Digital Species  
Digital Compendium of 
Forestry Species of 
Cambodia  
  
     
 
Phnom Penh, Cambodia
2008 
 
www.digitalspecies.blogspot.com  

Supported by: German embassy, DED

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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Benth.]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Benth.]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Benth.
B. English name (s) ³ northern black wattle, Darwin black wattle, ear-pod wattle,
tan wattle [1], auri, black wattle, ear leaf acacia, earleaf
acacia, Papuan wattle, wattle [8], coast wattle, Japanese
acacia [9]
C. Synonym ³ Acacia auriculaeformis A. Cunn. ex Benth., Racosperma
auriculiforme (A. Cunn. ex Benth.) Pedley [1]

D. Other
1
³ northern black wattle (Trade name) [1] - akashmoni,
Australian babul, kasia, sonajhuri (India) [1] - ngarai, unar
(Papua New Guinea) [1] - Japanese acacia, auri (Philippines)
[1, 9] - akasai, akasia, kasia, ki hia (Indonesia) [9] - akasia
kuning, kasia (Malaysia) [9] - mkesia (East Africa) [9] -
krathin-narong (Thailand) [9] - smach’té:hes (Vietnam) [9]

E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³ GakasüasøwktUc
Source: [3]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ smach’tehs [4], acacia sleuk touch [6]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Fabales
Family: Fabaceae (Subfamily: Mimosoideae)
Gunus: Acacia
Species: Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex
Benth.

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Source :[ 1]


H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: A. auriculiformus is a deciduous or evergreen, leguminous tree which reaches on favorable
sites a total height of 25-35 m [1] (25-30 m [3], 30-40 m [2], 15-30 m [9]) with a straight bole which has
a stem height of 12-15 m [3] (up to 12 m [9]) and a maximum DBH of 60-80 cm [3] (80-100 cm [2], 50
cm [9]). However, more commonly it is a small to medium-sized tree of 8-20 m [1, 2] or a shrub with 3-
5 m [1] (2-8 m [4]) which is heavily branched with a short bole. It has a spreading, deep [8] (shallow
[9]) and dense root system. The crown is large, spreading and dark green with dense foliage. Young
branches are slightly depressed, angular, hairless and green.
[Bark]: The bark is grey to black-grey or brown sometimes blackened at the base, 2-3 mm thick [3],
smooth in young trees, becoming rough and deeply longitudinally fissured with age. The inner bark is
white-grey and 7-9 mm thick [3].
[Leaves]: The leaves are simple flattened phyllodes (= leafstalks which function as a true leaf), sickle-
shaped, alternate, spear-shaped or oblong, bow-like, becoming progressively thinner at both ends,
10-16 x 1.5–2.5 cm [8] (7-17 x 1.5-2.7 cm [3], 8-20 cm x 1.0-4.5 cm [1]), thick leathery, greyish green
and hairless. There are 3 prominent parallel veins [1] (6-8 veins [3], 3-8 veins [9]) running together
towards the lower margin or in the middle near the base, with many fine secondary veins and a
distinct gland at the base of the leaf. The leaves mostly remain on the tree during the dry season; their
average life is about 1 year [1] in West Java.
[Flowers]: The inflorescence is an axillary, interrupted spike to 8.5 cm long [1] in pairs at the leaf
bases. The flowers are 0.3 cm long [8], light-golden to yellow in color, bisexual, tiny, sessile and
fragrant. The 5 outer flower leaves (=sepals) are fused together into an up to 0.1 cm long [1] tube
which is shortly lobed and hairless. The 5 inner flower leaves (=petals) form a corolla which is up to
0.2 cm long [1] with many stamens (=male organs) which are about 0.3 cm long [1]. The ovary
(=female organ) is small and densely covered with hairs. Flowers are pollinated by insects. Flowering
and fruiting occurs irregularly from July to October [3]. In many places the tree can flower and fruit
continuously all year round [3]. However, "there is usually a distinct peak flowering season which may
vary considerably with location. In the Northern Territory of Australia, flowering occurs from April to
July with ripe seed available some 4-5 months later in August to October. Sedgley et al. (1992) found
that peak flowering occurred in February to May at Atherton in Queensland (Australia), and near
Kuala Lumpur in Peninsular Malaysia, and Tawau in Sabah, with ripe seed pods available between
October and April. In Java (Indonesia), peak flowering occurs in March to June." [1].
[Fruits]: "Mature seeds can be collected between August and February in Thailand" [1]. The fruit
(=thin compressed pod) has a size of 7-8 x 1.2- 1.4 cm [3] (6.5 x 1.5 cm [1], 6-8 x 1-1.5 cm [8]), is
strongly curved, flat, flexible but hard, rather woody, covered with a whitish, waxy bloom, hairless,
transversely veined with undulate margins. Fruits are initially straight or curved, but on maturity
become twisted with irregular spirals. The fruit-stalk is 1.2 cm long [3]. Each pod contains 5-7 [3] shiny

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black seeds which are broadly ovate to elliptical, 0.4-0.6 x 0.3-0.4 cm [1] in size (5 mm long [8]) and
each is encircled by a long red, yellow or orange seed-stalk.
[1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9]

I. Wood properties:
[Wood Properties]: The wood is large-sized and straight. The sapwood is white to yellow with
inconspicious ribs and the heartwood is light brown to dark red, straight grained and reasonably
durable. A. auriculiformis wood has a high basic density with 0.5-0.65 g/cm³ [1, 3, 9] and a calorific
value of 4,700-4,900 kcal/kg [1] (4,500-4,900 kcal/kg [9]). The timber is fine-grained, often attractively
figured and finishes well. Wood fibers are relatively short, about 0.85 mm in length [1] and 0.2 µm in
width [1]. "The chemical composition of the wood is 59% cellulose, 24% lignin, 19% pentosan and
0.4% ash. Flavonoid substances are also present" [1]. The heartwood is typically hard and durable,
but the sapwood is highly susceptible to termite and borer attack and requires preservative treatment
when in contact with the soil. Boards may sometimes split when sawn.
[1, 3, 9]

