α°
1,0
Fig. 10.13. ∆α ∆α ∆α ∆α ∆α for β ββ ββ = 22°
50 60 70 α°
0
1
2
3
4
6
5
2,0
1,5
1,25
1,0
0,6
0,7
T = 0,5
0
∆α α β °= f( , T , )
0
0,9
0,8
3,0
Fig. 10.14. ∆α ∆α ∆α ∆α ∆α for β ββ ββ = 24°
230 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
40 50 60 70 α°
0
1
2
3
4
6
5
7
3,0
2,0
1,5
1,25
1,0
0,9
0,8
0,7
0,6
T = 0,5
0
∆α α β °= f( , T , )
0
Fig. 10.15. ∆α ∆α ∆α ∆α ∆α for β ββ ββ = 26°
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
40 45 50 60 70 α°
3,0
2,0
1,5
1,25
1,0
0,9
0,8
0,7
0,6
T = 0,5
0
Fig. 10.16. ∆α ∆α ∆α ∆α ∆α for β ββ ββ = 28°
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 231
10
40 45 50 60 70 α°
3,0
2,0
1,5
1,25
1,0
0,9
0,8
0,7
0,6
T = 0,5
0
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
∆α α β °= f( ,T , )
0
Fig. 10.17. ∆α ∆α ∆α ∆α ∆α for β ββ ββ = 30°
40 50 60 70 α°
3,0
2,0
1,5
1,25
1,0
0,9
0,8
0,7
0,6
T = 0,5
0
∆α α β °= ( ,T , )
0
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Fig. 10.18. ∆α ∆α ∆α ∆α ∆α for β ββ ββ = 32°
232 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
3,0
2,0
1,5
1,25
1,0
0,9
0,8
0,7
0,6
T = 0,5 0
∆α α β °= f( ,T , )
0
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
40 50 60 70 α°
Fig. 10.19. ∆α ∆α ∆α ∆α ∆α for β ββ ββ = 34°
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
∆α α β °= f( ,T , )
0
T =0,5
0
0,6
0,7
0,8
0,9
1,0
1,25
1,5
2,0
40 50 60 70 α°
3,0
Fig. 10.20. ∆α ∆α ∆α ∆α ∆α for β ββ ββ = 36°
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 233
40 50 60 70 α°
∆α α, β °= ( T , )
0
T = 0,5
0
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
7
8
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
3,0
2,0
1,5
1,25
1,0
0,9
0,8
0,7
0,6
50 60 70 α°
3,0
2,0
1,5
1,25
0,9
0,8
0,7
T = 0,5
0
∆α α β °= f( , T , )
0
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
2,5
0,6
1,0
Fig. 10.21. ∆α ∆α ∆α ∆α ∆α for β ββ ββ = 38° Fig. 10.22. ∆α ∆α ∆α ∆α ∆α for β ββ ββ = 40°
10.7 EFFECT OF BLADE THICKNESS ON FLOW OVER A CASCADE SYSTEM
The profile, determined as per the method given by Prof. Voznisenski, is dressed over the camberline
or the middle line with finite vane thickness (δ). However, vane thickness reduces the flow area of the
passage and correspondingly increases the flow velocity. The coefficient of area reduction can be
expressed as (Fig. 10.23).
X =
m
m
w A
C A A
·
− ∆
234 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
δ
m
A
α
∆A
l
t
Fig. 10.23. For the determination of flow area reduction coefficient (χ χχ χχ)
due to dressing of thick profile on thin curved plate
where, A = t. l sin α and ∆A =
0
.
l
dl δ

and δ is the blade thickness measured normal to the chord
length l.
The integral
0
.
l
dl δ

can be approximately determined by applying Simpson’s rule at three points,
under the condition that (δ
m
) the maximum thickness is at the middle. Since, the blade thickness area
(∆A) is very small when compared to flow passage area (A),
2
4 .
3
m m
l
A l
b
∆ ≈ δ · δ
So, χ =
. sin 1
2 2
. sin 1
3 3 sin
m
m
t l
tl l
t
α
·
δ
α− δ −
α
...(10.22)
10.8 METHOD OF CALCULATION OF PROFILE WITH THICKNESS IN A
CASCADE SYSTEM
Most of the design procedures for pumps are carried out by direct method. The camber line is
determined and then dressed by a known profile. Thickness effect is corrected by repeating the design
until the velocity w
m
remains constant. The profiles are selected from the airfoil test results from Gottingen
profiles data or from NASA profiles data or from profile data of USSR research institute.
Most convenient design is obtained by conformal transformation of the profile from the given
parameters of the pump, by which theoretical blade profile with thickness is obtained. In most cases,
conformal transformation is done from the cylinder, either isolated or cascade system. Hodograph principle
is also used while adopting conformal transformation. This process simplifies the design procedure for
flow over a profile, where in the velocity of flow remains constant. Application of Hodograph method
by which, theoretical, flow velocity is also known which enables to find the flow of real fluid i.e., flow
with aerodynamic wake after the blade.
Most accurate method of getting the blade profile with thickness is the addition of vortex or
circulation, sources and sinks in the plane uniform steady flow over the blade system. Earlier vortex or
circulation (Γ) is added to the plain flow, to get thin profile of the cascade system. Prof. A.F. Lisohin
| 65 | and Prof. L.A. Simonoff | 66 | gave a systematic method to get profiles with thickness i.e., by
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 235
providing source (+q) and sink (–q) along with circulation (
Γ
), distributed over the profile. The skeleton
line or otherwise called as camberline or middle line, becomes a streamline inside the profile, where
there is no cross flow perpendicular to this camberline. Addition of a source very near to the inlet edge
and a sink very near to the outlet edge of the skeleton profile, enables to get the flow with profile
thickness. The rounded inlet edge and outlet edge with proper thickness are obtained by proper selection
and distribution of source (+q) and sink (–q). Outer edge contour of the profile which encloses the
camberline is also a streamline. Profile shape is obtained by the group of streamlines starting from
source kept at inlet and ending at sink kept at the outlet. The sum of intensity of source and sink is equal
to zero. Mathematically expressing these as
2
2
( )
-

- -

l
in out
l
Q Q q s ds = 0 ...(10.23)
Circulation, source and sink are selected in such a way that the combination of these, with the
plane flow gives rise to the profile of required specification to meet the head and discharge of the axial
flow pump. In order to get this, two conditions are observed.
1. The magnitude and direction of the infinite velocity w

or C

before and after the profile
remain same.
2. Closed contour encircling the skeleton of the profile is the profile as per the required parameters
such as magnitude and location of maximum profile thickness, radius of the roundness of inlet
and outlet edges of the profile etc.
First condition is fulfilled by proper distribution of circulation of vortex on the skeleton of the
profile as per the integration law
Γ
1
=
1
2
1
2
( )
-

γ

s ds ...(10.24)
where, Γ
1
is the circulation around one profile.
Second condition is attained by proper distribution of source and sink q (s) on the profile skeleton
to fulfil the condition as per the equation (10.23)
Absence of cross flow across the skeleton yields to an expression
w

+ ν* = 0 ...(10.25)
where, w

=
2
2 1 2
2
u u
m
w w
w
- ¸ ¸
-
(
¸ ,
is the geometrical average of relative velocity of the plane flow and ν
*
the induced velocity at the point
considered on the skeleton of one profile, due to the disturbance created by adjacent profiles in the
cascade system.
Summation of these induced velocities, located on other profiles kept at a distance of ‘t’ from the
profile and the integration of these along the skeleton ‘s’ is
*
u
ν =
1
2t
2
1 1
1 1
2
γ ( ) ( )sin
cos
l
l
s sh Z q s u
chZ u
-

-


ds
236 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
*
ν
m
=
1
2t
/ 2
1 1
1 1
– / 2
– ( ) sin ( )
– cos
l
l
s u q s shZ
ds
chZ u
-
γ -

...(10.26)
where , Z
1
= 0
2
( ) Z Z
t
π

and
1 0
2
( ) u u u
t
π
· −
Due to complexity of the above equation, the integral is carried out by step by step method.
Selection of γ γγ γγ (s) and q (s)
Distribution of circulation γ (s), source and sink q (s) along the profile is carried out to get uniform
and even distribution of pressure and velocity over the profile from inlet edge to the outlet edge. Prof.
Ginsberg |37| has suggested, the following, for the distribution of circulation and source and sinks. For
γ (s) he suggested
γ (s) = A
0
γ
0
(s) + A
1
γ
1
(s) + A
–1
γ
–1
(s) + A
2
γ
2
(s) + A
–2
γ
–2
(s) + A
*
γ
*
(s)
where, γ
0
(s) =
6
_
1 s −
γ
1
(s) =
_
0, when 1 0
(1 ), when 0 1
− ≤ ≤ (
(
− ≤ ≤
¸ ¸
s
s s s
γ
–1
(s) =
( 1), when 1 0
0, when 0 0
(
− - − ≤ ≤
(
≤ ≤ (
¸ ¸
s s s
s
...(10.27)
γ
2
(s) =
(2 1)(1 ), when 0.5 1
0, when 1 0.5
(
− − ≤ ≤
(
− ≤ ≤ (
¸ ¸
s s s
s
γ
–2
(s) =
(1 2 )(1 ), when 1 0.5
0, when 0.5 1
(
− - - − ≤ ≤ −
(
− ≤ ≤ (
¸ ¸
s s s
s
γ*

(s) =
1
1
s
s

-
x
y
+3
+2
+1
–1
–2
5
2

–3
0
X
5
2
+
X
Fig. 10.24. Profile coordinates
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 237
t t
n
x
s
y
l 0
q
(
s
)

γ
(s
)
α
Fig. 10.25. For profile calculation—Distribution of circulation γ γγ γγ (s), source and sink q (s)
ρ**
+
l
2
s

l
2
ρ*
δ

m
δ
m

l
2
= s
n
s = +
l
2
δ
+
m
z
0
ρ**
Point
sink
ρ
2
h
2
Outlet edge
Point
source
ρ*
h
1
ζ
1
Inlet edge
B
C
S
ζ
2
2
2
Fig. 10.26. For profile calculation of inlet edge radius (ρ ρρ ρρ*) and
outlet radius (ρ ρρ ρρ**) and profile thickness (δ δδ δδ
m
)
l
2
+
α
K
S l
2

δ
m
n
l
2
x
y
δ
+
m
δ

m
2
2
Fig. 10.27. For profile calculation
238 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
where, s

=
s
l
(s is the point selected on the profile (–3, –2.5, –2, –1, 0, +1, +2, 2.5, +3) and l is the
length of the profile. Centre of the skeleton line (mean line) is the origin. Profile length l is given as
to
2 2
l l ¸ ¸
− -
(
¸ ,
(Fig. 10.27).
α
K
l
2
K
M
x
dV′
dV
b
dV
cr
x
S
K
M(S )
K
+
l
2
N(s)
S
N(x, y)
θ
dV′
γ
dV′
dv′
qn
z
K( , z )
K K
x
l/2
z
d
V

γ
s
d
V

γ
n
o
o
N
(a) (b)
dV′
q
n
k

l
2

α
w + V
∞n n
′′
w +V
∞x x
′′
w
+
V

z
z


n
z
x
w + V
∞s s
′′
w
+
V

x
x ′

(c)
Fig. 10.28. Determination of induced velocity on the skeleton of the profile
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 239
The value, A
*
γ
*

(s) corresponds to the flow with angle of attack over the cascade
*
0 A · for
flow without angle of attack.
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
1.0
γ
2
γ
1
γ
–1
γ
–2
– 1.0
– s(1 + s) s (1 – s)
γ(s)
1– s
6
γ
0
Fig. 10.29. Theoretical distribution of circulation λ λ λ λ λ (s)
Distribution of sources and sinks q (s) is given by Prof. Ginsburg | 37 | as
q (s) =
0
·
·

j k
J j
j
B s
Selection of number of points ‘j’ depends upon the selection of profile shape at the outlet edge,
whether rounded edge or sharp edge is required. For rounded edged profile
( ) q s =
2
0 1 2
* ** - - - - B B s B s B B ...(10.28a)
where, B* is the intensity of the point source selected at the inlet edge of the profile (s = – l/2) and B**
the intensity of the point sink selected at the outlet edge of the profile (s = – l/2) in order to get rounded
edges, ρ* the radius at inlet edge and ρ** the radius at the outlet edge.
Coefficients A
0
, A
1
, ..., B
0
, B
1
, B
2
, B*, B** are selected to get the designed profile.
Taking
l
t
vane solidity,
( / 2)
m
l
δ
. Maximum thickness ratio and
/ 2
m
s
l
= m
s
location of maximum
thickness on the mean line.
The following equations are applied:
(i)
0 2
2
2 * ** 0
3
B B B B - - - ·
(ii)
2 3
0 1 2
1 1
(1 ) (1 ) (1 ) **
2 3
m m m
B s B s B s B − - − - − - · 2 χ
m
w
l

δ
(iii)
2
0 1 2
0
m m
B B s B s - - ·
(iv) B*=
*
8
. cos
3
w
l

π ρ
β ...(10.28b)
(v) B**=
**
8
. cos
3
w
l

π ρ
β
240 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Equation (10.28a & b) is given based on the condition that the sum of all the sources and sinks
located on the mean line is equal to zero i.e.,
i.e.,
/ 2
* **
– / 2
( )
2 2
l
l
l l
q s ds B B
-
- -

= 0 ...(10.28c)
On integration of the above equation (10.28c), Ist equation is obtained. Second equation is obtained
based on the following condition:
/ 2
– / 2
( )
l
l
q s ds
-

= χδ
m
w

where, χ is the coefficient of area reduction due to profile thickness and is determined approximately as
χ =
1
2
1
3 sin
m
t
δ

α
...(10.28d)
The third equation is obtained based on the condition q (s
m
) = 0 i.e., change from source to sink
takes place at the point where maximum thickness is located (s
m
).
Fourth and fifth equations approximately determines the value ρ∗ and ρ∗∗ from the condition that
sum of all velocities from the source at inlet edge (ρ∗) and sink at the outlet edge (ρ∗∗) and the main
flow w
1
at inlet and w
2
at outlet is zero. The velocity due to circulation, other sources and sinks are
neglected,
w
1
=
*
1
2

l
B
r
at inlet
w
2
=
**
2
2
2
l
B
r π
for outlet.
Flow due to B* across the line h, the distance between the profile thickness at inlet and the mean
line will be
*
4
B
i.e.,
From Fig. 10.26, we can write
w
1
h
1
=
.
2 4
l B
from which
1
1
r
ζ
=
4
2

π

2
3
Taking, ρ* ≈ h
1

1
*
ζ
ρ
=
2
3
∴ B* = 2 .
1
2
l
πζ
w
1
=
8
3
π *
l
ρ
w
1
=

3
.
*
l
ρ
.w

cos β

AXIAL FLOW PUMP 241
In the similar way, B** =
8
3
π
.
**
l
ρ
.w

cos β

Solving the equations,
B
0
= 2 2
2 (1 )
m
m
s
s −
K
1

2
(2 )
(1 )
m m
m
s s
s
-
-
K
2

3
2
(2 . )
(1 – )
m m
m
s s
K
s
B
1
=
2
1 2
2 2 2 2
– (1 – 3 ) 2(1 2 )
(1 – ) (1 )
m m
m m
s s
K K
s s
-

-
+ 3
2
2 (1 2 )
(1 )
m
m
s
K
s


B
2
=
1 2
2 2 2
3 3
2 (1 ) (1 )
m
m m
s
K K
s s


− -
+ 3
2
3
(1 – )
m
K
s
B* = 2K
2
and B** = –2K
3
.
where, K
1
= 8x
m
δ
ρ
w

K
2
=
4 *
3 l
π ρ
w

cos β

K
3
=
4 **
3 l
π ρ
w

cos β

For sharp edged outlet edge of the profile q(s) is written as
( ) q s = B
0
+ B
1
s

+ B
2
s
– 2
+ B
3
s
– 3
....(10.28e)
point source B* is applied at inlet edge of the profile and instead of radius ρ** at the outlet edge, the
included angle of the outlet edge is determined. The coefficients Bj are determined as
(i) 2B
0
+
2
3
B
2
+ B* = 0.
(ii) B
0
(1 +
m
s ) +
1
2
B
1
(
2
1
m
s − ) +
1
3
B
2
(1 –
3
m
s ) +
1
4
B
3
(
4
1
m
s − ) = 2x
m
l
δ
w

.
(iii) B
0
+ B
1 m
s + B
2

2
m
s + B
3
3
m
s = 0
(iv) B* =
8
3
π *
l
ρ
w

(v) B
0
+ B
1
+ B
2
+ B
3
= – w

tan θ
and B
0
=
3
(1 ) (1 )
m
m m
s
s s - −
K
1

2
(1 )
m
m
s
K
s -

3
2
(1 )
m
m
s
K
s −
B
1
=
1
2
1 2
(1 )
m
m
s
K
s
-

+
2
2
1 4
(1 )
m m
m
s s
s
- -
-
K
2
+
3
(1 )
(1 )
-

m
m
s
K
s
B
2
=
1
3
3
2 (1 ) (1 )
m
m m
s
K
s s

- −

2
3
(1 )
m
K
s -
+
3
2
3
(1 )
m
m
s
K
s −
2
4
2
R
O
T
O
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C

P
U
M
P
S

(
C
E
N
T
R
I
F
U
G
A
L

A
N
D

A
X
I
A
L
)
t = 396
v
x
=
Γ
a
t
=
Γ
π
y
2 r
2
v
y
=
Γ
b
t
=
Γ
π 2 r
2
0
.
6
6
0
.
7
5
0
.
5
0
.6
0
.5
8
0
.5
6
0
.5
4
0
.5
3
0
.5
2
0
.5
1
0
.0
5
0.048
0.0485
0.040
0.0469
0.0467
0.0465
0.046
4
.
0
4
.
0
1
4
.
0
3
4
.
0
4
4
.
0
5
4
.
0
6
4
.
0
7
4
.
0
8
4
.
0
9
4
.
0
2
0
.4
2
0
.3
4
0
.3
5
0
.3
4
0
.3
2
0
.4
–a
– b
–a
– b
–a
– b
–a
– b
+ x
– y
+ y
– x
Fig. 10.30. Nomogram for the determination of coefficients ‘a’ and ‘b’
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 243
B
3
=
1 2
2 3 2
1 3 2
(1 ) (1 ) (1 )
m
m m m
s
K K
s s s
-
-
- − -

2
2
(1 )
m
s −
K
3
B* = 2K
2
and K
1
= 8x
m
l
δ
w

K
2
=
4
3
π *
l
ρ
w

K
3
= w

tan θ.
In order to select the coefficients A
0
, A
1
.... the values of γ (s) is substituted in equation
Γ
1
= ( ) s ds γ

for one profile
A
0
+ 1.098
1 1 1 2 2
*
12 48 2
A A A A
A
l
− −
Γ - - π ¸
− - - -

¸
¸
(
,
= 0.
Major circulation is from the value A
0
γ
0
(s). All other values only change the intensity of circulation
distribution at individual positions of the mean line, mostly near the outlet in order to get uniform,
smooth velocity distribution. Fig (10.29) illustrates the distribution of γ
0
, γ
1
....
Values A
0
, A
1
... must be properly selected in order to avoid uneven changes in profile shape,
unevenness in pressure and velocity distribution from inlet to outlet of the profile, since these coefficients
do influence much on the profile configuration. Usually, these values are suitably altered after obtaining
the results from Ist approximation. One such pressure distribution is shown in Fig. 10.57.
The main advantage of this process is that, profile shape can be suitably modified to get better
cavitational characteristics. Experimental verification shows that very good results are obtained in turbines
and pumps. However, this process is used only, when a good cavitational property is required, since this
method is a tedious and lengthy process.
10.9 (A) PUMP DESIGN BY DIRECT METHOD (JOWKOVSKI’S METHOD, LIFT
METHOD)
Referring to the Fig. (10.7) tan λ =
X
Y
. sin ( ) sin cos cos
∞ ∞ ∞
β - λ · β λ - β . sin λ. For normal
entry C
u
= 0, so, ∆C
u
= C
u2
– C
u1
= C
u2
. In general, it can be written as C
u
.
Equation (10.14) can be written as
C
yR
.
l
t
=
. 2sinβ
. (1 cot β . tan λ)
m
m
gH
u C


-

=

2 ( ) sin
(1 cot tan )
u
m
C
C


∆ β
- β λ
...(10.29)
where,
·
l
t
t
is the vane solidity, T
0
=
t
l
is the relative pitch
Equations (10.9), (10.11), (10.14), (10.29) are the basic equations for axial flow pump design by
method of Lift and Drag. The same procedure is followed for axial flow diffuser design also. Prof. N.E.
Jowkovski developed this method for ship propellers at Moscow University, USSR. Later, his students
developed the practical design procedure for the design of axial flow pump. In this design, the profiles
244 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
for each radius of impeller blade or diffuser blade are selected from the known test results of many
profiles, tested in wind tunnels. i.e., Test results of different profiles for which the Lift and Drag
coefficients (C
y
and C
x
) as a function of angle attack ‘δ’ are known under infinite velocity condition
before and after, the profile and for isolated profile.
For pump calculations C
yc
of casade system = 0.8 to 0.85 C
ymax
of the isolated profile. C
ymax
is
taken from wind tunnel test results of isolated profile C
y
,C
x
= f (δ) (Figs. 10.31 and 10.32) corresponding
angle of attack δ is used for the selected radius of the blade. From the combined velocity triangle and the
value of C
yc
, using equation (10.29), vane solidity l/t is determined for the selected radius. The value of
X is determined by the expression tan
x
y
C
C
λ · . Normally,
λ
will be selected as 3° to 5°. While determining
the angle of incidences (λ), it is assumed that C
yc
for cascade and C
y
for isolated profile will have the
same influence on performance of pump impeller.
Angle of attack ‘δ’ and vane solidity
l
t
are the deciding parameters for the selected radius of the
impeller blade. Chord length is selected based on the profile strength and constructional possibility.
From the known values of l and (l/t), pitch ‘t’ can be determined. Profile form or profile shape for all
sections remains unchanged. Thus, the geometric parameters of the profile are obtained, based on the
lift of the known profile that’s why this method is called lift method of design of axial flow machine.
Drawback of this method is that the assumption is made that C
yc
= C
yi
which is not correct. This method
proves to be successful for low head pumps with smaller angle of blade rotation (5° to 8°), where l/t <<
1 i.e., vanes are spaced at a larger distance between them i.e., t is large, number of vanes Z is less (≈3).
But for higher head range, C
yc
< C
yi
, correction factors must be applied.
Fluid flow in pumps, designed by lift method with correct value of angle of attack (δ) and l/t, is
found to be a flow without separation. However, correct value of (C
yc
/C
yi
) could not determined. Also
drag coefficient C
xc
≠ C
xi
. It is not possible to predict exact value of hydraulic efficiency (eqn. 10.11). In
order to overcome this drawback, test results of compressor (diffuser type) cascades, tested in wind
tunnels are taken for design of pumps. Instead of finding C
yc
C
xc
λ, from the test results, the magnitude
and direction of velocity before and after the cascade are simultaneously changed during the test.
Pressure and velocity on the profile are measured. C
yc
and C
xc
are calculated by using the equation for
which, values w
1
, w
2
, β
1
, β
2
, are already known and by constructing the combined velocity triangle the
values ∆w
u
(=∆C
u
), C
u
, β

are also known. C
yc
is determined from equation (10.14). But λ depends on
C
y
and C
x
which makes difficult to determine correct value of λ. That’s why, C
yc
is determined under the
condition (λ = 0). Since for smaller values of λ the difference between C
yc
and C
yi
is negligibly small.
Equation (10.29) when λ = 0 becomes

2sin

· β
u
yc
z
C l
C
t C
...(10.30)
From the known l, t,

β C
m
and ∆C
u
, C
yR
is calculated. In the similar manner C
x
is determined, λ
is determined from C
yc
and C
xc
. This value is substituted again in equation (10.14). By repeating this
process correct values of C
yc
, C
xc
could be determined. Sometimes wind tunnel test results of profiles
are also given in the graphical form C
yc
and C
xc
= f (i), where ‘i’ is the angle between the tangent to
the camberline at entrance and the direction of w
1
(Fig. 10.31). Results are also given in the form of the
flow deviation between inlet and outlet of the profile ∆β = β
2
– β
1
, as a function of ‘i’ i.e., ∆β ,
C
xc
= f (i) (Fig. 10.32).
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 245
0,05
0,10
0,15
0,20
0,25
C
x
C
xc
C
yc
– 10 – 5 0 5 10 ° i
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1,0
C
yc
(C , C ) = f(i)
y x cascade
0,025
0,050
0,075
0,100
– 20 – 10 i * 0 +10 i°
C
xp
∆β ∆β
x
Cx
∆β
max 40
30
20
10
∆β°
Fig. 10.31. C
yc
and C
xc
for profile in cascade Fig. 10.32. ∆β ∆β ∆β ∆β ∆β, C
x
= f (i) Allowable flow deviation
system as a function of angle of incidence (i) and drag coefficient as a function of (i)
For calculations ∆β = 0.8 ∆β
(max)
is taken, in order to have a flow without separation. Tests
conducted on different cascade systems in wind tunnels show that the velocity ∆β (determined as
0.8 ∆β
max
) and corresponding values of C
yc
and C
xc
mainly depend upon l/t, β

, whereas the influence of
blade curvature, blade thickness (maximum) are less. Angle (i), changes 5% depending upon the curvature
of the profile. Some other test results are also given as ∆β and C
yc
as a function of β

or β
2
and l/t i.e., ∆β

2
– β
1
) = f (β

or β
2
) for different valves of (l/t) (Figs. 10.33 and 10.34) i.e., C
yc
C
xc
= f (i) ∆β, C
xc
=
f (i).
Graphs given in Figs. 10.31, 10.32, 10.33 and 10.34 are experimental results on profile, when
working in a cacade system. Drag coefficient, C
xc
and the value λ are higher than the values of isolated
profile (both for impellers and diffusers).
l
t
= 0,5
1,0
1,5
2,0
2,5
20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 β°

0,4
0,5
0,6
0,7
0,8
0,9
1,0
1,1
1,2
C
yc
Fig. 10.33. (C
yc
) =

¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
l
f ,
t

β
246 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 β°
2
0,5
1
,0
∆β ∆β * = 0,8
max
i = 5° ±
3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
33
36
39
42
∆β*
l
t
= 2,5
2
,
0
1
,
5
0
,5
6
6
Fig. 10.34. ∆β ∆β ∆β ∆β ∆β* =
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
2
l
f ,
t
β
0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 ctg β

0,040
0,045
0,050
0,055
0,060
ctg λ
l
t
l
t
l
t
= 2,0
= 1,0
= 0,666
Fig. 10.35. tan λ λλ λλ = f (cot β ββ ββ
∞ ∞∞ ∞∞
and
t
l
)
In order to determine the correct value of hydraulic loss, exact value of C
xc
must be determined.
C
xc
again depends upon the angle α. Since C
xc
> C
xi
angle ∠i
c
>∠i
i
. Hydraulic losses consist of (1)
Profile losses, which purely depends upon boundary layer on the profile surface and the wake formation
after the profile (2) End losses which depends on boundary layer on walls, which encloses the cascade
system (at periphery and at hub) and due to the clearance between casing and impeller and (3) Secondary
losses, arising due to cross flow existing at the channel passage due to pressure difference prevailing
between leading and trailing edges of the blades both in axial and in radial directions. Due to the presence
of casing, the flow is brought to rest at the casing surface. Centrifugal force is developed and boundary
layer is increased which complicates the flow further. Boundary layer at the hub is increased. In variable
pitch axial flow units, the radial clearance is increased due to blade rotation, which increases the end
losses or annular losses. It is essential to bring the diffuser inlet edge very close to the impeller outlet
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 247
edge, which will reduce the profile losses due to aerodynamic wake at the outlet of the impeller, as well
as shock losses at the entry to the diffuser.
10.9 (B) DESIGN OF AXIAL FLOW PUMP AS PER JOWKOVSKI’S LIFT
METHOD—ANOTHER METHOD
(i) For the given value of Q, H and h
s
the speed ‘n’ is determined as
nQ =
3/ 4
10
sv
H (
(
¸ ¸
...(10.31)
where, H
sv
= (H
at
– H
vp
)


2
2
s
s fs
C
h h
g
¸ ¸
- -
(
¸ ,
The suction head h
s
and frictional loss are equal to zero (i.e., h
s
= 0, h
fs
= 0), since axial flow
pumps work under submerged condition. H
at
= barometric pressure 10.336 MWC H
vp
vapour
pressure for water at 15°C = 0.336 MWC and C
s
is the eye velocity = C
1
, the absolute velocity
of the liquid at entry. Under normal entry condition C
1
= C
m1
= C
m
, where C
m1
is the meridional
or flow velocity at entry.
(ii) Suction specific speed C is selected as C = 800 to 1200 for preliminary calculation. Correct
value is obtained after the design. The speed (n) is calculated as per equation (10.31), which
gives a relation between (H
sv
) and specific speed (n
s
). Prof. Suhanoff | 108 | recommends
that, for cavitations free operation, the Dynamic Depression (∆h) can be expressed as
∆h =
2 2
1 1
2 2
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
-
( (
¸ , ¸ ,
C w
m n
g g
where C
1
— average absolute velocity at inlet
w
1
— average relative velocity at inlet
m — the experimential coefficient, which is defined as the ratio of actual velocity
(C
1
) to average velocity (C
1av
) at inlet =1.02.
n — the experimental coefficient, which is defined as the ratio of actual velocity
(w
1
) to average of relative velocity (w
1av
) at inlet = 0.2.
The value of ‘n’ should not be less than 0.2 and it depends upon the specific speed (n
s
).
Dynamic Depression (∆h) depends upon the impeller inlet diameter, the velocity on the
blade to inlet, and suction conditions. This equation is applicable only when flow is a non-
separated flow or near to that. Under separated flow condition the coefficient ‘m’ and ‘n’
depend upon the angle of attack.
In axial flow pumps, flow separation on the blade at inlet is due to pressure drop below
vapour pressure. Writting down the equation between point (1) and (X) at inlet.
1
p
γ
+ Z
1
+
2 2
1 1
2
w u
g

=
x
x
p
Z -
γ
+
2 2
2
x x
w u
g

+ 1h
f(1 – x)
since h
f (1–x)
= 0, Z
x
= Z
l
and u
1
= u
x
for axial flow pumps
x
p
γ
=
2 2
1 1

2
x
w w p
g
-
γ
248 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Cavitation starts when w
x
= w
max
i.e., p
x
= p
min
.
Hence the above equation can be return as
min
p
γ
=
2 2
1 1


2
max p w w
g
+
γ
The coefficient ‘∆h’ is a characteristic coefficient of dynamic depression on the profile,
which depends upon the flow conditions, the form of profile and its geometrical parameters
, ,
m m
f t
l l l
δ  
 
 
, which depend upon the location of the profile in the blade system. That’s why
cavitational characteristics depend upon the pump constructon to a considerable extent
especially for axial flow pumps of high specific speed.
Thoma’s cavitation coefficient ‘σ’ is determined from the equation as σ =
4 / 3
4700
s
n
and H
sv
= σH
from which the speed ‘n’ can be calculated.
0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 0,06 0,07 0,08
1,5
1,0
0,8
0,5
t

0,6
0,7
0,8
0,9
1,0
1,2
1,4
1,6
1,8
2,0
0








10°
11°
12°
13°
15°
14°

Fig. 10.36. α αα αα
sle
=
 
 
 
m
f t
f ,
l l
for the profile of a cascade system—for shockless entry (α αα αα
sle
+ 1°)
α
sle

AXIAL FLOW PUMP 249
Cavitation calculation also depends upon the relation between the average force to the maximum
force on the impeller.
i.e. K =
av
vmax
p
p
p
v max
= p
1
– p
min
, the maximum pressure depression on the profile, when compared to the
pressure on the profile.
v max
p
γ
=
1

vp
p p
γ
=
0
p
γ
– h
s

2
1
2
C
g
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
= H
sv

2
1
2
C
g
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
and p
av
= γ C
y

2
1
2
w
g
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
.
Knowing the lift force of the blade, the area of the blade for cavitation free operation can be
calculated as
Z
1
=

av
A
r p
K is a function of profile form. As per Suhanoff K = 0.65, as per Rudinoff K = 0.55. K ≈ 0.9
for low specific speed pumps and K = 1.67 for profiles developed by Moscow Power Institute,
Russia.
The value of K >1 indicates that the load on the pressure side (concave side) of the profile is
more.
(iii) Impeller diameter D =
3
K Q n , where K = 4.5 to 5.4 and sometimes up to 6. For axial flow
pumps, higher value is selected. Value 6 is selected under special circumstances. If the value
K is small, cavitation effect will be earlier due to smaller eye diameter which leads to higher
flow velocity at inlet.
Outer diameter is always selected for economical flow velocity i.e., as minimum flow velocity
as possible to reduce the profile losses and cavitation. At the same time, higher value of outer
diameter increases the overall size of the pump.
(iv) Hub diameter d
h
is taken as d
h
= 0.35 to 0.6 D
i
for n
s
= 1100 to 800. However, hub diameter
should be selected to accommodate the impeller blade turning mechanism. Although
cylindrical hub is normally used for pumps of higher specific speed, sometimes concial hub
is adopted to get a better control on total head. Mostly the area ratio (A
2
/A
1
) = 0.85 to 0.9.
(v) For better efficiency, flow velocity C
m
is selected as C
m
= 0.74 2gH or C
m
= (0.25 ± 0.05)
ω R
i
. The value 0.25 is for periphery and R
i
is the selected radius.
Hydraulic efficiency, η
h
= 0.86 to 0.89 and Impeller efficiency, η
i
= 0.92 to 0.94.
Head developed by the impeller is calculated as H
m
=
i
h
H
η
and H
i
= η
i
H
m
. Therefore,
H = H
m
h
h
= H
i

1
h
η
η
.
(vi) Calculations are carried out as per Euler’s and Jowkovski’s formula. A relation between
hydraulic efficiency η
h
and impeller effiency η
i
is given by | 131 |
250 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
η
h
=
2 2
2 3 2
0
2
1
1
2 2
i
u m
d
C A C
g A g
η
¸ ¸
- ξ - ξ
(
¸ ,
...(10.32a)
Where ξ
d
is the coefficient of friction for the diffuser and ξ
0
is the coefficient of friction
forthe outlet channel. A
3
is the area of the diffuser inlet and A
2
is the area of the impeller
outlet. ξ
d
= 0.36 and ξ
0
= 0.17 are the experimental coefficients. Another expression is
η
h
=
4
– 4
2 4 3
3 3 3
0
1
1 2240 00014
η
- η - ξ ×
i
d s a s a
n K n K
...(10.32b)
where K
a
is the coefficient, K
a
= 0.25 to 0.37; 0.25 is for η
h
= 0.94 and 0.37 for η
h
= 0.91.
(vii) Based on the experimental results, the angle subtended by the vane in plan should be
approximately 85° for peripheral profile and 115° for hub profile.
(viii) Number of blades Z = 3 to 6 for n
s
= 1500 to 450.
(ix) If the blade curvature is too much, which normally occurs at hub sections, a flow separation
occurs especially for a diffuser passage at an early stage. At the same time the blade should
have a minimum curvature and should not be a straight blade. Minimum curvature occurs
at peripheral section of the blade. Blade curvature must always be selected, so that correct
value of C
y
is attained without any flow separation.
Based on the experimental results the empirical value of the relative maximum blade
curvature recommended is
m
f
l
= 7% for hub and 2% for periphery. Relative maximum
thickness
m
l
δ
will be 10% at hub and 3% at periphery. The change of maximum blade
curvature and maximum blade thickness for other sections is selected such that smaller
variation at the top half of the blade and larger variation at the lower half of the blade is
attained. Blade thickness
m
l
δ
at hub is selected based on the strength requirements and at
periphery as low value as possible to avoid undue vibration as well as facility to cast in
foundry. However, the danger of cavitation is more at the periphery, especially very near to
axial clearance between impeller and casing. If the blade thickness is reduced too low, the
force on the profile and cavitation increases steeply to a maximum and steeply decreases
on both sides of the blade. If the blade thickness is increased, the suction effect (h
s
) reduces
for a narrow range of angle of attack. If it is decreased suction effect reduces for a wide
range of angle of attack. That’s why, the blade thickness must be properly selected.
(x) All profiles of different sections are linked in such a way that their centre of gravity is in a
radial line and passes through the axis of the rod connecting the blade and turning mechanism.
This point will be mostly the centre point of maximum thickness and is usually at 0.4 to
0.5l depending upon the profile.
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 251
Force calculations, determination of C
y
and selection of profile are carried out by the
following method :
Axial velocity, C
m
= 0.74 2gH or C
m
= (0.25 ± O.O5) ω R
i
, 0.25 is for periphery and R
i
is
the selected radius.
Tangential velocity, C
u2
=
m
gH
u
, H
m
=
h
H
η
and η
h
= 0.85 to 0.87.
Pressure difference between the blade inlet and outlet
∆h =
2 1
– p p
γ
= H
i

2
2
2
u
C
g
and H
i
= η
i
H
m
.
Axial component of the total hydro dynamic force will be
z
R
r


= (p
2
– p
1
) (2πR
i
), where R
i
is the radius of the streamline selected.
Tangential force acting on the blade is
u
R
r


= γ (2πR
i
)
2 u m
C C
g
Resultant force,
R
r


=
2 2
u z
R R
r r
∆ ∆ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
-
( (
∆ ∆
¸ , ¸ ,
...(10.33)
Angle, δ = tan
–1

u
z
R
R
¸ ¸ ∆
(

¸ ,
. Angle β

= tan
–1 ¸

¸
2

2
m
u
C
C
u
¸
(
,
.
The geometrical average relative velocity, w

is
w

=
sin
m
C

β
The deviation angle, λ = (δ – β

).
Normal force acting on the blade is dY =
cos
cos
z
dR
λ
δ
.
Number of impeller blades are selected Z = 3 to 6.
Allowable maximum depression on the profile
vmax
p ∆
γ
= H
sv

2
1
2
C
g
.
Average depression will be
∆p
av
= K∆p
v max.
2
5
2
R
O
T
O
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C

P
U
M
P
S

(
C
E
N
T
R
I
F
U
G
A
L

A
N
D

A
X
I
A
L
)
m c m
1 2 0c 01 2
1
f t f t
= , , and m = = , , for cascade
l l l l
¸ ¸ Γ ¸ ¸
ψ α α − α ψ α ( (
Γ ¸ , ¸ ,
( )
m c m
2 0c 01
1
f t f t
=f , , and m = =f , , for cascade
l l l l
¸ ¸ Γ ¸ ¸
α α − α α ( (
Γ ¸ , ¸ ,
Fig. 10.37
0 0,01 0,02 0,03 0 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 0 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 0 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05
α
α
o
c



0
1
– 2°
– 1°
0


3
2
°
2
8
°
2
4
°
2
0
°
16°
α = 12°
t
l
= 1,6
32°
32°
32°
32°
28°
28°
28° 28°
24°
24°
24°
24°
20°
20°
20°
16°
16°
16°
α = 12°
α = 12°
α = 12°
α = 12°
t
l
= 1,4
t
l
= 1,2
t
l
= 1,0
t
l
= 0,8
f
m
l
36°
36°
36°
Γ
c
Γ
1
0 0,01 0,02 0,03 0 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 0 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 0 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05
f
m
l
0,4
0,6
0,8
1,0
1,2
1,4
1,6
1,8
2,0
2,2
2,4
2,6
2,8
3,0
t
l
= 1,6
α = 12°
16°
20°
24°
28°
32°
32° 28°
24°
20°
16°
α = 12°
t
l
= 1,4
32° 28°
24°
20°
16°
α = 12°
t
l
= 1,2
32° 28°
24°
16°
α = 12°
t
l
= 1,0
3
2
°
2
8
°
2
4
°
36°
α = 12°
t
l
= 0,8
36°
36°
20°
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 253
The value of K is suitably selected from 0.55 to 1.7 depending upon the profile selected.
Prof. Erimena | 31 | proved that, the pressure at the concave surface of the blade decides the
load on the profile, under normal working condition.
Length of the profile l is determined as l =
dY
dr
1
av
p
Z

γ
and
l
t
can be calculated.
Relative maximum curvature
m
f
l
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
is determined from experimental results approximately
7% at hub and 2% at periphery. Relative maximum thickness
m
l
δ ¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
is determined as 10%
at hub and 3% at periphery. The change of
m
f
l
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
and
m
l
δ ¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
between hub and periphery
are carried out as smaller at higher half of the blade and larger at the lower half of the blade.
The coefficient of lift (C
y
) is determined as
C
y
=
dY
dr

2
1
2
w
Zly
g

For the selected
m
f
l
and
l
t
, the value of α
sle
is determined from the graph α
sle
= f
,
f t
l l
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
(Fig. 10.36) for a shockless flow. The angle of chord with respect to the axis (u-direction)
θ = β
1
+ α
sle
. The value α = θ – β

. For the obtained value of α, , ,
m
f t
l l
the values of m
1
and m
2
are obtained.
The value of C
y
is calculated as
C
y
= 0.096 m
1
2
100
m
f
m
l
(
- α -
(
¸ ¸
...(10.33a)
and α
I
is calculated as
α
I
=
0.096
y
C

100
m
f
l
...(10.33b)
While doing so initially the value of α is taken from the calculation to find m
1
and m
2
. Then
the determined α
I
is used to find new values of m
1
and m
2
. The calculations are repeated
three to four times until C
y
obtained from the graph is equal to previous C
y
value.
For the given C
y
of the cascade p
min
and the correct value of h
s
is calculated as
p
min
=
1.6
y
C
2
1
w
w

¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
254 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
and h
s
1
= 10 –
2
90
n ¸ ¸
(
¸ ,

¸
2
1
2
m
C
g
– p
min

2
1
2
w
g
¸ ¸
(
(
¸ ,
(
(
¸
and C =
3/ 4

10
a s
n Q
H h ¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
(xi) The mean line of the profile is an arc of a circle. The radius of this arc
R =
2
8 2
m
m
f l
f
-
...(10.34)
(xii) The Radial clearance is 0.001 D
i
(should not exceed 0.25 mm).
(xiii) Distance between blade outlet and diffuser blade inlet is 0.15 D
i
.
Diffuser Calculations
(i) Absolute angle α
2
, tangential component of absolute velocity C
u2
and meridional velocity
C
m2
at the outlet of the impeller are known, from which the inlet conditions of the diffurser
can be determined. Taking C
m3
= 1.05 to 1.07C
m2
, in order to account for profile thickness
of diffuser blade, and since, C
u3
= C
u2
, tan α
3
=
3
3
m
u
C
C
.
(ii) In order to get complete conversion of C
u2
into pressure, the value
l
t
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
is always selected
as
l
t
> 1.5.
(iii) From the experimental analysis | 131 | it has been established that an additional angle (∆)
must be added over and above 90° for the diffuser blade angle at oulet in order to make the
flow tangential to the mean line and the flow can be purely axial at the outlet of the diffuser.
The following table (10.1) gives the value of (∆) for the selected l/t value.
TABLE 10.1
l
t
0.7 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
∆° 20.5 19.5 16.9 11.5 12.5 10.5
(iv) The mean line of the profile is an arc of a circle.
(v) The blade curvature
m
f
l
and vane solidity
l
t
are selected to get proper angle of divergence
2ε for the flow passage between two diffuser blades and also to get constant axial velocity
at all sections between inlet and outlet as well as desired velocity distribution of C
m3
along
the radius before and after the diffuser. About 2ε = 6° at periphery and 8° at hub is
recommended which provides constant height (H) along the meridional plane. Further, the
curvature
m
f
l
should be selected so as to get sufficient value of C
y
under non-separated
flow condition.
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 255
(vi) Selection of number of diffuser blades is normally (Z
i
+ 1), where Z
i
is the number of
impeller blades. However, number of diffuser blades should be selected such that the inlet
flow passage is a square. The
l
t
for diffuser is determined as
l
t
=
3
1 – sin
2 tan
α
ε
. Length of the
blade
l =
2
1
2
y
A
w
rZC
g


...(10.35)
From the known coefficient of lift (C
y
), the profile and its characteristics can be obtained.
From the profile characteristics, the pressure p
min
can be found out. An approximate value
of C
y
= 1.65 p
min
. The distance between impeller outlet edge and diffuser inlet edge is
recommended as 0.15D
i
, where D
i
is the impeller diameter.
Angle subtended by the diffuser blade in plan is found to increase 1.6 times at periphery
and 2 times at hub than that of impeller blade for n
s
= 450 to 750.
10.10 FLOW WITH ANGLE OF ATTACK
Indirect method suggested by Prof. Lisohen | 65 | , inspite of complicated and tedious process,
gives a very good agreement between theory and experiment. Hence, this method is used only when
there is an absolute necessity to improve cavitational characteristics of pumps for which entire process
has to be repeated again with corrections applied to the velocity distribution and the shape of the profile
already available from I set of calculation.
The direct method suggested as per Lift method as well as by Prof N. E. Voznisenski and Prof.
Pekin gives a flow on thin profile for shockless entry without any angle of attack [v(0) = 0]. For a flow
with angle of attack these processes do not give good results especially for cavitational characteristics.
For axial flow pumps, u
x
= u
1
,

Z
x
= Z
1
. h
f(1 – x)
= 0.

x
p
γ
=
2 2
1 1
2
x
w w p
g

-
γ
Then,
min
p
γ
=
2 2
1 1
2
max
w w p
g

-
γ
Circulation Γ for a flow over a cylinder can be written as Γ = 4πa.V

sin α, where a is the radius
of cylinder, α is the angle of attack i.e., angle between the direction of the velocity vector V

and the
horizontal line passing through the centre of the cylinder which is the profile or cascade axis (= direction
of blade velocity ‘u’), V

is the infinite velocity or undisturbed velocity before and after the blade. The
above equation can be written for a curved plate as Γ

= πlw

sin α, where l = 4a, the chord length of
the profile, w′

is the new infinite velocity of flowing fluid before and after the blade with an angle of
attack α. Normally α is very small (< ±5°), so sin α ≈ α and hence, Γ

= πlw

′α. Taking L as the ratio of
circulation of profile in cascade to isolated profile
Γ

c
= L.π lw′

α ...(10.36)
256 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Value of ‘L’ can be found from the graph (Fig 10.8).
Referring to the combined velocity triangle, (Fig. 10.5), β

is the angle of flow over profile for no
circulation. With ‘α’ as the angle of attack, the flow will be at an angle β′

= (β

+ α). The new w′

and
w′
u∞
are reduced since blade velocity u and meridional velocity C
m
remain same.
The procedure for the calculation of flow over a thin profile with angle of attack is as follows:
Circulation Γ
b
for a flow with angle of attack ‘α’ can be written as
Γ
b
=
2
m
h
gH
z
π
η ω
...(10.37a)
t
α
l
w

w′


w


α
β′

β

Fig. 10.38. Velocity triangle for a flow with angle of attack
For the selected value of angle of attack α ≤ ±5°, circulation Γ* with angle of attack is
Γ* = Lπlw′

α ...(10.37b)
Values β′

and w′

are determined from the combined velocity triangle. Value L is determined
from the graph (Fig. 10.8) for the given value of α.
Hence, the circulation Γ without any angle of attack is
Γ = Γ
b
– Γ* ...(10.38)
Geometrical average velocity from the velocity triangle (Fig.10.38) w′

= w

cos α.
Geometrical average angle β

for a flow without angle of attack is
β

= β′

– α ...(10.39)
From the known values of w

, Γ and β

, lift method or Prof. Voznisenski’s method can be
applied for design of axial flow pump.
10.11 CORRECTION IN PROFILE CURVATURE DUE TO THE CHANGE FROM
THIN TO THICK PROFILE
Methods suggested in lift method and by Prof. Voznisenski for the design of axial flow pumps,
give a thin profile in the form of an arc of circle. In real practice, blade system has thick profiles with
definite thickness instead of thin profile which is called camberline in profiles. Due to this additional
thickness, flow area in between two blades, in the cascade system reduces, which results in change in
relative velocity from inlet edge to the outlet edge of the profile. Flow velocity and the quantity of flow
also change. Correction factors are applied on blade curvature of the thin profile, designed by lift method
or Prof. Voznisenski’s method, in order to overcome this drawback, and the performance of pump
remains unaltered.
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 257
Blade thickness is always selected based on the strength and durability of hub section of impeller
blade, where the thickness is higher and based on technology in manufacture for the peripheral section
of impeller as well as for the diffusers, where the thickness is small.
Prof. S. M. Beelosirkovski, Prof. A. C. Genevski, Prof. Polovski, Prof. E. L. Bloch | 9, 105 |
developed method to overcome the drawback of change in performance due to the dressing of thin
camber line with thick profiles. This work was reworked by Prof. A.N. Papir | 85, 86, 87, 105 | by the
following procedure:
Profiles in cascade system consist of: (i) diverging passage type used in mixed and axial flow
pumps, where the relative and meridional flow velocities reduce from inlet to outlet and another,
(ii) converging passage type used in mixed and axial flow turbines, where the relative and meridional
flow velocities increase from inlet to outlet.
Apart from that, hydrodynamic machines are classified as: (i) machines with high aspect ratio
(l/t > 1.2 to 1.4) and (ii) machines with low aspect ratio (l/t < 0.5 to 0.7). In high aspect ratio machines,
fluid velocity on the blade is practically independent of the changes in fluid velocity before the blade
system. The direction of fluid velocity is practically same as the blade angle at outlet, whatever may be
the circulation. In low aspect ratio machines, the fluid velocity on the blade depends upon the fluid
velocity before the blade system i.e., depend upon the circulation around the profile or the load on the
blade | 105 |. This means that in high aspect ratio profile system, the fluid velocity direction at outlet is
independent of change in angle of attack and lift of the profile, where in low aspect ratio units, it mostly
depends upon the angle of attack and lift.
Based on the above factors the influence of profile dressing on a thin camber line, on pump
performance is found to be a function of two factors: (1) The change in the interactive force of thick
profile, when compared to that of thin profile, under ideal fluid flow conditions and (2) Effect of viscosity
on velocity distribution along the profile. Prof. A. N. Papir has developed an expression
f
c

= f 2
,
l
t
¸ ¸
β
(
¸ ,
, which is given in a graphical form (Fig. 10.39). A short description is given below.
Outlet blade angle of thin profile under real fluid flow condition is given as
cot β
2
= A cot β
1
+ B ...(10.40)
where,
1
β and
2
β are the inlet and outlet flow angle measured with respect to the blade velocity ‘u’ and
A and B are constants and are a function of geometrical parameters and lift in a cascade system.
A =
0
0
1
1 cos
4
1
1 cos
4
yi
yi
l
C
t
l
C
t
− β
- β
...(10.41)
and B =
0
0
1
sin
2
1
1 cos
4
yi
yi
l
C
t
l
C
t
β
- β
...(10.42)
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 259
β
0
is the flow angle under zero circulation
0
2 2
π β
β · − α -
yi
C is the coefficient of lift under angle of attack i = 0
C
yi
=
0
y
i
dc
di
·
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
The coefficient A and B for a thick profile will be different and can be obtained by an approximate
formula
A
t
= A + a .
m
d l
t l
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
...(10.43)
and B
t
= B + , α, β
m
d l
b
t l
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
...(10.44)
Functions a
l
t
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
and b , α,β
l
t
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
, account for the thickness of profile
m
m
l
δ
· δ , relative thickness
ratio which determines approximately the change in circulation in thick profile with respect to the
circulation in thin profile.
The result of Prof. Papir’s analysis is given in graphical form (Fig. 10.39), with
2 2
2
π
θ · −β
(
2
β is
the outlet blade angle) where
2
θ is designated as indirect blade angle in x-axis and
f
c

in y-axis where
m
m
f
f
l
· relative blade curvature of the camberline (thin profile) and
m
d
c
l
· relative maximum
thickness. The function
f
c

=
1
2
tan
β
2
. In the graph +ve direction is for pumps and –ve direction is for
turbines. From the graph it is evident that for high aspect ratio l/t > 1.2 to 1.4 correction factor,
f
c

, is
independent of angle of attack i.e., not depending upon the angle of direction ∆β but depends upon only
the flow direction at outlet, whereas for low aspect ratio 0.5 to 0.7
l
t
¸ ¸
<
(
¸ ,
the correction factor
f
c

is
practically independent of outlet flow direction but mostly depends upon the angle of deviation ∆β i.e.,
depends upon lift force and angle of attack. For turbine cascade system the dependence with ∆β starts
earlier than for pump cascade system i.e., already when l/t = 1.
10.12 EFFECT OF VISCOSITY
The result of viscous effect on flow is the development of boundary layer at the surface. Under
non-separated flow condition the real fluid flow is on the surface of the thick profile instead of on the
260 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
surface of thin profile. Normally, at inlet, the profile thickness is always more at the convex surface of
the profile than at the concave side. As a result, the deviation in flow direction of viscous fluid when
compared to the flow direction of ideal fluid, will be always with lesser angle of curvature i.e., ∆β is less
in the cascade. Circulation in real fluid will be less than that in ideal fluid. This deviation will be larger in
pump, (i.e., divergent flow) than that in turbines (i.e., convergent flow). As a result, boundary layer
thickness at the convex surface will be higher in pumps than in turbines.
Effect of viscosity and subsequent reduction in hydraulic efficiency can be accurately calculated
from the boundary layer thickness in profile | 32, 64, 78 |. With sufficient accuracy, the effect of
viscosity on circulation can be taken as | 8, 16 |.
K
Γ
=
th
Γ
Γ
= 0.86 to 0.93
K
Γ
increases when l/t increases. For pumps K
Γ
≈ 0.9 and for turbines K
Γ
≈ 0.95. It is essential to
take Γ
th
=

1.1 Γ, where Γ is the circulation actual calculated as per the equation (10.7).
10.13 SELECTION OF IMPELLER DIAMETER AND SPEED
Flow velocity at suction eye under optimum condition is given as
C
0
= C
m0
= (0.06 to 0.08)

as
2 3
Qn ...(4.24)
For axial flow pump, C
m
=
2 2
4
_
(1 )
Q
D d π −
...(10.45)
where,
h
d
d
D
· , d
h
is the hub diameter. Combining the above two equations and rearranging
Q = (0.06 to 0.08)
2 3/ 2
(1 )
4
d
π

.n.D
3
...(10.46)
where, n is speed in rpm. Using non-dimensional parameter
3
Q
Q
K
nD
· (where n is in rps) in the above
equation
Q =
3
1
60
Q
K nD
K
Q
= 60 ( )
( )
3/ 2
2
0.06 to 0.08 1
4
d
π (

(
¸ ¸
...(10.47)
Taking an average of 0.066 for the coefficient, which is practically used for all pumps,
K
Q
= 0.7
2 3/ 2
_
(1 ) d −
For axial flow pumps hub ratio 0.4 to 0.6 d · .
Q
K is 0.32 to 0.54. Under maximum efficiency
condition, K
Q
= 0.4 to 0.5.
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 261
Mostly speed is determined for better cavitational characteristics for which cavitational specific
speed (C) is used
C =
3/ 4
10
sv
n Q
H ¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
...(10.48)
Expressing C in terms of
Q
K
C =
3 3
3/ 4
60
10
Q
sv
K n D
H ¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
or nD
1/ 2
2 / 3
2 / 3 1/ 3
10
60
sv
Q
H
C
K
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
=
1/ 2
2 / 3
1/ 3
10
15.3
sv
Q
H
C
K
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,

constants ...(10.49)
Since, C, ,
Q sv
K H are very nearly constant for pumps. Taking C = 1000,
10
sv
H
= 1
Q
K = 0.45 for
most of the pumps and
Q
K = 0.6 for very high specific speed pumps, 8.4 nD ≈ for normal units,
nD ≈ 7.3 for very high specific speed units (n is in rev/sec). Correspondingly u
peri
(= πDn) = 26 to
27 m/sec and ≈ 33 if C is higher and, u
peri
=

23 m/sec for very high specific speed units.
10.14 SELECTION OF HUB RATIO
Free vortex design is adopted while designing axial flow pumps. Circulation and total head developed
at all radii is constant, i.e., C
u
r = constant. For potential flow and for normal entry C
u1
= 0. Blade
curvature (β) and geometric average blade angle (β

) increase from periphery to hub. Blade becomes
a twisted blade with more twist at hub angle β

at hub and less at periphery. Karl Pfliderer | 97| has
suggested that outlet should not exceed 90°. Based on this he gave an expression
3
1 1
_
max
max
d d
¸ ¸
¸ ¸

(
(
¸ ,
¸ ,
=
3/ 2
1.09
1
h
p
¸ ¸
(
-
¸ ,
η
0
1
β
a
tg
2
365
S
n ¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
...(10.50)
where, p is the head correction coefficient due to finite number of blades in impeller and β
0a
is the inlet
blade angle at hub section. However, based on the experimental results on a number of axial flow
pumps, Prof. Papir | 84 | has developed an expression for hub ratio selection, which is given below
Specific speed, n
s
=
3/ 4
3.65 (rpm) n Q
H
=
3/ 4
219 (rps) n Q
H
Flow rate through impeller, Q=
π
4
D
2
(1 – d

2
) C
m
. From velocity triangle, flow velocity
C
m
=
2
2
u
C
u
¸ ¸

(
¸ ,
tgβ

. Blade velocity at hub section, u
h
=
π
60
h
d n
=
π
h
d
D
.
.
60
n
D
= πDn.d

(n in rps).
262 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Tangential velocity C
u2
at hub, C
u2h
=
_
η π .
m
h
gH
Dn d
. Combining all the above equations, flow rate
Q =
π
4
D
3
n
2
_
(1 ) d − 2 2 2
2η π
m
h
gH
d
n D d
¸ ¸

(
(
¸ ,
tgβ

Substituting the value of unit head, K
H
=
2 2
m
H
n D
and unit discharge, K
Q
=
3
Q
nD
in the above
equation
K
Q
= ( )
2
2
2
π
1 –
4 2η π
¸ ¸

(
¸ ,
H
h
gK
d d
d
tgβ

...(10.51)
Substituting this in specific speed equation
n
s
=
2
2
3/ 4
(1 )
2η π
219π
2
H
h
H
gK
d d
d
K
¸ ¸
− −
(
¸ ,
tgβ

...(10.52)
A graph K
H
= f (n
s
) (Fig. 10.40) is drawn based on the test results of different specific speeds (n
s
=
450 to 1600) having η
max
≥ 85% taken from universal characteristics. The values K
Q
ranges from 0.4 to
0.6 in these pumps. However, K
Q
is taken as constant and = 0.5 for all pumps and β

for hub is taken as
38° although it ranges from 35° to 40°. These values are substituted in equation (10.51) and a graph
h
d =
f (n
s
) is drawn (Fig. 10.41). Experimental results are also indicated in this graph. Dotted line indicates
the recommendation given by K. Pfliderer | 97 |. Fig. 10.42 gives the combination of above two graphs
(Figs. 10.40 and 10.41). It gives a relation
h
d = f (K
H
)
opt
500 1000 1500
(n )
s opt
0
0,1
0,2
(K )
H opt
Fig. 10.40. (K
H
)
opt
= f (n
s
)
op
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 263
200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000 (n )
s 0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
d
D
h
eqn. 10.45
d
D as per
min
Fig. 10.41. ( )
¸ ¸
· · (
¸ ,
h
s
opt
d
d f n
D
0,05 0,10 0,15 0,20 (K )
H opt
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
as per equation
as per Pfliderer
d
D
h
Fig. 10.42.
( ) · ·
h
H
opt
d
d f K
D
10.15 SELECTION OF
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
peri
l
t
—ASPECT RATIO AT PERIPHERY
A major part of losses occur in impeller due to high velocity of flow and the divergent passage.
Profile loss is the sum of frictional losses and losses in divergent passage. Aspect ratio plays a very
important role. Frictional losses increase when (l/t) ratio increases but loss due divergence decrease. It is
264 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
necessary to find optimum value of (l/t) for which the sum of these two losses are minimum. Based on
the equation (10.1), we can write for a divergent passage as
w
u2
– w
u1
=

Z
r
Γ
=
t
Γ
...(10.53)
Bernoulli’s equation for real fluid flow through impeller passage will be
∆p = (p
1
– p
2
) +
ρ
2
(w
2
u1
– w
2
u2
) = γh
f
...(10.54)
where, h
f
is the combined losses in impeller passage.
For constant head at all radii in impeller passage, under optimum condition
Γ =

η ω
h
gH
Z
=
( )
f
gt H h
u
-
...(10.55)
Since, H = H
m
. η
h
= (H + h
f
) η
h
From the cascade analysis, the force due to losses i.e., drag force ‘X’ will be
X = t sin β

and ∆p = γt h
f
sin β

and lift will be Y = γ
w
u

(H + h
f
) t + γth
f
cos β

...(10.56)
Using coefficients X = C
x
ρ
2
2
w

l, Y = C
y
ρ
2
2
w

l = ρ w

Γ
and w
z
= w

sin β

, h
f
= C
x

l
t
2
2 sinβ
w
g


= C
x
l
t
3
2
z
w
gw

and C
y
=
2
lw

Γ
=
2 1
2( ) 2
( / ) ( / )
u u u
C C C
w l t w l t
∞ ∞

=
2
η
h
gH
u
...(10.57)
∴ For normal entry, C
u1
= 0
∆C
u
= C
u2
– C
u1
= C
u2
= C
u
f
h =
f
h
H
= C
x

l
t
3
2
z
w
gHw

...(10.58)
Equation (10.58) shows that losses are the function of aspect ratio l/t and the relative velocity
w
3

. The geometrical average relative velocity w

will be maximum at periphery. Hence, major
percentage of losses in impeller of axial flow pump occurs at periphery of the impeller passage.
Losses in impeller consist of profile losses arising due to friction in impeller passages and subsequent
wake formation at the outlet of the impeller cascade system and non profile or secondary losses arising
out of secondary flow in impeller passage due to pressure difference between leading side and trailing
side of blades as well as due to clearance between casing and impeller blades. Since, flow in impeller
passage is under fully developed turbulent region, where ‘f ’ is independent of Reynold’s number, the
losses depend upon C
y
and C
x
, a relation between C
x
and C
y
can be written as
C
y
= a C
2
x
+ bC
x
+ C ...(10.59)
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 265
where a, b, c are constants, depend upon the geometry of blade system. Substituting the values of C
y
and C
x
from equation (10.12) and rearranging
f
h =
1
m
w
2 3
2
2
. .
2 η
u
h
C w gHw w t l
a b C
l gH gH t u
∞ ∞ ∞
¸ ¸
- -
(
(
¸ ,
...(10.60)
Using non-dimensional coefficient, K
Q
=
3
Q
nD
and K
H
=
2 2
H
n D
w

=
2
u
C
u
¸ ¸

(
¸ ,

1
cosβ

= nD
π
2η π
H
h
gK ¸ ¸

(
¸ ,

1
cosβ

...(10.61)
Substituting these values in equation (10.59)
f
h =
π
4
Q
K

¸
2 2
2 π
2π η
η π cos β
H H
h
h
gK gK l
a
t

¸ ¸ −
(
¸ ,
+ b
2
2
1
π
2η π 2η π cos β
H
h h
gK

¸ ¸

(
¸ ,
+ c
3
1
2 cos β
H
gK

3
π
2π η
H
h
gK ¸ ¸

(
¸ ,
l
t
(
(
¸
...(10.62)
In axial flow pumps, K
Q
is mostly constant for all n
s
values. Taking, K
Q
= constant
f
h =
,
H
l
f K
t
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
Differentiating the equation (10.62) up to first approximation with respect K
H
and equating it to
zero,
_
f
H
dh
dK
=
2 2 2 2 2
2
π π
πη 2πη η π cos β η π cos β
H H
h h h
h
gK gK ag bg l
t
∞ ∞
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
− − −
( (
¸ , ¸ ,
2
2
2 3
π π
2πη 2πη 2 cos β
H H
H h h
gK gK C l
t gK

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
¸ ¸
− − -
(
( (
¸ ,
¸ , ¸ ,
= 0 ...(10.63)
Taking, L = π –
2
H
h
gK
πη
M = π +
H
h
gK
πη
N = π –
H
h
gK
πη
S =
2 2 2
2 2
cos β
η π
H
h
g K b
C LM


T =
2 2 3
2 2 2
4 cos β
H
h
g K N a
C
L M


η π
...(10.64)
266 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Equation (10.63) can be written as
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
opt I
l
t
=
2
− - - S S T
...(10.65)
Differentiating the equation (10.63) up to second approximation and equating it to zero
opt II
l
t
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
=
2
2cosβ
π η 1

2
h
H
a
c
gK

¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
...(10.66)
Equations (10.65 and 10.66) are more or less found to be same. From the test results of pumps
having η > 85% it is found
a
c
= 8.15 and
b
c
= – 15
From fundamental equations
u = π Dn, where n is the speed in rps
2
u
C
=
2π η
h
gH
D n
=
2 π η
h
gnD
K
H
C
Z
=
2 2
4
_
π (1 )
h
Q
D d −
=
2
4
(1 )
Q
h
nDK
d π −
tan β

=
2
Z
u
C
C
u −
=
( )
2
4
π 1 π
2π η
Q
H
h
h
K
gK
d
¸ ¸
− −
(
¸ ,
...(10.67a)
The value K
Q
for axial flow pumps ranges from 0.4 to 0.6. Hydraulic efficiency, (η
h
) is more or
less constant for all pumps (≈ 90%).
Substituting these values in equation (10.67), β

changes from 14° to 18°. At higher values 24° to
34°. Taking β

is constant for all ranges of K
Q
and K
H
equation (10.66) leads to
opt
l
t
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
is directly
proportional to (K
H
)
opt
i.e., a straight line variation. Practically, for each value of K
H
, there exists a
range of β

, but this variation is negligible. A relation
opt
l
t
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
= f (K
H
)
opt
is drawn in Fig. 10.43. Possible
variations in angle β

is also indicated with dotted line in this figure. It is seen that this graph coincides
with the values of l/t of tested pumps.
opt
l
t
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
can be selected from this graph to get better cavitational
characteristics.
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 267

t peri
0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 (K )
H opt
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1,0
1,2
1,4
β

Fig. 10.43.
( ) ,

 
= β  
 
H
opt
peri
f K
t

at η ηη ηη
max
condition
Professor Wislicenus | 133 | has recommended the selection of vane, solidity
l
t
 
 
 
as
l
t
=
2sinβ
Z

log
2
1
r
r
...(10.67b)
Prof. A.J. Stepanoff |112| has given a chart for the selection of hub ratio, aspect ratio and number
of blades as a function of specific speed (n
s
). (Fig. 10.44).
424 495 565 636 706 778 848 919 990
1060
1131
1201
1272
vanes
2
4
5
0,4
0,5
0,6
0,7
0,8
0,9
1,0
1,1
Hub ratio
Specific speed
0
.
2
9



2
v
0
.
3
0
0
.
3



2
v
0
.
3
5
3
0
.
3
3



2
v
0
.
4
2
5



4
v
0
.
4
0
0
.
4
5
0
.
4
0
5



3
v
0
.
5



3
v
0
.
4
2
5



3
v
0
.
5
7
7



3
v
0
.
5
0
0
.
5
5
0
.
6
0
0
.
6
5
0
.
7
0
0
.
6
3
5



3
v V
a
n
e

s
p
a
c
i
n
g

/
t

4
v
Fig. 10.44. Hub ratio number of vanes, and l/t ratio for axial flow pumps (as per Stepanoff)

/
t
268 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
10.16 CALCULATION OF HYDRAULIC LOSSES AND HYDRAULIC
EFFICIENCY
Total hydraulic losses, (h
f
) is the sum of hydraulic losses in approach channel (h
fa
), in impeller
(h
fi
), in diffuser (h
fd
) and in discharge channel (h
f 0
)
h
f
= h
fa
+ h
fi
+ h
fd
+ +h
f 0
Relative values are
f
h =
f
h
H
=
0 fa f i fd f
h h h h
H
- - -
=
fa
h +
fi
h +
fd
h +
0 f
h
Losses in approach and discharge pipes are calculated as
h
fa
= K
a
2
0
2
C
g
and h
f(0)
= K
0
2
2
d
C
g
where, K
a
and K
0
are the coefficients at inlet and at outlet respectively and C
o
and C
d
are the velocities
in approach and delivery pipes respectively. h
fi
+ h
fd
are the losses in impeller and diffuser, respectively
which are classified as losses in blade system and also called as internal hydraulic losses. Prof. Staritzky
| 105, 121, 122, 123, 124 | has shown in his paper that for the given value of head coefficient (K
H
or ψ),
the relative head loss (h
f
) in pump depends upon the flow coefficient (K
Q
or φ) and has a minimum
condition.
Losses in impeller are of two types: (1) Profile losses arising due to friction on the blade and wake
formation at the outlet of the blade system and (2) Non-profile or secondary losses arising due to the
circulatory flow in blade passage, and cross flow through clearance between casing and impeller developed
due to pressure difference between convex and concave side of the blade. Non-profile losses are negligible
(≈ 5% of total impeller losses) when compared to profile losses, relative head loss in cylindrical section
for any radius of the impeller blade will be,
fi
h =
sin λ
sin ( )
i
i i
w
u


β - λ
=
2
2
(1 tan β )
tanβ (tan β . cot λ 1)
i
i i i
C
u

∞ ∞
-
-
...(10.68)
where
i
λ average incidence angle for the blade as a whole and the blade velocity ‘u’ corresponds to the
peripheral section. Similarly, relative head loss in diffuser can be written as
fd
h =
sin λ
sin ( )


α - λ
d
i d
w
u
=
( )
( )
2
2
1 tan
tan tan . cot 1

∞ ∞
- α
α α λ -
d
d d d
C
u
...(10.69)
From the velocity triangles, (Fig. 10.45)
tan β
∞i
=
2
2
2
m
u
C
C
u −
and tan α
∞d
=
2
m
C
u
From fundamental equation,
C
u2
=
η
m
h
gH
u
and C
ma
= C
mi
= C
m2
, C
u1d
= C
u2i
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 269
(a) Impeller (b) Diffuser
w
2
w
u2 C
u2
C
m2
C
2
u
C
4
C
m4
w1
C
m1
u
C
1
C
m3
C
u3
Fig. 10.45. Flow through impeller and diffuser of axial flow pump
Using non-dimensional coefficients, K
Q
=
3
Q
nD
and K
H
=
2 2
H
n D
(n is in rps), the above equation
can be modified as
tan β
∞i
=
2

2π η
h Q
h H
K
gK −
...(10.70)
tan α
∞d
=

h Q
H
K
gK
...(10.71)
Taking the value ρ =
2
1 2π η
H
h
gK

, the above equation can be written as
i
hf =
2
2
2
4
1
ρ
ρ π
4 λ
1
1
ρ π
Q
Q i
K
K ctg
¸ ¸
-
(
¸ ,
- ⋅
...(10.72)
fd
h =
2
2
2
2
4
1
(1 ρ)
1 ρ π
4
1
1 . λ
(1 ρ) π
¸ ¸
− -
(
− ¸ ,
-

Q
Q
d
K
K
ctg
...(10.73)
Losses in the approach and discharge channel can be expressed as
( ) f ap
h =
( ) f ap
h
H
= ζ
ap
2
( )
2
m ap
C
gH
270 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
and,
0 f
h =
( ) f e
h
H
= ζ
0

( )
2
0
2
m
C
gH
...(10.74)
where, C
m(a)
=
mi i
ap
C A
A
= x
i
C
m(i)
and, C
me
=
mi i
e
C A
A
= x
e
C
mi
...(10.75)
where,
i
a
A
A
= x
a
,
0
i
A
A
= x
0
,

A
i
, A
a
, A
0
are the area of flow of impeller passage, approach channel
immediately before the impeller inlet and the discharge channel immediately after impeller exit. C
mi
is
the flow velocity in impeller. These two expressions can be expressed in non-dimensional form as
( 0) f a
h
-
= (ζ
a
χ
2
a
+ ζ
0
χ
2
0
)
2
2
8
h Q
H
K
g K
η
π
...(10.76)
f
h =
fi
h +
fd
h +
f a
h +
0 f
h ; η
h
= 1 –
f
h
It can be seen that η
h
=f (K
Q
, K
H
, cot
i
λ , cot
d
λ χ
a
, χ
0
, ζ
a
, ζ
0
η
h
)
Based on the experimental results on pumps of η > 85% the values are taken as χ
a
= χ
0
= 1, ζ
0
+ ζ
a
= 0.124, η
Ι
h
= 0.86, cot
i
λ = 25.6, cot
d
λ = 46.16. Since, η
h
appears in the equation on both sides, the
equation is solved by trial and error method until two successive values of η
h
are equal. Prof. Staritzky
graphically gave this equation in coordinates K
H
– K
Q
, since all performance graph for pumps are always
represented in these coordinates only (Figs. 10.46, 10.47 and 10.48).
0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 K
Q
0
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
0,7
0,8
h
K
10h
a
η
0,9
h, η
h
0
Fig. 10.46. Hydraulic loss and efficiency as a function of (K
Q
) h

, η ηη ηη = f (K
Q
) for
peri
t
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
l
≈ ≈≈ ≈≈ 1
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 271
0
0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 K
Q
0,02
0,04
0,06
0,08
0,10
0,12
0,14
0,16
0,18
0,20
0,22
0,24
K
H
n

=

5
0
0
s
6
0
0
η
H

=

8
5
%
8
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
2
0
0
1
4
0
0
1
6
0
0
2
0
0
0
70%
80%
η
r o
n
m
75%
Fig. 10.47. Universal graph K
H
= f (K
Q
, η ηη ηη, n
s
) for
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
peri
t

≈ ≈≈ ≈≈ 1
K
H
0,14
0,12
0,10
0,08
0,06
0,04
0,02
0
0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,5 1,6 1,7 1,8 1,9
K
Q
5
0
0
6
0
0 n
=
7
0
0
s
8
0
0
1
0
0
0
ηs
=
8
5
%
n
=
1
2
0
0
s
1
5
0
0
1700
2000
2600
8
0
%
70%
60%
3500
3000
4000
Fig. 10.48. Universal characteristics K
Q
= f (K
H
, η ηη ηη, n
s
) for
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
peri
t