J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
Approximate limits: 5°S to 17°S [1]. This species is native to Australia but has been cultivated in many
areas of the world as a forestry tree, especially in South-, Southeast Asia and in Africa and has
escaped from plantings in various places. "Natural stands of A. auriculiformis are found in Australia,
Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia. A. auriculiformis occurs in the lowland tropics growing naturally in
narrow belts along river banks, where it may be dominant or one of the principal species. It also
occurs in small pockets in depressions and in open-forest dominated by various eucalypts and
acacias. It is also found in littoral rain forest behind either mangroves or coastal dunes" [1]. It also has
a strong ability to recolonize wasted land and problem areas like papermill sludge (pH 9.5 [9]) and
even uranium spoils (pH 3.0 [9]) where it has been found as the only tree species after 20 years [1].
Generally it occurs as a scattered tree in riparian habitats (perennial rivers and semi-perennial
creeks), dry deciduous forests, open moist deciduous forests (monsoon forests) and tall savanna
woodland. It is a component of swamp forest, dominated by Melaleuca species, usually on the better
drained sites. It is also common in littoral forest. Regular associates in these forests include Acacia
mangium, A. aulacocarpa and Melaleuca cajuputi. It was recently introduced to Cambodia via
Vietnam, where it is cultivated with eucalyptus for reforestation.
[1, 2, 3, 4, 9]

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
A. auriculiformis grows from sea level to 400 m [2, 9], but is most commonly found at elevations less
than 80 m [2] (0-500 (-1,000) m [9]). "A. auriculiformis occurs naturally in hot humid and hot subhumid
climatic zones. For the natural distribution of this species, the mean maximum temperature of the
hottest month (November-December) is within the range of 32-34°C, and the mean minimum

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temperature of the coolest month (May-September) is 17-22°C. Outside the natural distribution, a
wider range of temperatures is tolerated, indicating the adaptability of A. auriculiformis. Frost does not
occur in its natural range, but elsewhere light frost is tolerated. Mean annual rainfall ranges from 760
mm in the Northern Territory of Australia, to 3,400 mm in Papua New Guinea (6,000 mm [9]).
However, for most of the planted and natural distribution, rainfall is generally much lower with up to
2,500 mm (1,000-2,000 mm [3], 700-2,000 mm [2], 650-2,000 mm [9]). It has a summer monsoonal
pattern, with most rain falling from December to March" [1]. A auriculiformis tolerates a dry season of
0-7 months [2] (0-6 months [3]) but also fast drying (=desiccation) and forest fires. Shade is not
tolerated at all, because this tree is a strong light demander and wind tolerance is low, as branches
break easily in strong winds. Also weeds may become a threat in the establishment phase.
[1, 2, 3, 8, 9]

L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
No information available.

M. soil and site conditions :
"In Australia A. auriculiformis grows on dissected lateritic lowlands and alluvial coastal plains, along
drainage channels just above the tidal range, on the edges of sand dunes, behind mangrove swamps,
and along river levees (also on unstable slopes [8]). The soils are frequently yellow earths, but vary
from dune sands and sandy loams to alluvials with a high clay and humus content. The pH usually
ranges from 4.5-6.5, but it also grows on alkaline beach sands with a pH of 8-9 (general pH range:
3.0-9.5 [8], 4.3-9 [9]). In West Timor it is one of the best species for cultivation on highly alkaline soils.
A. auriculiformis is also highly tolerant of acidic conditions. In Australia, Malaysia and the Philippines it
has grown on acid mine spoils of pH 3, while A. auriculiformis is one of the few tree species to
become widely planted on the acid sulphate soils (pH 3) of the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. It can also
tolerate saline soils. In an experiment in Thailand, it continued growing under saline conditions
ranging from 0.15 to 7.25 dS/m, in both wet and dry soils. A. auriculiformis was also amongst the best
performing acacias on slightly to moderately saline seasonally waterlogged soils in southeastern
Queensland. They are on shallow well drained sandy loam overlying heavy clay or imperfectly drained
soils subject to temporary or prolonged flooding in the wet season. These soils are strongly acid and
of poor fertility with low values for nitrogen, exchangeable potassium and available phosphorus" [1]. It
can also grow in soils ofproblem areas like papermill sludge (pH 9.5 [9]) and even uranium spoils (pH
3.0 [9]) where it has been found as the only tree species after 20 years [1]. Generally it will grow on a
wide range of deep and shallow soils with practically no maintenance. Soil types include: Yellowish
red basalt, alluvial soils, compacted clay soils, coral soils, lateritic soils, limestone soils, mine spoil,
podzols, saline soils, sandstone soils, savanna soils, sandy soils and vertisols.
[1, 2, 3, 8, 9]



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N. Utilization and importance :
[Wood]: This species has been widely planted for fuelwood and charcoal production due its a high
basic density and calorific value of 4,700-4,900 kcal/kg [1] (4,500-4,900 kcal/kg [9]), its fast growth
and adaptibility to a wide range of site conditions, which makes it an ideal tree species for fuelwood
production. The charcoal is not very heavy, glows well and does not smoke or spark. "The annual fall
of leaves, twigs, and branches can amount to 4-6 t/ha, which is useful as household fuel" [1]. Besides
fuelwood the wood is extensively used for paper pulp. "Plantation-grown trees have been found
promising for the production of unbleached kraft pulp and high-quality, neutral, sulphite semi-chemical
pulp. Large-scale plantations have already been established, as in Kerala (India), for the production of
pulp" [9]. "The sulphate process with 13% alkali yields up to 55% of screened pulp. It is less suitable
for high-yield mechanical type pulps although there is significant variation in pulp-making properties
between provenances" [1]. The wood of A. auriculiformis also makes attractive furniture if it is large
sized and straight and is also excellent for toys and handicrafts. It is also used for wood turning (e.g.
framing, flooring), carving, joinery, round wood, posts, stakes, tool handles, boxes, carriage making,
composite boards, wood cement and for construction if trees of suitable girth are available. However,
the crooked and multiple stems which are a common feature of the species largely restrict its use as
poles or other forms of timber that requires reasonable length.
[1, 2, 3, 9]
[Non-wood]: It is not widely used as fodder, but in India 1-year-old plantations are browsed by cattle
[9]. "A preliminary study of fodder values has shown that A. auriculiformis meets the minimum
requirements for certain nutrients and warrants further investigation" [1]. The bark has sufficient
tannins (about 13% [1], 13-25% [9]) for a possible commercial exploitation and is also appreciated as
fuelwood. The bark also contains 6-14% [9] of a natural dye which used in the batik textile industry in
Indonesia. Lac insect culture using the species as host plant is possible. Leaves can be used as
mulch for improving the soil. An edible mushroom (Tylopylus fellus) is common in plantations of A.
auriculiformis in Thailand and Vietnam.
[1, 4, 9]
[Others]: "Plantations of A. auriculiformis improve soil physio-chemical properties such as water-
holding capacity, organic carbon, nitrogen and potassium through litter fall. Its phyllodes provide a
good, long-lasting mulch. Acacia auriculiformis can fix nitrogen after nodulating with a range of
Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium strains. It also has associations with both ecto- and endo-mycorrhizal
fungi" [9]. Although it is not widely used in agroforestry systems because of its spreading and
competitive surface rooting habit, intercropping of A. auriculiformis with peanut, rice, mung beans and
kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) has proved to be successful, while intercropping with corn was rather
unsuccessful. It has also been used satisfactorily as a nurse tree in tea plantations. A. auriculiformis is
sometimes planted in mixture with eucalypts and other trees which do not fix nitrogen to maintain or
improve soil fertility. This species is planted to provide shelter along the sea front and to revegetate
mining spoil heaps. The spreading, densely-matted root system can stabilize eroding land. It has been
used widely in revegetation of degraded land and rehabilitation of grassland in India, Indonesia and

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Vietnam. It also has a strong ability to recolonize wasted land and problem areas like papermill sludge
(pH 9.5 [9]) and even uranium spoils (pH 3.0 [9]) where it has been found as the only tree species
after 20 years [1]. The dense, dark-green foliage, which remains throughout the dry season, makes it
an excellent tree for shade and ornamental purposes in cities where its bright-yellow flowers are
desirable attributes. It is also suitable as a host tree in the nursery propagation of sandalwood
(Santalum album) plantations, or as a secondary or tertiary host when sandalwood is established in
the field. Generally this tree is placed into nurseries for shading and wind protection. "It is also used
for the cultivation of the lac insect in India" [3]. Flowers are a source of bee forage for honey
production.
[1, 2, 3, 8, 9]
O. Cambodian wood classification :
No class [5]

P. Silviculture and management :
[General]: A. auriculiformis occurs generally as a scattered tree in riparian habitats (perennial rivers
and semi-perennial creeks), dry deciduous forests, open moist deciduous forests (monsoon forests)
and tall savanna woodland. It is a component of swamp forest, dominated by Melaleuca species,
usually on the better drained sites. It is also common in littoral forest. Regular associates in these
forests include Acacia mangium, A. aulacocarpa and Melaleuca cajuputi. This species is fast growing,
light demanding and nitrogen fixing, which makes it a popular tree for plantation forestry. It was
recently introduced to Cambodia via Vietnam and is now cultivated with eucalyptus for reforestation
purposes. It has the ability to coppice, but it is not a vigorous sprouter and responses well to
pollarding. It is intolerant to shade and weeds, at least in early development stages.
[Natural regeneration]: "Profuse natural regeneration may appear after fire or on disturbed sites in the
absence of severe weed competition" [1].
[Provenances]: "The crooked stem form and tendency of trees to produce multiple leaders of trees in
plantations currently limits utilization of A. auriculiformis for poles and heavy construction timber.
Careful selection and introduction of provenances which produce a higher proportion of straight stems
should minimize this drawback in the future. Provenances from Queensland (Australia) appear to
have a higher proportion of straight stems in combination with fast growth. Several countries have
genetic improvement programmes aiming to improve these traits simultaneously, and thus enhance
the industrial utility of the species for commodities such as paper pulp and sawn timber" [1]. (For more
information on provenances please have a look at the chapter 'Variation and breeding' in the
'Miscellaneous' category)
[Establishment]: Stands are established successfully by using containerized seedlings or by direct
sowing. Containerized seedlings generally give higher survival rates especially in areas of heavy
weed competition and are especially used for Acacia plantations. In general, 3-4 months [9] are
needed to raise transplantable seedlings that are 25 cm tall [9]. Aerial seeding has sometimes been
successful but appropriate site preparation prior to sowing is required. In the field, weed control is