≈ ≈≈ ≈≈ 0.3 when K
H
= 1
10.17 CALCULATION OF PROFILE LOSSES USING BOUNDARY LAYER
THICKNESS δ δδ δδ
**
| 67, 105, 106|
10.17.1 Notations and Abbreviations
B —
2
1
( )
S
S
w s

ds value of integration
C — Constant of integration (with suffix)
— Suction specific speed (without suffix)
C
m
— Axial (meridional) velocity
D — Outer diameter
272 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
d — Hub diameter
d — Hub ratio
G, G
1
— A parameter depends on R
e
**
g — Acceleration due to gravity (= 9.81 m/sec
2
)
H — Total head of the pump
H
e
— Ratio of two boundary layer thicknesses
h
s
— Suction head
h
f
— Loss of head
K
H
— Unit head =
2 2
H
n D
(n — in rev/sec)
K
Q
— Unit discharge =
3
Q
n D
(n — in rev/sec)
1 — Chord length
n — Speed (rpm)
p — Pressure
p
1
— Pressure loss to friction
min
p — Minimum pressure (non—dimensional)
Q — Discharge, flow rate
q — Source and sink
R
e
— Reynold’s number
r — Radius
s — Distance of any point on the profile from inlet edge
s

— (s/l), Non-dimensional distance on the profile
t — Pitch
u — Vane velocity
w — Relative velocity of fluid (velocity of fluid on the vane)
w

— Non-dimensional relative velocity =
1
w
w

Z — Number of vanes
α — Absolute angle
U

— Non-dimensional velocity ratio.
β — Vane angle
Γ — Circulation
γ — Specific weight of the liquid
δ

— Displacement thickness
δ
∗∗
— Momentum thickness
δ
∗∗

**
l
δ
— Non-dimensional momentum boundary layer thickness
η — Efficiency
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 273
χ — Ratio of transition end point to laminar point
on the profile
ρ — Density
σ — Cavitation constant (Thoma’s constant)
v — Kinematic viscosity
τ — Shear stress
SUFFIXES
1 — Inlet conditions to the vane
2 — Outlet conditions to the vane
u — Tangential component theoretical (average) values
f — Frictional losses
lam, 1 — End of laminar region, Laminar region
tr, t — End of transition region, Transition region
tu, e — End of turbulent region, Turbulent region
P — Profile losses
I, III, V — Streamlines from hub to periphery
i — Any streamline
m, min — Minimum conditions
Hydraulic losses in axial flow pumps are due to:
(1) friction over the blades (viscous flow), and the aerodynamic wake after the blades and
(2) vortices in other places such as: (a) leakage losses through the radial clearances, (b) losses in
flow passages between vanes due to the pressure differences between concave and convex surface of
vanes and (c) losses in the hub of the impeller due to increased boundary layer thickness (Fig. 10.49).
Secondary flow
through clearance
Secondary flow
through hub
Hub
Periphery
Fig. 10.49. Type of secondary flow in cascade of axial flow pump
Losses due to friction on blades and due to wake formation after the blades are grouped as profile
losses, whereas losses due to other effects are classified as non-profile losses or secondary losses, because
of the finite length of blades.
274 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Since profile losses form major percentage of the hydraulic losses (about 96%), non-profile losses
are usually neglected and hence hydraulic losses are assumed to be equal to profile losses. Experimental
investigations also confirm that the error in such assumption is very negligible ≈ 1% | 13, 105 |.
Several methods for calculating profile losses in a cascade system of fluid machinery are available;
some taking into account the profile losses in the cascade system only, | 74, 75, 114 |, and some other
taking into account the profile losses in the cascade and in the wake, | 67, 92,115 |. A comparison of the
above method shows that the method suggested by Prof. Loisanski gives more accurate results than
other methods | 14,106,142 |.
10.17.2 Determination of Profile Losses and Hydraulic Efficiency
At the outlet end of the profile, the two boundary layers, coming out from concave and convex
surfaces are separated from one another up to a certain distance (Fig. 10.50) from 2 to ∞. At point ∞
these two layers join together. Neglecting the non-uniformity of the velocity distribution in this region
(∞ – ∞), it can be written as
p
2
= p
2∞
; δ
*
2
= δ
2
**
, H
2
=
*
2
**
2
δ
δ
= 1
w
2

w
2
2
U
n
i
f
o
r
m

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

a
r
e
a
F
l
o
w

s
e
p
a
r
a
t
i
o
n
a
r
e
a
w
e
w
1

p
1∞
1
e
Flow at the outlet edge
Blade exit
edge
w y
t
2 ( )

K
Fig. 10.50. Flow at the outlet from the profile in a cascade system
(boundary layer development at wake)
2
0,5
1
1,0
l
(1) Pressure side (2) Suction side
Average value
Instantaneous value
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0
– 0,2
– 0,4
p
Fig. 10.51. Pressure distribution along the profile in a cascade system
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 275
Considering the flow of fluid (Fig. 10.7), the component of force P
Z
due viscosity is reduced
to R
Z
by an amount γth
f
.
TABLE 10.2: Values of α αα αα and
**
2
**
2
δ
δ e
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
2e
2
w
w

α αα αα e
1– – H
2
α
α
1–
1+
2
α
α
**
2
2e
δ
δ
H
cr
=1.3 2.8 H
cr
=1.3 2.8
0.9 0.190 0.687 0.544 0.74 0.718 0.663
0.92 0.154 0.747 0.631 0.79 0.769 0.722
0.94 0.116 0.808 0.721 0.84 0.823 0.786
0.96 0.078 0.871 0.812 0.89 0.879 0.853
0.98 0.040 0.935 0.905 0.942 0.938 0.924
1.0 0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
1.1 – 0.21 1.347 1.504 1.352 1.35 1.45
α = 1–
2
2
e
w
w

¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
**
2
**
2 e
δ
δ
= 1 –
5
2
2
e
H
e
w
w
-

¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
Von Karman’s momentum equation, applied to the boundary layer, can be written as
w
2

**
d
dS
δ
+ (2δ
**
+ δ
*
) w
dw
dS
=
0
τ
ρ
...(10.77)
The expression for the complete pressure loss can be written as
p′ = γh
f
= ρw
2
2∞

**
2
2
sin t

δ
β
...(10.78)
The value of all quantities in section 2–2 (Fig. 10.50) of the equation (10.78) must be expressed
through the values of the outlet end of the profile.
From impulse momentum equation a relation between δ
**
e
and δ
**
2
can be obtained as | 143, 10 |
1 – α –
2
2
α
H
e
<
**
2
**
e
δ
δ
<
1
1
2
− α
α
-
...(10.79)
where, α = 1 –
2
2
e
w
w

¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
and H
e
=
*
**
e
e
δ
δ
...(10.80)
and, w
e
= w
critical
.
2
7
6
R
O
T
O
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C

P
U
M
P
S

(
C
E
N
T
R
I
F
U
G
A
L

A
N
D

A
X
I
A
L
)
Fig. 10.52. H
e
curve = α αα αα = f
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
**
2
**
2e
δ
δ
for H
e
= 2.8 to 1.3
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 277
From the analysis of different authors, | 14, 92 |, it is found H
e
changes considerably. For non-
separated flow with high Reynold’s numbers and for convergent flow passages H
e
= 1.4 to 1.3. For
conditions very near to flow separation, H
e
= 2.0 to 2.8.
Square and Young | 140 | obtained, from the experiments conducted on isolated profiles with
smaller relative thickness and with smaller lift coefficient, a relation between α and
**
2
**
e
δ
δ
which can be
expressed as
**
2
**
e
δ
δ
=
5
2
2
e
H
e
w
w
-

¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
...(10.81)
Equations 10.79, 10.80 and 10.81 were analysed for the values 0.9 <
2
e
w
w

< 1.1 and 1.3 < H
e
< 2.8.
(Table 10.2)
From the analysis it was found that the line H
e
= 1.3 and line H
e
= 2.8 lie in between the lines as
per equation 10.79 when α is small i.e., (w
e
/w
2∞
) →1, all lines are very close together and hence, H
e
can be assumed as 1.4 for practical purposes. This was also confirmed by Zicin and Mologen | 143 |.
Table 10.2 gives the values as per equations 10.79, 10.80 and 10.81 (Fig. 10.52 gives graphical
representation of the above equations).
Combining equations 10.78 and 10.81 and taking H
e
=1.4, the pressure loss can be expressed as
p′ = γh
f
= ρ (w
2∞
)
2
.
3.2
2
e
w
w

¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
.
**
2
sin
e
t

δ
β
...(10.82)
h
f
=
p′
γ
= (w
2∞
)
2
.
3.2
2
e
w
w

¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
**
2
sin
e
gt

δ
β
...(10.83)
Hydraulic efficiency of the pump (η
h
) will be
η
h
= η
profile
=
f
H
H h -
or
f
H h
H

...(10.84)
It is evident from the equation 10.88, that the values of δ
e
∗∗
, the momentum boundary layer thickness
at the outlet end of the profile, should be determined in order to calculate the loss of head (h
f
) and
subsequently the hydraulic efficiency (η
h
).
A method to determine the momentum boundary thickness at the end of the profile (δ
∗∗
e
) for different
conditions of flow, is given below.
10.17.3 Determination of Momentum Boundary Layer Thickness (δ δδ δδ
**
)
(a) Basic assumptions made for the changeover from one region to another
The nature of flow of fluid over the vane changes from laminar at inlet edge of the profile to
transition and then to the turbulent at the end of the profile. The momentum thickness at the end of the
profile (δ
e
**
) should also be calculated according to the prevailing condition. If the flow starts from
laminar at inlet stagnation point and ends with turbulent region, it is necessary to find the momentum
thickness at the end of laminar region
**
( ) l δ then momentum thickness end of transition region (δ
tr
**) and
278 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
finally the momentum thickness at the end of the vane
**
( )
t u
δ . During this process, it is assumed that
**
l
δ
at the end of
region
(laminar) =
**
tr
δ
at the beginning of
region
(transition)
**
tr
δ
at the end of
region
(transition)
=
**
tu
δ
at the beginning of
region
(turbulant) ...(10.85)
(b) Determination of End Points
(i) End point of laminar region: The method suggested by Prof. E.M. Minski | 79 | has been
taken for the determination of the end point of laminar region (s

l
), which gives the relation between this
point, Reynold’s number based on inlet conditions (R
el
) and the point of minimum pressure on the
profile ( )
m
S , which is taken from the known non-dimensional pressure distribution curve of the profile.
It can be written as
S

l
=
m
S +
S
...(10.86)
The graph (Fig. 10.53) S = f (R
el
) is drawn from various experimental data collected by him. The
Reynold’s number is calculated by the equation
R
el
=
1
. w l

ν
...(10.87)
and the non-dimensional pressure is calculated as
2 × 10
6
4 × 10
6
6 × 10
6
8 × 10
6
10 × 10
6
R** =
e
w.
v
12 14 16 18 20 × 10
6
0
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
S
0.25
0.30
Fig. 10.53. S

= f (R
e
**) determination of end of laminar region (Minski)
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 279
p =
2 2
2
u w
gH

...(10.88)
(ii) End point of transition region: Zicin and Mologin | 143 | suggested a relation between the end
point of transition region (S
tr
) and that of laminar region (S
i
) as a function of pressure ratio, ( p ). It is
written as
χ =
tr
l
S
S
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
= f ( p )
p =
0
m
p
p
=
1
2
1
1
2
1
( / )
/ 2 )
( / )
1
( / 2 )
min
p
p
w g
p
w g


γ
-
γ
-
...(10.89)
1
p
γ
= 10 – h
S

2
2
m
C
g
,
min
p = 1– w
2
max
From the experiments of Zicin and Mologin at different conditions, a relation betweem
m
p and χ
is given (Fig. 10.54), from which χ can be determined and hence
tr
S .
0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8 p
m
0.85 0.9 0.95 1.0
2
1
3
4
1.0
1.5
2
2.5
3
x
Fig. 10.54. χ χχ χχ = f (p

m
) determination of end of transition region
(1) Concave surface—diverging passage (2) Convex surface—diverging passage
(3) Convex surface—converging passage (4) Concave surface—converging passage
(c) Determination of momentum thickness for different conditions of flow
**
( ) δ
Substitutitng these parameters into the impulse momentum equation (10.77)
Taking, f =
**
w
w
′δ
G ...(10.90a)
and φ =
0
2
w
τ
ρ
G ...(10.90b)
280 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
where, f is the form factor, φ is the frictional coefficient, G is an expression depending on
**
e
R =
**

ν
.
Assuming that ‘f ’ is a function of velocity distribution on the profile, and the pressure gradient, influences
‘f ’ only through G which depends only on
**
e
R . The expression for impulse momentum equation can be
rewritten in the following form | 14, 143, 67, 99, 135, 142 |.
F ( f ) = a – bf ...(10.91)
where, a and b are constants depending upon the type of flow.
For laminar flow, a = 0.44; b = 5.8;
For transition flow, a = 0.9; b = 6.5;
For turbulent flow, a = 1.17; b = 4.8 if R
e
> 5 × 10
6
a = 1.25; b = 4.8 if R
e
< 5 × 10
6
Combining 10.90 and 10.91, we get
R
e
**
=
**

ν
=
( 2) b
a
G w

ν
( 1)
0
.
S
b
w dS


...(10.92)
Taking, G
1
= G .
**
e
R ...(10.93)
G
1
=
( 2) b
a
w

ν
( 1)
0
.
S
b
w dS


...(10.94)
The expression for δ
**
can be obtained depending upon G
1
for each region of flow.
(i) Laminar region: For laminar flow as per Prof. Loisanski | 67 |
G = R**
e
and hence, δ
**
=
w
ν
1
G
...(10.95)
The above equation has been rewritten substituting its values to suit the present work | 105, 106 |
**
δ
=

¸
5.8
0.44
l el
w R
4.8
0
.
l
S
w dS

...(10.96)
**
el
R =
l
w
**
l
δ R
el
...(10.97)
where,
**
el
R is the Reynold’s number based on
**
l
δ at the end of laminar region.
(ii) Transition region: Zincin and Mologen | 142 | has determined a relation for G as
G = 1259
** – (1/ 10)
( )
e
R ...(10.98)
Correspondingly δ
**
=
w
ν
(10 / 9)
1
1259
G (
(
¸ ¸
...(10.99)
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 281
The above expression is transformed into a convenient form for the present work as | 105, 106 |
**
etr
R =
( ) 10 / 9
5.5
4.5
0.9 .
1259
t
l
S
el
tr
tr S
R
w d S C
w
( ¦ ¦
¦ ¦
(
-
' `
(
¦ ¦
' ' ¸ ¸

...(10.100)
where, C
tr
, the constant of integration, is determined from the parameters at the end of laminar region as
per the condition 10.79
C
tr
=
5.5
l
w .
**
l
δ . G
tr
...(10.101)
and G
tr
= 1259 ( )
( ) 1/10
**
el
R

...(10.102)
The value of
**
tr
δ will be
**
tr
δ =
**
etr
el tr
R
R w
...(10.103)
If the flow starts from transition region directly C
tr
= 0.
(iii) Turbulent region: For turbulent region, as per Prof. Loisanski | 67 | suggested that
For R
e
< 5 × 10
6
G = 79.5
( )
1/ 4
**
e
R
...(10.104)
and δ
**
=
w
ν
(4 / 5)
1
79.5
G (
(
¸ ¸
...(10.105)
If, R
e
> 5 × 10
6
G = 153.2 (R
e
**)
1/6
...(10.106)
and δ
**
=
w
ν

(6 / 7)
1
153.2
G (
(
¸ ¸
...(10.107)
Above expressions are rewritten to suit the present work | 105, 106 |
For R
e
> 5 × 10
6
R
e
** =
1
2.8
79.5
e
tu
R
w

¸
1.25
1
3.8
.
tu
tr
S
tu
S
w d S C
·
-

4 / 5
(
(
¸
...(10.108)
where, C
tu
is the constant of integration, and is determined from the condition (equation 10.85) and
calculated from the conditions at the end of transition region as
C
tu
=
3.8
w
.
**
tr
δ . G
tr
...(10.109)
G
tu
= 79.5
** 1/ 4
( )
etr
R ...(10.110)
and
**
tu
δ
=
**
etu
el tu
R
R w
...(10.111)
282 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
n
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 n + 1
m
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.6
l
o
g

G
1
0.7
0.8
0.9
m + 1
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
0.5
n

=

1
m

m

=

4
n

=

2
m

=

5
m

=

6
n

=

3
log (R** )
e
n

=

2
°
m

=

4
n

=

3
m

=

5
Fig. 10.55. log G
1
(R
e
**) = f (log R
e
**) for G
tr
= 1259 ( )
9
10 **
e
R
If, R
e
> 5 × 10
6
R
e
** =

¸
2.8
153.2
el
R
w

¸
1.17
1
3.8
tu
tr
S
S
w
·

. dS + C
tu
(
(
¸
6 / 7
(
(
(
(
¸
...(10.112)
C
e
=
3.8
tr
w .
**
tr
δ . G
tu
...(10.113)
where, G
tu
= 153.2
** 1/ 4
( )
etr
R ...(10.114)
and
**
tu
δ =
**
etu
el tu
R
R w
...(10.115)
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 283
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
l
o
g

G
1
3.0
log R**
e
1
2
3
4
Fig. 10.56. log G (R
e
**) = f (log (R
e
**)) for G
tu
= 153.2 ( )
1
6 **
etu
R
Entire procedure for the calculation of profile losses has been tabulated and given in chapter 13.
This procedure has been experimentally verified with an actual pump test. Hydraulic efficiency
actual is 1% less than the hydraulic efficiency calculated as per the procedure given above.
10.17.4 Computer Programme
A computer programme in C
++
has been developed to determine the profile losses using above
mentioned equations and is given in chapter design with an example.
10.18 CAVITATION IN AXIAL FLOW PUMPS
In Fig. 10.57, theoretical pressure distribution over a peripheral section profile of an impeller
blade is given for one value of Q, H, n, h
s
(or H
sv
), which corresponds to one point on the graph Q, n,
H, η, N = f (h
s
or H
sv
) (Fig. 11.3), under non-cavitational condition. Under constant H, Q, n, N, η, any
change in h
s
changes the overall pressure distribution from inlet to outlet of the pump. Since, total
head H remains constant, change in h
s
, increases the suction head and reduces the delivery head. A
part of delivery head is transferred into suction head. From the figure, it is seen that a sudden reduction
in pressure prevails at the suction side of the profile very near to the blade inlet, more or less at one
point.
2
8
4
R
O
T
O
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C

P
U
M
P
S

(
C
E
N
T
R
I
F
U
G
A
L

A
N
D

A
X
I
A
L
)
P
0,9
0,8
0,7
0,6
0,5
0,4
0,2
0,4
0
–0,1
–0,2
–0,3
–0,4
–0,5
–0,6
–0,7
–0,8
1
,
1
3
0
7
–3
–2
5
2
–1 + 1 +2 +3
5
2
+
1
,
1
3
0
7
section I r = 122.8 mm
P
0,9
0,8
0,7
0,6
0,5
0,4
0,2
0,4
0
–0,1
–0,2
–0,3
–0,4
–0,5
–0,6
–0,7
–0,8
+ 1 +2 +3 –3 –2 –1
5
2
+
1
,
5
8
5
0
1
,
5
8
5
0
section III r = 145.4 mm
5
2

P
0,9
0,8
0,7
0,6
0,5
0,4
0,2
0,4
0
–0,1
–0,2
–0,3
–0,4
–0,5
–0,6
–0,7
–0,8
+ 1
+2 +3
–3
–2
–1
2
,
1
1
6
0
5
2
+
section V r = 168 mm
2
,
1
1
6
0
5
2

as per original selection of (s)
after redistribution of (s)
γ
γ
Fig. 10.57. Pressure distributions along the profiles at sections I, III, V
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 285
Since this sudden decline in pressure is acting only on a very small area of the blade, total head or
lift on the profile is not affected. When h
s
is further increased, the low pressure acting area at the suction
side of the blade gradually increases but it does not affect lift on the profile.The total head remains
constant. Further increase in suction head reduces the delivery pressure below the required pressure to
provide the required total head, with the result, the total head reduces. Reduction in pressure at suction
side increases the relative velocity. Since outlet velocity remains same, the diffuser effect of the passage
increases, which in turn increases frictional losses, due to the high velocity and eddy losses due to
increased diffuser effect. Efficiency also reduces. In centrifugal pumps, the rate of drop in pump parameters
is almost sudden. When specific speed of pump increases the rate of drop is less. In axial flow pump,
this drop will be gradual (Fig. 10.58) i.e., complete flow separation takes place in low specific speed
pumps, whereas partial separation only takes place, at higher specific speed pumps. This is due to the
fact that even under cavitation in high specific speed pumps, lift force exists and hence partially head is
developed. Pumps working under such condition are called super cavitating pumps.
H,M
η,%
1
2 3 4 5
6
7
8
10
11
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 H
s(m)
1,0
1,1
1,2
60
70
80
170
180
Q
190
9
Fig. 10.58. Cavitation test results on an axial flow pump
Always pumps design is carried out for a non-separated flow condition, since flow passage is a
divergent passage. Experiment shows that separation of flow exists in pumps. Increase in the length of
profile although reduces the diffuser effect but increases friction. So an optimum profile length for
minimum loss must be established. A systematic analysis conducted by Prof. Howell, | 42, 43 |on diffuser
type cascade system enables to select optimum value of
l
t
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
as a function of outlet blade angle ‘β
2
’. In
axial flow pump relative velocity ‘w’ is higher at periphery. Impeller friction losses are more, cavitation
effect is more predominant at periphery.
hub
l
t
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
is selected as per Howell’s graph (Fig.10.34) and
peri
l
t
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
is selected from A.N. Papir’s
graph. (Fig. 10.43)
l
t
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
for intermediate radii are selected by interpolation in order to get a smooth
change over from hub to periphery.
Circulation Γ and the total head are proportional to the angle of deviation of flow in impeller
blade ∆β = β
2
– β
1
Γ
= (C
u2
– C
u1
) t = t C
m
(cot β
2
– cot β
1
)
286 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
More the value ∆β, higher the value of total head. But increase in total head, increases the angle of
divergence of flow passage. In order to provide a flow without separation, divergence should be limited
to less than 10°. Correspondingly, ∆β must be reduced. That’s why,
hub
l
t
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
must be selected based on
∆β.
Experimental investigation shows that a perfect non-separated flow can be achieved when
∆β
nom
= 0.8 ∆β
max
, where, ∆β
max
is the value given by Prof. Howell, ∆β
nom
can be calculated from the
geometric parameters of the pump. Howell’s graph can be used under fully turbulent condition of flow
where frictional coefficient ‘f ’ is independent of Reynold’s number R
e
i.e.,
R
e
=
1
w l
ν
≥ (2 to 2.5), 10
5
Thoma’s constant σ is determined as
σ =
( )
2 2
2
x x
w u
g

...(10.116)
Critical value, σ
cr
=
( )
2 2
2
x x
max
w u
gH

=
2 2
2
max
w u
gH

...(10.117)
‘u’ is constant in axial flow pump for the given streamline from inlet to outlet. Normally for axial
flow pump
peri
l
t
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
is selected <1.0 to 1.1, taking into consideration, profile curvature and maximum
thickness under cavitation free operation. Maximum relative velocity on the profile under zero angle of
attack is given by Prof. A.A. Lomakin | 70 | as
w
max
= (1 + β)
4
1
m
d
l
¸ ¸
-
(
π
¸ ,
w

...(10.118)
where, d
m
is the maximum profile thickness and β is the angle between chord and the tangent to the
curvature at the outlet. Experimental results confirm the validity of this equation even up to 1.5 to 2° of
angle of attack. For higher angle of attack, σ
cr
increases proportionately.
Cavitational characteristics is always determined by (l/t), value at periphery. Since, maximum
thickness (d
m
) the angle of deviation ∆β and (l/t) at peripheral section are smaller than these values at
other sections, the profile can be assumed as equivalent to a thin straight plate. The coefficient of lift for
thin plate can be written as
C
y
= 2 π sin
2
β ¸ ¸
- α
(
¸ ,

πβ ...(10.119)
Total head, H =
2
sin ( )
2 cos
y
Z
uC lw
gtC
∞ ∞
β - λ
λ
...(10.120)
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 287
For velocity, C
m
=
2 2
4
(1 )
Q
D d π −
=
2
4
(1 )
Q
nDK
d π −
...(10.121)
Relative velocity, w

= nD
2
H
h
gK ¸ ¸
π −
(
πη
¸ ,
1
cos

β
...(10.122)
From the above equation, it is seen that
σ
cr
= f (D, d

, β

, λ,
l
t
, n, K
H
, K
Q
)
For axial flow pumps, K
Q
= 0.4 to 0.6, d

= 0.4 to 0.6, K
H
= 0.04 to 0.22
Angle β

is a function of K
Q
for constant values of K
H
. Substituting the values of K
Q
and K
H
in the
equation (10.61), (β

)
av
for peripheral section is found to be


)
av
≈ 20° for K
H
= 0.22 to 0.15


)
av
≈ 23° for K
H
= 0.09 to 0.08


)
av
≈ 26° for K
H
= 0.055 to 0.045
Substituting equations (10.113), (10.114), (10.115) and (10.116) in equation (10.110) and the
value β

from the above determined value, a relation between σ
cr
= f ,
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
H
l
K
t
is established taking an
average value of K
H
= 0.09 to 0.08 for all the three values of β

.
σ
cr
=
0.555
H
K
+
0.7351
l
t
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
+
2
0.2419
H
l
K
t
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
...(10.123)
Constants can be determined if necessary for each value of β

. Taking into consideration
already established relation
peri
l
t
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
= f (K
H
) (Fig. 10.43), A graph σ
cr
= f (K
H
) is drawn (Fig. 10.59).
0,05 0,10 0,15 0,20 0,25 (K )opt
H
σ
4,0
3,5
3,0
2,5
2,0
1,5
1,0
0
Fig. 10.59. σ σσ σσ = f (K
H
) for axial flow pump
288 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Actual test results on different axial flow pumps are also marked in this graph, which shows that
theoretical equation coincides with actual results. However, it is also found that
peri
l
t
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
should be
selected a little more than the value obtained from the graph
peri
l
t
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
= f (K
H
) for better value of σ
cr
. But
maximum efficiency will shift to higher side of head (lower side of quantity) from the optimum value.
The amount of shift in efficiency can be found from the graph
peri
l
t
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
= f (K
H
).
While designing the impeller blade, apart from peripheral section, other sections must also be
verified with equations (10.113), (10.114), (10.115) and (10.116) (Fig. 10.59) and corrected if necessary
so that cavitation characteristics of the pump at all sections are within the allowable range.
A.J. Stepanoff | 112 | has recommended the selection of l/t, d and number of impeller blades for
axial flow pump based on specific speed. This recommendation can also be used for axial flow pumps
Fig. 10.34 (b) l/t, z
i
, d = f (n
s
) for axial flow pumps as per AJ. Stepanoff.
Moscow Power Institute, Russia has recommended a relation between (σ) and n
s
as σ =
4 / 3
( )
4700
s
n
based on the anticavitating property at inlet.
10.19 RADIAL CLEARANCE BETWEEN IMPELLER AND IMPELLER CASING
Mutual interaction between two
successive impeller blades, when they rotate
inside a housing, having a clearance between
impeller and impeller housing is of
importance due to the presence of cavitation
in clearance. Pressure difference between
convex and concave surface of the blade
induces a flow through the radial clearance.
The disturbance created by one blade may
induce further disturbance in the following
blade, since all the blades are moving at
constant angular velocity. Due to high velocity of flow of fluid through the clearance, metal erosion
and clearance cavitation occurs. Increase in radial clearance increases cavitation and also increases
end losses i.e., hydraulic losses. Experiments conducted by different authors |84, 88| show that this
radial clearance (Fig. 10.60) recommended as δ = (0.10 to 0.15)l, where l is the chord length of the
profile. Some authors recommend 0.001D, where D is the impeller diameter. In multistage units, however,
this radial clearance should accommodate technological considerations in manufacture and assembly
of pumps. Minimum requirement for technological consideration will be δ the radial clearance should
be 0.15 to 0.2 mm independent of pump size. In multistage units, where diffuser of the previous stage
comes before the second stage impeller. The clearance is doubled i.e., δ = (0.2 to 0.25) l or 0.002D.
+
Blade
d
m
Radial
clearance
casing
δ
Fig. 10.60. Erosion and cavitation at radial clearance
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 289
However, it should be remembered that provision of guide vanes at approach pipe i.e., before the first
stage impeller reduces the performance both in energy and cavitation.
1
2
d
h
D
s
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010 0.012
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
m
a
x
i
m
u
m

e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
,

n
relative gap width s/d
2
Fig. 10.61. Recommended radial clearance in axial flow pumps
10.20 CALCULATION FOR AXIAL FLOW DIFFUSERS
In axial flow pumps, the inlet conditions of diffuser blade depends upon the outlet conditions of
flow from impeller blade of the pump. At the outlet of the diffuser, the flow is always axial. The kinetic
energy of the fluid coming out of the impeller is converted into pressure energy and the spiral motion of
fluid at the outlet of the impeller is brought to pure axial motion.
C
m6
= C
6
and C
u6
= 0
The outlet axial velocity (C
m3
) from the impeller will be equal to the axial velocity at the diffuser
inlet (C
m4
) before the inlet edge.
C
m3
= C
m4
On the blade at inlet of the diffuser the axial velocity C
m5
will be more than C
m4
due to vane
thickness. Taking thickness factor ‘K
d
’ for the diffuser inlet
C
m5
= K
d
C
m4
The tangential component of absolute velocity of fluid at the outlet of the impeller (C
u3
) is equal to
the tangential component of absolute velocity at the inlet of the diffuser (C
u4
) before and on the diffuser
blade inlet.
C
u3
= C
u4
= C
u5
Due to the absence of the blade velocity u
4
= u
5
= u
6
, combined velocity triangle for a diffuser
will be as follows (Fig. 10.62).
290 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
C′

C′
1
C′
u1
β′

β

2
∆β′
β

1
C
=

C
r
r
2

z
Fig. 10.62. Combined velocity triangle for diffuser
From the velocity triangle (Fig. 10.62),
C
∞5
=
2
2 5
5
2
u
m
C
C
¸ ¸
-
(
¸ ,
and tg α

=
5
5
2
m
u
C
C
Applying the basic theory of cascade system to the diffuser blades, the parameters and coefficient
of lift for hub and periphery sections are determined.
Applying Jowkovski’s theorem for diffuser profile (Fig. 10.63)
R
ud
= ρC
m∞
Γ
1d
= ρC
m∞d
tC
u5
...(10.124)
Referring Fig. 10.63,
R
d
=
cos
d
d
y
λ
and R
ud
= R
d
sin (α
∞d
+ λ
d
)
R′
v
R′
y′
β′

λ′
x′
β′

R′
Z
Fig. 10.63. Forces acting on axial flow diffuser
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 291
R
ud
= y
d

sin ( )
cos
d d
d

α - λ
λ
....(10.125)
= ρc
ycd
C
2
∞d
l
d

sin ( )
cos
d d
d

λ - λ
λ
= ρC
md∞
t
d
C
u5
∴ C
ycd

d
d
l
t
=
5 m
d
C
C


5
cos
sin ( )
u d
d d
ZC

λ
α - λ
=
2 sin 2 cos
sin ( )
d d
d d


α λ
α - λ
...(10.126)
From velocity triangle (Fig. 10.62) for hub section,
tan α
5
=
5
5
m
u
C
C
and α
6
= 90°
∴ ∆α = α
6
– α
5
= 90° – α
5
From the values ∆α and α
6
from Howell’s diagram (Fig. 10.34) the l/t value is determined.
Taking λ
d
= 0 as first approximation C
yd
is determined from graph (Fig. 10.34). Taking (Z
d
)
number of diffuser vanes, the length of profile (l
d
) is established. Number of diffuser vanes Z
d
is
normally selected as (Z
imp
+1), and λ
d
≤ 0.2D, similar to that equations (10.9) and (10.11) for impeller
blades, Hydraulic loss for a diffuser will be determined as
h
fd
=
d d
d md
x C
t C

γ
=
2
.
2 sin
xcd d d
d d
C C l
t


ρ
γ α
=
2
tan .
2 sin
d ycd d d
d d
C C l
g t


λ
α
...(10.127)
Since α
6
= 0, the diffuser blade length will be longer than impeller blades and also due to more
number of blades, hydraulic loss in diffuser will be higher than that in impeller. Based on experimental
results, circulation Γ
d
in diffuser will be normally (0.75 to 0.8) times of impeller circulation. This in
turn reduces hydraulic loss and compensates for the increase in hydraulic loss due to increased length. A
better diffuser design will be when (α
∞d
) between hub and periphery is 5° to 6°. (l/t) for diffuser under
normal value of α
∞d
can be reduced by increasing the pitch of the blade about 25%. This can be
achieved by reducing number of diffuser blades.
10.21 AXIAL THRUST
Axial component of the hydrodynamic force acting on the blade (P
ZB
) can be determined from
Jowkovski’s theorem (Equation 10.5). Elementary axial force (∆P
ZB
) acting on elementary strip of ‘dr’
at a radius ‘r’ can be written as
∆P
ZB
= Z ρΓ
1
w
∞u
dr
Total force, P
ZB
= Ζ Γ
1
ρ
h
R
u
r
w
∞ ∫
dr
292 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
y M
z
a
c
M
u
α
l
b
z
u P
u
M
z
R
P
z
r

d
r
M
u
r
P
z
P
P
u
Fig. 10.64. Axial thrust on axial flow pump
From velocity triangle, w
∞u
= u –
2
2
u
C
C
u2
=
η
m
h
gH
u
and H
m
=
1
ω

Z
g
Γ
Combining all the equations and integrating for the entire blade
P
ZB
=
z
P ∆

=
2πγ
η
m
h
H
2
η 2ω
h
R
m
h r
gH
r
r
¸ ¸

(
(
¸ ,
∫ dr
= πR
2
γ
η
m
h
H
2
2 2
1 ln
ω η
h m
h
r gH R
R r R
(
¸ ¸
− − − (
(
¸ ,
(
¸ ¸
= πR
2
γ
η
m
h
H
2
2
1
1 ln
η π
H
h h
gK
d
d
( −
− − −
(
¸ ¸
...(10.128)
Axial force between hub diameter and shaft diameter
P
Zh
= π (r
2
h
– r
2
s
) γ
η
m
h
H
Since, r
S
<< r
h
it can be neglected.
P
Zh
= πr
2
h
+ γ
η
m
h
H
...(10.129)
Total axial force, P
Z
= P
ZB
+P
Zh
= π R
2
γ
η
m
h
H
2
1
1 ln
π
H
h h
gK
d
¸ ¸
− −
(
¸ , η
...(10.130)
11.1 INTRODUCTION
A graphical representation of the relation between basic parameters of pump is called characteristics
of pump.
Fluid flow through pump passages at non-optimum region is complicated. All available analytical
methods, to determine the correct pattern of flow passages do not give exact solutions. Only by the
analysis of experimental results, flow pattern can be determined. Inspite of this, the exact relation between
the parameters of pump is not available. Most useful method of understanding the interaction between
pump parameters and further analysis of the flow pattern is by a graphical representation of the relation
between the parameters.
Pump characteristics are represented by total head (H), power absorbed N, suction condition H
SV
(σ (or) ∆h (or) C) and efficiency (η) as a function of flow rate (Q) at rated speed (n).
η, H, N, H
sv
C (or σ) = f(Q, n)
These graphs are also presented in non-dimensional parameters such as unit head (K
H
) and unit
power (K
N
) as a function of unit discharge (K
Q
). More detailed analysis is also carried out by graphical
representation of non-dimensional parameters viz. suction characteristics (σ) and efficiency (η) as a
function of (K
Q
) i.e., K
H
, K
N
, η, σ = f (K
Q
, n).
11.2 PUMP PERFORMANCE—RELATION BETWEEN TOTAL HEAD AND
QUANTITY OF FLOW
Total head H
th
= (1 + p)H
m
= (1+ p)
a
h
H
h
=
(1 )
η
h
p +
.
2 2 1 1
( )
u u
C u C u
g

For normal entry C
u1
= 0 and from velocity triangles. (Fig. 4.1)
C
u2
= u
2
– C
m2
cot β
2
= u
2

2
cot β
π
Q
DB
1
th
H
p +
= H
m
=
2
2 2 2
2 2
cot
.
u Qu
g D B g
 
β

 
π
 
...(11.1)
11
TESTING, PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
AND REGULATION OF PUMPS
Comp-1/Newage/Pump-11.pm6.5—4.7.07 3.12.07
293
294 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Diameter (D
2
) and breadth (B
2
) are constants for the pump to be tested. Equation (11.1) represents a
drooping down straight line characteristics with H
m
in y-axis and Q in x-axis. If the pump is tested at
constant speed ‘n’, u
2
, the blade velocity is also constant, since D
2
is constant. H–Q graph is a straight
line inclined at an angle of β
2
with respect to y-axis, since cot β
2
=
H
Q
(Fig 11.1). Maximum head is
H
max
=
2
2
u
g
, when Q = 0.
u
g
2
u
g
2
0.586
H
β
2