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essential especially during the first 1-2 years [2]. A small amount of NPK fertilizer in the first year
helps to improve initial growth. The fertilization rates depend on the site quality. The optimum spacing
for A. auriculiformis depends on utilization and management considerations. Most current plantings
use spacings ranging from 1 x 1 m to 4 x 4 m [1] ( 2 x 2 or 2 x 4 m [2], 2-4 x 2-4 m [9]). "Spacings of 1
x 2 m and 1.5 x 1.5 m are favoured by farmers in China producing fuelwood and poles. In India,
planting takes place during the monsoon into preprepared pits 30 cm³ in size which are filled with
loamy soil mixed with farm yard manure, chemical fertilizers, and insecticides to discourage termites."
[1]. Once established, the tree is quite competitive with weeds. However, good control of weeds in the
first two years is very important, as the species is shade intolerant and young seedlings can easily be
suppressed by weeds. Young seedlings produce 2-3 bipinnate leaves, which are soon followed by
phyllodes (=leafstalk with the shape of a leaf). Seedlings grow quickly and reach a height of 25-30 cm
in 3-4 months [1], 6 m in 2 years [1], and 6-12 m in 3 years [1] under favourable conditions. Flowering
usually starts within 2 years [1] after sowing. Newly emerged seedlings should receive 50% shade [9].
Once they are established, 70% full sunlight [9] is optimal. It often becomes naturalized where
planted.
[Management]: [1] "A number of silvicultural systems are appropriate for A. auriculiformis. In India,
common practice is to clear fell at 10-15 years, followed by natural or artificial regeneration" [1]. The
recommended rotation is 4-5 years for pulp [2] and 12-15 years for timber [2]. One or two thinnings
are required with longer rotations, depending on initial spacing, site quality and tree growth. "Although
A. auriculiformis has the ability to coppice, it is not a vigorous or prolific sprouter and careful
management is required to obtain good results from coppicing. Stump height is an important factor in
sprouting; better results are obtained when stumps are cut 60-100 cm from ground. Age or stump
diameter and season of cutting also affect coppicing ability. The species also responds well to
pollarding. A. auriculiformis is sometimes included in trials of mixed species management systems in
the tropics, where it is grown in combination with various native rain forest species and occasionally
eucalypts. The aim of these systems is to use the nitrogen-fixing ability of the acacia for soil
improvement, and its fast growth, as a cover crop initially and then as an income source through sale
of thinnings, to enhance the economic viability of planting the slower growing species. Plantings in
Imperata grasslands have survived fires, but are generally too severely damaged by fire to make A.
auriculiformis a suitable tree for Imperata control. A. auriculiformis can fix nitrogen after nodulating
with a range of Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium strains in many tropical soils. In the Philippines, 52-
66% of nitrogen uptake was shown to be derived from nitrogen fixation. This nitrogen-fixing potential
may only be realized in many soils if adequate fertilizer, especially phosphorus, is applied. A.
auriculiformis has associations with both ecto- and endo-mycorrhizal fungi. The ecto-mycorrhizal
fungus (Thelephora spp.) forms a beneficial association, and several species of vesicular arbuscular
mycorrhizas, including Glomus etunicatum and Gigaspora margarita, are effective. Many soils on
which A. auriculiformis is planted have low levels of available nutrients and there is usually a positive
response to fertilizer application. For example, a good growth response was achieved in India by
applying fertilizer one month after planting. A dose of 30 g of nitrogen, 25 g of phosphorus and 8 g of
potassium per plant was useful in soils with a high potassium content. Removal of lower branches of

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young plants has been suggested as a means of improving stem form, but when tried in Thailand was
unsuccessful" [1].
[Yield]: "A. auriculiformis has shown excellent growth under plantation conditions, and an annual
increment in height of 2-4 m in the first few years is common even on soils of low fertility. Under
optimum conditions, A. auriculiformis is vigorous and reaches 15-18 m tall and 15-20 cm diameter at
age 10-12 years. On relatively fertile Javanese soils receiving over 2,000 mm annual rainfall, a mean
annual increment (MAI) of 15-20 m3/hectare is possible, but on less fertile or highly eroded sites the
increment is reduced to 8-12 m³/ha. Yield is further reduced on sites where low rainfall or a prolonged
dry season is a limiting factor. The expected MAI, without fertilizer, on red lateritic soils in a semi-arid
area of India is 2-6 m³/ha. On Imperata grasslands and very infertile soils A. auriculiformis will usually
grow faster than species of Albizia, Eucalyptus, Leucaena and Pinus. Growth differences between
provenances are large. On a well drained site in Thailand receiving about 1,500 mm rainfall annually,
a provenance from Balamuk (Papua New Guinea) produced a total above-ground biomass of 135 t/ha
in 3 years, while a provenance from Springvale (Australia) reached only 60 t/ha" [1].
[Agroforestry]: Although it is not widely used in agroforestry systems because of its spreading and
competitive surface rooting habit, intercropping of A. auriculiformis with peanut, rice, mung beans and
kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) has proved to be successful, while intercropping with corn was rather
unsuccessful. Pruning of A. auriculiformis is recommended to improve light availability to crop plants.
It has also been used succellfully as a nurse tree in tea plantations. A. auriculiformis is sometimes
planted in mixture with eucalypts and other trees which do not fix nitrogen to maintain or improve soil
fertility.
[1, 2, 4, 9]

Q. Propagation :
[Reproduction]: "Acacia auriculiformis is hermaphroditic and pollinated by a wide range of insects
including Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera, which forage mainly on
pollen" [9].
[Seed collection and storage]: This species produces large quantities of seed at an early age. Seeds
have a very hard seed coat when fully ripened and keep viable quite well (several years) if stored
properly in airtight containers in a dark, cool room. A pre-germination treatment, such as mechanical
scarification of the seed coat or immersion in boiling water (1 minute immersion is suitable [1], 1-2
minutes [9]), is required to break seed coat dormancy, followed by soaking in cold water overnight or
soaking in warm water for 24 hours. Good results have also been achieved by soaking A.
auriculiformis seed in concentrated sulphuric acid for periods of 6-30 minutes [1]. Germination is rapid
(6-15 days [9]) after suitable treatment and typically exceeds 70% [1] (40-80% [9]). There is an
average of 71,600 viable seeds/kg. [1] (53,000–62,000 seeds/kg [8], 55,000-75,000 seeds/kg [9])
[Propagation]: Seedlings in the nursery require little attention. Newly emerged seedlings should
receive 50% shade [1]; once established 70% full sunlight [1] is optimal. "Methods of vegetative
propagation of A. auriculiformis through juvenile cuttings have been developed and are now a routine