2
1
3 3′ Q
h
f2
h
f1
1. (H–Q) Theoretical infinite blades
2. ( ) Theoretical-finite blades
3. ( ) actual
h —frictional losses Q
h —secondary losses
H–Q
H–Q
11
12
α
2
C


H
u
α
n

C B
β
2

D E
T
h
e
o

(
H

Q
)

c
u
r
v
e

C Q
m
α
H
th
H
th
H
m
H
a
Fig. 11.1. Theoretical (H–Q) curve developed from outlet velocity triangle
If blade angle β
2
is changed, keeping the speed ‘n’ constant, the slope of the H–Q line also changes
(Fig. 11.2). Drooping down H–Q characteristic prevails so long β
2
< 90° since cot β
2
is positive. When
β
2
= 90°, H–Q curve becomes horizontal and parallel to x-axis, since cot β
2
= 0. When
β
2
> 90° the H–Q curve slope is towards upward direction since cot β
2
is negative. β
2
< 90 is used for
pumps and blowers. β
2
= 90° is used for air compressors.
TESTING, PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND REGULATION OF PUMPS 295
β
2
< 90°
H = f(Q)
th
H = f(Q)
a
Q
F
Q
N
C
E
Q(w )
2
η
.
m
a
x
H
0
H
A
D
F
N
B
η = f (Q)
β
2
= 90°
H = f(Q)
th
H = f(Q)
a
Q(w )
2
H
A
D
F
E
B
(a) (b)
Q(w )
2
D
β
2
> 90°
H = f(Q)
a
H = f(Q)
T
F
A
H B
E
(c)
Fig. 11.2. Theoretical and actual (H–Q) curve for different β ββ ββ
2
values at one speed
Although hydraulic efficiency (η
h
) in equation 11.1 is assumed to be constant, practically it is
changing. η
h
is maximum only at the point where Hydraulic losses are minimum. This point is called
maximum efficiency point. The head and discharge of pump for which it is designed will be at this
maximum efficiency point. At this point, profile losses and secondary losses are minimum. At all other
point of operation, secondary losses and shock losses increase which increases total hydraulic losses
and hence reduces hydraulic efficiency. At low flow rates, recirculation losses also prevail and it increases
when the flow rate ‘Q’ is further reduced, as a result, the theoretical H–Q curve which is a straight line
changes to a drooping down curve (Fig. 11.2). Hydraulic losses are in general proportional to the square
of flow rate. That’s why, actual H–Q curve is an approximate parabola.
Actual pump characteristics consisting of total head (H), input power (N) and efficiency (η) as a
function of flow rate (Q) for one speed (n), and for one value of β
2
< 90° is represented in a graphical
form (Fig. 11.3).
296 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
5
6
7
8
H
vac
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
60
50
40
30
20
10
η%
H
vac
Reserve
H
vac
η
H
T
n = 2900 rpm
D = 236 mm
2 H
M
N
hp
N
lit/sec
Qm /hr
3
Fig. 11.3. (a) Actual pump performance H, η ηη ηη, N, H
sv
= f (Q) for one value of
outlet blade angle β ββ ββ
2
and one speed ‘n’
m
6
4
2
0
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Q, lit/sec
1
2 3
4
5
η
H
N
400
200
0
h
s
h
s
H, m
80
60
40
20
0
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
η , %
Fig. 11.3. (b) Performance of centrifugal pump D = 700 mm, n = 960 rpm
In Fig. 11.4, the performance variation of H–Q, η–Q and N–Q for pumps of different specific
speeds is given.
TESTING, PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND REGULATION OF PUMPS 297
1
4
6
7
1
7 5
6
0
100
75
50
25
1
5
6
7
7
6
5
4
3
1
2
250
200
150
100
50
0
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
0 25 50 75 100 125 150
%

H

/

H

B
C
P
% Q/Q
BEP
%

N

/

N

B
E
P
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
%


/


η
η
m
a
x
Fig. 11.4. Performance of pumps at different specific speeds (n
s
)
(1) – n
s
= 65, (2) – n
s
= 105, (3) – n
s
= 155
(4) – n
s
= 210, (5) – n
s
= 280, (6) – n
s
= 400,
(7) – n
s
= 650.
Referring to Fig. 11.4 it is seen that efficiency, η = f (Q) is not constant. It increases from zero
flow rate to a certain value of Q and then decreases for further increase in flow rate. Head and quantity
at maximum efficiency point is the best operating point for the pump. However, for safe operation,
pump is operated at 90 to 95% of the maximum efficiency point.
298 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Since the blade velocity u α Dn, for the given blade angle ‘β
2
’ of the pump, and if the diameter of
the impeller ‘D
2
’ is increased, keeping the speed ‘n’ constant, H–Q curve shifts parallel upwards with
respect the original (H–Q) curve and vice versa. The same pattern exists, if speed is increased keeping
diameter constant. [Fig. 11.6 (a) and (b)].
Based on the model analysis and the loss analysis, an expression between total head (H), flow rate
(Q), and speed (n) can be written as
H = An
2
+ BNQ + CQ
2
...(11.2)
This graph H = f (Q, n) will be a hyperbolic paraboloid with main axis coinciding with H
0
-axis
and the peak at the origin. The symmetrical plane passing through H
0
-axis makes an angle φ with the
plane (Q, H) (Fig. 11.5).
tan 2φ =
B
A C +
n

=

b
n

=

c
(
Q
,
n
)
n

=

a
φ
H
=
f(Q
) n = a
a
Q
c
B
H = f(Q)
n = b
b
H = f(Q)n = c
c
H
b
H
a
H
0
0
Q
0
H
c
(
H
,

n
)
M
Q
b
Q
a
Fig. 11.5. (H–Q) curve for different speeds (3D diagram)
In Fig 11.5, a number of H–Q graphs for different speeds n = a, b, c are drawn. Each H–Q graph
is a parabola for one value of speed ‘n’.
Entire space diagram lies in the first quarter of H–Q graph. Line OM is a parabola and is obtained
from the hyperbolic paraboloid of the symmetrical plane formed by the plane (Q–H) with an angle φ.
Resultant section of the hyperbolic paraboloid consists of n = constant i.e., n = a, n = b, n = c and
corresponding H–Q curves H
a
= f (Q
a
) H
b
= f (Q
b
) and H
c
= f (Q
c
) etc. The plane H = constant is a
hyperbola. When H = 0, Q = Q
max
. The plane changes instead of hyperbola, into a straight line coinciding
with asymtode and passing through origin (line OB in Fig 11.5). In Fig. 11.5 the 3D space diagram is
TESTING, PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND REGULATION OF PUMPS 299
shown representing different (H–Q) curves for different speeds ‘n’. The same pattern of change prevails
when diameter (D
2
) is changed at constant speed n [Fig. 11.6 (b)].
A set of congruent curved parabolic lines, (H–Q) curves, each for one speed n = a, b, c, are
drawn in Fig 11.5.
The line OM joining all peak points of (H–Q) curves in (Fig. 11.5) is same as OM in Fig 11.6.
Hence, H–Q curve for any speed n = n can be drawn from the known H–Q curve for one speed from
model analysis. Congruent property of the lines is maintained under non-separated flow and non-cavitating
conditions.
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
H,m
0
,
1
0
0
,
2
0
0
,
3
0
0
,
4
0
0
,
5
0
0
,
6
0
0
,
6
5
0
,
7
0
0
,
7
5
0
,
7
8
0
,
8
0
0
,
8
2
0
,
8
4
M
0
,
8
2
0
,
8
0
0
,
7
8
0
,
7
5
0
,
7
0
0
,
6
0 0
,
6
5
0,60
0
,
8
4
0
Q,lit/sec
n = 750
1
n = 600
2
n = 500
3
n
=
9
6
0
rp
m
0
(a) Centrifugal pump
η
=
0
.
8
5
Fig. 11.6. (a) Performance (H–Q) change due to speed change ‘n’ for the same diameter D
2
.
Universal (H–Q) graph with equal efficiency ‘O’ curves
50
40
30
20
10
0
5 10 15 20 25 30 Q L/S
η = 76 77 78
89 80
81
8
1
8
0

7
9
7
8

7
6
%

h
av2

h
av3
H
m
Fig. 11.6. (b) D
1
> D
2
> D
3
(H–Q) performance due to diameter change for the same speed n.
300 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
K
H
0,18
0,14
0,12
0,10
0,08
0,06
0,04
0,02
0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 K
Q
7
0

84
86
60
55
C
=

6
0
0

9
0
0

1000
1100
1200
1300
8
5

8
4

8
2

8
0

75
n =5000
s
8
1
η

=

6
0
% n
=
6
0
0

s
6
5

η
s
=
5
0
0

7
5

8
0

8
2

8
5

η
=
8
7
%
65
50
ϕ=–5°
ϕ=0
ϕ=8.75°
2
0
0
0

1
9
0
0

1
8
0
0

1
6
0
0

1
5
0
0

C
=
1
4
0
0
ϕ=+5°
η
=
7
0
%
8
3

8
0
0 ϕ=+12,5°
700
Axial flow pump
Fig. 11.6. (c) Axial flow pump (with ‘C’ curves)
In practice, pumps are operated for a range of total head and flow conditions. In order to achieve
this, pump is run at different speeds ranging from minimum to maximum allowable speeds. Test results
are plotted in one graph called universal graph. Universal characteristics of a pump consists of a series
of (H–Q) curves for different speeds over which, η = constant, 0-curves as well as H
sv
or h
s
or
∆h or σ = constant 0-curves are plotted. This graph [Fig. 11.6 (a), (b), (c)] provides a complete range of
operation of pump to meet the head and flow rate of the site conditions, at any one of the speeds selected
under high efficiency conditions. The method of drawing universal characteristics is given in
Fig. 11.7.
1. H–Q curves of pump test conducted at different speeds are plotted in one graph.
2. Another set of graphs η = f (Q) for different speeds are drawn in one graph, selecting the scale
of x-axis i.e., Q-axis same as that selected in H–Q curve. (Fig. 11.7)
TESTING, PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND REGULATION OF PUMPS 301
3. A horizontal line parallel to x-axis i.e., Q-axis is
drawn. This line meets all (η–Q) curves at two
points (one point before maximum efficiency
point, and another point after the maximum
efficiency point). This horizontal line represents
one value of efficiency at different speeds.
4. All the meeting points (in η–Q curve) are now
transferred to meet corresponding (H–Q) curve.
5. All the points, so obtained in H–Q curve are joined
together. This curve will be either in full 0-shape
or part of 0-shape. This O-curve is the equal
efficiency curve, the value of which is obtained
from the corresponding horizontal line drawn in
η–Q graph.
6. In the similar manner, a number of equal efficiency
curves can be drawn on (H–Q) curves.
7. A line is drawn passing through the turning points
of all 0 curves (O–C
2
Fig. 11.7). This line is the
best operating line for the pump. The centre point
of all 0-curves through which the best operating
line passes is the best point of operation (Point
M
2
). At this point, the efficiency is highest. The
head, discharge, speed, and efficiency values can
be read from this universal graph. Corresponding
power observed can be obtained from the N–Q
graph. Power can also be calculated from the
universal graph taking η, H, Q, at maximum point
M
2
(OC
3
).
8. Boundary conditions of operating range are also drawn in some of the universal graphs, which
limits the operating range of the pump lines OC and OC
3
. The boundary line at low flow rate
(OC
3
) is determined based on efficiency considerations, i.e., based on economical power
consideration, whereas the boundary conditions at higher flow rate is determined based on
cavitation considerations, efficiency and percentage of overload in power allowance (line OC
1
).
9. A smooth line drawn joining all maximum efficiency points of (η–Q) graph, also gives the
range of operating regions.
This line is same as the line drawn in universal graph. However, optimum efficiency conditions
need not be optimum cavitation conditions. Cavitation condition is more important than efficiency
condition for safe, continuous operation of the pump.
11.3 PUMP TESTING
Pump testing is carried out in special test stand, mostly at research institutes, manufacturing
industries dealing with pumps etc.
The main aim of pump testing is to obtain, complete characteristics of pump for commercial
exploitation. Mostly the test is conducted to establish working characteristics i.e., to find the characteristics
n

=

6
4
0

1
n

=

7
2
0
2
n

=

8
0
0
3
n
=

8
8
0
4

n
=

9
6
0
5

n
=

1
0
4
0
6

A
B
N
p
F
S
K
100 200 300
0
20
40
60
70
T
80
η,%
0
10
E
G
20
R
30
40
50
n = 640 1
n = 720
2
n = 800
3
n = 880
4
n = 960
5
n = 1040 6
60
70
C
3
75
C
2
C
1
75
60
70 M
1
B
1
M
2
79
M
3
A
1 D
L
100 100 300
H
m
0
Q, lit/sec
rpm
78
Fig. 11.7. Construction of universal
characteristics of pump (H–Q) curve at
different speeds and equal efficiency ‘O’
curves obtained term (η ηη ηη–Q) curves
302 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
H, N, η = f (Q) at rated speed. Universal characteristics is drawn by conducting tests at different speeds
for further analysis and at the same time to confirm the correctness of the theoretical design with practical
results.
Tests are also conducted to find the pressure and velocity distribution before, after and on the
elements of the pump to find the behaviour of the pump at various operating regions. This will enable to
find hydraulic losses at each element, to find the stability of pump at specified regime, to find the
influence of each element on other elements of pump.
Tests are classified into development test and production test. Production tests are conducted on 1
in 10 pumps manufactured at 5 to 6 predetermined operating point such as 2 points before b.e.p, one or
two points, at, or, very near to b.e.p and 2 points after b.e.p [Fig. 11.3 (b)]. These tests are conducted to
maintain the quality of pumps. Development tests are intensive tests conducted on new designs and also
at regions where results are not available for existing pumps, in order to find the bevaviour of the pump
completely at all conditions of operation and also to verify and correct the theory to adopt efficient
design procedure. Intensive tests are carried out on model pumps in order to develop efficient prototype
units of higher capacity, which cannot be tested. (example, circulating pumps, condensate pumps etc.)
Tests are also conducted with other fluid, instead of the original liquid. High capacity units are tested in
air instead of water. Pumps used for pumping liquids other than water are also tested in water. The
results obtained are corrected for original fluid pumping (example, oil pump, pulp, hot-water pumping,
milk, acid, alkaline, distilled water pumping etc).
Mainly two types of tests are conducted on pumps :
1. Test on open test rig to determine the load tests and
2. Tests on closed test rigs to determine load and cavitation tests, but mostly cavitation tests.
(a) Load Tests Conducted on Open Test Rig
In Figs. 11.8 and 11.9 an open test rig is presented.
Foot valve
and stainer
p = p
s at
Suction
tank
Pump
V
Suction
pipe
Z

1
h
s
H
T
h
d
Delivery pipe
H = h + h
st s d
X = X + X
G V
p = p
d at
Delivery
tank
X
v
X
G
G
Fig. 11.8. Schematic diagram of an open test rig
TESTING, PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND REGULATION OF PUMPS 303
5
6
h

2
H
P
2
3
4
h
3
7
H
S
T
l
1
Scale
Fig. 11.9. Open test rig for load test on pumps
The pump to be tested (1) takes water from one end of the open type water tank (2) through
suction pipe (5) and delivers through delivery pipe (3) to the other end of the water tank. The two ends
of the tank is separated by a plate, which is fitted with a V-notch (4). Wave suppressors and flow
straighteners are provided before V-notch, in order to ensure proper flow before reaching notch. Flow
regulation valves are fitted, one at suction (6) and another at delivery pipe (7). One differential U-tube
manometer (H) is connected to the pressure tappings at the suction and at delivery of the pump to
measure the total head of the pump. Another U-tube manometer (S) is connected, one end to suction
tapping and another open to atmosphere, to measure the vacuum at the inlet end of the pump. Mercury
is used as manometric liquid. A water gauge is used at the tank before V-notch to measure the head over
V-notch in order to calculate the flow rate of the pump. Another water gauge is used to find the water
level at the other end of the tank, where suction pipe is attached. Sufficient height of water above
suction entry is maintained to avoid air entry. The speed is maintained constant throughout the test. A
tachometer is attached to the prime mover shaft to measure the speed. Input power to the pump is
measured by the swinging field AC/DC dynamometer.
Load test stand for axial flow pump testing is same as that of centrifugal pump test stand, except
that suction and delivery pipe diameters and the collection tank size will be larger to accommodate high
flow rate. For total head measurement, some other manometric liquid of slightly higher density than
water other than mercury is used as manometric fluid or inclined tube manometers with slighlty higher
density than water as manometric fluid are used.
Before starting the pump for test, a thorough check is made on pump, coupling, prime mover,
lubricating oil in pump and prime mover bearings, cooling of mechanical seal and stuffing box, sufficient
level of manometric fluid in manometers to measure complete range of total head and suction head,
suction regulating valve fully opened and sufficient water in water tank to keep suction entry point bell
mouth under fully submerged condition as well as sufficient water height to avoid air entry into suction
pipe. The delivery regulating valve will be in fully closed condition in case of centrifugal pump testing
whereas in fully opened condition for axial flow and mixed flow pump testing. Manometer tappings are
in closed condition to avoid sudden peak pressure reaching the manometer at the time of start. Sill level
in V-notch is entered from the water gauge in tank.
304 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
The pump is started and brought to the speed, at which the pump is to be tested. The speed is
maintained constant throughout the test by adjusting the speed regulator of the prime mover. The swinging
field dynamometer is adjusted at this speed such that the torque arm is in horizontal position with
weighs on the weighing pan. Pressure tappings for manometer are opened. The pump is run for sometime
so that all readings i.e., tachometer reading, manometer readings, water gauge readings are at steady
level. Under the steady level condition, head over V-notch for flow measurement, total head and suction
head manometer readings, weight in the dynamometer pan and speed are noted and entered in a tabular
form. Since delivery regulating valve is in closed condition, flow rate is zero and water level in tank is
at the sill level.
After entering all the readings in Table 11.1 flow rate, total head, input power, efficiency, unit
discharge, unit head, and unit power are calculated using relevant equations. The results should be
immediately entered, in a graph is drawn i.e., graphs H, N
i
, η = f (Q) are plotted (Fig. 11.3) on the same
graph sheet.
TABLE 11.1: Test on centrifugal/mixed/axial flow pump
Type of Test : Development/Production Test
Pump No.
Testing Stand No.
I Impeller Diameter, D = mm IV Inclined manometer limb angle θ° = ... R°
II V-Notch Constant: K V Specific gravity of manometric liquid S
l
= ...
III Speed (n) = rpm VI Arm length in Dynamometer (L) = ... m
VII Temperature of liquid = ... C°
VIII Sill level reading = ... m
(C3) H = (S
l
– 1)
( )
1
1000
mm
h
=



(V) – 1)
( .2)
1000
C
m of H
2
O
(C5) h
s
= (S
l
– 1)
( )
2
1000
mm
h
=



(V) – 1)
( .4)
1000
C
m of H
2
O
(C7) Q = K (h
3
)
5/2
= (II) (C.6)
5/2
m
3
/sec
(C8) N
0
=
γ
const
QH
=
9.81 1000 ( .7)( 4)
1000
C C × ×
kW
(C10) N
i
=
2 ×9.81×
60×1000
n W×L π
=
2 3.14 (III) ( .9)(VI)
60 1000
C × ×
×
kW
(C12) K
Q
=
3
60Q
nD
= 3
60 ( .7)
III.(I)
C
=
(C13) K
H
=
2
2 2
(60) H
n D
=
2
2 2
(60) ( .3)
(III) (I)
C
=
(C14)K
N
=
3
3 5
(60)
i
N
n D
=
3
3 5
(60) ( .10)
(III) (I)
C






T
E
S
T
I
N
G
,

P
E
R
F
O
R
M
A
N
C
E

E
V
A
L
U
A
T
I
O
N

A
N
D

R
E
G
U
L
A
T
I
O
N

O
F

P
U
M
P
S
3
0
5
S.No. Total Total Vac. Suction Water Flow rate Output Weight I nput Efficiency Non-dimensional Remarks
head head H mano head level Q = power in power η units
mano Rdg h
2
h
s
h
3
N
0
Pan W N
i
Rdg h
1
K
Q
K
H
K
N
mm m of mm of m of mm m
3
/sec kW Kg kW — — — —
of Hg H
2
O Hg H
2
O
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 =
C8
C10
C12 C13 C14 Valve
condition
1 Full
close
10 Full
open
3
k h
306 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Delivery regulating valve is slightly opened to regulate the flow rate to the next position. All
readings are entered in the table 11.1 and all the values are calculated. In the same manner experiment is
repeated from full closed position to full open position of the delivery regulating valve. It is necessary to
take more number of readings near optimum efficiency point.
In case of centrifugal pump, test is conducted from full close position to full open position, whereas
in case of mixed and axial flow pumps, test is conducted from full open to partly closed condition until
a break or surge in (H–Q) curve appears. Further test on mixed and axial flow pumps can be conducted
only if the power capacity of the prime mover permits and pump runs under steady flow conditions
without any oscillations in readings.
Normally, test on centrifugal pumps are conducted at different speeds to get the universal graph.
In axial flow pumps, tests are conducted for different impeller blade pitch (φ) at constant speed.
In some of the test stands a thermometer is attached to measure the temperature of water before
entry into the pump. It is essential to keep the temperature of water used for pump to remain same during
the entire test period. For this, a separate valves are fitted to the water tank to allow additional water
from other source and to drain water from the tank if the level of water in the tank is in excess.
(b) Pump Test in Closed Test Rig (Figs. 9.7 and 9.8)
Cavitation test on pumps can be conducted only in closed test stands. Details of such tests and the
graphical reference of the test results (performance of pump) are given in chapter 9.
Load tests can also be conducted in closed test rigs by keeping the pressure in the tank equal to
atmospheric pressure. This is done either by opening the tank to atmosphere or keeping the pressure in
the space in the closed tank at atmospheric pressure.
11.4 SYSTEMS AND ARRANGEMENTS
A system, in a pumping plant, consists of suction and delivery pipe lines along with all fittings
such as sudden or gradual reducer or expander, all types of valves, such as gate valve, non-return valve,
butterfly valve, etc. Tee or cross joints etc. A system is an already available pipe layout in the field to
suit the actual conditions; for example, city water supply, multi storied buildings, layout in chemical,
fertilizer and in power station etc. It consists of different lengths and diameters of pipes, fitted with
various pipe fittings.
The level between inlet and outlet end of the system may be equal or different. Total resistance
offered by a system is the sum of major and minor losses in the system along with the level difference
between inlet and outlet end of pipe
H
sy
= h
s
+ h
fs
+ h
d
+ h
fd
+ Σh
fmi
for all fittings attached to this pipe line.
Suffix s is for suction and d is for delivery. Major friction losses in pipe are expressed as h
f
=
2
2
flv
gd
and minor losses are expressed as h
fmi
= K
2
2
v
g
, where K is the constant for that particular fittings
attached to the main pipe.
∴ H
sy
= (h
s
+ h
d
)+
2
2
s s
s
fl v
gd
+
2
2
d d
d
fl v
gd
+ ΣK
s
2
2
s
v
g
+ ΣK
d
2
2
d
v
g
...(11.3)
TESTING, PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND REGULATION OF PUMPS 307
Since, v =
Q
A
=
2
4
π
Q
d
H
sy
= (h
s
+ h
d
) +
2
2 5
16
2 π
s
s
fl Q
g d
+
2
2 5
16
2 π
d
d
f Q
g d
+ Σ(K
s
)
2
2 4
16
2 π
s
Q
g d
+

Σ(K
d
)

2
4
16
2 π
d
Q
g d
...(11.4)
Since, flow rate Q is constant through both pipes
Q = a
s
v
s
= a
d
v
d
, i.e., d
2
s
v
s
= d
2
d
v
d
or v
s
=
2
d
s
d
d
 
 
 
. v
d
In equation (11.4) the values l
s
, l
d

, d
s
, d
d
, are constants for the already laid piping system, g, π, f
are constant. Hence, it can be expressed as
H
sy
= H
st
+(K
sm
+ K
dm
+ K
mis
+ ΣK
mid
)Q
2
=

H
st
+ KQ
2
...(11.5)
where, K = K
sm
+ K
dm
+ ΣK
mis
+ Σ K
mid
K
sm
=
2 5
16
2 π
s
s
fl
g d
, K
dm
=
2 5
16
2 π
d
d
fl
g d
, K
mis
=
2 4
16
2 π
s
s
K
g d
, K
mid
=
2 4
16
2 π
d
d
K
g d
and static head (level difference between inlet and outlet points in a pipe line
H
st
= h
s
+ h
d
h
fs
h
fd
v
X
1
X
2
H

=

H
p
s
y
H
s
t

=

p

2


p
1
+
Z

2


Z
1
γ
X – X = X
2 1
h = h + h
f fs fd
h

+

f
C



C
2
2
2
1
2
g
=

c
o
n
s
t
.

Q
2
H

=
d
y
H
p
H
sy
p
2
p
z
1
z
2H
s
t
A–Operating point
A
p
1
Fig. 11.10. (H
p
) pump and H
sv
= H
st
+ H
dy
and location of operating point (A)
308 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
P
A
B
C
0
– H
H
s
E
h
fs
Q
h
fd
H = H
T
D
F
Q – H
+ H
H
d
H
st
H
Fig. 11.11. System head for positive suction head
Equation (11.5) represents a parabola (Fig. 11.10) in H
st
–Q coordinates. If H
st
= 0, the parabola
starts from origin. Parabola will be more curved upwards if length of pipeline is increased, pipe diameter
is reduced, pipe fitting are increased, or pipe fittings are changed, gate valve partly opened, change of
gate valve, with non-return valve or globe valve etc. which totally increase the value ‘K ’ for minor
losses. If the system arrangement is reversed. The parabolic curve comes down.
This parabolic curve for any system is an already available graph since all values are already
available from site conditions, and constant K from reference manuals.
(a) Pump System Curve Construction
In Fig. 11.11 (a), a pumping system working between suction tank A and the delivery tank B is
shown. Tank B is at a higher level than Tank A. Both the tanks are above pump level i.e., the system in
suction side is with positive suction (suction head). OE is the system curve for the suction pipe and is
drawn in the reverse direction, below the water level in the suction tank (A). CD is the system curve for
the delivery pipe and is drawn above the water level in the delivery tank B. The vertical distance between
CD and OE is the total system head for the given flow rate point Q. Curve CF is the total system curve
(i.e., OE + CD). The meeting point of this curve with the (H–Q) curve of the pump at F is the operating
point. The vertical distance H
s
gives the manometer reading in suction pipe and the vertical distance H
d
is the manometer reading in the delivery pipe.
(b) System in Series
If two systems A and B are kept in series, then total resistance of the systems is the algebraic sum
of individual resistances of systems A and B. Since same quantity of flow passes through both pipes
Q
T
= Q
A
= Q
B
and H
SYT
= H
SYA
+ H
SYB
...(11.6)
In Figs. (11.12 and 11.13) equation (11.6) is illustrated in a graphical form.
TESTING, PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND REGULATION OF PUMPS 309
1. Static height between
delivery and suction
2. Delivery and suction tanks
pressure difference
3. Total static head (H ) = (2 + 1)
4. Delivery and suction velocity
head difference
5. Delivery and suction pipe
friction losses (h + h )
6. Total dynamic head (H )
7. Total system head H = H + H
st
fd fs
dy
sy st dy
i.e.
i.e.
(H – Q)
8 . Pump head (H ) (H – Q)
sy
p p
4
5
8
7 = 6 + 3
3 = 2 + 1
2
1
S
y
s
t
e
m

h
e
a
d

(
H
)
s
y
H

+

s
t
p



p
2
1
γ
p



p
2
1
γ
H
s
t
6 = 4 + 5
H
A
H
p
Fig. 11.12. (H
sy
) system head construction
A number of Q lines at frequent intervals, from origion to Q
max
parallel to Y-axis i.e., Q = constant
lines are drawn in the graph having H
SY(A)
– Q and H
SY(B)
– Q graphs (Fig. 11.13). The two ordinate
lengths are added to get the point of H
SYT
= H
SYA
+ H
SYB
for one value of Q. Similarly, other H
SYT
points for other Q are determined. A smooth curve joining these H
SYT
points give H
SYT
= f (Q) curve for
combined series operation of two systems. The same procedure is followed for many systems connected
in series based on the equation (11.6). If the H–Q curve of the pump is overlapped on the combined
system graph, point A is the operating point, when both systems work. Several systems operating in
series is equal to one system with higher system head.
H
H – Q
p
Q

=

c
o
n
s
t
a
n
t

l
i
n
e
s
H — Q (including static heights)
SYT
A — Operating point
R + R
1 2
R
2
R
1
H

+

H

+

R

+

R
s
1
s
2
1
2
R
1
R
2
R

+

R
1
2
H
s2
H
s1
H

+

H
s
1
s
2
Q
H
SYT
= H
SYA
+ H
SYB
, H
SYA
= H
S1
+ R
1
, H
SYB
= H
S2
+ R
2
Fig. 11.13. Two systems in series
(c) Systems in Parallel
If two systems 1 and 2 are operated in parallel (Figs. 11.14 and 11.16), the total quantity (Q
T
) is
the sum of individual quantities passing through each system and the total resistance is equal to individual
310 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
resistance of each system i.e.,
Q
T
= Q
1
+ Q
2
and H
SYT
= H
SY1
= H
SY2
...(11.7)
Many horizontal lines, i.e., H = constant lines, are drawn at frequent intervals from origin to shut
off head, in the graph where H
SY1
– Q and H
SY2
– Q curves are drawn. Individual horizontal distances
between y-axis and H
SY1
and H
SY2
are added together to get Q
T
= Q
1
+ Q
2
. The same procedure is
followed for many systems in parallel operation i.e.,
Q
T
= Q
1
+ Q
2
+ .... + Q
n


and H
SYT
= H
SY1
= H
SY2
= H
SY3
= . . . . = H
SYn
In Fig. 11.14. systems operation is parallel is illustrated.
1 2
Q = Q + Q
1 2
H
s
y
2
H
s
y
1
q
2
q
1
H
sy1
H
sy2
H = H + H
sy sy1 sy2
Q
1
Q
2
H
1
2
Q
2
Q
1
H = H = H
sy sy1 sy2
Q
H
s
y
1
Q = Q + Q
1 2
q= q +q
1 2
q
2
q
1
(a) without static head (b) with different static head
H
s
y
2
A
2
3
Q
Fig. 11.14. Pump with two systems and operating points
If H–Q curves of the pump is inserted on this combined graph. Operating points where both
systems are in operation is point A and operating points when one any system is in operation is indicated
by points 2 and 3.
(d) Determination of Operating Point
H–Q curve of the pump to be connected to the system (between suction and delivery lines,
i.e., point ‘s’ and ‘d ’) is overlapped on the available H
SY
– Q curve, the meeting point ‘A’ is the point of
operation of the pump. Point A changes for different H–Q curve of the pump, for example, H–Q curve
for different speeds, with the same H
sy
–Q curve or with the same pump but with different (H
sy
–Q) curve
(i.e., system curve with different fittings). Head and discharge at point A will be the operating parameters.
This parameter need not be the optimum parameter of the pump. Power consumption and efficiency can
be obtained from N
i
–Q and η–Q curves for the pump at point ‘A’.
11.5 COMBINED OPERATION OF PUMPS AND SYSTEMS
(a) Pumps in Series [Fig. 11.15 (a) and Fig 11.15 (b)]
If two pumps are operated in series, then the total quantity is equal to the individual quantity of
each pump. The same quantity passes through all pumps. Total head is the sum of heads developed by
individual pumps i.e.,
TESTING, PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND REGULATION OF PUMPS 311
Q
T
= Q
1
= Q
2
and H
T
= H
1
+ H
2
...(11.8)
Same procedure is followed for many pumps operated in series i.e.,
Q
T
= Q
1
= Q
2
= ........ = Q
n
and H
T
= H
1
+ H
2
+ ........ + H
n
In order to get the combined H
T
= f (Q) for combined operation in series, a number of
Q = constant lines are drawn in the graph where individual H
1
– Q and H
2
– Q curves are already drawn.
Total head of all pumps running together H
T
is obtained by adding individual total heads as H
1
and H
2
for the same Q. A number of points so obtained is joined together by smooth line, which gives H
T
– Q,
for two pumps in series.
If system line (H
sy
– Q) is overlapped on this graph, point A′′ is the operating point when both
pumps are operated in series. Point A is the operating point when individually any one pump is operated.
Point ‘A’ will be the operating point, when only one system (instead of both) is operated with one
pump.
Q = Q = Q
T 1 2
H = H + H
T 1 2
2 1
P
2
P
1
P
2
P
1
Q
Q
(1 + 2)
Q
1, 2
a
0
H
1,2
D
H
(1+2)
D
1
R
1+2
A′′
Q – H
(1 + 2)
H
C
1
Q – H
(1,2)
d
A
A′
R
1,2
H
s1,2
H
0
2H
st
2H
0
C
Fig. 11.15. (a) Pumps in series Fig. 11.15. (b) Pumps in series (H–Q) curve
(b) Pumps in Parallel (Fig. 11.16)
If two pumps are operated in parallel, then both pumps work under the same head. Total quantity
(Q
T
) is the sum of the quantities of the individual pumps i.e.,
H
T
= H
A
= H
B
and Q
T
= Q
A
+ Q
B
A number of H = constant lines are drawn in the graph where individual (H–Q) curves of pump C
and D are available. For one value of H = constant line, Q
A
and Q
B
lengths are added together to get Q
T
.
In the similar manner a number of H = constant points are selected and Q
T
is determined. A smooth line
joining all these QT points give the combined graph (H
T
– Q).
If a system curve (H
sy
– Q) is overlapped on the combined (H
T
– Q) of the pump and individual
(H
A
– Q) and (H
B
– Q) graphs of the pumps, the operating point 3 is when both pumps operate and points
1 and 2 are when any one pump is operated.
Same procedure is followed for many pumps when operated in parallel.
H
T
= H
A
= H
B
= ........ = H
n
and Q
T
= Q
A
+ Q
B
+ ....... + Q
n
312 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
H
p
p
2 p
1
H
sy
Q
1
Q
2
Q < Q + Q
sy 1 2
operation Q
Q = Q + Q
T 1 2
Q
2
Q
1
p
x
for construction
1
2
3
p || p
1 2
parallel
p + p
1 2
series
p
1 p
2
H
0
Q
Fig. 11.16. Two different pumps operated in parallel Fig. 11.17. Comparison of series and
Q
1
+ Q
2
= Q
T
, H
1
= H
2
= H
T
parallel operation
Regulation of pumps in series or parallel is also achieved by sudden switching off of one or two
pumps. This method saves the power requirement to the pump.
(a) in series
A
(b) in parallel
B
Fig. 11.18. Schematic diagram for two pumps to operate (a) in series and (b) in parallel
11.6 STABLE AND UNSTABLE OPERATION IN A SYSTEM
(a) Stable Operation
In Fig. 11.19. (H–Q) curve of pump meets (H
sy
–Q) curve of a pumping system at two operating
points A and B.
TESTING, PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND REGULATION OF PUMPS 313
(H

Q
)
sy
(
H



Q
)
p
Q
A
Q
B
unstable stable
H
H
C
A
C
O
∆Q
B

H

<

0
∆Q
A
K

H

>

0
∆H = H – H
sy p
A
∆H = H – H
sy p
Q
A
Q
A0
Q
B
B
K
A
(H

Q
)
sy
stable H > 0 ∆
Q
K
∆H< 0 unstable
A
0
(H

Q
)
p
Drooping down
characteristics
H
Q
Q
Q
sy
p
2
z
2
z



z
2
1
z , p
1 1
P

2
H

=

p
c


+

z

2


z
1








g
P

1
H
o
C
O,C
Fig. 11.19. Stable and unstable operation Fig. 11.20. Stable and unstable operation
in pumping system in pumping system
(H – Q)
Rasing characteristics
p
H

Q
H

=

H
0
m
a
x
H
Q
Fig. 11.21. Condition for stable operation H
0
= H
max
At both point A and B, condition H
sy
=H
p
is prevailing. But, actually point A is the stable
operating point and point B is the unstable operating point. Let the quantity at point A is shifted to the
higher side of the quantity by a smaller amount (∆Q
A
). At the new point H
sy
> H
p
. ∆H = H
sy
– H
p
> 0.
Pump supplies quantity at a lower pressure (H
p
), whereas the system is at a higher pressure (H
sy
). Pump
cannot supply flow against high pressure of the system. The flow gradually reduces until pump pressure
(H
p
) is equal to system pressure (H
sy
). Same situation occurs when flow is reduced by a small amount
i.e., (– ∆Q
A
). Now, H
p
> H
sy
, ∆H = H
sy
– H
p
< 0. Pump supplies water at a higher pressure than the
system pressure. This difference in pressure causes an increase in quantity. This increase in quantity
reduces the pump pressure (H
p
) and increase the system pressure (H
sy
), until both the pressures are
equal i.e., until point A is attained. Entire process is automatically carried out. Pump can operate only at
point A where the condition is H
p
= H
sy
. Hence, point A is a stable operating point.
(b) Unstable Operation
Normal head-discharge curve for a centrifugal pump will have a shape of gradually rising
characteristics, when quantity of flow is reduced from maximum to zero flow condition (Fig. 11.20). In
some of the pumps due to heavy secondary losses at very flow rates, head-discharge curve of the pump,
droops down instead of raising after attaining maximum head at certain quantity (point K) in Fig. 11.20.
314 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Always shut off head (Q = 0) will be the highest head in (H
p
– Q) curve for all pumps of good design. But
due to high secondary flow at low flow rate, (H
p
– Q) curve droops down and the shut off head will be
lower than the normal value.
In Fig. 11.20, point B is the meeting point of the (H
sy
– Q) and (H
p
– Q) curves. A small increase in
quantity (+ ∆ Q
B
) moves the operating point to the right hand side of the graph (+ Q direction). At this
stage, system pressure H
sy
is lower than the pump pressure (H
p
), ∆H = H
sy
– H
p
< 0 (negative value) as
a result pump supplies more quantity to the system, which makes the point to move further to the right
hand side (+ Q direction). Point B cannot be reached at all. Pump supplies more and more quantity to the
systems until point A in attained.
If the quantity is slightly reduced (–∆Q
B
), it can be seen that pump pressure (H
p
) is lower than
system pressure (H
sy
).
∆H = H
sy
– H
p
> 0.
+ Q ∆
A
+ Q ∆
C
ρ ε
A
D
2
1
K
C
O N
Q
C
Q
A H
B
H
D
H
p
H
c
H

N
H
Q
Unstable Stable


H = H – H < 0
H = H – H > 0
sy p
sy p
E
B
M
Fig. 11.22. Stable and unstable operation in pumping system
The quantity of flow is reduced further until pump
reaches the point (Q = 0). At this stage, pump runs with
regulating valve in opened condition, but there will not
be any flow in the system. Here again point B cannot be
reached. Point B is the unstable point. This region is
called unstable region curve OBK in Fig. 11.20. This
unstable effect will exist in all pumps if (H
P
–Q) curve
droops down at lower flow rates. The pump should not
be operated in this region.
However, pumps can be operated at stable
condition even when drooping down characteristics
prevails at low flow rates. In Fig. 11.19, the shut off
head of pump (at Q = 0 ) is lower than the shut off head
of the system. In Fig. 11.23 pump shut off head is at a
higher level than system shut off head. System curve
and pump curve meet at point B, which is located at
D
B
A
O
H
H

<

H
s
y
o
o
H
o
C
∆Q

H
Fig. 11.23. Condition for stable operation at
unstable region H
o
> H
syo
TESTING, PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND REGULATION OF PUMPS 315
unstable region of pump characteristics. The condition
of point B in Fig. 11.24 is same as the condition of
point A in Fig. 11.20. Any small increase in + ∆Q
B
increases H
sy
and decreases H
p
i.e., ∆H = H
sy
– H
p
> 0
(+ve). Due to higher resistance in system, quantity
reduces. This reduction continues until point B is
reached. Any small decrease in flow rate (–∆Q
B
)
makes H
p
> H
sy
or ∆H = H
sy
– H
p
< 0. Higher pressure
in pump increase the flow to the system until point B
is reached. Therefore, point B is a stable point although
it lies on the drooping down side of pump
characteristics. Mathematically, stable condition will
exist if
sy p
dH dH
dQ dQ
>
An example of this condition is illustrated in Fig. 11.25.
Q′
2
Q
A
Q
2
Q
5
Q
1
Q Q
R
H
1
H
5
H
2
H
max
1
2′
K
H
E
K
A
C
Q
C
B
F
n O
(a) (b)
5
Fig. 11.25. Change of unstable operation into stable operation due to
(a) static head change (b) due to system resistance change
Referring to Fig. 11.25, point ‘1’ is the stable operating point of the system. When delivery tank
water level raises, the operating point, due to static head change to point ‘2’ and ‘2′ ’. Point ‘2’ is the
stable operating point, whereas point ‘ 2′ ’ is the unstable operating point. This unstable region starts
from point ‘5’ and above. Maximum height of water level in the tank can be up to point ‘K’. Further
increase in water level leads to reverse flow (Refer section 11.7).
11.7 REVERSE FLOW IN PUMP
N
C
K
S
A
P
R
H
Q – Q
O
Q
2
Q
p
Q
1
To system
Accumulator
Tank p
2
Tank P
Fig. 11.26. Reverse flow in pump
H
s
y
0
B
Q
H
0
O
∆Q
B
(
H



Q
) s
y
H
C
(
H

Q
)
p
(Curve OB)
H > H
po syo

H

>

0
∆H = H – H
sy p
H

=

H
s
y
o
p
o
Fig. 11.24. Condition for stable operation in
unstable region
316 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
In Fig. 11.26 a pumping system is illustrated where in the system i.e., suction and delivery pipe,
remain same. A closed delivery tank (Condenser, Accumulator) is attached to the system. Quantity Q
p
enters the tank from pump whereas a quantity Q
1
leaves the tank to another system. Quantities Q
p
and
Q
1
are independent of each other. If Q
p
> Q
1
, water level in the tank gradually raises. Correspondingly,
pressure p
2
also increases. Since system remains same, the pattern of dynamic part of system curve
remains same, whatever may be the quantity Q
2
, increase in pressure p
2
and raise in level Z
2
in the tank.
Change is only in the static head i.e.,
H
sy
=
p p
2 1

γ
2 2
2 1
2 1
( )
2

+ − + = +
st dy
C C
Z Z H H
g
where, H
st
=
p p
2 1

γ
2 1
( ) Z Z + −
and
2 2
2 1
2
dy
C C
H
g

=
Due to this, (H
sy
–Q) curve raises parallel to the previous (H
sy
–Q)curve (Figs. 11.21 and
Fig. 11.26). Point A moves towards left and point B towards right along (H
p
–Q) curve. Still Q
A
> Q
B
.
However, at one condition, the increase in static head makes (H
sy
–Q) curve will be tangent to (H
p
–Q)
curve at point K (Fig. 11.26). Any further increase in pressure p
2
or level Z
2
raises (H
sy
–Q) curve above
(H
p
–Q) curve. Operating point K moves to point R, where only further increase in
sy
H is possible. i.e.,
to the area of reversible flow. Flow moves from the tank to the pipe. This induces a reversible water
wave. Pressure p
2
reduces. Operating point R moves to point N. Because flow reduction is possible only
along the curve R.N, any further reduction in pressure moves the operating point from N to A and then
gradually to S, because only at point A, further reduction in pressure is possible. Thus, a cycle is completed.
This cycle repeats so long as there is no change in the system. Pressure fluctuates at a faster rate. If the
flow flucuation is large, the unstable condition starts even earlier when operating point is at A. Even a
small disturbance in pressure can induce unstable condition, if operating point is very near to point K.
Reverse flow prevails until H
st
= H
0
(at Q = 0) i.e., shut off head. When H
st
< H
0
pump starts
pumping with operating point at A or below point A under stable condition. When Q
A
< Q
K
stable
operation of the pump is not possible.

sy p
dH dH
dQ dQ
<
from Q = 0 to Q = Q
K
. Hence unsteady flow prevails between these two points.
Quantity ‘Q’ passing through the system will be either Q = 0 or Q = Q
K
. At this region reverse flow
takes place. Drooping down characteristics at low flow rate is the unstable region so long H
st
> H
0
. It
becomes stable when H
st
< H
0
and stable operations starts from the condition H
st
< H
0
to the condition
H
st
= H
0
. The same thing will happen even pumps are running in parallel or in series. The only difference
is that combined characteristics must be studied. However, a raising characteristics of H–Q curve from
Q
max
to Q
0
i.e., up to shut off head is the best H–Q curve for stable operation.
Such pressure fluctuations quite frequently occurs in boiler feed water storage drums, condensers,
accumulators and in pipes with elastic properties.
This effect is more predominate in pumping compressible fluids such as gas, air especially pumping
to storage cylinders.
A series of sudden and high intensity fluctuations can create oscillations in the system. Constant
flucuations of low intensity quite frequently appears in the delivery line. Disturbances created by
TESTING, PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND REGULATION OF PUMPS 317
aerodynamic wake after the impeller blades, flow over volute tongue, flow over diffuser blades, uneven
angular velocity of the rotor (in case of gas and air pumping) are a few instances of creation of disturbances.
If the frequency of the disturbance does not coincide with the frequency of the system, the amplitude of
such oscillations give a very low effect on performance even when the pump works near maximum head
point (K) and pump work under stable condition. If the disturbance frequency is very nearly or exactly
equal to system frequency, resonance effect is created and the pump will work in the unstable operation
even when pump is working far away (point A) from maximum head point K.
The frequency of operation of the system depends on dimensions of the delivery pipe and does not
depend upon the speed of rotation.
A reduction in accumulator energy increases the frequency of oscillation which inturn increases
the amplitude of pressure fluctuations. The energy waves developed due to pressure fluctuations, either
direct and indirect, combined together, which can create high intensity shock waves. However, increase
in frequency of the amplitude of fluctuations increases a self breaking effect.
A change in quantity of flow is created by the change in circulation, provided sufficient time is
available. When total, combined self oscillating frequency of the system is reduced or in other words,
when oscillating frequency increases, circulation time almost reaches the condition for one cycle of
oscillation. This almost stops further increase in the amplitude of the oscillation, with the result, energy
is dissipated under low accumulator energy. Circulation is inversely proportional to speed or tangential
velocity of the blade. As a result, any pump working in the unstable region, when speed is reduced up to
certain limit will work in stable condition at all flow rates. The limited speed will be higher where
system conditions are low.
Boiler feed pumps, compressors working under high speed has a very little time to adjust, will
undergo unstable operation even when accumulator energy is small. Stable operation in boiler feed
pumps can be obtained by having continuous raising characteristics from full open to full close i.e.,
without any drooping down characteristics at partial flow. Experimental investigation shows that reduction
in number of impeller blades and low outlet blade angle β
2
will provide a stable raising pump (H–Q)
curve. Better results are also found when the impeller blades are extended into impeller eye at suction
i.e., increasing length of the blade at suction side. (Fig. 9.10) High specific speed pumps have raising
characteristics.
Diverting part of fluid from delivery line to suction line is also one of the reasons for unstable
operation for pump.
11.8 EFFECT OF VISCOSITY ON PERFORMANCE
The performance of water pumps, when used for viscous liquid pumping, changes considerably
from water performance. Many authors already worked on this area. Prof. A. A Burdhakoff, Prof. R.E.
Sheshenko, Prof. D.A. Suhanoff, Prof. B.D. Baklanoff, Prof. M.D. Aizentein, Prof. A. T. Ippan | 4 |,
Prof. A.J. Stepanpoff | 112 | are a few authors to be mentioned.
In chemical industries, centrifugal pumps, of n
s
= 80 to 135, are used for pumping viscous liquids.
Spiral casings are used, instead of diffusers, in most of the pumps, because, when pumping viscous
liquids, the flow velocity in pump parts is less than that for water pumping. Coefficient of reaction
ρ = 0.7 and number of blades Z = 5 to 6, depending upon the viscosity of the pumping liquid. Fig 11.27
gives the test results of a pump of n
s
= 85, for different viscous liquid pumping.
318 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
N kW
50
47
44
41
38
35
32
29
26
23
20
Hm
80
72
64
56
48
40
32
24
16
8
η%
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10
H = f(Q)
n

=

8
2
s
η =f (Q)
η =f (Q)
12,28
8,55
18,80
n

=

8
2
s
3,69
18,80
12,28
8,55
3,69
1,50
0,138
0,595
ν = 0,0093
Water
1,50
0,595
ν = 0,009
Water
18,80
12,28
8,55
3,69
1,50
0,595
0,138
ν= 0009
cm /sec
water
2
Fig.11.27. Actual performance variation due to change in viscosity of liquids test
results conducted on the same pump n
s
= 85 n = 2875 rpm
Prof. D. A. Suhanoff mentioned that the major losses involved in viscous liquid pumping are the hydraulic
losses due to friction and disc friction losses. Head loss in pumps is due to high friction, while power
loss is due to high disc friction. So, the important factor to decide the effect of viscosity on pump
performance is Reynold’s number R
e
=
2
r ω
ν
, since the theoretical head, hydraulic losses depend upon
only Reynold’s number. However, shock losses do not depend on Reyonld’s number. Shut off head
(H
o
) for the viscous liquid pumping and for water pumping remain same i.e., H
ov
= H
o
, when Q = 0. Due
to complicated flow pattern prevailing in flow passages, analytical methods aided with experimental
correction coefficients are used to convert water parameters into viscous parameters for pumps of n
s
=
50 to 130. The results are given in Figs. 11.28 and 11.29.
T
E
S
T
I
N
G
,

P
E
R
F
O
R
M
A
N
C
E

E
V
A
L
U
A
T
I
O
N

A
N
D

R
E
G
U
L
A
T
I
O
N

O
F

P
U
M
P
S
3
1
9
r = 16 cm
n = 1450 rpm
= 1.5 cm /sec ν
2
Example
R = 2,5.10
e
4
2,5
2,0
1,6
1,2
1,0
0,8
0,6
0,5
0,4
0,3
r
2
w
25
20
16
12
10
5
70
50
30
20
16
12
10
4
8
6
5
4
3
2,5
n = 960 rpm
n = 1450 rpm
n = 2900 rpm
5 6 8 10 20 30 50 40
1 2 5 1 2 5 1 2 5 1 2
10
3
10
4
10
5
10
6
Impeller radius 'r' in cm
ν

=

0
,
0
5

c
m
/
s
e
c
2
n = 0,73 ′
k = 0,93 ′
m = 1,28 ′
m′
k′
n′
Re =
r
2 2
ω
ν
5
0


4
7
4
3


3
9
3
5


3
3
3
1


2
9
2
7


2
5
2
3


2
1
1
9


1
7
1
5


1
3
1
2


1
1
1
0




9
8






7
6


5
,
5
5


4
,
5
4


3
,
5
3


2
,
5
2


1
,
5
1
,
2

1
,
0
0
,
8

0
,
7
0
,
6

0
,
5
0
,
4

0
,
3
0
,
2
5

0
,
2
0
,
1
5
0
,
1
2
5
0
,
1
Fig. 11.28. Nomogram k′ ′′ ′′, m′ ′′ ′′, η′ η′ η′ η′ η′ = f (R
e
) to convert water parameters to equivalent liquid parameters
320 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Experimental analysis indicates, that, for pumps of low n
s
and impellers with both shrouds, the
performance of viscous liquid pumping and that for water pumping remain same at maximum efficiency
point. When viscosity increases, total head reduces. It is found, sometimes that, the total head, for
viscous liquid pumping is slightly higher than that for water pumping at smaller viscosity ranges. This is
due to the absence of axial vortex at slightly increased viscosity. C
u2
reduces at a little lower rate when
compared to C
u2∞
, which not only compensates for the increase in hydraulic friction losses and also
increase in total head. However, this compensation cannot be made, when viscosity increases further.
The similarity laws cannot be applied directly, due to insufficient data for viscous liquid pumping,
since a change in speed, changes Reynold’s number. However, for low viscous liquids i.e., for liquids
with high Reynold’s number having ν = 5000 stokes, the performance of viscous liquid pumping coincides
with that of water pumping, even when speed changes in a wide range. Model analysis must be considered
including Reynold’s number also.
In order to compare the characteristics of different viscous pumping liquid, Prof. D.A. Suhanoff
gave a relation between head coefficient k (= K
H
) =
2 2
H
n D
, power coefficient m = (= K
N
) =
3 5
N
γ n D
 
 
 
,
and efficiency (η) as a function of Reynold’s number (R
e
). The result obtained by him are given in a
nomogram k′, m′, η′ = f (R
e
) (Fig. 11.28). His results perfectly agree with the experimental results of
different viscous fluid pumping for the same pump and same viscosity for different pumps.
The variation in k, m and η = f (R
e
) is attributed to the increased friction losses and disc friction
losses especially when R
e
< 7*10
3
. At low Reynold’s number η reduces to a greater extent than ‘k’ and
‘m’. When R
e
> 3*10
5
, calculation by dimensional analysis gave more accurate results. The error will be
more, especially, when the speed is changed.
Comparing the pump characteristics for different Reynold’s numbers (R
e
), when unit quantity
K
Q
= Q/nD
3
is constant, Prof. Suhanoff, suggested that relative efficiency ratio (η′), relative power ratio
(m′), and relative total head ratio (k′) can be used for all practical purposes as a function of Reynold’s
number (R
e
) i.e., η′, m′ and k′ = f (R
e
). These values are given as
η′ =
v
η
η
, m′ =
v
m
m
, k′

=
v
k
k
...(1)
The values with suffix (v) attribute to viscous liquid and without suffix for water. Fig. 11.28 is a
consolidated nomogram, giving all the above mentioned details for easy calculation. This nomogram
has been developed based on the experimental results from many authors.
The procedure is as follows :
(1) A few points, very near to the maximum efficiency point are selected on water performance
graph (Fig. 11.3) of the pump and η, m and k are calculated.
(2) Reynold’s number is calculated using the formula R
e
=
2
ωr
ν
.
(3) From Fig.11.28, the relative coefficients η′, m′ and k′ are found out for the obtained Reynold’s
number.
(4) Using equation (1) the values k
v
, m
v
, η
v
are determined.
(5) The head and power of the viscous liquid can be calculated from the formula H
v
= k
v
n
2
D
2
and N
v
= m
v
γ n
3
D
5
and η
v
= ηη′.
T
E
S
T
I
N
G
,

P
E
R
F
O
R
M
A
N
C
E

E
V
A
L
U
A
T
I
O
N

A
N
D

R
E
G
U
L
A
T
I
O
N

O
F

P
U
M
P
S
3
2
1
(
6
)
S
h
u
t

o
f
f

h
e
a
d

H
o
,

w
h
e
n

Q

=

0
,

i
s

o
b
t
a
i
n
e
d

f
r
o
m

t
h
e

p
u
m
p

p
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e

g
r
a
p
h

f
o
r

w
a
t
e
r
.
H
o
v

=

H
o
.
A
n
o
t
h
e
r

m
e
t
h
o
d

o
f

c
a
l
c
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

i
s

:
K
H
K
Q
K
C
K
η
1
2
3
4
5
1,0
0,9
0,8
0,7
0,6
0,5
0,4
K

=
′ Q
Q Q
li
q
u
i
d
w
a
t
e
r
H H
li
q
u
i
d
w
a
t
e
r
,

K

=
′ H
=

K
′ Q
1,0
0,9
0,8
0,7
0,6
0,5
0,4
0,3
0,2
0,1
K
=
′ η
η η
l
iq
u
i
d
w
a
t
e
r
10
2
2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10
3
10
4
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
5
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910
6
R =
e
Q lit/sec.
D cm. cm /sec. ν
t
2
10
3
1,0
0,9
0,8
0,7
0,6
0,5
0,4
K

=
′ C
C C
l
iq
u
id
w
a
t
e
r
2
/
3
Fig. 11.29. Coefficients K′ ′′ ′′
Q
, K′ ′′ ′′
H
, K′ ′′ ′′
η ηη ηη
, and K′ ′′ ′′
C
= f (R
e
)
1 — as per Ajenshtein (n
si
= 51, 60 to 70); 2 — as per Suhanoff (n
si
= 82 to 130); 3 — as per Ippen (n
si
= 90 to 115);
4— as per Stepanoff (n
si
= 82); 5 — as per Ajenshtein for cavitation (n
si
= 60 to 100)
322 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
(1) Under constant speed, and the change in pumping liquid viscosity, the (H–Q) for water
pumping changes, in such a way that the specific speed for both liquid pumping remains
same (Fig. 11.29).
n
s
=
3/ 4
3.65n Q
H
= n
sv
=
3/ 4
3.65
( )
v
v
n Q
H
...(11.9)
The (H–Q) curve droops down more when viscosity increases (11.27). Suffix (v) is for
viscous liquid and without suffix is for water.
From the equation (11.9), we get
v
Q
Q
=
3/ 2
v
H
H
 
 
 
...(11.10)
From the equation (11.10), it is seen that the coefficients, k
H
, k
N
, k
η
and k
C
(Fig. 11.29)
obtained at maximum efficiency point, remain same for all other selected points of water
pump performance. So all other values can be obtained from the above correction coefficient.
(2) Shut off head (H
o
) for water pumping is taken from the water pump performance graph.
This is same for viscous fluid pumping also, since shut off head is independent of viscosity
of pumping liquid.
(3) From Fig. 11.27, it is seen that under viscous liquid pumping, the power required increases
more or less by the same value for a wide range of flow rate.
Power (N) is given by
For water pumping N =
constant .
QH γ
η
For viscous liquid pumping, N
v
=
constant
v v v
v
Q H γ
η
Combining these two, we get N < N
ν
or
γ

η γ η
v v v
v
Q H QH    
< ×
   
   
...(11.11)

v v v v
Q H
QH
   
× >
   
   
g h
g h
= ′ η or k
Q
k
H

γ
γ
v
> η′ ...(11.12)
Where k
Q
=
v
Q
Q
and k
H
=
v
H
H
...(11.13)
Combining equations (11.10) and (11.13), we get
v
g
g
k
H
5/2
> k
η
...(11.14)
Equation (11.10) and (11.14) give a relation between the correction coefficient for head, flow rate
and efficiency for viscous liquid pumping. Absolute values of these coefficients must, however, be
determined experimentally. Fig 11.29 gives the values of these coefficients as a function of Reynolds
number (R
e
).
TESTING, PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND REGULATION OF PUMPS 323
R
e
=
( . )
nor
equ
Q
D ν
, where D
equ
=
2 2
4 , D b k where k is the correction coeficient (≈0.9) and also equal
to k = 1/K
2
, where K
2
is the area restriction coefficient at outlet.
In Fig. 11.29, another graph is also given containing the variation of the cavitation specific speed
(C). The correction coefficient k
c
= C
ν
/C = f (R
e
). From the graph it is seen that when R
e
> 7.10
3
the
coefficient k
Q
, k
H
are nearly equal to one (i.e. k
Q
= k
H
= 1), which indicates that, the increase in
hydraulic losses between water pumping and viscous pumping is same i.e., the effect of viscosity is
negligible.
The drop in overall efficiency k
η
indicates that disc friction losses are increasing. At R
e
< 7.10
3
,
the hydraulic friction losses considerably increase, which is responsible for reduction in efficiency. The
disc friction loss will be low.
In practice, it is found that, pump performance comparison for viscous liquid pumping with that of
water with respect to Reynolds’s number, give an error of ±5% for n
s
= 85 to 130.
11.9 PUMP REGULATION
The process of changing the characteristics of system and that of pump to meet the output
demand is called regulation of pumps. By this, the operating point of (H
sy
–Q) and (H
p
–Q) curves will
meet the required output head and discharge.
Regulation is done by several methods namely (1) Flow regulation by valve control system; (2) by
transfer line control system; (3) by speed control of the pump; (4) by diameter control of the impeller of
the pump; (5) by impeller and diffuser blade adjustments and (6) by changing the static height in suction
and delivery tank.
(a) Regulation by Delivery Valve Control
This method is simple, but with heavy hydraulic losses in the control valve. Regulation is done by
a regulating valve fitted at the delivery pipe. Fig. 10.30 shows the performance by delivery valve regulation
process. By adjusting the valve, either closing or opening, the (H
sy
–Q) curve changes (curves oAx
1
,
oAx
2
, oAx
3
). Each curve is for one position of gate valve opening.
Q
A
Q
x
H
s
y
H
p
η
H
p
A
∆H
c
A
x1
η
wx
A
x3
H
Q
C
A
x2
H
sy
η
Hy
Fig. 11.30. Regulation by delivery control valve
324 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Due to the adjustment in valve, the system resistance is changed by which, the operating point
moves either upwards or downwards along the (H
p
–Q) curve. Hydraulic losses are higher due to
obstruction created by the valve and pump efficiency reduces considerably. However, due to simplicity,
this regulation is widely used. Flow regulation by suction valve, although possible, is not carried out for
Load test on centrifugal pump
— with delivery valve control
– – with suction valve control ×
5 10 15 20
0
P
o
w
e
r

(
N
)

k
W
.

5
1
0

T
o
t
a
l

H
e
a
d

(
H
)

m
1
5
2
0
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
5
0
6
0
7
0
8
0
9
0
1
0
0

%
(
)

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

%
η
Q. Flow rate lit/sec
Fig. 11.31. Performance of pump
(a) operation of delivery valve with full opening of suction valve
(b) by operation of suction valve for one position of delivery valve opening
TESTING, PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND REGULATION OF PUMPS 325
incompressible fluids like water, oil etc. due cavitation problem, since regulation of suction valve increase
total suction head. However, for compressible fluid, suction valve control is carried out since density
increases due to fall in pressure, which reduces the flow quantity. Moreover, unstable condition area
moves toward left hand side of H–Q curve, more for air and less for gas. Fig. 11.31 illustrates the graph
for valve regulation by suction control valve and by delivery valve control.
In Fig. (11.30), A is the operating point when the delivery control valve is at full open condition.
Points A
x1
, A
x2
, A
x3
are the operating points when control valve is gradually closed. Dotted lines
corresponds to the (H
sy
–Q) curves for different opening position of the suction valve.
(b) Regulation by Transfer Line Method
In low specific speed pumps, the power of the pump reduces when control valve is gradually
closed. Maximum power occurs when control valve is at full opened condition. But in axial flow pumps,
power of the pump increases when flow rate is reduced or the control valve is gradually closed. In such
installations a transfer line is always provided. The flow from the transfer line is sent back to the suction
sump. When the control valve in the main line is gradually closed, part of the flow from the main line is
transferred to transfer line. But pump supplies at constant flow rate, thereby power is kept constant and
below overloading capacity.
This method is adopted in axial flow pumps in general for all pumps, where N–Q curve has a
raising characteristics, when flow (Q) reduces. In order to have minimum power at the time of starting,
centrifugal pumps are always started with delivery gate valve in fully closed position while axial flow
pumps are started with delivery gate valve in fully opened position. So a transfer line i.e., a parallel pipe
is connected to the main supply line. This transfer line discharges the pumping fluid back to the suction
tank. While starting, the transfer line valve is kept open and main line valve is fully or party closed.
After starting, the main line valve is gradually opened and transfer line valve is gradually closed until
required quantity in the main line is attained. Fig. 11.32 illustrates the regulation by transfer line.
r
R
Q
R – Main line
r – Transfer line
Q
m
Q
p
Q
c
r
E A
C
P
0
M
R + r
N = f (Q)
r
R
N
H
L
H = f(Q)
K
N
K
N
m
Q
C
Q
p
Q
K
Q = Q + Q
M c p
A
R
B
D
F
H
st
Fig. 11.32. Regulation by transfer line (r) OEPD-Transfer line,
ACKB-main line(R), OEMF-combined line (R + r)
326 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
In order to maintain a steady flow, especially at low flow rate, recirculation method of regulation
is often followed instead of regulating by gate valve. A part of the main flow from the delivery line is
brought back to suction reservoir in order to maintain constant level. The suction reservoir is also
constructed with greater depth. Referring to Fig. 11.33 the flow will be safe so long as the level in the
reservoir is above the line ‘a–a’ i.e., above the entrance of suction pipe. For the safe operation of pump
without cavitation, the water level in the suction reservoir should be maintained at ‘h
2
’. If the liquid level
falls below the value ‘h
1
’, the recirculation line is automatically activated and the operating curve shifts
from curve R to R + r. Out of total quantity ‘Q
H
’ a quantity Q
C
passes through the recirculation line and
the balance through the main line (line r). The recirculation quantity maintains constant level of water in
the sump and pump also operates safely. Recirculation line operates until the liquid level in the reservoir
raises to ‘h
2
’. At this level recirculation line is closed. Between the point h
1
and h
2
pump operation is
safe.
In Fig. 11.32, parabola AB is the main line characteristics and parabola OD the characteristics of
transfer line. OEF is the combined system characteristics (AB + OD) with transfer line opened. Parabola,
LKM is the characteristics of pump. Under transfer line (OD) in closed condition, the operating point is
K. Q
K
is the quantity through the main line AB. When transfer line is opened, operating point is M. Q
C
is
the quantity passing through the main line and Q
P
is the quantity passing through transfer line. Total
quantity Q
M
= Q
C
+ Q
P
. The power N
M
consumed is less than power N
K
.
h
2
h
1
a a
Q
C
Q
H
Q
onm
Q
H
R + r
r
R
H
Fig. 11.33. Pump characteristics during constant recirculation through transfer line
In Fig. 12.38 most commonly adopted circulation pump in ships is illustrated. For light weight
provision, the outlet bend is provided with flow ribs and the inlet is provided with a main circular
cylinder suction entry alongwith a side pipe entry. Due to the flow from the side entrance, unequal
pressure and velocity distribution prevails at the inlet, which induces cavitation, noise, vibration. In
order to improve the performance, inlet vanes are provided.
Referring to Fig. 11.34 curve R is the H–Q curve of the axial flow pump, when flow is through the
main entrance, this curve is less steeper. H–Q
a
curve is the performance of the same pump, when flow
is through the side entrance. This curve R
1
and R
2
are more steeper due to heavy secondary losses at
inlet. Experimental investigation | 4 | shows that when the speed is reduced from n = 100% to n = 60%
TESTING, PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND REGULATION OF PUMPS 327
severe cavitation prevails, when flow takes place through side channel. The flow Q
a
at n = 60% is found
to be ≈15 to 20% of normal flow Q
H
. Steady flow prevails up to the suction reservoir height up to ‘h
s1

where the inflow to the reservoir is equal to outflow from the pump. Steady flow exists during the height
h
s1
to h
s2
. The flow becomes unsteady if the height in the suction reservoir falls below h
s1
.
Q
H
R
n = 100% Q – H
n = 60%
R
1
R
2
Q – H
a
h
s2
h
s1
Q
a
Fig. 11.34. Axial flow pump performance when side channel emergency
line is in operation under speed change
(c) Regulation by Speed Control
Already known that the change in speed of the pump, moves the (H
p
–Q) curve of the pump
parallely up or down depending upon the increase or decrease in speed. Since the system is not altered,
The (H
sy
–Q) curve remains same. As per model analysis, total head increases as square of the speed and
quantity increases in proportion to speed.
A
2
A
3
A B
1 1
B
2
B
3
n
2
n
3
R
2
H
η
H
H
1
H
2
H
3
H
s
t
Q
3
Q
2
Q
1
Q
C
n
1
R
1
Q
y
Q
A
Q
x
η
η
x
x
n

=

η
H
y
Ax
A
xn
A
y
n
y
A
yn
n
n
x
η
Q
Fig. 11.35. Regulation by changing speed Fig. 11.36. Regulation by changing speed
328 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
0 8 16 24 32
Q LPS
2

4

6

2
0

4
0

6
0

8
0

%

η
I

H

P

N
5

1
0

1
5

2
0

H
m
8
— O.D 225 φ
×
×× O.D 211 φ
O.D 219 φ
O.D 215 φ
O.D 222 φ
.
4 × 3 5 ms6
222
225
219
215
211
225
222
219
215
211
225
222
219
225
Fig. 11.37. (a) Effect of changing diameter on performance
TESTING, PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND REGULATION OF PUMPS 329
Tested with OD of 250
Tested with OD of 247
Tested with OD of 244
Tested with OD of 241
Tested with OD of 238
ϕ
ϕ
ϕ
ϕ
ϕ
2
4
6
N
(
h
p
)
I
II
III
IV
V
H
(
m
)
η
0 5
Q LPS
10 15
V
IV
III
II
I
V
III
II
I
III
V
IV
III
II
I
2
0
8
0

%
1
5
6
0
1
0
4
0
5
2
0
Fig. 11.37. (b) Effect of changing diameter on performance
330 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
φ 250
φ 240
φ 230
φ 220
φ 210
φ 200
φ 190
φ 180
0 4
240
144
28
1680
100.8
24
1440
86.4
20
1200
72
16
960
57.6
12
720
43.2
8
480
28.8
32
1920
115.2
LPS
LPM
m /hr
3
(H

Q
)
sy
22
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
(H –Q)
p
5
0
%
5
5
%
6
0
%
6
5
%
6
0
%
7
0
%
7
5
% 5
5
%
5
0
%
Quantity Q
Fig. 11.38. (H–Q) curve for different outer diameter D
2
at one speed ‘n’
H D ∝
2
Head
Efficiency %
Q
u
a
n
t
it
y

A
c
t
u
a
l
G D ∝
3
Theory
Q
u
a
n
t
i
t
y

(
Q
)

H
s
30
40
50
60
2
.
3
9
3
.
1
1
2
3
.
8
1
5
4
.
5
1
8
6
0
6
8
H
e
a
d

(
m
)

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

%
200 220 240mm
Diameter (D )
2
5
.
2
Fig. 11.39. Effect of impeller outer diameters (D
2
)
reduction on pump performance
TESTING, PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND REGULATION OF PUMPS 331
Q Q ,
c d
Q
B
F
C
D
C
2
α′
2
O
H
A
H
d
E
H
c
C
u
m2
2
C
u

2
2
α′
2
C
u

u
2
2
β′
2
B
O
D
2
i
D
2
m
d
1
D
1
m
D
2
c
b
2
Fig. 11.40. For the calculation of probable diameter reduction
C

2
C
2

D
2
k
D
2
– D′
2
2
∆D
2
=
K
1,2
0,8
0,4
20 40 60 80 100 120 140 n
s
Fig. 11.41. Experimental coefficient k for turning impeller diameter
with respect to η ηη ηη
s
as per “RUTSCHI”||
1
2
n
n
Q
Q
=
1 1
2 2
v
v
n
n
η
η
,
1
2
n
n
H
H
=
2
1 1
2
2 2
h
h
n
n
η
η
and
1
2
n
n
N
N
=
3
1 2
3
2
m
mi
n
n
η
η
In Fig. 11.35 (H
p
–Q) curves for three different speeds are drawn, over which the (H
sy
–Q) curve C
B
3
B
2
B
1
is overlapped. The operating points are B
3
B
2
and B
1
on each speed curve. It can be seen that
although by model analysis points are obtained, efficiencies are not equal. At point ‘B
1
’ efficiency is
maximum. But efficiencies at other two point B
2
and B
3
are less than maximum efficiency. The
(H
sy
–Q) curve must be altered in order make the pump to work at maximum efficiency at all speeds.
However, the loss in efficiency due to speed change is negligible when compared to other methods i.e.,
regulation by delivery valve control method, as well as changing the impeller diameter keeping speed
constant. This method of regulation is economical. There is no limit, provided prime mover capacity is
sufficient to run the pump at such speed. Danger of cavitation is avoided completely. This method is
adopted only for a single stage units. For pumps in series or parallel, valve control method is always
carried out keeping pump speed constant for all pumps.
(d) Regulation by diameter control (Outer diameter trimming to meet the desired
head and discharge)
Instead of change in speed, which requires a prime mover with speed changing facilities to a
greater extent, which involves huge cost, a change in diameter of impeller at constant speed is carried
out in chemical industries. As per model analysis,
332 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
1
2
Q
Q
=
3
1 1 1
3
2 2 2
η
,
η
v
v
D H
H D

=
2
1 1
2
2 2
η
η
h
h
D
D

and
1
2
N
N
=
5
1
2
5
2 1
η
η
m
m
D
D

Here also the (H
p
–Q) curve for other diameters, changes parallely with respect to original
(H
p
–Q) curves. Loss of efficiency in changing the diameter is very high when compared to the loss of
efficiency is changing the speed. Maximum efficiency also reduces for other diameters. This is due to
the fact that flow at outlet is not streamlined flow when outer diameter is trimmed. There will be fully
developed, separated flow at outlet edge of the impeller followed by an aerodynamic wake. Secondary
flow increases considerably. Because of this, flow in diffuser and in outlet element is also a fully developed
separated flow. As a result, hydraulic efficiency reduces to a greater extent, volumetric efficiency also
reduces to a smaller extent. Mechanical efficiency very slightly decreases due to reduced disc friction
loss. Overall efficiency reduces to a greater extent. However, in some impellers when impeller diameter
is reduced very slightly, the efficiency improves slightly due to improved, better, flow pattern at the
outlet of impeller at the passage between impeller, and diffuser, at the diffuser and at outlet elements.
Figs. (11.37, 11.38) show the performance of pump with different diameters but with the same speed.
The system curve is also shown in the same graph. Comparing the curves Figs. 11.35, 11.36, 11.37 and
11.38, it is evident that efficiency drop in changing diameter is high when compared to the efficiency
drop in changing speed. In Fig. 11.41, given the experimental results giving the limit up to which the
diameter of impeller can be safely reduced to get better performance i.e., without sacrifice in efficiency.
If the same impeller with different trimmed outer diameters is tested in the same spiral casing or
diffuser, it is found, than η
max
, for each trimmed diameter lies on the corresponding point, such that
3
1 1
2 2

Q D
Q D
 
 
 
ª
and
2
1 1
2 2

H D
H D
 
 
 