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and simple operation" [9]. Trees can be pollarded to produce cuttings. Micropropagation techniques
can also be employed. Direct seed sowing by hand has been successful. Plantations are established
using seedlings raised in containers. In general, 3-4 months [2] are needed to raise seedlings to a
plantable size, 25 cm in height [2]. Inoculation with appropriate rhizobia may be beneficial, especially
when seedlings are raised in sterilized soil. "Seed requirements per hectare for open plantations in
Cambodia: 30,000 seeds/kg. Planting spacing: 2 x 2 m. Net seedlings required per hectare: 2,500.
Rate of loss: 3,000 (20% in planting site), 3,334 (10% in transit), 4,168 (20% at the nursery).
Germination rate: 60%. Purity: 90%. Total seed requirement: 0.27 kg" [10].
[1, 2, 8, 9, 10]

R. Hazards and protection :
[Pests]: There are several insect pests of A. auriculiformis, but none are limiting the establishment on
appropriate sites at present. Especially stressed trees are susceptible to insect attacks. A beetle
(Sinoxylon sp.) can girdle small stems or branches, causing them to break. "This beetle is of concern
because damage causes the tree to develop multiple leaders and reduces the length of clear bole. In
Australia the wood is attacked by borers and termites, and scale insects are prevalent on young trees.
Experimental results suggest that A. auriculiformis has some resistance to termites. A. auriculiformis
was recorded as host to Xystrocera festiva at two locations in South Sumatra" [1].
[1, 9]
[Diseases]: Also the diseases of A. auriculiformis are not limiting to establishment if this tree.
However, a number of diseases were identified as potential threats to the future productivity of
industrial plantations based on A. auriculiformis. They included stem cankers caused by a range of
pathogens (Botryodiplodia theobromae, Botryosphaeria spp. and Hendersonula sp.) and most often
associated with stem borer damage, pink disease (Corticium salmonicolor) which is most prevalent in
high rainfall areas, and phyllode rust (Atelocauda digitata [1], Uromyces digitatus [9] ) which has
impaired the growth of A. auriculiformis in Australia and Indonesia. It is not susceptible to the heart rot
which affects A. mangium. "A root rot fungus, Ganoderma sp., was observed to cause crown dieback
and defoliation in A. auriculiformis plantations in parts of West Bengal (India). A species of Cuscuta
(Convolvulaceae) has also been recorded as a parasite of A. auriculiformis in West Bengal" [1].
Seedlings in the nursery can be infected by powdery mildew (Oidium), especially where there is heavy
shading. The avoidance of problems through careful site and provenance matching is generally
preferred to chemical control measures.
[1, 9]
[Others]: This tree does not tolerate shade and it is quite susceptible to damage by frost and wind, as
branches break easily in strong winds. Another limitation is the relative sensitivity of young trees to
weeds and fire (up to about 20 months [1]), but even trees which are 10-15 years old can be killed by
fire [2].
[1, 2, 9]

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S. Conservation :
The estimated number of individuals threatened in Cambodia (as defined on the National Workshop
on Tree Species Priorities organized by DFW and CTSP in 2000) is more than 10,000 trees
threatened by logging and more than 1,000 threatened by fire.
[11]

T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :


U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
[World Distribution]:
[Native]: Australia (Australian Northern Territory, Queensland), Papua New Guinea, Indonesia (Irian
Jaya, Moluccas).
[1, 2, 3, 8]
[Introduced]:
Asia: (Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia, China, Taiwan, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar,
Nepal, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam)
Africa: (Benin, Burundi, Congo Democratic Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia,
Madagascar, Malawi, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Zanzibar, Uganda,
Zimbabwe)
Caribbean: (Cuba, Haiti, Jamaica, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago)
Central America: (Costa Rica)
North America: (USA, Hawaii)
South America: (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador)
Oceania: (Australia, Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu)
[1, 2, 3]

V. Miscellaneous
4
:
[Terminology]: "The generic name acacia comes from the Greek word ‘akis’ meaning a point or a barb
and the specific epithet comes from the Latin ‘auricula’- external ear of animals and ‘forma- form,
figure or shape, in allusion to the shape of the pod" [9].
[Hybrids]: "A. auriculiformis is related to A. polystachya A. Cunn. ex Benth., A. cincinnata F. Muell.
and A. spirorbis subsp. solandri (Benth.) Pedley and more distantly to A. aulacocarpa A. Cunn. ex
Benth. and A. crassicarpa A. Cunn. ex Benth. (Pedley, 1975). It hybridizes readily with A. leptocarpa
A. Cunn. ex Benth. and A. mangium Willd. in nature and in cultivation. The hybrids with A. mangium