ª
The change of Q in proportion to D
3
is due to the change of C
m2
and the flow area ‘A
2
’ perpendicular
to C
m2
in direct proportion to the impeller diameter.
Referring to Fig. 11.40, the H–Q curve for the original diameter is curve AB. The required values
of H and Q are given by point ‘C’. A line is drawn from the origion ‘O’ to pass through ‘C’ and then to
meet the original H–Q curve AB at point ‘D’. This indicates that
2
2
2
c c c
d d d
D Q H
D Q H
     
     
     
ª ª
This method has been suggested by Berjourn of France |176| and later accepted by other countries.
Although theoretically H ∝ D
2
and Q ∝D
3
practically, the outer diameter ‘D
2
’ must be trimmed
to a value slightly higher than the value calculated as per the law H ∝D
2
, in order to compensate for the
quantity which follows Q ∝D
3
. However, it is found that, this correction is not necessary if the law
suggested by Berjourn is applied.
(e) Regulation by Static Head Change
(1) Static Head Fluctuation in Delivery Reservoir
In Figs. 11.42 and 11.43, pump (H–Q) curve with a drooping down characteristics regulation by
static head change is shown. Water level in the suction tank is taken as (origin, O–O, i.e., x–axis–
TESTING, PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND REGULATION OF PUMPS 333
Q-axis) reference line. Pump 1 supplies water through the delivery pipe 2 to the reservoir 3. Water level
in the delivery reservoir corresponds to the static height H, H
1
, H
2
and H
3
which is obtained by the
meeting point of system curves AE, A
1
E
2
, A
2
E
2
and A
3
E
3
, with pump (H–Q) curve. Points B, B
1
, B
2
and
C are the corresponding operating points. Pump operation will be stable between heads H and H
2
i.e.,
between points B and B
2
. For further increase in height H
2
to H
3
by reducing the flow rate Q
B2
to Q
B3
,
the system curve A
1
E
1
raises parallel to x-axis and will meet the pump (H–Q) curve at two point. (see
Fig. 11.43). This corresponding to the level in the reservoirs a
2
b
2
and above. The flow rate is 0 < Q <
Q
B2
the pump
operation becomes unstable in this region. When the
pump head is raised further, the system curve A
2
, E
2
goes up and will touch the H–Q curve at one point
C. The moment pump operating point reaches point
C, the operating point momentarily shifts to point
A
2
and there will not be any flow. Since the system
head is higher, the operating point further shift
towards left side (Fig.11.26) and will be operated at
point A (Fig. 11.26), where the flow will be reversed.
This sudden change creates huge noise vibration and
water hammer which depends upon the flow rate and
length of the pipe. Flow in positive direction will
start only when the water level goes below a
1
, b
1
which corresponds to the head H
1
. Pump operation
will be always unstable between H
2
and H
3
and
above.
H
A
3
A
2
A
1
Q
0
Q
lim
Q

A
C
B
2
B
1
B
3
B
E
2
E
Q



H
a
1
a
2
a
3
a
Tank
To the
system
1
2
3
B
2
B
1
H
3
H
2
H
1
H
E
1
E
3
Fig. 11.43. Static head fluctuation in delivery reserve
a
2
a
1
B
1
H
2
H
1
B
2
H
s
t
2
H
s
t
1
H
s
t
Q
H
O
O
C
C
S
Fig. 11.42. Regulation by static head change
334 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
In order to avoid such unstable operation, pump (H–Q) curve must be a gradual raising
characteristics up to Q = 0, i.e., without any drooping characteristics at low flow rate or other arise the
curve A
2
–C will be a raising curve as a continuous curve of C B
2
–B
1
. This fluctuation of water level in
delivery tank normally exists in systems, where condensers and accumulators are fitted in the delivery
line.
(2) Regulation with two different (H–Q) Curves of the Pump
In Fig. 11.44, a system operation with two different
(H–Q) curves, one with less drooping characteristics
indicated by (H–Q)
B
. Continuous line and another with
higher drooping characteristics (H–Q)
A
indicated by dotted
line are shown. It is evident that the higher drooping
(H–Q)
A
curve (dotted line) is recommended and accepted
for automatic regulated operation by a pressure control
relay, if the fluctuations are large and quite frequent,
because of smaller difference between Q
a max
and Q
a min
for the given H
max
to H
min
. These values are also very close
to the regular flow rate. But the range between Q
b max
and
Q
b min
is large for the same head valuation H
max
to H
min
for
the curve of B (continuous line curve (H–Q)
B
. It is necessary
to bring down the value (H
max
– H
min
) in order to get safe
automatic regulation. If the operating point (H
min
) is at the
right side of maximum efficiency point, the pump may be overloaded due to power increase or pump
may be unsteady due to cavitation. Hence, necessary care should be taken in fixing the normal regular
operating point (H
min
) especially when automatic relay is fitted. Pump automatically starts at (H
min
) and
automatically stops at (H
max
). Normally this pressure difference will be 2 to 3 kg/cm
2
.
(3) Static Head Change in Suction Reservoir
In Fig. 11.45, two different (H–Q) curves of pump are given (H–Q)
a
and (H–Q)
b
. Curve CE is the
system curve. Static height H
s2
corresponds to low water level in the suction reservoir, and H
s1
corresponds
to the high water level in the suction reservoir. Taking the low water level in the suction tank as the
normal operating condition, the operating point is B with parameters H
B
, Q
B
and N
B
. When water level
reaches the higher level, the head will be H
A
and the parameters are Q
A
, H
A
, N
A
, corresponding to point
A. The power increase ∆N = N
A
– N
B
. Prime mover must be capable of taking this excessive power, if
not, regulation is carried out by operating the control valve until Q
A
reduces to Q′
B
and N′
B
. The difference
in head H
A
–H
B
= h
3
is the loss created by the control valve. The control valve system, although simple
but not efficient. The efficiency loss will be more. That’s why when any system operates under larger
and frequent suction or delivery reservoir level variations, system will be operated with another H–Q
curve with larger drooping characteristics by this the change in Q, N, will be considerably small than in
the lesser drooping characteristic of (H–Q). However, best and efficiency method is always changing
the speed of the pump. The same system is adopted when delivery tank fluctuations take place.
Q
Q
bmx
Q
amax
Q
Amin
Q
Bmin
A
B
A
B
H
stmax
H
stmin
Q – H
min
max
H
Fig. 11.44. Regulation by two different
(H–Q) curves of the pump
TESTING, PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND REGULATION OF PUMPS 335
E
A
B
(Q – H)
a
(Q – H)
b
h
3
H
S1
H
S2
H
B
H
A
Q
B
Q
0
0
1
Q
A
Q – N
∆N
Q – η
N
B
N
A
Q
0
C
Fig. 11.45. Static head change is suction reservoir
(4) Regulation by Impeller Blades and Inlet Guide Blade Rotation
A small rotation of inlet guide blades before impeller blades, to some extent, changes the input
energy to the impeller, which in turn changes the total head of the pump for the same quantity of flow.
Efficiency almost remains same in this process. However, regulation can be done only to a very small
range. Efficiency and head drop very much for further changes. Hence this method is not adopted in
pumps. But the blade rotation is widely used with variable pitch adjustable impeller blade axial flow
pumps. It is not possible in fixed impeller blade propeller pumps.
α
1x
α
1a
W
2

W
x

W
1
x
W
2
a
W
a

C
2
x
W
1
a
C
2
a
C

=

C
2
a
1
a
C

=

C
2
x
1
x
u
Fig. 11.46. Regulation by impeller blade pitch control
336 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
When impeller blade is rotated with respect to its own axis, the angle of attack is changed. If angle
of attack is increased, area between two blades, axial velocity, tangential velocity, total head, circulation,
lift, quantity of flow increase. The geometrical average velocity w

absolute and blade angles also
change. In Fig. 11.46 continuous line is for the original value and dotted line is for increased angle of
attack. Reducing angle of attack by rotating the impeller blade in opposite direction reduces all values
mentioned above including efficiency. At maximum efficiency, total head increases slightly because
total head depends upon the curvature of the profile. As already explained in chapter 10, it was shown
that hydraulic efficiency η
h
is equal to
η
h
=
sin λ
1
sin (β λ)
w
u



+
Relative velocity w

reduces only a little for a larger value of reduction in angle of attack. Value
sin (β

+ λ) reduces to a greater extent, with the result, hydraulic efficiency drops when angle of attack
is reduced or when impeller blade is rotated in the opposite direction (–∆β

). Up to a reduction of
β

= 23° to 25°, efficiency drop is only very little. Futher reduction in angle of attack reduce efficiency
significantly.
11.10 EFFECT OF THE PUMP PERFORMANCE WHEN SMALL CHANGES
ARE MADE IN PUMP PARTS
1. Filing the trailing side of the outlet edge of the impeller blade raises (H–Q) curve (Figs.11.47,
11.48, 11.49 and 11.50) to a certain extent. Efficiency may remain same or may increase. But
normally decreases.
2. Filing the leading side of the outlet edge of the impeller blade drops (H–Q) curve. Efficiency
also drops (Fig. 11.51 and 11.52).
3. Instability in (H–Q) curve at low Q can be removed shifting the inlet edge of the impeller
blade towards eye.
4. Thinning the inlet edge by filing both sides of the blade especially more on the leading side,
less on the trailing side and rounding off the inlet edge reduces drooping nature at unstable
region.
5. Increasing the eye diameter D
0
near inlet edge of the impeller blade and sometimes shifting the
inlet edge inside improves NPSH.
6. Increasing the blade length at hub and decreasing the blade length at periphery of the inlet
edge, in other words, increasing the inclination of inlet edge with respect to outer shroud improves
NPSH.
7. Filing the volute tongue removes the unstable nature at low Q, but Q reduces at higher flow
rate.
8. Increase in volute area may increase the overall efficiency but optimum efficiency shifts to
higher Q. Reduction in volute area will reduce overall efficiency and the optimum η shifts to
lower Q.
TESTING, PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND REGULATION OF PUMPS 337
Vane thickness
after ‘underfiling’
Metal
removed
A
B
Original vane
thickness
Fig. 11.47. Underfiling of outlet tip of pump blade (Filing the
training ride of outlet of impeller blades)
C
m2
C
m2F
u
2
C = C
u2 u2F
β
2 β
2F
(a) Q = QH > H
F F
(b) H = H Q > Q
F F
C
m2F
C
m2
β
2 β
2F
u
2
C
u2F
C
u2
C
2F
C
2
w
2
w
2F
Blunt exit tips
Tapered exit tips
0 3 6 9 12
L/s
20
40
60
20
40
60
T
o
t
a
l

h
e
a
d

(
H
)

a
n
d

e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

%
6
1
2
1
8
2
4
m
Discharge (Q)
Fig. 11.48. Discharge velocity triangles Fig. 11.49. Effect of tapering-off the trailing
for underfilled vanes side of the impeller exit tips
338 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Head – Cap
0 10
Eff %
E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

%
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
H
e
a
d



P
e
r

c
e
n
t

o
f

n
o
r
m
a
l
Capacity, Per cent of normal
Q
1
= Q
A
B
Q = Capacity normal
Q = Capacity after ‘underfiling’
B = Vane spacing normal
A = Vane spacing after ‘underfiling’
1
Head – capacity normal
Head – capacity after ‘underfiling’
Fig. 11.50. Changing pump performance by impeller underfiling
Underfiled
Overfiled
Removed by
underfiling
d
d
F
C
A
d = d
F
Removed by
overfiling
B
D
E
Fig. 11.51. Underfiling and overfiling vane tips
w
0
δ
δ
F
β
1F
w
1F
β
1
c
1F
w
1
c
1 c
m1F
c
m1
c
u1
c
1
Fig. 11.52. Underfiling and overfiling vanes
12.1 CLASSIFICATION
Pumps are classified into following groups :
(1) Pump types : Centrifugal, Mixed, Axial
(2) No. of stages : Single, Two, Multistage
(3) Type of connection : Series of parallel
(4) Type of construction : Horizontal or Vertical
(5) Type of casing : Volute or diffuser type
(6) Type of pumping liquid : Water, Milk, Acid, etc.
(7) According to usage : Agricultural, Domestic, Chemical, Boiler feed pumps,
Circulating pumps, Condensate pumps, Borewell pumps,
Cryogenic pumps etc.
Some of the most commonly used pumps are discussed here.
12.2 PUMPS FOR CLEAR COLD WATER AND FOR NON CORROSIVE LIQUIDS
Pump used for pumping non-corrosive oil or clear water such as domestic, irrigation, industrial,
drainage etc., are of either vertical or horizontal construction. The main shaft mounted with impeller is
supported by one or two ball or roller and/or thrust bearings as well as one bush bearing support
depending upon the type of usage. Pumps for agriculture use are mostly with one bearing with bush
bearing support. Impeller is mounted on the shaft as cantilever. Heavy duty pumps and high speed
pumps have two bearing supports along with one or two bush bearing supports. The ball or roller
bearings are lubricated by oil or special grease, while bush bearings are lubricated by pumping fluid
itself. Stuffing box provided will have labyrinth packing of carbon powder impregnated to asbestos
packing to avoid air entry into the pump through stuffing box. Pumping liquid from the delivery is
circulated through lantern ring provided at the stuffing box. Axial thrust is taken care of by ball or
angular contact or roller bearings. In case of high axial thrust, a thrust bearing along with ball bearing is
provided. In some of the pumps balancing holes or rear vanes are provided in order to take care of axial
thrust. In multistage pumps balancing discs are provided or opposed impeller construction is used to
balance the axial thrust. Figs. 12.1, 12.2 and 12.3 illustrate different types of pumps used for pumping
clear cold water or for non-corrosive solutions.
In this book only a few pumps of special applications and their constructional features are discussed.
PUMP CONSTRUCTION AND APPLICATION
12
Comp-1/Newage/Pump-12.pm6.5—4.7.07 3.12.07
339
340 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
38
Fig. 12.1. (a) End suction single stage pump with single bearing support and with
closed impeller. Casing support—Back pullout type
Fig. 12.2. Single stage centrifugal pump (splitcasing, bracket supported)
PUMP CONSTRUCTION AND APPLICATION 341
(a) (b)
Fig. 12.3. Single stage double ball bearing high speed pump
Fig. 12.4. (a) End suction single stage pump with semi open type impeller
and with double bearing support
Fig. 12.4. (b)
342 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Fig. 12.5. Pump with mechanical seal and with cooling arrangement
Fig. 12.6. Vertical single stage radial type centrifugal pump n
s
= 170
PUMP CONSTRUCTION AND APPLICATION 343
Fig. 12.7. In line pump
1. Rear bracket, 2. Casing, 3. Wearing ring, 4. Stuffing Box, 5. Bearing housing, 6. Impeller
Fig.12.8. Two stage domestic pump with centrifugal type impeller
1
2
3
6
4
5
344 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Fig. 12.9. Two stage domestic pump with centipetal type impellers
Fig. 12.10. Horizontal double suction pump for high head n
s
= 250
1
2
4
5 6
10 11
12
13
14
15
16
9
8
7
PUMP CONSTRUCTION AND APPLICATION 345
Fig. 12.11. Horizontal opposed impeller 2-stage pump n
s
= 180
Fig. 12.12. Multistage pump with double entry with opposed impellers
1
2
3
4 5
6 7
8 9
346 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Fig. 12.13. Multistage opposed impeller pump with intermediate channel
connecting two numbers of two stage pump
12.3 OTHER PUMPS
(a) Sump Pump
Radial type centrifugal pumps can operate theoretically up to 10.00 m suction but practically up to
7 m suction when pumping water is at normal temparature and atmospheric pressure at suction sump.
If the sump water level is more than 10 m depth, centrifugal pumps cannot take water from suction
sump. The pump has to be lowered down in such a way that suction conditions are well within the limit
for safe cavitation free operation. Hence, in open wells, pump and motor are lowered down for safe
operation, mostly in agricultural, domestic areas as well as in some industries.
Sump pump is one type of pump, wherein the pump is lowered down such that pump is immersed
in water. The delivery pipe from volute of the pumps delivers water at floor level or to a delivery tank.
The prime mover is an electric motor directly connected to pumps through a long shaft. This is enclosed
by a concentric tube. The shaft is supported by bush bearing support very near to the impeller and
another bush bearing supports near pump coupling at the top. If the shaft is too long, intermediate
supports are provided. Axial thrust bearing is provided in between pump coupling and top bush bearing
support. The bearing is lubricated by a separate lubricating grease or lubricating oil. A stuffing box is
situated immediately above the lower bush bearing. Labyrinth packings are provided according to the
type of liquid pumped such as acids, alkaline, neutral, distilled water, or ordinary water. Lower bush
bearing is lubricated by pumping liquid, if it is water or by water if pumping liquid is other than water
through a lantern ring. Top bush bearing and intermediate bush bearings are lubricated by lubricating oil.
Sump pump is mostly a volute type radial centrifugal pump. Figs.12.14, 12,15, 12.16 and 12.17 illustrate
different types construction of sump pumps. Sump pumps are used for a delivery height of 10 to 15 m
while suction head will be (0.2 to 0.5 m) of positive suction.
PUMP CONSTRUCTION AND APPLICATION 347
Fig. 12.14. Sump pump wet pit type Fig. 12.15. Sump pump dry pit type
320
30°
3
8 = — HOLES
4
20
267
57
292
A
B
3
5
3
4
5
3
0
0 6
0
0
1
2
4
0
0 MAX
20
D
C
P
M
E
G
D 280 & 380
MANHOLE
A
‘J’ NO. OF HOLES
‘K’ SIZE OF HOLES
DISCHARGE
M
0 MAX
20
8
12
P
C
348 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Fig. 12.16. Sump pump vertical (channel pump) Fig. 12.17. Sump pump vertical (channel pump)
(b) Deepwell Turbine
If the volute type centrifugal pump is replaced by a diffuser pump, the pump is called a deepwell
turbine pump. When the depth of suction well is more than 15 m, the cost of sump pump is increased
considerably, due to increased length of shaft, enclosing the tube and delivery tube. Pump cost is
reduced by modifying volute into a diffuser by which overall size is reduced. Pumping water is sent
through the shaft enclosing pipe, by which separate delivery pipe is avoided. A separate delivery bend at
the ground level is fitted to the shaft enclosing pipe, in order to divert water [Fig 12.18 (c)]. Top bush
bearing, the stuffing box and thrust bearing are now located at the bend to make the shaft pass through
box and straight to the prime mover, whereas water is diverted from vertical direction to horizontal
direction. Top bush bearings and intermediate shaft supports are lubricated by pumping liquid itself. The
bush bearing at the bottom is located at diffuser. However, in some of the pumps assembly, all bush
PUMP CONSTRUCTION AND APPLICATION 349
bearings are lubricated by a separate lubricating oil. But, lubricating oil mixes with the pumping liquid.
Hence, this system is provided where lubricating oil mixing with pumping water does not affect the
quality of water at end use. The depth of pump can be increased by adding more number of stages.
Pumps can operate at a greater depth. Present pumps are operated for a depth of 150 to 200 m for clear
cold water pumping. Although pump efficiency is very high about 82 to 88%. Overall efficiency of
these pumps will be very low about 30 to 35% due to power loss in shaft, connecting prime mover at the
ground level and pumps at the bottom, immeresed inside the sump. These pumps are used not only for
open wells but also for bore wells.
(a) (b)
Fig. 12.18. Deepwell turbine pump
1
4
5
3
1
8
0
1
2
1
4
7
1
2
9
φ 250
5
8
0
2
9
0
1
8
5
2
6
0
0
φ 340
φ 340
φ 340
δ
350 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
(c)
Fig. 12.18. Deepwell turbine pump
1
2
3
4
6
8
10
12
14
15
17
16
13
11
9
5
7
PUMP CONSTRUCTION AND APPLICATION 351
η,%
80
70
60
50
40
H,M
30
26
22
18
14
5 7 9 11 13 15 Q,lit/sec
η
H
Fig. 12.19. Submersible pump Fig. 12.20. Performance of the submersible pump
Fig. 12.21. Impeller, diffuser and return guide vanes
The pump can be radial, mixed or axial flow type. Fig. 12.18 illustrates deepwell centrifugal, and
mixed flow pumps. The prime mover can be electric motor with direct or indirect drive or I.C. engine
with belt drive
352 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
(c) Submersible Pumps
In order to avoid the heavy transmission loss in deep well pumps, the prime mover is also located
along with the pump at the bottom as a mono block construction. The transmission shaft and the
stuffing box are eliminated. The electric motor is located at
the bottom below the pump, in the bore well. Both pump and
motor are submerged in water. Water passes over the electric
motor and then to the pump suction. The electric motor is
completely sealed and is cooled by the pumping liquid. The
motor is completely sealed and filled with lubricating oil for
lubrication of bearings. Water cannot enter the motor. Bush
bearing supports are provided at the diffuser of each stage
and are lubricated by pumping liquid itself. Figs. 12.19, 12.20
and 12.22 illustrate the submersible pump. Axial thrust is taken
care of by an axial thrust bearing kept at the bottom of the
motor. In some motors, axial thrust pad is used which acts as
axial thrust balancing device. A long delivery pipe connected
to the pump delivery takes water from pump to the delivery
point. Since pumps are connected to electric motors only,
speed of the pumps will be synchronous speed 1500, 3000
rpm. These pumps cannot be operated at different speeds as
in the case of deepwell pumps. Both turbine pumps and
submersible pumps are manufactured to suit different borewell
sizes. Due to higher value in length-diameter ratio of the prime
mover when compared to ordinary motors, the efficiency of
prime mover is less when compared to ordinary motors, since
the diameter of the prime mover is controlled by the borewell size. Depending upon the power required
to run the pump, the length of the motor is altered. Due to non-provision of correct length diameter ratio
for optimum efficiency, these motors always have lower efficiency.
(d) Oil Filled Motor Pumps
In case of open well, however, the electric motors can be made for optimum length diameter ratio
so that motor can run at optimum efficiency. The pump is mounted at the bottom of the electric motor.
Both the pump and motor are suspended by chain and submerged in water at the suction sump. The
pumps is a radial or mixed flow pump. The delivery from the pump passes over the motor, which acts
as a cooling liquid for motor. Motor is completely sealed and filled with oil for bearing lubrication. Two
ball bearings, one at the top of motor, another at the bottom of the motor are provided. Pump impeller is
mounted on the extension of the motor shaft. Instead of stuffing box, oil seals or mechanical seals are
used at the shaft to get a leak proof joint between impeller and motor. Delivery pipe for these pumps may
be rigid metallic or plastic pipes or a flexible plastic pipe. This arrangement makes these pumps to be
situated at any point in open well. These pumps are mostly single stage or two stage diffuser pumps.
Water from diffuser passes over the motor at the outer periphery of the motor and then converges into
the delivery pipe after the motor. Normal operating height of these pumps will be 10 m to 15 m.
(Fig. 12.23).
Fig. 12.22. Submersible pump view
PUMP CONSTRUCTION AND APPLICATION 353
9
8 7 6 4
1
3 5
2
Fig. 12.23. Oil filled motor pump
1. Impeller, 2. Delivery channel, 3. Casing, 4. Seal, 5. Compression spring,
6. Stationary ring, 7. Bronze ring, 8. Rotating spring, 9. Suction stainer
Fig. 12.24. Mixed flow pump (horizontal) Fig. 12.25. Moulding
Submersible pumps and deepwell turbine pumps are used for irrigation, industrial, circulating,
mining in open well type as well as for borewells. These pumps occupy major percentage in application
than any other high capacity pumps. Two types are used : (1) Transmission type and (2) Borewell type.
Transmission type consists of three parts: (1) pump is located at the bottom, (2) driving part and
supporting part located at the ground level and (3) the intermediate supports located at frequent intervals
of the delivery pipe. Because of its unique application, the pumps and supporting parts have a special
construction. These pumps must have a limited outer diameter and must be in cylindrical form at outside
to suit the borewell. Due to this restriction, these pumps have a number of stages connected in series,
depending upon the pumping head. Normal operating head varies from 25 to 400 m. Some of the special
designs have head up to 600 m. Pump itself has three sections: (1) the entry to the 1st stage through
suction net fitted to the 1st stage, (2) impeller radial or mixed and (3) the diffuser with return guide
blades for smooth entry to the 2nd stage suction or in general to the next stage suction. Every stage is
symmetrical to each other. Each stage assembly consists of vaneless suction entry, impeller, with both
shrouds closed type for radial type and semi open mixed type with only rear shroud for mixed flow type.
Axial flow type units are also used but mixed flow type units occupy a major percentage of deepwell or
submissible pumps.
354 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Fig. 12.26. 30°coxe angle diffuser with impeller for vortex design
(short curve construction for plane vane developments)
12.4 AXIAL FLOW PUMPS
Axial flow pumps are used as circulating pumps for stationary conditions and for irrigation systems.
Quantity of the pump ranges from 0.2 to 18 m
3
/sec, total head from 1 m to 22 m. Pumps work always
under positive suction head. The impeller will be always under drowned condition. Mostly pumps are
operated in vertical condition. Horizontal pumps are rarely used. In both systems, pump is immersed in
water or pumping liquid as such total head is very low, pumps cannot operate with suction. Propeller
pumps have fixed impeller blade system. Variable pitch impeller blade pump is combination of 5 to 7
propeller pumps where in impeller vanes can be adjusted to different blade positions. Figs. 12.27, 12.28
and12.36 illustrate vertical variable pitch axial flow pump. Construction of all axial flow pumps will be
same, but with modifications to suit the site conditions after pump at the delivery line. The rotating
mechanism for impeller blades is located inside the impeller hub. A long rod passes through the shaft and
extends a little beyond pump coupling. By rotating this rod, impeller blades are rotated. Pump has to be
stopped for blade adjustment. Now-a-days, pump impeller blades can be adjusted and regulated by a
separate regulating mechanism by which pump need not be stopped for impeller adjustment.
Suction end of the pumps forms the shape ‘bell mouth’ in order to provide smooth entry without
flow separation at inlet. Impeller is mounted on the shaft as a cantilever element. Impeller is located
inside a cylindrical housing. The contour in axial direction will be curved to suit the impeller blade
rotation and at the same time minimum clearance is maintained at all positions of impeller blade. The
impeller is followed by an axial diffuser which has a bush bearing to support the shaft which passes
through the diffuser. Diffuser is followed by a bend or followed by a straight pipe and then bend to suit
the site conditions.
The shaft supporting the impeller at one end as cantilever is supported by two bush bearing
supports and one axial thrust bearing. One bush bearing is located at diffuser, which is lubricated by
pumping water itself while another bush bearing is kept at the bend. In case of intermediate pipe between
bend and diffuser, intermediate bush bearing supports are provided in between bend and straight pipe.
These bearings are also lubricated by pumping water itself. A stuffing box with labyrinth packing is
provided after the bush bearing at the bend to avoid leakage of water from bend to atmosphere. Axial
thrust bearing is provided at the top, above stuffing box and below pump coupling to take care of axial
thrust. Bearing is lubricated by a separate lubricating oil or grease. The body of the pump is supported
by external supports in such way that pump is immersed inside the suction sump. Axial pump construction
PUMP CONSTRUCTION AND APPLICATION 355
is very simple, easy to maneuver, occupy smaller floor space. Efficiency ranges from 85 to 92%,
Fig. 11.6 (c) illustrates universal characteristics of an axial flow pump. Although propeller pumps are
operated at optimum efficiency condition without any deviation, due to sharp fall in efficiency at other
regions, variable pitch pumps are used for a wide range of operation without any appreciable loss in
efficiency. The only drawback in these pumps is that pumps must be started only at full open condition
for minimum power consumption at the time of starting the pump. Hence, in some of the installations,
a transfer line connecting the pump delivery and suction sump is provided along with main line. At the
time of start, main line will be closed and transfer line will be opened. Gradually transfer line will be
closed while main line will be opened, until required flow in main line is achieved. This type of arrangement
keeps the pump operated at high efficiency.
In order to reduce the height of the pump in transport type units, the outlet bend is made as 90°
short bend with a number of ribs to guide water. (Figs. 12.27, 12.28, 12.29 and 12.30).
Fig. 12.27. Vertical axial flow low depth-circulating pump
1. Suction mouth, 2. Impeller housing, 3. Impller blade, 4. Diffuser blade,
5. Shaft bush at diffuser, 6. Delivery bend, 7. Shaft, 8. Bearing, 9. Coupling, 10. Delivery flange
9
8
10
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
356 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Fig. 12.28. Vertical axial flow high depth circulating pump
Fig. 12.29. Horizontal axial flow propeller pump
570 PCD
500
φ
1620
SECTIONAL VIEW OF AP-5
7
5
0
4
7
0
φ
7
0
0
φ
250 1415
7
5
0