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are intermediate between the two parents in morphology and wood properties. They inherit the
straighter stem form of A. mangium and the self-pruning ability and the stem circularity of A.
auriculiformis. Hybrids tend to have more vigorous growth and are more resistant to heart rot. There is
much interest in the domestication of this hybrid as a result of this combination of commercially
desirable characteristics. Aspects of seed production and vegetative propagation of the hybrids are
covered in Carron and Aken (1992)" [1].
[Variation and breeding]: "A. auriculiformis is predominantly outcrossing and exhibits marked genetic
variation. Isoenzyme studies revealed three distinct clusters of populations corresponding to the
geographic distribution of the species in the Northern Territory, Queensland and Papua New Guinea;
Queensland populations are more closely related to populations from Papua New Guinea than
populations from the Northern Territory. These studies showed about 73% of the isoenzyme variation
was among progenies within populations and indicated that weight should be given to both intra- and
inter-population genetic variability in initial selections in domestication programmes of this species.
These regional groupings were also apparent in differences in seedling morphology. Variation was
examined at 12 months for 28 provenances of A. auriculiformis in a trial in Malaysia. All provenances
had a survival rate of greater than 92%, but differed significantly in their growth performance. At 5
years from planting in Sabah, eight provenances including three from Papua New Guinea and five
from Queensland were identified as superior for height and diameter growth. Provenance trials on
four, low fertility, test sites in Zaire showed variation in growth and morphological characters when
assessed at ages 3, 9, 15 and 21 months. The provenances with the greatest volume production were
from Papua New Guinea. International provenance trials were established in 1989 to examine the
extent of genotype/environment interactions. Results from Australia and Thailand showed that
provenances from Queensland have a higher proportion of straight stems. In a trial on an Imperata
grassland site in South Kalimantan, variation in growth and form at 69 months after planting showed
that the most highly productive A. auriculiformis provenances in this environment were from Papua
New Guinea (MAI up to 35.6 m³/ha), Queensland (MAI up to 30.3 m³/ha) and Northern Territory (MAI
up to 30.2 m³/ha). There were also differences in tree quality with Queensland sources generally
having the lowest occurrence of multi-stemmed trees. Similar results were obtained 8 months after the
planting of a seedling seed orchard of A. auriculiformis in South Sumatra, where the best height and
diameter growth, and lowest occurrence of multi-stemmed trees were shown by the Wenlock River
provenance from the far north of Queensland. The relative performance of provenances of A.
auriculiformis in provenance trials on several sites in Vietnam has been reported by Nguyen Hoang
Nghia and Le Dinh Kha (1996). Provenance variation in salt and waterlogging tolerance has been
noted in pot trials. Several countries have genetic improvement programmes which aim to produce
better quality seed for future planting programmes. Seed orchards established on Melville Island in
the Northern Territory of Australia have failed to produce worthwhile amounts of seed. The best
clones are being relocated to environments where better seed production can be obtained. The use of
A. auriculiformis as a parent of hybrids, particularly in combination with A. mangium, is of great
potential. Many hybrids show desirable commercial characteristics such as fast growth, fine branching
and straight boles. Sedgley et al. (1992) found that the cross A. auriculiformis x A. mangium was more

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successful than the reciprocal, but fertile seed was produced following interspecific pollination in both
directions. Vacuum drying of pollen and storage in a deep freeze is recommended for the medium
length storage (3 years) of pollen used in crossing programmes of these species. Experimental A.
mangium x A. auriculiformis hybrid seed orchards have been established in Indonesia to build up a
base for a clonal forestry programme. Outstanding hybrid clones have been selected and mass
propagated for clonal forestry in Vietnam. The Australian Tree Seed Centre of CSIRO Forestry and
Forest Products, Canberra, Australia maintains seed stocks of representative provenances from
throughout the natural range of the species" [1].

W. Further readings
5
:
Kamis Awang, Venkateswarlu P, Nor Aini AS, Ådjers G, Bhumibhamon S, Kietvuttinon B, Pan FJ,
Pitpreecha K, Simsiri A, 1994. Three year performance of international provenance trials of Acacia
auriculiformis. Forest Ecology and Management, 70(1/3):147-158; 31 ref.
[1]

Banerjee AK, 1973. Plantations of Acacia auriculaeformis (Benth.) A. Cunn. in West Bengal. Indian
Forester, 99(9):533-540 + 1 pl.
[1]

Boland DJ, 1989. Trees for the tropics. Growing Australian multipurpose trees and shrubs in
Developing Countries. ACIAR Monograph, No. 10:ii + 247 pp.; 11 pp. of ref.
[1]

Boland DJ, Pinyopusarerk K, McDonald MW, Jovanovic T, Booth TH, 1990. The habitat of Acacia
auriculiformis and probable factors associated with its distribution. Journal of Tropical Forest Science,
3(2):159-180; 32 ref.
[1]

Booth TH, Turnbull JW, 1994. Domestication of lesser-known tropical tree species: The Australian
experience. In: Leakey RRB, Newton AC, eds. Tropical trees: The Potential for Domestication and
Rebuilding of Forest Resources. ITE Symposium No. 29, ECTF Symposium No. 1. London, UK:
HMSO, 189-194.
[1]


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dela Cruz RE, Umali-Garcia M, 1992. Nitrogen fixation and mycorrhizae in acacias on degraded
grasslands. In: Awang K, Taylor DA, eds. Tropical Acacias in East Asia and the Pacific. Proceedings
of a First meeting of COGREDA held in Phuket, Thailand. Bangkok, Thailand: Winrock International
Institute for Agricultural Research, 59-71.
[1]

Doran JC, Guan BV, 1987. Treatments to promote seed germination in Australian acacias. ACIAR
Proceedings, Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, No. 16:57-63; [In Australian
acacias in developing countries. Proceedings of an international workshop, Gympie, Qld., Australia, 4-
7 August 1986 [edited by Turnbull, J.W.]]; 5 ref.
[1]

Huang S, Zheng H, 1993. Coppicing of Acacia auriculiformis. ACIAR Forestry Newsletter No. 16, 3.
[1]

Ibrahim Z, 1991. Reproductive biology of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis. PhD Thesis,
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia.
[1]

Le Dinh Kha, 1996. Studies on natural hybrids of Acacia mangium and A. auriculiformis in Vietnam.
In: Dieters MJ, Matheson AC, Nikles DG, Harwood CE, Walker SM, eds. Tree Improvement for
Sustainable Tropical Forestry. Proceedings QFRI-IUFRO conference, Caloundra, Queensland,
Australia, 27 October-1 November 1996. Gympie, Australia: Queensland Forestry Research Institute,
328-332.
[1]

Marcar NE, Hussain RW, Arunin S, Beetson T, 1991. Trials with Australian and other Acacia species
on salt-affected land in Pakistan, Thailand and Australia. ACIAR Proceedings Series, No. 35:229-232;
3 ref.
[1]

Marcar NE, Ganesan SK, Field J, 1991. Genetic variation for salt and waterlogging tolerance of
Acacia auriculiformis.. ACIAR Proceedings Series, No. 35:82-86; 6 ref.
[1]

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Nguyen Hoang Nghia, 1996. Climatic requirements of some main plantation tree species in Vietnam.
In: Booth TH, ed, Matching Trees and Sites. ACIAR Proceedings No. 63, 43-49.
[1]

Nguyen Hoang Nghia, Le Dinh Kha, 1996. Acacia species and provenance selection for large-scale
planting in Vietnam. In: Dieters MJ, Matheson AC, Nikles DG, Harwood CE, Walker SM, eds. Tree
Improvement for Sustainable Tropical Forestry. Proceedings QFRI-IUFRO conference, Caloundra,
Queensland, Australia, 27 October-1 November 1996. Gympie: Queensland Forestry Research
Institute, 443-448.
[1]

Nor Aini AS, 1993. Recovery of Acacia auriculiformis from fire damage. Forest Ecology and
Management, 62(1-4):99-105; 9 ref.
[1]
Nor Aini AS, Kamis Awang, Venkateswarlu P, Abd Latib Senin, 1994. Three-year performance of
Acacia auriculiformis provenances at Serdang, Malaysia. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural
Science, 17(2):95-102; 27 ref.
[1]

Nor Aini AS, Kamis Awang, Mansor Mohd Rashid, Abd Latib Senin, 1994. Provenance trial of Acacia
auriculiformis in Peninsular Malaysia: 12-month performance. Journal of Tropical Forest Science,
6(3):249-256; 25 ref.
[1]

Pinyopusarerk K, 1990. Acacia auriculiformis: an annotated bibliography. Winrock International and
Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.
[1]

Turnbull JW, Awang K, 1997. Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Benth. In: Faridah Hanum I, van der
Maesen LJG, eds. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 11. Auxiliary plants. Leiden, the
Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers, 52-56.
[1]

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Vuthy, C. C. 2004. Study of the effects of potting media on growth performance of Acacia
auriculiformis seedlings in the nursery of Svay Reang Forestry Triage. MSc thesis, Royal University of
Agriculture, Phnom Penh. 78 pp.
[10]

Yantasath K, Anusontpornperm S, Utistham T, Soontornrangson W, Watanatham S, 1993. Acacias
for fuelwood and charcoal In: Awang K, Taylor DA, eds. Acacias for Rural, Industrial and
Environmental Development. Proceedings of the Second meeting of Consultative Group for Research
and Development of Acacias (COGREDA). Udorn Thani, Thailand: Winrock International and FAO,
144-152.
[1]

X. References:
[1] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).

[2] NFTA / FACT, 1989-1999: Agroforestry Species and Technologies - a compilation of the
highlights and factsheets. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association (NFTA), Waimanalo Hawaii.

[3] Nguyen et al., 1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. JICA/Vietnam Inventory and Planning
Institute. Hanoi

[4] Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.

[5] Department of Forestry and Wildlife, 1988: Cambodian Forestry Law No. 35, 25th June
1988. Phnom Penh.

[6] CTSP/DANIDA, 2004: List of Tree Species. 7pp.

[7] Petri, M. (DED), 2006: Own observations.

[8] ECOPORT: http://ecoport.org/ep (Internet source)

[9]
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/SpeciesInfo.asp?SpID=
10 (Internet source)

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[10] FA/CTSP, 2005: Guidelines for site selection and tree planting in Cambodia. 90pp.
Phnom Penh

[11] FAO:
http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/DOCREP/005/AC648E/ac648e04.
htm (Internet source)


Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa [4]
B. English name (s) ³ Golden Apple, Bengal quince, bael fruit, bael tree;[4,6,9,19]
C. Synonym ³ Feronia pellucida, Crateva marmelos [9]
D. Other
1
³ Oranger de Malabar (French) [4] bnau, (Cambodia); maja,
maja batu, (Indonesia); toum (Laos); bilak, bila, bel
(Malaysia); opesheet, ohshit (Burma); matum, tum, ma pin
(Thailand); trái mam (Vietnam) [6].

E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³
Source: [3]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ phnëu [4]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Sapindales
Family: Rutaceae
Gunus: Aegle
Species: Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa
Source :[4 ; 11]








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H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: Deciduous shrub or small tree, up to 13 m, with slender drooping branches and rather
shabby crown [5]. A small, deciduous tree up to 15 m high and 50 cm diameter with 1-2 cm long
spines on older branches. Trunk usually fluted at base [6], limbs often spiny (9).
[Bark]: Pale brown or greyish, smooth or finely fissured and flaking, armed with long, straight spines,
1.2-2.5 cm, singly or in pairs, often with a slimy sap oozing from cut parts [5,9].
[Leaves]: Trifoliate, alternate, on stalk 2-4 cm long. Each leaflet 5-14 x 2-6 cm, ovate with tapering or
pointed tip and rounded base, untoothed or with shallow rounded teeth. Young leaves pale green or
pinkish, finely hairy, mature leaves dark green , completely smooth. 4-12 pairs of side-veins, joined at
margin, raised above. End leaflet with long stalk, 0.5-3.0 cm, side ones with very short stalks, <0.2
mm [5]. Terminal leaflet is obovate and slightly larger (7.5 x 4.8 cm) [6].
[Flowers]: 1.5-2.0 cm, pale green, or yellowish, sweetly scented, bisexual, in short drooping
unbranched clusters at end of twigs and leaf axils, usually appearing with young leaves. Calyx flat
with 4(5) small teeth, 4(5) petals 6-8 mm, overlapping in bud. Many stamens with short filaments, and
pale brown anthers, style short, ovary bright green, disc inconspicuous [5]. Inflorescence a raceme 4-
5 cm long, axillary panicles (9), from the leaf corner with greenish white flowers, about 2 cm in
diameter [6].
[Fruits]: 5-12 cm, globose or slightly pear-shaped, with thick, hard rind, not splitting. Inside 8-15
sections, filled with aromatic, slimy orange pulp, each section with 6-10 oblong seeds densely clothed
with thick, fibrous hairs [5]. Fruits smooth, irregular roundish, grey or yellowish, 5.0-12.5 cm in
diameter, often with hard woody shell, 6-10 seeds embedded in sweet, orange-colored, clear, sticky
pulp [6,9].