P
C
D
PUMP CONSTRUCTION AND APPLICATION 357
Introduction of such short bend at the outlet of the pump creates uneven pressure and velocity
distribution as well as increased hydraulic losses, which reduces the total head of the pump. Provision
of radial ribs at the bend reduces the effect of such
drawbacks. However, experimental investigation on
such bends with ribs reduces efficiency by 7 to 9%.
In some of the pumps, a cylindrical enclosure to
ensure a smooth flow at bend is provided around
the shaft and the shaft is not in contact with the
pumping liquid. This also reduces overall efficiency
by 10 to 12%.
In transport type axial flow pumps, a side
entrance apart from main entrance at suction is
provided. Suction will not be a bell mouth shaped,
instead a straight cylindrical piece with additional side
opening. This suction element will have a number of
axial ribs and impeller nose. (Fig.12.38).
Flow from the main entrance is slightly deviated
by the side entry if liquid which is streamlined by axial suction ribs, kept radially connecting the impeller
nose and suction casing. When flow is only from the side opening, pump works only at 15 to 20% of
normal working. This system is adopted in ships. Performance of pumps is found to be better if the ribs
at the 90° bend placed in a streamlined position in the form of a profile. It is found that the performance
of the pump remains same as that of ordinary construction i.e., with long low head bend, but the total
height of the pump is considerably reduced. The hydraulic losses remain same even at 1.1 times normal
flow rate.
12.5 CONDENSATE PUMPS
Condensate pumps are either single stage or two stage radial type centrifugal pump. Two stage
units are common. Selection of number of stages depend upon the parameter of the pumps and its
characteristics. Based on the methods adopted for pump regulation, construction of pump is selected.
Condensate pumps can be either vertical (used in ships) or horizontal (for land use). Vertical pumps are
selected based upon the suction head available. Pumps of turbodynamic type are of horizontal type
because required section head can be easily obtained only in such horizontal type. The size of the pump
is also considerably smaller. Pumps are always erected very near to condenser in such a way that pump
is always filled with water. Flow velocity in suction will be 0.5 to 1.0 m/sec and in delivery
2 to 3 m/sec. Top most point of suction flange of the pump is always kept in line with the highest water
level in the condenser. This line is the level where boiled water and steam mixture exists at the boiling
temperature for the pressure prevailing at the pump suction. Also liquid and vapour are at separated
condition. In the absence of water, steam mixing line or insufficiency with respect to the impeller size
the liquid entering the pump will be a liquid vapour mixture which will produce unstable, with noise and
non-uniform working of impeller especially at limiting condition of operation.
Fig. 12.30. Condensate pump (double
suction)
358 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Fig. 12.31. Single stage condensate pump
1. Impeller, 2. Stuffing box bush, 3. Lantern ring for seal, 4. Lantern ring for air entry pretention
4
3
2
2
1
2
PUMP CONSTRUCTION AND APPLICATION 359
Fig. 12.32. Two stage condensate pump
1. Impeller, 2. Intermediate bush bearing support, 3. Upper bearing support, 4. Transfer pipe
Fig. 12.33. Multistage horizontal opposed impeller with external crossover
pipe connection condensate pump
3
2
4
1
360 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Fig. 12.34. Two stage horizontal opposed impeller singe entry and double exit condensate pump
A single stage condensate pump is given in Fig.12.31. Impeller 1 is located at the bottom and the
suction flange is at the top. Shaft is supported by three bush bearings 2 lubricated by water taken from
delivery line through a filter in order to avoid construction materials, sand etc. to get into the units
bearing clearances. A ball bearing support is provided at the top of the pump. Axial thrust is balanced by
vent holes provided at the impeller back shroud. Stuffing box is provided above the bush bearing and
condensate water is circulated through lantern rings provided near bush bearing. Another lantern ring at
the middle of the packing material is provided through which air is sent to get perfect sealing.
A two stage condensate pump is shown in Fig.12.32. First stage impeller is provided at the bottom
of the pump. The suction flange is located at a higher level in order to keep impeller always immersed in
water and also air entry through the stuffing box is stopped. Second stage impeller is located above the
first stage impeller and in the opposed position to balance axial thrust. First stage impeller develops1/3 of
total head and second stage impeller develops 2/3 of total head. Pumps are also designed to develop
equal head by each impeller. Shaft is supported by two bearings: (1) Lower bearing is a bush bearing
(2) Located inside casing between two stages and lubricated by hot water. Top bearing (3) is either bush
bearing or angular contact ball or roller bearing to take care of the excess unbalanced force. If an axial
thrust bearing is used at the bottom, the top bearing will be bush bearing. Fluid coupling can be used in
case ball bearing is used at the top. If not flexible coupling is used. Wearing ring at impeller is provided
in case the pump rings near are at cavitating zone. The clearance will be more than the normal. Mostly
clearance will be filled up with a mixture of vapour and liquid. Stuffing box is provided at the second
stage impeller. If the pump runs under low head or near cavitation region, lantern ring if provided. If
pump operates at higher head, lantern ring need not be provided. To avoid air entry through stuffing box,
condensate water is circulated. In some design, water from external source is circulated in order to
PUMP CONSTRUCTION AND APPLICATION 361
circulate water even when pump is not running. Packing materials must be checked periodically and
changed since packing materials become hard at a faster rate especially at high temperatures. Casings
are made from bronze, Impellers are made from monel metal (1/3 Nickel and 2/3 Copper), and shaft is
from stainless steel material.
Condensate pumps operate over a wide range of operating area. Radial and axial thrusts must be
balanced in order to avoid fatigue stress on the shaft. Owing to the position, second stage impeller,
located near delivery point will be running at positive pressure, whereas first stage impeller is mostly at
the suction pressure. Axial and radial thrusts of second stage is higher than that at first stage especially
when operated at low discharge condition. To avoid high value of axial and radial thrust, first stage
impeller will be a double suction impeller and second stage will be two identical impellers located opposite
to each other by which axial thrust is perfectly balanced and pumps can work at a wide range of
operation. To avoid radial thrust, volute casing of first stage will be a concentric circular passage in
some of the condensate pumps. (Figs. 11.33 and 11.34).
Condensate pump operates under 94 to 97% vacuum at a temperature of 25 to 30°C. Although
temperature is low, yet liquid will be very near to vapour state due to high vacuum, due to low vapour
pressure at low temperature. Thats why, condensate pumps are located below the condensate in order
to ensure only liquid entry at the suction of pump. Pumps will be always filled with water (No priming
is necessary) and will not have any vapour mixing. Positive pressure will prevail at impeller inlet, around
0.5 to1.0 m head. Due to high vacuum at inlet, cavitation becomes most important aspect in condensate
pumps, than overall efficiency. Cavitational coefficient C ranges from 1500 to 2500 in condensate
pumps. Stuffing boxes are properly cooled from external cold water supply. Two labyrinth rings are
usually provided, one at the middle and another very near to the impeller to avoid air entry into the
condenser. Condensate itself is circulated through labyrinth packings. In some designs condensate
supply to the labyrinth near impeller and air to the labyrinth at the middle are supplied at low pressure,
since stuffing box always works at low pressure (1.0 to 1.5 ata).
Condensate pumps are of horizontal or vertical type. Figs.12.30, 12.33 and 12.34 show a horizontal
type condenser used for land operations such as boiler plants for power stations, industries etc., condensate
is taken from the delivery line and passed through stuffing box labyrinth to avoid air entry into pump not
only at working condition but also at idle condition thereby correct vacuum is always maintained.
Where pump is working at very near to cavitation condition, or at cavitation condition air bubble,
released from the liquid is collected at the top chamber of the section chamber and taken out by a
vacuum pump. Ball or roller bearings are lubricated by consistent lubricant.
12.6 FEED WATER PUMPS
Feed water pumps, used in power stations to supply almost boiled water to boilers are, low
discharge and very high head pumps running at very high speeds. Feed water enters the pump from
deaerator and is delivered into boiler at nearly boiling temperature. In order to avoid cavitation at the inlet
of the first stage, impeller inlet is designed with large area. Positive suction pressure is always maintained
at inlet of the first stage impeller. Impellers of all other stages are same type, since all other stages work
under above atmospheric pressures.
Feed water pumps must run continuously in parallel with other similar pumps at all conditions and
under stable conditions. Pump characteristics (H–Q) must be a drooping down characteristics from
362 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Q = 0 to Q = Q
max
. Due to high temperature, of operation, all pumps parts must be manufactured with
high accuracy. Proper clearances must be ensured so that pump can run smoothly without undue
vibration even at high temperature of pumping liquid passing through the parts. Power capacity of pump
will be very high in the order of 12 MW to 35 MW. Delivery pressures are very high such as 200 to 300
ata.
Speed ranges from 3000 rpm to 25000 rpm. Total head ranges from 400 to 650 m. Feed water
pumps must possess : (1) high quality manufacture and stable, continuous operation, (2) high efficiency,
(3) high quality, quick and efficient regulation, (4) less weight for the given specification and (5) must
be brought to operating condition i.e., to meet the demand in a very short time (15–20 sec.).
Under very high speed of operation, in order to avoid cavitation, booster pumps are used before
feed water pumps. High speed steam turbines or electric motors are used as prime movers.
Feed water pumps are mostly multistage stage type pumps. Diffuser blades, return guide vanes
are made in one disc. Impellers and diffuser and return guide blade discs are mounted one after another
on the shaft, inside a drum. Concentricity is maintained between impellers and diffusers, when assembly
is carried out inside the drum. Axial thrust is balanced by the balancing disc, which is a separate
assembly made after assembly of all impellers, diffusers as well as inlet and outlet flow passages.
Stuffing boxes are cooled by external supply of water for which, special annular ring is provided.
Bearings are lubricated by consistent lubricants. Since electric motors operate at a relatively low speed,
more number of stages are used. High speed turbine run pumps have less number of stages. Booster
pumps are used to have a sufficient suction head at the first stage impeller inlet of the feed water pump.
Mostly these pumps are double suction type pumps. Since distilled water is at almost boiling temperature,
oxygen released from water chemically react with the material of the pump and erodes the material
gradually. In Figs. 12.35 and 12.36 feed water pumps are illustrated.
Fig. 12.35. Multistage pump with side suction for high head pump
PUMP CONSTRUCTION AND APPLICATION 363
Fig. 12.36. High temparature horizontal type feed water pump
12.7 CIRCULATING PUMPS
Circulating pumps are used for cooling main
liquids. In power plant, circulating pump is used to
cool the condensate. Pumps draw water from a
pond, sent to the condensate, where it receives heat
from the condensate under indirect method. Hot
water from the condensate is brought to the pond
and sprayed in cooling towers. Water is cooled by
the atmospheric air and reaches the pond back.
Circulating pumps are normally fitted near the pond
which is located far away from power station. These
pumps work under a low head involving main
friction in long delivery pipe and resistance offered
by the condense but handles large quantity of water.
These pumps must work consistently in parallel
with other similar pumps. High capacity double
suction pumps or high capacity axial flow pumps
are normally used as circulating pump.
Centrifugal Pumps are used more than axial
flow pumps due to high power consumption at part
load by axial flow pumps. Pumps work under positive
suction head. Flow velocity in pipe will be
approximately 2.5 to 3.5 m/sec. Variable speed
electric motors are often used for flow regulation.
Two pumps in parallel are always used as circulatory
pumps. Second pump will be operated only when
Fig. 12.37. Vertical double suction circulating
pump and n
s
= 270
364 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
the load is increased. Flow from the circulating pump to condenser is determined from the quantity of
steam to be condensed into liquid at the boiling temperature i.e., removal of latent heat, under normal
load. A reserve of 10 to 15% extra will be added. If the circulating pump supplies water to other cooling
systems such as oil cooling etc., proportionate increase in discharge must be taken into account. Total
head of the circulating pump will be the resistance offered by condenser tubes and connecting pipes
between pump and condenser. Total static head will be very small in the order of 0.5 to 1 m. Total
(dynamic and static) head will be around 7 to 9 MWC. The speed of rotation will be always higher
around 3000 rpm. Quick and fast regulation is essential for circulating pumps since quantity must be
sufficiently enough only to remove latent heat of the condensate. The quantity of the condensate depends
upon the output. Hence, as and when output load changes, quantity of circulating pump must be changed
accordingly without delay. Change in flow is achieved by increasing the speed of the pump, since in this
method efficiency of the pump is higher and maintained more or less same during other speeds. Flow
control by regulating valve adjustment is not recommended since it involves heavy loss in efficiency and
corresponding increase in power of the prime mover.
Vertical double suction pumps, which posses higher suction characteristics and also minimum
axial thrust. Moreover, vertical pumps occupy smaller area and provides a smooth lined inlet passage.
(Fig. 12.37).
Fig. 12.38. Vertical axial flow circulating pump
Stuffing box is provided at the top of the shaft and in contact with suction volute. In order to
avoid air entry into the pump, water is taken from the delivery side of the pump and is passed through
lantern ring kept at the middle of the labyrinth packing in the stuffing box. Bush bearings at both ends of
the shaft give proper alignment and lubricated by lubricating oil.
5
4
9
3
8
7
6
1
2
PUMP CONSTRUCTION AND APPLICATION 365
Fig. 12.38 illustrates a vertical axial flow pump. As against normal pumps, the pump shaft is
enclosed by a circular cylinder, to avoid, the liquid to come in contact with the shaft. Bush bearings at
the end of the bend and at the diffuser (9) keeps the shaft aligned. Inlet guide blades (1) with the impeller
nose (2) provides proper flow direction at inlet. Impeller (6) is followed by a diffuser (8) and a bend
with guiding ribs to guide the circulating water as well as to distribute the load above the bend to the
bottom through these ribs.
12.8 BOOSTER PUMPS
Booster pumps are used in a system where feed water passes through deaerator and the deaerator
could not be located at correct height due to the conditions in site in order to provide sufficient positive
suction at inlet to condensate pump or feed water pump, so that these pumps can work without any
cavitation. Because of booster pumps, dearerators could be located at a great height (about 10 to12 m).
Because of positive suction for cavitation free operation, feed water pumps and condensate pumps can
work at high speed without any cavitation effect. Operation of the system with deaerators at a height of
3 to 4 m is more rational than using a low speed feed water pumps. The cost of economiser will be low,
when a booster is used, because, low pressure economiser need be used before the feed water pump.
Moreover, the feed water pump can be located very near to the boiler which reduces the length of high
pressure delivery pipe line erected between pump and boiler.
Since high speed feed water pumps can be used, deaerators can be kept at a greater height, low
cost low pressure economiser can be used and high pressure feed water delivery pipe length can be
considerably reduced, by using a booster pump. All modern power stations use booster pumps before
feed water pump as well as before condensate pumps. A greater advantage is that a very high speed
turbine run (speed ranging from 10000 to 25000 rpm) single stage feed water pump, instead of high
speed (3000 rpm) electric motor run multistage centrifugal feed water pump can be used. Always
booster pump capacity will be at least 50% more than maximum flow rate of feed water pump, since at
full load operation ≈ 30 to 35% of condensate drawn from deaerator is recirculated in deaerator through
recirculating line. Such recirculation of condensate through deaerator improve the quality of feed water.
This process improves the function of high pressure boilers.
The positive suction head at suction of the pump, taking water at boiling temperature from deaerator
is determined from the static height of the deaerator above pump and the losses in the suction pipe of the
pump. Providing enough positive suction at inlet of the pump is very important especially when the
liquid is at a high temperature, (102 to 150°C), because even 1°C change in temperature changes
suction head by 0.6 to 0.7 MWC.
It is essential to test the model of the suction pipe connecting deaerator and booster pump, for
minimum loss condition and reproduce the same to the natural prototype unit.
In order to get positive suction at inlet of the pump for the boiling liquid pumping, instead of
increasing the absolute pressure the boiling pressure is decreased by reducing the temperatures of the
liquid at entry of the pump. In order to achieve, a cooling unit is provided between deaerator and pump.
Condensate from the condenser passes through the cooling tubes to deaerator. Feed water from deaerator
to pump passes through the space between tubes of the cooler and then to the pump. Introduction of
cooler decreases the effectiveness of the heat cycle of the plant. Less the effectiveness achieved, if
366 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
temperature reduction is larger. Although use of cooler is not economical, it becomes essential for
conditions when there is no possibility of using a booster pump or it is essential to get more positive
suction if after using booster pump.
The quantity for a booster pump is determined as the sum of quantity passing through the feed
water pump, recirculating quantity in deaerator and the excess reserve quantity estimated (10 to 40%
of Q). Deaerator quantity should never be less than the feed water pump capacity. The head for the
booster pump is the sum of all losses from booster pump to feed water pump, static height difference
between these two pumps. Pressure needed at the suction end of feed water pump is determined
taking into account the partial evaporation at inlet of the feed water pump, for example, if the temperature
of liquid is 107°C, but the temperature at the inlet of feed water is 115°C due to preheat the increase
in head will be 0.8 kgf/cm
2
. This pressure increase should also be accounted for booster pump head
calculation. Normally booster pumps operate at 20 m to 60 MWC depending upon the construction,
specific speed of feed water pump, relative height (static) difference between booster pump and feed
water pump, pressure at by pass line if any. Operating speed is determined by the suction head
available.
Booster pumps and condensate pumps are similar in construction. Both pumps draw water from
closed suction tank under pressure. Booster pumps are single or two stage pumps. First stage impeller
will be a double suction type depending upon the flow rate required. In most cases, booster pump with
deaerator is taken as one unit for pumping hot water. A recirculation line from the delivery of the pump
to the deaerator is also provided if necessary.
Booster pumps are always connected and run along with either condensate pumps or feed water
pumps as one unit in order to reduce the length of pipeline between booster pump and other pumps,
which in turn reduces the friction loss thereby increase the total head. Also total space occupied is less.
However, initial cost will be more.
Condensate pumps are low power pumps. For higher economy and increased effectiveness in
operation, booster pump and condensate pumps are connected as single unit. Steam turbine is used as
prime mover. Both these pumps are assembled on the same shaft since total head and quantity pump for
these two pumps are nearly same. Speed of these pumps are selected for anti cavitation characteristics
in both these pumps. Connecting pipeline is a complicated inside construction. This model is tested for
losses. Improved model only is used in prototype site construction. Fig. 12.39 shows the condensate
and booster pump together.
Booster pump is located above condensate pump and it is a two stage unit. By providing opposed
impeller construction, axial force is reduced almost to zero. Ist stage impellers have wide inlet end to
take care of the positive suction available. Head developed by each stage impeller is equal to 50% of total
head. Booster pump bearings are lubricated by the condensate at 25°C whereas pumping temparature of
fluid in booster pump will be ≈ 105°C and condensate is deaerated to remove oxygen. High speed single
stage condensate booster pumps are also used. But oxygen removed deaerated water at high temparature
is used. Axial thrust in such cases is done by balancing holes and balancing disc. Top bearing is a ball
and roller bearing arrangement (3) lubricated by lubricating oil supplied by the screw type oil hub which
supplies oil from the casing. Oil is cooled by an air cooler (5).
PUMP CONSTRUCTION AND APPLICATION 367
Fig. 12.39. Condensate booster pump
Feed Water Booster Pumps
Booster pumps are considered as first stage pump of feed water pump. These two pumps are
combined together and driven by turbine. The suction pipe between booster pump and feed water pump
is considerably reduced. Due to vast difference in speed, feed water pump is directly connected to the
prime mover and booster pump through a gear drive in order to run at a reduced speed. A one way non-
return valve is fitted in the pipeline connecting feed water suction and booster pump delivery.
3
4
5
2
1
368 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Fig. 12.40. Feedwater booster pump
1
5
4
3
2
Outlet
Feed
water
entry
P
U
M
P

C
O
N
S
T
R
U
C
T
I
O
N

A
N
D

A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N
3
6
9
46
45
44
43
42
41
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
Fig. 12.41. Non-dog pump with S-type impeller (impeller is semi-open type)
370 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
In Fig. 12.40 a combined feed water booster pump is given. Booster pump runs at a lower speed
through a gear reducer box. (1) Both pumps are centrifugal, vertical type and spiral casing type impeller.
(2) It is a double suction impeller bush bearing. (3) Ball bearings (4) and roller bearings (5) are used to
support the shaft. Axial thrust is almost zero due to the adoptation of double suction impeller. Air entry
through stuffing box is avoided by the lantern ring provided at the middle of labyrinth packing. Lantern
rings get water supply from the delivery pipe of pump; through connecting tube.
12.9 PUMP FOR VISCOUS AND ABRASIVE LIQUIDS
Pumps are used not only for pumping water, oil, acids, alkaline, neutral, high temparature liquids
but also for pumping liquids with solids, paper pulp, molasses and such similar chemical solutions, and
even pumping abrasive liquids. These pumps are used to transport such liquids from one place to
another. Pump performance normally do not change so long as the solids in suspension does not exceed
7% of the total quantity of pumping liquid performance of such pumps remain same as that of water.
However, when abrasiveness of the liquid is very high, consistency of the pumping liquid exceeds 7%
or the space between rotary and stationary members must be larger. The wearing outer ring clearance
must be flushed with water for trouble free operation of the pump. The pump must be made in a special
design. These pumps are called ‘channel pumps’ since flow passages are in the from channel. Fig.
12.42 gives one such pump used for slurries. Typical construction of these pump is that the flow
passages are wider, volute casing is made in the form of a concentric circle instead of spiral shape,
without any change in area of cross-section, wearing ring and stuffing box are cleaned by water supplied
from external source to avoid solid in suspension entering the clearance, thereby cooling the internal due
to rubbing.
Fig.12.42. Slurry pump for low concentration
PUMP CONSTRUCTION AND APPLICATION 371
Fig. 12.43. Slurry pump for high concentration (closed impeller)
Fig. 12.44. Pump for low concentration paper pulp Fig. 12.45. Pump for high concentration
(semi open type impeller) paper pulp
(a) (c)
(b)
372 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
In Fig.12.43 more free spaces between impeller and
casing is provided. The impeller blades are made in S-form
with only two blades. Wearing ring clearances near stuffing
box is guarded by the self pumping action of the blade, which
is done by the holes made at the rear shroud of the impeller.
Fig. 12.44 is the pump for pumping paper pulp.
Impeller is a semi open type with 2 to 3 blades only. To
avoid the abrasion of paper pulp with space between water
and stationary parts, separate covers are attached so that the
main casing will not be affected. The stuffing box is provided
with lantern ring, through which clear water is circulated.
Fig. 12.45 is given pump assembly of thick pulp which is
used in textile mills, paper pulp and other industries where
thick consistent fluids are to be pumped. Impellers are made
in the form of a screw and semi open type. The inlet edge is
made a little sharp for smooths entry of the fluid. Mostly anti
corrosive steel is used such as stainless steel SS316 or liquid
contact area.
Fig. 12.46 is a pump used for abrasive solution mixer
with water pumping in places, such as power stations, mines
etc. Here also a special lining is provided around the casing
Fig. 12.47. Single stage vertical high temperature oil pump (for petroleum liquid)
Fig. 12.46. Pump for abrasive liquids
PUMP CONSTRUCTION AND APPLICATION 373
especially at the space between rotating and stationary area of pump to avoid erosion of main casing.
Mostly materials used are anti abrasive steel such as maluable iron or steel mixed with manganese.
Fig.12.47 pump is a multistage pump used in petroleum industries.These are very high pressure
pump work up to 1000 m and the liquid temperature is around 400°C. Provision for thermal expansion
is provided at all spaces between rotary stationary elements. The pump is always started when the pump
elements temperature is equal to pumping fluid temperature.
Fig. 12.48. Multistage pump for high temperature oil pumping
Fig. 12.49. Multistage drum (Barrel) type water flow pump with opposed impellers and
with double casing and double volute
In order to achieve, pump is preheated by filling the pump with the pumping fluid initially at the
running temperature. After attaining normal conditions, pump will be started. These pumps should not
be started without preheating. These pump are also used for pumping chemically reactive solutions, that
could easily catch fire. Pump materials are selected to have anti corrosive property. Stuffing boxes are
properly cooled and sealed by circulating clean water through lantern rings or by suitable liquids which
4 5 6 7 3 2 1
Flow Diagram
374 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
will not affect the quality of the pumping liquid when it mixes with pumping fluid through leakage in
stuffing box. In some of them, mechanical seals are used instead of stuffing box arrangements. These
seals are cooled by external source. In some of the constructions, double suction pumps are used
instead of diffuser type multistage pumps. To avoid cavitation, the first stage impeller is specially designed.
An axial pre whirl pump is used before the first stage impeller. Bearings are cooled by external oil
supply, which acts as a lubricant as well as coolant for bearing. Axial thrust is balanced by balancing
disc. In some pumps (Fig.12.47) opposed impellers are used to equalise the axial thrust. Entire assembly
is carried out inside an outer casing. Hence, these pumps have two enclosures, one to accommodate
impeller, diffuser, return guide passage of each stage. The entire stage assembly is accommodated inside
second enclosure which contains suction and delivery months. Different types of pumps used for
pumping clear cold water or non-corrosive solutions.
Fig. 12.50. Light weight high speed engine driven monoblock pump
In Fig. 12.50 a light weight (casing 1½ kg and impeller 1/2 kg) portable pump is made up from
aluminium alloy for anti-corrosive properties. The pump runs at 6000 rpm. The impeller is especially
designed for cavitation free operation at inlet. The vanes at inlet are of double curvature design. The
pump is coupled to a petrol engine as a monoblock. This pump is used for agricultural and for industrial
application.
13
DESIGN OF PUMP COMPONENTS
Design No. D1-A
DESIGN OF A SINGLE STAGE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
1. Specification
Total Head (H) = 13.8 m (42 feet)
Quantity (Q) = 16.0 lit/sec (210 gpm), Speed n = 1800 rpm, Size 80 mm × 65 mm (3′′ × 2½′′)
2. General dimensions
Specific Speed (n
S
) =
3/ 4
3.65
( )
n Q
H
=
3/ 4
3.65 1800 0.016
(13.8)
× ×
= 115.2
It is a radial type centrifugal pump.
Norminal diameter, D
1nom
= 4.5 × 10
3

3
Q
n
= 4.5 × 10
3
×
3
0.016
1800
= 93.1 mm.
Hydraulic efficiency, η
h
= 1 –
2
1
0.42
(log 0.172)
nom
D −
= 1 –
2
0.42
(log93.1 0.172) −
= 0.87 or 87%.
Volumetric efficiency, η
V
=
2 / 3
1
1 0.68
s
n

-
=
2 / 3
1
1 0.68 (115)

-
= 0.968 = 96.8%.
Assuming mechanical efficiency, η
m
= 0.96.
Overall efficiency, η = η
h

V

m
= 0.87 × 0.968 × 0.96 = 0.808 or 81%.
Output power, N
o
=
γ
const.
QH
=
9.81 1000 0.016 13.8
1000
× × ×
= 2.17 kW (2.91 hp).
Comp-1/Newage/Engineering/Pump-13.pm6.5—19.7.07 8.12.07
375
376 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Input power, N
i
=
η
o
N
=
2.17
0.81
= 2.68 kW (3.59 hp)
Assuming an overload of 15%, Input power N
i
= 1.15 × 2.68 = 3.1 kW = 4.12 hp.
Torque, T =
ω
i
N
=
3.1 60
2 π 1800
×
× ×
= 0.0165 kN.m.
Taking the shaft material as ‘En8’ (Mild Steel), Ultimate Stress (f
m
) = 35 N/mm
2
and taking factor
of safety (FS) as 2 for uniform speed of rotation.
Working Stress, (f
S
) =
m
f
FS
=
35
2
= 17.5 N/mm
2
=
17.5 1000 1000
1000
× ×
= 1.75 × 10
4
kN/m
2
Shaft diameter, (d
S
) =
3
16
π
S
T
f
=
3
4
16 0.0165
1.75 10
×
π × ×
= 0.01687 ≈ 17 mm.
Taking fatigue stress (bending and shear) into account, minimum shaft diameter d
S
is taken as
25 mm, d
S
= 25 mm.
Hub diameter, d
h
= 1.25 d
S
= 1.20 × 25 = 30 mm.
3. Inlet dimensions
Theoretical discharge, (Q
th
) =
ν
η
Q
=
0.016
0.968
= 0.0165 m
3
/sec
For the suction pipe diameter, D
S
= 76.4 mm, eye diameter of the impeller is taken as 76.4 mm
(3′′), the axial velocity at impeller eye (C
0
) is
C
0
=
2
4
π
th
S
Q
D
=
2
4 0.0165
π (0.0764)
×
×
= 3.6 m/sec.
The diameter of the inlet edge of the impeller blade is taken as 90 mm. The flow velocity before the
inlet edge of impeller blade (C
m0
) is C
m0
= 0.06
2
3
th
Q n = 0.06
3 2
0.0165 (1800) × = 2.26 m/sec.
Inlet breadth, B
1
=
1 1
th
m
Q
DC π
=
0.0165 1000
0.09 2.26
×
π× ×
= 25.8 ≈ 26 mm.
Taking, K
1
= 1.4, C
m1
= K
1
C
m0
= 1.4 × 2.26 = 3.164 mps
u
1
=
1
π
60
D n
=
0.09 1800
60
π× ×
= 8.49 m/s ≈ 8.5 m/s.
Assuming normal entry, (C
u1
= 0), Inlet blade angle ‘β
1
’ will be
β
10
= Arc tan
1
1
3.164
0.3722
8.5
m
C
u
¸ ¸
· ·
(
¸ ,
= 20.42°
Allowing an angle of attack δ ≈ 4.5°,

β
1
= β
10
+ δ = 20.42 + 4.5 ≈ 25°
DESIGN OF PUMP COMPONENTS 377
4. Outlet dimensions
Manometric head, H
m
=
h
H
η
=
13.8
0.87
= 17.23 m.
Taking,
2 u
C =
2
2
u
C
u
= 0.5
H
m
=
η
h
H
=
2 2 u
C u
g
=
2
2 u
C u
g

First Approximation
u
2
=
2
m
u
gH
C
=
9.81 17.23
0.5
×
= 18.45 m/s.
Outer diameter, D
2
=
2
60
π
u
n
=
60 18.45
1800
×
π×
= 196 mm.
Taking, C
m3
= 0.8 C
m0
= 0.8 × 2.26 = 1.81 m/sec.
Taking, K
2
= 1.2 and
1
2
w
w
= 1.18.
sin β
2
= sin β
1
.
2
1
K
K
.
1
2
w
w
.
3
0
m
m
C
C
= Sin 25 ×
1.2
1.4
× 1.18 × 0.8 = 0.3419.
Outlet blade angle, β
2
= 19.99° ≈ 20°
2
1
m
m
C
C
=
2 3
1 0
m
m
K C
K C
=
1.2
1.4
× 0.8 = 0.687
Outlet flow velocity, C
m2
= 0.687 C
m1
= 0.687 × 3.164 = 2.18 m/sec.
No. of blades, Z = 6.5.
2 1
2 1
D D
D D
-

. sin
1 2
β β
2
- ¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
1 + = 6.5
196 90
196 90
-

sin
25 20
2
- ¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
= 6.71, Z is taken as 7.
ψ = 0.6 (1 + sin β
2
) = 0.6 × 1.3420 = 0.8052.
p =
2
1
2
2ψ 1
1
Z
r
r

¸ ¸

(
¸ ,
=
2 0.8052
7
×
×
2
1
90
1
196
¸ ¸

(
¸ ,
= 0.2915
H

= (1+p) H
m
= (1.2915) 17.23 = 22.26 m.
378 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Second Approximation
Outlet blade velocity, u
2
=
2
2
2tanβ
m
C
+
2
2
2
2tan
m
C
gH

¸ ¸
-
(
π
¸ ,
=
2.18
2tan 20
=
2
2.18
9.81 22.26
2 tan 20
(
- ×
(
¸ ¸
= 18.07 m/sec
Outlet diameter, D
2
=
2
60
π
u
n
=
60 18.07
π 1800
×
×
= 0.191 m. or 192 mm.
D
2
Ist approximation (D
2I
= 196 mm) and D
2
IInd approximation (D
2II
= 191 mm). Closely agrees.
Final value of outer diameter D
2
is taken as D
2
= 200 mm.
C
m3
=
2
2
m
C
K
=
2.18
1.2
= 1.82 mps.
Outlet breadth, B
2
=
2 3
π
th
m
Q
D C
=
0.0165
π 0.2 1.82 × ×
= 0.0144 mm. ≈ 15 mm.
(d) Verification for flow coefficients:
K
1
=
1
1 1
1
δ
1
π sinβ
Z
D

=
1
7 0.0005
1
π 0.09 sin 25
× (

(
× ×
¸ ¸
= 1.414.
K
2
=
2
2 2
1
δ
1
π sinβ
Z
D

=
1
7 0.0005
1
π 0.2 sin 20
× (

(
× ×
¸ ¸
= 1.195
w
1
=
1
1
sinβ
m
C
=
3.164
sin 25
= 7.49 m/sec.
w
2
=
2
2
sin β
m
C
=
2.18
sin 20
= 6.37 m/sec.
D
E
S
I
G
N

O
F

P
U
M
P

C
O
M
P
O
N
E
N
T
S
3
7
9
TABLE DIA-1: Vane development for radial type centrifugal pump
(a) Ist method Z = 7
S. No. r C
m
b w
m
C
w
δ δδ δδ t =
2πr
Z
δ
t
mm m/sec mm m/sec mm mm
1 45 2.26 25.8 7.49 0.3017 5 40.3919 0.1238
2 50 2.22 23.65 7.39 0.3004 5 44.8798 0.1114
3 60 2.14 20.45 7.19 0.2976 5 53.8558 0.0928
4 70 2.06 18.2 6.98 0.2951 5 62.8319 0.07958
5 80 1.98 16.5 6.78 0.2920 5 71.8078 0.0696
6 90 1.89 15.4 6.58 0.2872 5 80.7838 0.0619
7 100 1.81 14.5 6.37 0.2841 5 89.7598 0.0557
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
m
C δ
+
w t
β ββ ββ tan β ββ ββ B =
1
r tanβ
∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆r =
i i +1
B +B
2
=x
i i +1
B +B
2
×∆r θ θ θ θ θ =∑∆θ ∑∆θ ∑∆θ ∑∆θ ∑∆θ
=sin β ββ ββ (r
i+1
– r
i
) =∆θ rad deg
0.4255 25.2 0.4702 47.26 0 0
0.005 45.759 0.228
0.4118 24.3 0.4519 44.25 0.228 13°
0.01 41.7745 0.4177
0.3904 22.98 0.4241 39.2989 0.6457 37°
0.01 37.3248 0.3733
0.3747 22.0 0.4041 35.3506 1.0190 58.4°
0.01 33.7885 0.3379
0.3616 21.2 0.3879 32.2263 1.3569 77.8°
0.01 31.0262 0.3103
0.3491 20.43 0.3725 29.8260 1.6672 95.5°
0.01 28.7518 0.2875
0.3398 19.87 0.3613 27.6776 1.9547 112°
3
8
0
R
O
T
O
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C

P
U
M
P
S

(
C
E
N
T
R
I
F
U
G
A
L

A
N
D

A
X
I
A
L
)
TABLE D1A-2: Another method
S.No. r C
m
b w sinβ ββ ββ = β ββ ββ tan β ββ ββ B = x = ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆r x ×∆ ∆∆ ∆∆r θ θθ θθ =∑∆θ ∑∆θ ∑∆θ ∑∆θ ∑∆θ δ δδ δδ
mm m/sec mm m/sec
ω
m
KC
dia.

1
r tan β
+1
+
2
i i
B B
=∆θ ∆θ ∆θ ∆θ ∆θ rad deg mm
1 45 3.164 25.8 7.49 0.4224 25° 0.4660 47.6872 0 0 4.8
45.7015 0.005 0.228
2 50 3.075 23.65 7.39 0.4161 24.6° 0.4575 43.7159 0.228 13.1° 5.2
40.7973 0.01 0.408
3 60 2.896 20.45 7.19 0.4028 23.8° 0.4400 37.8788 0.636 36.5° 5.7
35.8415 0.01 0.3584
4 70 2.717 18.2 6.98 0.3893 22.9° 0.4226 33.8043 0.995 57° 6.01
32.3839 0.01 0.3238
5 80 2.538 16.5 6.78 0.3743 22° 0.4037 30.9636 1.319 75.6° 5.91
29.9494 0.01 0.30
6 90 2.359 15.4 6.58 0.3585 21° 0.3840 28.9352 1.619 92.8° 5.76
28.1926 0.01 0.282
7 100 2.18 14.5 6.37 0.3423 20.0 0.3643 27.45 1.961 112.4° 5.22
δ (mm) =
mb m
C C
w
− ¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
t(mm).
C
mb1
= K
1
C
m1
, C
mb2
= K
2
C
m2
DESIGN OF PUMP COMPONENTS 381
Design No. D1-A1 Computer Programming in
C
++
FOR RADIAL TYPE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP IMPELLER AND VOLUTE
/ * as per 19.11.98 * /
# include < studio. h>
# include < conio. h>
# include <math. h>
include < process.h>
float Q, H, n ;
float K1,K2
float eff, eff_h, eff_ vol, eff_ m;
float n_s Dn, n_i, N_i max. d_s, d_h, Q1_1, H_m ;
double CO, B1,B2,B3 ;
double temp, t1,Z1 ;
double U1,U2 ;
float Z,t,fs, Cu2_dash ;
int c, count = 1, nn ;
float delta, d] t, g = 9.8 1 ;
float si, p, H_inf ;
float beta 1, beta2 ;
float D1, D21, J ;
float Cm1, Cm11, Cm2, Cm21 ;
float A,B, k1, D22, K21, tp ;
float Doll, Do12, Co11, co 12, Km1, Km2 ;
float X, R, Y, U21, U22, beta, Cm, T, W1, W2 ;
float rI [10] ;
float Fs, Ys, W, G [10], C, D, E, F ;
float AVgG, drI, dO SdO, SdrI, Gby 2pi ;
float RR [19], nb [19] ;
float BB [19], AVgB, dR ;
float dQ, Qi ;
float R2, R3, Row, K ;
int theta [ ] = {0,45,90,135,180, 225, 270, 315, 360} ;
Void print_ heading ( ) ;
Void head_impeller () ;
Void head_imp 1 ( ) ;
Void imp 11er () ;
Void head_volute () ;
Void volute () ;
Void head_volcir () ;
Void volute_ cir () ;
Void main ()
382 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
{
clrscr () ;
printf (“CENTRIFUGAL PUMP DESIGN - RADIAL TYPE | N”) ;
/ * INTIAL SPECIFICATION * /
Q =
H =
n =
printf (“/n/n INITIAL SPECIFICATIONS / N”) ;
printf (“Q = %f m3/sec/n”, Q);
printf (“H = %f m/n”, H) ;
printf (“n = %f rpm/n” n,) ;
/ * BASIC PARAMETERS * /
N_S = CEIL (3.65* n* sqrt (double (Q) )) / pow (double (H), 0.75)) ;
printf (“Enter the value of a (4.0 to 4.5) : ” ) ;
scanf (“%f ”, &A) ;
Dn = ceil (A * 1000* pow (double) Q/n, 0.3333)) ;
temp = log 10 (Dn) ;
eff_h = 1– (0.42/ pow ((temp – 0.172), 2)) ;
eff_vol = 1.0/ (1+0.68* pow (n_s, –2.0/3.0)) ;
printf (“Enter the value of Mechanical Efficiency (0.92 to 0.98) : ” ) ;
scanf (“%f ” & eff_m) ;
eff = eff_ h*eff – vol* eff – m;
printf (“/n/n BASIC PARAMETER /n”) ;
printf (“n_s = %g/n”, n_s) ;
printf (“Dn = %f mm/ n”, Dn) ;
printf (“eff_h = %f/n” eff_h) ;
printf (“eff_vol = %f\n”, eff _ vol);
printf (“overall efficiency = %f/n”, eff) ;
n_i = (9.81 * Q * H) / (eff) ;
N_imax = 1.1* N_i ;
printf (“power input Ni = %f KW/n” N_i) ;
printf (“Ni maximum = %f KW/n”, N_imax) ;
/* SHAFT& HUB DIAMETERS * /
T = (N_imax * 60 * 1000) / (2*3.14*n) ;
printf (“Enter the value of Ys in Kgf/sq.mm : ”) ;
scanf (“%f ”, & Ys);
printf (“/n Enter the value of Fs :”) ;
scanf (“f ” & Fs) ;
fs = (YS * 9.81*1000000) / FS ;
tp = (16*T) / (3.14*fs) ;
d_s = pow (double) tp, 0.333 ) ;
d_h = 1.25* d_s ;
DESIGN OF PUMP COMPONENTS 383
printf (“/n SHAFT AND HUB DIAMETER /n”) ;
printf (“T = %f Nm / n”, T) ;
printf (“Shaft diameter d_s = %f m /n”d_s) ;
printf (“Hub diameter d_h = %f m/n”, d_h) ;
fflush (stdin) ;
getch () ;
clrscs () ;
/ * INLET DIMENSIONS * /
Q1_1 = Q/ eff_vo1 ;
/* first approximation * /
printf (“Enter the value of B (0.06 to 0.08) : ” ) ;
scanf (“%f ”, &B) ;
CO = B * pow (Q1_1*n*n), 0.333) ;
temp = (4*Q1_1) / (3.14*CO) ;
DO11 = sqrt (temp) ;
DO12 = sqart (tempt +(d_h*d_h)) ;
printf (“/n/ tDo11 = %f m”, DO11) ;
printf (“/n Enter new DO11 ; ”) ;
scanf (“%f ” & DO11) ;
printf (“/n/tDO12 = %f m” Do12) ;
printf (“/n Enter new DO12 : ”) ;
scanf (“%f ”, & DO12) ;
CO11 = (4* Q1_1) / (3.14 * (DO11* DO11)) ;
CO12 = (4* Q1_1) / (3.14* (DO12*DO12)) ;
printf (“/n Final value of DO12 is : %f m”, DO12) ;
printf (“/n Enter the value of J (0.8 to 1.03) : ” ) ;
scanf (“%f ”, & J) ;
D1 = J * DO12 ;
printf (“/n Enter the value of Km1 ; ” ) ;
scanf (“%f ”, &Km1) ;
Cm1 = Km1 * sqrt (2*g*H) ;
B1 = Q1_1/(3.14*D1*Cm1) ;
U1 = (3.14* D1* n) / 60 ;
temp = Cm1/U1 ;
betal = atan (temp) * (180/3.14) ;
printf (“betal = %f degrees”, betal) ;
printf (“/n Enter the value of dit in m: ”) ;
scanf (“%f ”, &d1t) ;
printf (“/n Enter the value of Z : ” ) ;
scanf (“%f ”, & Z) ;
betal = betal*(3.14/180);
K1 = 1 / (1-(Z*d1t) / (3.14* D1*sin(betal))) ;
384 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Cm11 = K1*Cm1 ;
getch () ;
clrscr () ;
printf (“/n/n INLET DIAMENSIONS /n”) ;
printf (“Q 1_1 = %f m3 /sec / n”, Q 1_1) ;
printf (“DO11 = %f m/n”, DO11) ;
printf (“DO12 = %f m/n”, DO12) ;
printf (“CO = %f m sec/n”, CO) ;
printf (“CO11 = %f m/sec/n”, CO11) ;
printf (“CO12 = %f m/sec/ n”, Cm1) ;
printf (“Cm1 = %f m/sec/n”, Cm1) ;
printf (“B1 = %f m/n”, B1) ;
printf (“U1 = %f m/sec/n”, U1) ;
printf (“D1 = %f m sec/n” D1) ;
printf (“betal = %f degrees /n”, betal* 180/3.14) ;
printf (“K1 = %f /n”, K1) ;
getch () ;
clrscr () ;
print_heading () ;
printf (“%d %s.5f %8.5f %8.5f %8.5f %8.5f/n”,
count, Cm1, tan (betal), betal* (180/3.14), sin (betal), K1) ;
while (( fabs(Cm-Cm11)> 0.001) && (count<10))
{
count++ ;
Cm = Cm11 ;
temp = atan (temp) ; / * in radians * /
t1 = 3.14*D1*sin (betal) ;
K1 = 1/ (1-((Z*d1t) /t1)) ;
printf (“%d %8.5f %8.5f %8.5f %8.5f/n”
count, Cm11, tan (betan), btetal* (180/3.14), sin (betal), K1) ;
Cm11 = K1* Cm1 ;
{ ;
printf (“%d %8.5f %8.5f %8.5 %8.5f
%8.5f/n” count, Cm11, tan (betal), betal* (180/3.14)), sin (betal), K1) ;
printf (“-------------------------------------------------------- /n”) ;
/* OUTLET DIAMENSIONS * /
H_m = H/eff_h ;
printf (“/n Enter the value of Cu2_dash (0.5 to 0.8) : ”) ;
scanf (“%f ” & Cu2_dash ) ;
U21 = sqrt (g*H_m) / Cu2_dash) ;
D 21 = (60* U21) / (3.4*n) ;
printf (“/n Enter the value of × (0.8 to 0.95) : ” ) ;
DESIGN OF PUMP COMPONENTS 385
scanf (“%f ” & X) ;
Cm21 = × * Cm 11 ;
printf (“/n Enter the value of K2 (1.1 to 1.25) : ”) ;
scant ( “%f, & K2) ;
printf (“/n Enter the value of R = W1 /W2 (1.1 to 1.15) : ”) ;
scanf ( “f ” & R) ;
printf (“/n Final vlue of betal from table : % f degrees / n”, betal* 180/ 3.14) ;
temp = R * × * S in (betal) ;
beta 2 = as in (temp) ;
Z1 = 6.5 * (D2+D1) / (D21-D1) * sin (betal+beta 2) / 2.0) ;
getch () ;
clrscr () ;
printf (“/n/n OUTLET DIMENSIONS : /n” ) ;
printf (“Hm = %6.3 f m/n” H_m) ;
printf (“U21 = % 8.4 f m/sec/n”, U21) ;
printf (“D21 = %f m/n”, D21) ;
printf (“Cm21 = %f m/sec/n”, Cm21) ;
printf (“beta 2 = %f degrees/ n”, beta 2* 180/3.14) ;
printf (“Z1 = %f m/n”, Z1) ;
printf (“Enter the value of Y (0.6 to 0.65) : ”) ;
scanf ( “%f ”, &Y) ;
Si = Y +0.6* sin (beta 2) ;
temp = pow ( (D1/D21), 2.0) ;
p = (2*Si/Z) * (1/ (1-temp) ;
H_inf = (1+p) * H_m ;
printf (“Si = %f / n”, Si) ;
printf (“p = %f / n”, p) ;
printf (“H_inf = %f m/n”, H_inf) ;
/* SECOND APROXIMATION * /
temp = Cm21 / (2* tan (beta 2) ;
U22 = temp + sqrt (temp* temp + (g*H_inf) ) ;
D22 = (60*U22) / (3.14*n) ;
Cm2 = Cm21/K2’
B2 = Q1_1/(3.14* D21* Cm2) ;
K21 = 1/ (1_(Z*dlt) / (3.14* d21* sin (beta2))) ;
printf (“/n/n SECOND APPROXIMATION : /n”) ;
printf (“U22 = %f m/sec/n”, U22) ;
printf (“D22 = %f m/n”, D22) ;
printf (“B2 = %f m/n”, B2) ;
printf (“K21 = %f /n”, K21) ;
getch () ;
clrscr ;
386 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
printf (“/n/st/t/ FINAL VALUES /n/n”) ;
printf (“/n/stZ = %f /n”, Z) ;
printf (“/n/tB1 = %f m/n”, B1) ;
printf (“/tB2 = % f m/n”, B2)
printf (“/n/tCm1 = %f m/sec/n”, Cm1) ;
printf (“t Cm2 = %f m/sec/ n”, Cm2) ;
printf (“t DO11 = %f m /n”, DO11) ;
printf (“t DO12 = %f m /n”, DO12) ;
printf (“t D1 = %f m /n”, D1) ;
printf (“t D21 = %f m/n”, D21) ;
printf (“t D22 = %f m/n”, D22) ;
printf (“n/t betal = %f degrees /n”, betal* (180/3.14) ;
printf (“/tbeta 2 = %f degrees /n”, beta 2* (180/3.14) ;
printf (“/tK1 = %f /n”, K1) ;
printf (“/tK21 = %f /n”, K21) ;
impeller () ;
volute_cir () ;
volute () ;
}
/*End of main prgm*/
/* VANE DEVELOPMENT (SINGLE CURVAURE) * /
void impller ()
{
int i ;
count = 1 ;
sdr I = drI = 0,
nn = 7 ;
printf (“/n Enter the no of values (7 to 10) : ”) ;
scanf (“%d”, % nn) ;
printf (“/n Enter the value of rI in m :” ) ;
for (i = 0 ; i <nn ; i ++)
scanf (“%f ”, &rI [i] ;
getch () ;
clrscr () ;
head_impeller () ;
for (i = 0 ; < nn ; i++)
{
sdrI = SdrI + drI ;
drI = rI [i+1]– rI [i] ;
W1 = Cm11/sin (beta2) ;
W2 = Cm21/sin (betal) ;
Cm = Cm1 + (2* (( Cm1–Cm2)/ (D1– D21)) * SdrI) ;
DESIGN OF PUMP COMPONENTS 387
W = W1 + (2* (W1–W2) / (D1– D21) * SdrI) ;
t = (2*3.14* rI [i]) /Z ;
D = d1 t/t ;
temp = cm/w + D ;
beta = as in (temp) ;
F = tan (double) beta) ;
G [i] = 1 (rI [i]* F) ;
B = Q1_1/ (2*3.14* rI [i]* Cm) ;
printf (“/n%1d %6.4f %7.5f %7.4f %7.5% %6.3f %7.5f %7.5%”, count, rI [i]),
SdrI, Cm, W,t, (beta*180/3.14), F,B) ;
count++ ;
}
printf (“/n------------------------------------------------------------------- /n”) ;
getch () ;
clrscr () ;
head_imp1 () ;
SdO = dO = 0 ;
for (i = 0 ; < nn ; i ++)
{
AVgG = (G [i] + G [i+1]) /2 ;
drI = rI [i+1]-rI [i] ;
dO = AVgG * drI ;
printf (“/n %6.2f %5.2f ”, G [i], SdO*180/3.14) ; if (i < nn –1)
printf (“/n/t/t/t %6.2f %5.3f %5.3%f ”, AVgG, drI, dO) ; SdO = SdO + dO ;
}
printf (“/n----------------------------------------------/n”) ; return ;
}
void volute ()
{
int i ;
W = (2*3.14*n) /60 ;
R2 = D21/2 ;
Gby 2pi = (g*H_m) W ;
printf (“/n/mn Enter the value of R3 (1.03 to 1.05) : ”) ;
scanf (“%f ”, & R3) ;
B3 = B2 + 0.05* D21 ;
R3 = R3 * R2 ;
printf (“/n Enter the value for R : ”) ;
for (i = 0; i< 10 ; i ++)
scan f (“% f ”, & nb [i]) ;
print f (“/nEnter the values for B : ”) ;
for (i = 0 ; i < 10 ; i ++)
scanf (“%f ”, &nb [i] ;
printf (“/n/n R3 = %f ”, R3) ;
388 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
printf (“/nB3 = %f ”, B3) ;
getch () ;
clrscr () ;
Qi = count = 0 ;
head_volute () ;
for (i =0 ; <10 ; i++)
{
count++ ;
BB [i] = nb [i] /RR [i] ;
BB [i+1] = nb [i+1]/ RR [i+1] ;
dR = RR [i+1]-RR [i] ;
printf (“/n %2d % 6.4f % 6.4f %6.4f/t/t %7.5f ”,
count, RR [i], nb [i], BB [i], Qi) ;
if (i = = 9) ;
{
exit (1) ;
}
AVgG = (BB [i] + BB [i+1] /2 ;
dQ = Gby 2pi * aVgB * dR ;
Q i = Qi + dQ ;
printf (“/n/t/t/ %6.4f %6.4f %7.5f ”, AvgB, dR, dQ) ;
if (i = = 9)
{
getch () ;
clrscr () ;
head_volute () ;
}
}
getch () ;
clrscr () ;
return ;
}
void volute_ cir ()
{
int i ;
count = 0 ;
K = (720 *9.81*H_m*60)/(2*n*Q) ;
printf (“/nk value is : %f ”, K) ;
getch () ;
clrscr () ;
head_volcir () ;
for (i= 0 ; < 9 ; ++0
{
count ++ ;
Qi = (theta [i] * Q )/360 ;
Row (theta [i] /K + sqrt (2 * theta [i] * 0.135)/K) ;
printf (“/n %1d %3d %8.6f %6.4f ”, count, theta [i], Qi, Row) ;
}
DESIGN OF PUMP COMPONENTS 389
getch () ;
return ;
}
void pirt_heading ()
printf (“/n/n”) ;
printf (“--------------------------------------------------------/n) ;
printf (“Sr. No. Cm1 tan (betal) betal sin (betal) Ki /n”) ;
printf (“--------------------------------------------------------/n ”) ;
return ;
}
void head_impeller ()
printf (“n/n/”) ;
printf (“-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------\n”);
printf (“SNo rI SdrI Cm w t beta tan (beta) B\n”);
printf (“------------------------------------------------------------------------------------\ n”);
}
void head _ imp1 ()
printf (“\n\n”)
printf (“-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------/n”) ;
printf (“ G Avg (G) drI do sdo /n”) ;
printf (“------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ /n”) ;
return ;
}
void head_volute ()
printf (“/n Volute Trapezoidal - free vortex /n”) ;
printf (“/n/n ) ;
printf (“-----------------------------------------------------------/n”) ;
printf (“S.no r b B avgB dr dq gi/ n”) ;
printf (“ ------------------------------------------------------- /n”) ;
return ;
} void head_ volcir ()
{
printf (“/n volute circular - free vortex /n”) ;
printf (“/n/n”) ;
printf (“---------------------------------------------------------/n”) ;
printf (“S.no theta qi row /n”) ;
printf (“------------------------------------------------------- /n”) ;
return ;
}
390 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Fig. D1-A1. Pump assembly
DESIGN OF PUMP COMPONENTS 391
Fig. D1-A2. Performance curves
H-Q 1800 rpm
T
o
t
a
l

H
e
a
d
(
H
)

m
H-Q 1600
H-Q 1440
η
-
Q

1
4
4
0
η
-
Q

1
6
0
0

r
p
m
η
-
Q

1
8
0
0
N
-
Q

1
8
0
0
N
-
Q

1
6
0
0
N
-
Q
1
4
4
0
r
p
m
0 0 0
5
0
.
2
1
1
0
0
.
4
2
1
5
0
.
6
3
2
0
0
.
8
4
2
5
1
.
0
5
3
0
1
.
2
6
3
5
1
.
4
7
4
0
1
.
6
8
4
5
1
.
8
9
5
0
2
.
0
1
0
5
5
2
.
2
1
1
6
0
2
.
4
1
2
6
5
2
.
6
1
3
7
0
2
.
8
1
4
7
5
3
.
0
1
5
8
0
3
.
2
1
6
8
5
3
.
4
1
7
9
0
1
8
1
9
2
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Flow Rate (Q) lit/sec
%

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

(
)

%
I
n
p
u
t

(
N
)

k
W η
Specification : H = 13.8 m (42 ft)
Q = 16 lit/sec (210 gpm)
= 1800 rpm
N not to exceed 3.73 kW (5 hp)
British
Size : 75 mm × 64 mm
(3 × 2½ )
η
′′ ′′
392 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Fig. D1-A3. (b) Impeller plan
2 8 . 3 °
0 . 0 0
0 . 1 0
8
P
9
9 0
φ
1
3
°
1
8

3
7
°
4
8

5
9
°
4
8

7
9
°
5
4

9
8
°
1
8

DESIGN OF PUMP COMPONENTS 393
Fig. D1-A4. Volute casing
2
6
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8
7 . 7
1 5 . 4
2 3 . 1
3 0 . 8
3 8 . 5
4 6 . 2
5 3 . 9
6 1 . 6
D
e
t
a
i
l

o
n

v
o
l
u
t
e

s
a
c
t
i
o
n
s

1
4
8
394 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Fig. D1-A5. Pump photo
DESIGN OF PUMP COMPONENTS 395
Design No. D1-B
DESIGN OF A MULTISTAGE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
1. Specification
Flow rate Q = 100 m
3
/hour, Delivery pressure p
2
= 75 ata, Suction pressure p
s
= 4 ata, Pumping
liquid : water at 100°C, Specific weight of water ‘γ’ at 100°C = 958 kg/m
3
. Pump is run by a turbine at
a speed n between 7300–7800 rpm.
2. Selection of Pump Type
1. Total head of the pump, H
th
=
2 1
γ
p p −
=
75 4
958

× 10
4
= 741 m.
2. Selecting the speed ‘n’ as 7500 rpm.
Head per stage is : H/Stage = 0.0165n
4/3
Q
2/3
=

0.0165 . 7500
4/3
×
2 / 3
100
3600
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
= 220 m.
3. Number stages, Z
st
=
741
220
= 3.21.
Taking number of stage, Z
st
= 3, H/Stage =
741
3
= 247 m.
4. Specific speed, n
s
=
3/ 4
3.65n Q
H
=
3/ 4
3.65 7500 0.0278
(247)
×
= 74
It is a radial type centrifugal pump.
5. Taking cavitational specific speed, C = 800
C =
3/ 4
5.62
( )
SV
n Q
H
=
3/ 4
5.62 7500 0.0278
( )
SV
H
× ×
= 800
(H
SV
)
3/4
=
5.62 7500 0.0278
800
× ×
= 8.78 m.
H
SV
= (8.78)
4/3
= 18.126 m.
Vapour pressure at 100°C for water
γ
vp
p
= 1.03 ata.Taking h
fs
= 4 m,
and h
s
= 0 m Flooded Suction
and Flow veocity at inlet C = 8 m/s
(H
SV
) nett =
1
γ
vp
p p −

2
1
2
s fs
C
h h
g
¸ ¸
- -
(
(
¸ ,
=
2
4
4 1.03 8
10 0 4 –
958 2 9.81
¸ ¸

× − −
(
(
×
¸ ,
= 23.175 m.
396 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
(H
SV
) nett > H
SV
. So, the pump will be safe against cavitation at this speed and all elements of all 3
stages can be designed identically.
3. Basic Parameters
6. Nominal diameter at inlet, D
inom
= 4.25 × 10
3

3
Q
n
= 4.25 × 10
3
×
3
0.0278
7500
= 98 mm.
7. Hydraulic efficiency, η
h
= 1 –
2
0.42
(lg 0.172)
inom
D −
= 1 – 2
0.42
(log 98 0.172) −
= 0.854.
8. Volumetric efficiency, η
v
= 2 / 3
1
1 0.68
s
n

-
= – 2 / 3
1
1 0.68 (74) -
= 0.96.
However, η
v
= 0.90 due to high temperature pumping and 3 stages of pumping.
9. Overall efficiency η from the figure for n
S
= 74 and D
0
= 98 mm, η = 0.78.
10. Power, N
i
=
γ
η
QH
=
9.81 958 0.0278 741
1000 0.78
× × ×
×
= 248.2 kW
Taking 15% extra to allow for overloading, Input power N
i
= 1.15 × 248.2 = 285.5 kW
Final value of N
i
= 290 kW.
11. Shaft Diameter (d
S
)
Taking material for shaft as SS 316, ultimate strength = 40.4 N/mm
2
Due to high temperature of operation, factor of safety is taken as 4.
Working stress is
=
40.4
4
= 10.1 N/mm
2
Torque T =
60
2
N
n π
=
60 290 1000
2 7500
× ×
× π×
= 369.2395 N.m.
d
S
=
3
16
S
T
f π
=
3
6
16 369.2395
10.1 10
×
π × ×
= 0.057 m = 57 mm, taken as 60 mm
12. Impeller hub diameter at inlet (d
h
)
d
h
= 1.3 d
S
= 1.3 × 60 = 78 mm can be taken as 80 mm d
h
= 80 mm.
13. Theoretical quantity, Q
th
=
η
v
Q
=
0.0278
0.90
= 0.03062 m
3
/s
14. Velocity of water at impeller eye, C
0
= 0.06
2
3
th
Q n
= 0.07

2 3
0.03062(7500)
= 8.39 m/sec.
15. Impeller eye diameter, D
0
=
2
0
4
π
th
h
Q
d
C
-
=
2
4 0.03062
(0.08)
8.39
×
-
π×
= 105.1 mm can be taken
as 105 mm.
DESIGN OF PUMP COMPONENTS 397
4. Inlet Dimensions
16. Inlet diameter D
1
is taken as D
1
= 110 mm.
u
1
=
1
π
60
D n
=
0.11 7500
60
π× ×
= 43 m/sec.
17. Taking flow velocity before the inlet edge of the blade C
0m
is equal to flow velocity at impeller
eye C
0
= 8.39 m/s and coefficient of contraction at inlet due to blade thickness K
1
= 1.5. Flow
velocity at inlet C
m1
= K
1
× C
0m
= 1.5 × 8.39 = 12.585 m/sec.
18. Taking normal entry at inlet. Blade angle at inlet β
1
β
1
= Arc tan
1
1
12.585
0.2927
43
m
C
u
¸ ¸
· ·
(
¸ ,
= 16.3°.
Taking angle of attack at inlet ∆β
1
= 8.7° β
1
= 16.3 + 8.7 = 25°.
19. Check up for K
1
K
1
=
1 1
1
δ
1
π sinβ

Z
D
=
1
8 0.06
1
0.11 sin 25 π
× (

(
× × °
¸ ¸
= 1.489
Relative velocity at inlet w
1
=
1
1
sinβ
m
C
=
12.585
sin 25
= 29.78 m/s.
20. Inlet breadth, b
1
=
1 0
π
th
m
Q
D C
=
0.3062
π 0.11 8.39 × ×
= 0.01018 m or 10.18 mm; but taken as 11 mm.
Final values : C
m0
= 8.39 m/s, K
1
= 1.5, C
m1
= 12.585 m/s, w
1
= 29.78 m/s, β
1
= 25°, D
1
= 110
mm b
1
= 11 mm.
5. Outlet Dimensions
21. H
m
=
η
h
H
=
247
0.854
= 289.2 ≈ 290 mm.
22. Taking
2 u
C =
2
2
u
C
u
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
= 0.5 coefficient of reaction ρ = 1–
1
2
2 u
C = 1 –
1
2
× 0.5 = 0.75
H
m
=
2
2 2 u
C u
g
=
2
0.5u
g
.290 =
2
0.5
9.81
u ×
. u =
9.81
0.5
. 290 = 75.43 mps.
D
2
=
2
60
π
u
n
=
60 75.43
π 7500
×
×
= 0.1921≈ 192 mm
Taking
1
2
w
w
= 1.15 K
2
= 1.27 C
m3
= 0.9 C
m0
= 0.9 × 8.39 = 7.551 m/s,
C
m2
= K
2
C
m3
= 1.27 × 7.551 = 9.5898 m /sec.
398 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
23. sin β
2
= sin β
1
1
2
w
w
=
2
1
K
K
3
0
m
m
C
C
= sin 25° × 1.15 ×
1.27
1.1
× 0.9 = 0.3703
β
2
= 21.74° ≈ 22°.
24. Z = 6.5
2 1
2 1
D D
D D
-

sin
2 1
(β +β )
2
= 6.5 ×
0.192 0.110
0.192 0.110
- °
− °
× sin
(25 22)
2
-
= 9.46
However, number of impeller blades Z
1
is taken as 8.
25. ψ = 0.65 + 0.6 sin β
2
= 0.65 + 0.6 sin 22° = 0.8748.
26. p =
2
1
2
2ψ 1
1
Z
D
D

¸ ¸

(
¸ ,
=
2
2 0.8748 1
8
110
1
192
×

¸ ¸

(
¸ ,
= 0.3256
27. H
th
= (1 + p) H
m
= (1.3256) 290 = 384.4 m.
28. u
2
=
2
2
2tanβ
m
C
±
2
2
2
2tan
m
th
C
gH
¸ ¸
-
(
π
¸ ,
.
=
9.5898
2tan 22
¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
+
2
9.58987
9.81 384.4 74.41 mps
2tan 22
¸ ¸
- × ·
(
¸ ,
.
29. D
2
=
2
60
π
u
n
=
60 74.41
7500
×
π×
= 0.190 m, but final diameter D
2
is taken as 192 mm.
30. Breadth, b
2
=
2 3
π
m
Q
D C
=
0.03062
0.192 7.551 π× ×
= 6.723 ×10
–3
m = 7 mm.
Check up:
w
2
=
1
1.15
w
=
29.78
1.15
= 25.8957 m/s
C
m3
= 0.9 C
m0
= 0.9 × 8.39 = 7.551
C
m2
= K
2
× C
m3
= 1.27 × 7.551 = 9.5898 m/s
sin β
2
=
2
2
m
C
w
=
9.5898
25.8957
= 0.3703
β
2
= 21.74° ≈ 22°
K
2
=
2 2
1
δ
1
π sinβ
Z
D

=
1
8 0.006
1
0.192 sin 22
×

π× ×
= 1.27.
DESIGN OF PUMP COMPONENTS 399
6. Leakage Through the Suction Side Wearing Ring
31. ρ =
p
m
H
H
or H
p
= ρ H
m
= 0.75 × 290 = 217.5 m.
This pressure prevails at the outlet of the first stage impeller (point J in Fig. D1B-1). Taking
wearing ring diameter D
1
= 120 mm (i.e., thickness is 7.5 mm), pressure head at the entrance
of wearing ring at suction side when liquid passes through the passage between the front
shroud of the impeller and suction side casing.
32. H
i
=H
p

2
ω
8g
(r
2
2
– r
i
2
)
= 217.5 –
2
2
(2 7500)
60 8 9.81
π ×
× ×

2 2
0.192 0.120
2 2
¸ ¸
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
− (
( (
(
¸ , ¸ ,
¸ ,
= 217.5 – 44.14 = 173.36 m.
Taking simple straight type wearing ring where in the length of the wearing ring is
i
l = 40 mm
and clearance is b
i
= 0.2 mm and frictional coefficient for the flow through the clearance λ
s
=
0.065, the coefficient of discharge.
33. µ
S
=
1
1
1.5
2
i
i
l
b
λ -
1
0.065 0.04
1.5
2 0.0002
×
-
×
= 0.3536.
34. Leakage flow through the wearing ring clearance at suction end (H
S
= 4 ata = 4 × 10.366
= 41.344 m).
q
S
= µ
S
. 2 π r
i
b
i
2 ( )
i s
g H H −
= 0.3536 × 2 × π × 0.06 × 0.0002 × 2 9.81 (173.36 41.344) × × −
= 1.3569 × 10
–3
m
3
/s = 1.3569 lit/s = 4.89 m
3
/hr.
7. Leakage Through the Shaft Bush Clearance between First Stage and Second
Stage Impellers
35. Total head at point G, H
G
= H
1
= 247 m.
Total head at point F, H
F
= H
p

2
ω
8g
(r
2
2
– r
2
h
)
= 217.5 –
2
2 7500
60
π× ¸ ¸
(
¸ ,

1
8 9.81 ×
(0.097
2
– 0.04
2
)
= 217.5 – 59.86 = 157.64 m.
400 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Pressure drop, ∆H = H
G
– H
F
= 247 – 157.64 = 89.3615 m
Taking clearance between shaft and bush bearing b
is
= 0.2 mm and length of bush bearing
l
is
= 40 mm and λ
2
= 0.065.
36. µ
2
=
2
2
2
1
1.5
2
l
b
λ -
=
1
40
0.065 1.5
2 0.2
-
×
= 0.3535
37. q
2
= µ
2
2π r
1S
b
2 2
2g H ∆
= 0.3535 × 2 × π × 0.04 × 0.0002 ×
2 9.81 89.3615 × ×
= 0.7441 × 10
–3
m
3
/s or 0.74.41 l/s = 2.68 m
3
/h.
8. Determination Balancing Disc Dimensions
38. Total Axial force by 3 Impellers p
1
F
1
= γ π (r
2
i
– r
2
h
)
2 2 2
2 1
2
ω
– –
2 2
h
p
r r
H r
g
( ¸ ¸
-
(
(
¸ ,
(
¸ ¸
= 985 × π (0.06
2
– 0.04
2
)
2
2 2
2
0.06 0.04 2 7500
(217.5 3) 0.097
2 60
(
¸ ¸
- × π × ¸ ¸
× − − (
( (
¸ ,
¸ ,
(
¸ ¸
1
8 9.81 ×
= 3716.45 kg = 36458.35 N.
39. Taking, allowable pressure in the disc, p
d
= 20 kg/ cm
2
π (R
2
d
– r
2
d
) =
1
d
F
p
=
3716.45
20
= 185.82 cm
2
Taking, r
d
= r
h
+10 = 40 + 10 = 50 mm.
π (R
2
d
– 5
2
) = 185.82
R
d
=
2
185.82
5
π
-
= 9.17 cm. ≈ 90 mm
L
d
= 90 – 50 = 40 mm.
Taking radial clearances between shaft hub and casing after the last stage of the impeller
S
1
= 0.25 mm, length of the clearance L
1
= 100 mm and the axial clearance between stationary
and rotating balancing disc S
2
= 0.2 mm and taking λ
3
= λ
4
= 0.065.
40. Coefficient of flow µ
3
for the bush bearing =
1
3
1
1
1.5
2
l
S
λ -
=
1
100
0.065 1.5
2 0.25
-
×
= 0.26
DESIGN OF PUMP COMPONENTS 401
E
S
2
C
L
2
R
g
r
g
r
Bm
X
S
1
B
A
δ
r
B
m
G
l
L
1
r
2
J
l
i
b
i
r
i
F
Fig. D1B-1. Balancing disc
41. Coefficient of flow, µ
4
=
4
2
1
1.5
2
d
l
S
λ -
=
1
40
0.065 1.5
2 0.2
-
×
= 0.3535
42. Total head at the delivery end of last stage of impeller (point A)
H
A
= (H
1
+ H
2
+ H
p
) –
γ
S
p
= 247 + 247 + 217.5 –
4
0.958
= 707 m.
43. Total head (at point B) before the shaft bush
H
B
= H
A

2
ω
8g
(r
2
2
– r
2
h
)
44. H
B
= 707 –
2
2 π×7500
60
× ¸ ¸
(
¸ ,
1
8 9.81 ×
(0.097
2
– 0.04
2
) = 647.14 m.
Flow through the clearance in balancing disc S
2
and the flow through the clearance in the
bush S
1
are equal i.e.,
45. q
3
= µ
3
2 πr
h
S
1
2 –
B X
gH H
· µ
4
.2π r
d
S
2
2 ( ) −
X E
g H H



B X
X E
H H
H H
=
4 2
3 1
µ . 2
µ 2
d
h
r S
r S
π
π
=
0.3535 0.05 0.0002
0.26 0.04 0.00025
× ×
× ×
= 1.3596
(H
B
– H
X
) = 1.8486 (H
X
– H
E
)
H
B
+ H
E
= 2.8486H
X
.
Pressure at the balancing chamber C is equal to the sum of the suction pressure and frictional
losses in the connecting pipe between chamber C and impeller eye. Normally pipe size will be
25 mm to 40 mm to reduce the frictional losses. Since, the flow through the pipe is very small
about 1 to 1.5 lit/sec and the pipe size is very large, flow velocity is connecting pipe will be
402 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
negligibly small. Taking frictional losses to be 1 to 2 m, which can be verified afterwards, and
taking h
f
= 2 m, Total head at the balancing chamber H
E
=
4
4 10
958
×
+ 2 = 43.75 m.
Substituting this value in the above equation
H
X
=
647.14 43.75
2.8486
-
= 242.5406 m.

q
3
= µ
3
× 2 π r
h
× S
1
2 ( )
B X
g H H −
= 0.26 × 2 × π × 0.04 × 0.00025 × 2 9.81(647.14 242.54) × −
= 1.4555 × 10
–3
m
3
/sec = 1.4555 l/s = 5.24 m
3
/hr.
46. Taking length of the connecting pipe l
p
= 3 m, diameter d
p
= 25 mm and f = 0.015.
h
f
=
2
2 5
.16
2 π
fLQ
g d
=
2 5
0.015 1.46 1.46 3
1000 1000 (0.025) 2 9.81
× × ×
× × π × × ×
= 0.51 m.
which indicates that the assumption is safe.
47. Volumetric efficiency =
100
100 (1.3569 1.4555) 3600
1000
- - ×
= 90.8% which is also safe.
9. Axial Thrust due to Centrifugal Force created due to the Turning of Liquid at
Impeller Inlet
49. Reaction due to the turning force developed due to centrifugal force in one impeller
F
21
=
γ
th
Q
g
.C
0
=
958 0.03062 8.39
9.81
× ×
= 25 kg.
For 3 impeller F
2
= 25 × 3 = 75 kg.
50 Additional axial force due to wear in the wearing ring at suction side
F
3
= π (r
2
2
– r
2
1
) γ
2
2
8
u
g
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 1
2 2 2 2
2 1 1 1
ln 2
2
r r r r
r r r r
¸ ¸
-
- −
(
(

¸ ,
= π (0.096
2
– 0.06
2
)
2
958 74.89
8 9.81
×
×
2
2 2 2
2 2 2
0.096 0.096 0.096 0.06
ln 2
0.06 0.096 0.06 2 0.06
¸ ¸
- ¸ ¸
- − (
(
(
− × ¸ ,
¸ ,
= 1598 kg.
Total axial force = 3716.45 + 1598 – 75 = 5239 kg.
D
E
S
I
G
N

O
F

P
U
M
P

C
O
M
P
O
N
E
N
T
S
4
0
3
TABLE D1B-1: Vane development
r b C′ ′′ ′′
m
w t δ δδ δδ sin β ββ ββ
S.No. m m =
Q
2πrb
mps
m
C
w
m m
δ
t
=
m
C δ
+
w t
1 0.055 0.011 8.39 29.78 0.2817 0.0432 0.006 0.1389 0.4206
2 0.06 0.010 8.290 29.32 0.2827 0.0471 0.006 0.1274 0.4101
3 0.07 0.009 8.0903 28.396 0.2849 0.055 0.006 0.1091 0.3940
4 0.08 0.0077 7.8906 27.47 0.2872 0.0628 0.006 0.0955 0.3828
5 0.09 0.0074 7.6907 26.548 0.2897 0.0707 0.006 0.0849 0.3746
6 0.096 0.006 7.551 25.896 0.2916 0.0762 0.006 0.0787 0.3702
β ββ ββ° tan β ββ ββ B
i
=
2
1
r tan β
i i +1
B +B
=x
2
∆ ∆∆ ∆∆S
c
∆θ =x×∆s θ θθ θθ
rad deg
25° 0.4636 39.22 0 0
38.14 0.005 0.1907
24.2° 0.4497 37.06 0.1907 10.93°
35.19 0.01 0.3519
23.2° 0.4287 33.32 0.5426 31.09°
31.75 0.01 0.3175
22.5° 0.4143 30.17 0.8601 49.28°
28.84 0.01 0.2884
22° 0.4040 27.5 1.1485 65.8°
26.68 0.006 0.16
21.74° 0.3986 25.86 1.3086 74.98°
404 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
10. Design of Diffuser
51. Flow rate ‘Q’ through the diffuser
Q = Q + q
2
+ q
3
= 100 + 2.68 + 5.24 = 107.92 m
3
/hr.
52. Radius of the inlet edge of the diffuser r
4
= r
2
+ 3 mm = 96 + 3 = 99 mm.
53. Flow velocity at the inlet of the
diffuser is taken as equal to the flow
velocity at the impeller exit after the
blade.
C
m4
= C
m3
= 7.3376 m/s.
54. Tangential component,
C
u4
= C
u3
= C
u2
= u
2

2
2
tanβ
m
C
=
0.192 7500
60
π× ×

0.9 9.226
tan 24.31
×
°
= 75.3 – 18.3874 = 57.0108 m/sec
tan α
3
=
4
4
m
u
C
C
=
7.3376
57.0108
= 0.1287 α
3
= 7.4°
55. Taking unevenness in the velocity distribution at the inlet of the diffuser µ = 1. Diffuser blade
thickness δ
4
= 6 mm, No of diffuser blades z
d
= 5. Blade angle at the inlet of the diffuser α
4
will
be
tan α
4
= µ tan α
3
+
4
4
δ
t
2 2
3
1 µ tan α -
= 1 × 0.1287 +
6 5
π 198
×
×
2
1 1 0.1287 - ×
= 0.1773 α
4
= 10.05 ≈ 11°
56. Since initial portion of the diffuser must be a logarithmic spiral
log r
i
=
4
tanα
132
θ° + log r
4
=
0.1773
132
r
i
+ log 99 = 0.00134θ° + 1.995
TABLE D1B-2: Development of diffuser vane
θ
i
° 0 15 30 45 60 75
0.00134θ
i
° 0 0.0201 0.0402 0.0603 0.0804 0.1005
log r
i
1.995 2.0151 2.0352 2.0553 2.0754 2.0955
r
1
mm 99 103.6 108.5 113.6 119 126
C
m2
C
m3
r
2
r = 7.4
3
C = C = C
u4 u3 u2
α
2
α
3
= 7.4
DESIGN OF PUMP COMPONENTS 405
57. Width of the diffuser passage at inlet a
4
a
4
=
4
4
cosα
r
4
sin 2
1
d
z
e
π α
¸ ¸
( −
(
¸ ,
– S
4
=
99
cos11
sin 22
5
–1 e
π
¸ ¸
(
(
¸ ,
– 6 = 20.76 ≈ 21 mm.
58. Width of the diffuser passage in axial direction b
4
b
4
= 1.75 × b
2
= 1.75 × 7 = 12.25 ≈ 13 mm
For best efficiency condition a
4
= b
4
. In this design, this is not possible since in order to
achieve, number of diffuser blades must be increased, which will increase hydraulic loss.
59. Taking outlet velocity at diffuser C
5
= 12.5 m/s and b
4
= b
5
= 13 mm, width of the canal at
diffuser outlet a
4
a
4
=
1 5 5
th
Q
Z c b
=
107.92 1000
3600 5 12.5 0.013
×
× × ×
= 36.89 ≈ 39 mm
11. Return Passage
60. Return passage is constructed in such a way that the velocity C
5
gradually reduces to C
0
, when
the liquid reaches the impeller eye area of the next stage. Taking the axial width b in the return
passage remains constant throughout i.e., b
5
= b
r
= 13 mm and taking a = 45 mm at radius R
= 136 mm. Velocity C will be
C =
0.03
5 0.013 0.045 × ×
= 10.26 m/sec.
61. External radius of the diffuser
r
5
= 1.62 r
4
= 1.62 × 99 ≈ 160 mm.
The diffuser and return passage is in the Fig. D1B-6.
12. Mechanical Loss
Taking R
d
= r
2
, Loss of power due to friction in impeller and balancing disc.
62. N
r
= 4 × 0.97 × 10
–3
× ν
0.2
ρ r
2
4.6
ω
2.8
× 0.746
= 4 × 0.97 × 10
–3
(0.27 × 10
–6
)
0.2
= 97.5 × 0.095
4.6
× 785
2.8
× 0.746
=34.7 kW.
Taking pressure before the stuffing box p
SB
= 0.6 kgf/cm
2
, length l
SB
= 9 cm, coefficient of
friction f = 0.01, loss in stuffing box.
63. N
SB
=
2
2π ω
7500
SB SB SB
fr l p
× 0.746
2
2 0.01 3 9 785 6 0.746
7500
× π× × × × × ×
= 2.4 kW.
64. Loss of friction due to shaft rotation in water is taken as 2.4 kW. Total mechanical losses =
34.7 + 2.4 + 2.4 = 39.5 ≈ 40 kW.
406 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Fig. D1B-2. Multistage pump for hot water pumping
φ
1
1
0
1
9
2

φ
γ
11
1
4
0

φ
1
3
0

φ
1
2
0

φ
1
8
0

φ
1
6
0

φ
6
φ

1
0
5
φ

8
0

Fig. D1B-3. Impeller meridional section
DESIGN OF PUMP COMPONENTS 407
w
30
ϕ°
100
25
C
m
9
8 20 80
60 15 6
40 10
4
20 5 2
1
s

=

5

m
m
r
r = 55
i 61 68 75 82 89
r = 95
2
s

=

2

m
m
2
C
m
w
10
7
5
3
Fig. D1B-4. Impeller parameters distribution along the blade
X
X
X
X
X
φ
1
1
0
φ
1
2
0
φ
1
3
0
φ
1
4
0
φ
1
6
0
φ
1
8
0
φ
1
9
2
X
R
4
R
5
R
6
t
=
7
4
,5
2
2
t

=

4
3
,
2
1
R
1
R
2
R
3
1
0
.
9
3
°
3
1
.
0
9
°
4
9
.
2
8
°
6
5
.
8
0
°
7
4
.
9
7
°
5
Fig. D1B-5. Vane development in plan
408 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
R
1
= 18φ
8.5 φ
9 φ
9.5
10 φ
10.5
11 φ
11.5
12 φ
11.5°
17.5 φ
17 φ
16.5 φ
15φ
14φ
13φ
12φ
r
R R1 R2
0 12 12
42.5 13 11.5
45 14 11
47.5 15 10.5
50 16.5 10
52.5 17 9.5
55 17.5 9
57.5 18 8.5
Fig. D1B-6. Impeller passage check up method
a
=
2
4
,3
4
r

=

1
2
8
r

=

1
2
1
r =1,5
r

=

1
1
5
R

=

1
1
5
r

=
1
0
9
r =
1
0
4
r = 99
1
5
°
3
0
°
4
5
°
6
0
°
7
5
°
45
34
R
=
1
3
6
φ
1
9
8
φ
3
2
0
R

=

1
1
8
Fig. D1B-7. Vaned diffuser and return guide vane passages
DESIGN OF PUMP COMPONENTS 409
Design No. D2
SPIRAL CASING DESIGN
Available Data for the Impeller
D
1
= 80 mm b
1
= 18.5 mm β
1
= 37° H = 13.73 m η
h
= 0.85
D
2
= 238 mm b
2
= 8.5 mm β
2
= 24° n = 1430 rpm Q = 0.01403 m
3
/sec
Pipe size 76 mm (3′′) × 65 mm ( ) 2½′′
ω =

60
n
=
2 π 1430
60
× ×
= 149.75 rad/sec
H
m
=
η
h
H
=
13.73
0.85
= 16.16 m
n
S
=
3/ 4
3.65
( )
n Q
H
=
3/ 4
3.65 1430 0.01403
(13.73)
×
= 87
D
3
= 1.04 D
2
= 1.04 ×