I. Wood properties:
No detailed technological information available; fine grained, but with small dimensions [9]. The wood
is strongly aromatic when freshly cut. It is gray-white, hard, but not durable; has been used for carts
and construction, though it is inclined to warp and crack during curing. [20].

J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
Native of northern Indian Subcontinent, Indian Peninsula [Coromandel), southern parts of the
Himalayas, cultivated elsewhere; nowadays in Sri Lanka, Nepal, Burma, Bangladesh, Thailand,
Vietnam, Laos, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines [4,6,12]. Mention of A. marmelos has been found in
writings dating back to 800 BC. It is cultivated throughout India, mainly in temple gardens, because of
its status as a sacred tree; also in Pakistan and northern Malaysia, the drier areas of Java, and to a
limited extent on northern Luzon in the Philippine Islands where it first fruited in 1914. It is grown in
some Egyptian gardens, and in Surinam and Trinidad. Seeds were sent from Lahore in 1909 [20].
The tree grows wild in dry forests of the Indian subcontinent and south of the Himalaya region. In
Cambodia a roadside tree.[4] In India A. marmelos, the golden apple, occurs scattered in dry, open
forests [4,5].

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K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
Occurs wild in dry forests and less disturbed forests; a hardy, subtropical species tolerating
temperature extremes from minus 7 to plus 49 ºC, growing in swampy as well as dry soils. It flowers
and fruits well only where there is a pronounced dry season, it is a xerophytic tree [6,9]. A. marmelos
grows from 0-1200 m, with mean annual precipitation ranging from 500 to 4000mm/ m², distributed
evenly over two seasons. However, the tree will survive up to 8 months of dry season. While mean
annual temperature may vary between 13ºC and 32ºC, the mean of the hottest month may vary from
30ºC-43ºC, minimum for the coldest month varying between 4ºC and 22ºC. The absolute minimum
temperatures cover an astonishing range of minus 1ºC to minus 22ºC [12].

L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
not determined

M. soil and site conditions :
A tolerant species, grows on wet as well as dry soils [6]. A. marmelos prefers that soil texture is in the
range medium to heavy, but that free drainage prevails, tolerating seasonal waterlogging. Soil
reaction should be neutral or slightly alkaline, while the soil may be shallow. The species will survive
drought, shade and even frost for a limited time [12]. Soil type: A. marmelos is said to do best on rich,
well-drained soil, but it has grown well and fruited on the oolitic limestone of southern Florida. It also
grows well in swampy, stony or even very alkaline soils having a pH range from 5 to 8. In India it has
the reputation of thriving where other fruit trees cannot survive [20].

N. Utilization and importance :
[Wood]: Wood suitable for small implements like handles; also suitable as firewood [4,9, 17]; if large
enough suitable for round wood; posts; stakes; piles; building poles; roundwood structures; wood
ware; industrial and domestic wood ware; toys; turnery; furniture; wood based materials, fuelwood and
charcoal [12,17]. Normal use is for carving and small turnery, handles of implements, for pestles and
combs; it can be finely polished [27].
[Non-Wood]: The gum in which seeds are embeddedis most abundant in wild fruit, particularly when
these are still unripe. It is widely used as a household glue while jewelers like it as an adhesive in their
professional work. Occasionally it is used in replacement of soap [27]. Another application is as
additive to plaster used in waterproofing wells but also added to cement when building walls. Artist
mix it with their water colors and use it as a protective coating for paintings [27].
It is cultivated throughout India, mainly in temple gardens, because of its status as a sacred tree; also
in Pakistan and northern Malaysia
A fruit tree, cultivated mostly on Indian subcontinent; ripe fruit is eaten fresh, processed in drinks,
sherbet, syrup or jam; or cut in slices and dried for later use. From mucilage around unripe fruit a

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household glue is prepared, used as adhesive in jewellery shops. Decorative boxes made from hard
fruit shell and from the wood [6,9].
A. marmelos fruits may be cut in half, or the soft types broken open, and the pulp, dressed with palm
sugar, eaten for breakfast, as is a common practice in Indonesia. The pulp is often processed as
nectar. Beating the seeded pulp together with milk and sugar makes a popular drink called sherbet in
India. A beverage is also made by combining bael fruit pulp with that of tamarind [20].
Mature but still unripe fruits are made into jam, with the addition of citric acid. A confection, bael fruit
toffee, is prepared by combining the pulp with sugar, glucose, skimmed milk powder and
hydrogenated fat. Indian food technologists view the prospects for expanded bael fruit processing as
highly promising [20].
The young leaves and shoots are eaten as a vegetable in Thailand and used to season food in
Indonesia. They are said to reduce the appetite. An infusion of the flowers is a cooling drink. The food
value per 100 g of fresh bael fruit as analyzed in India and the Philippines is: water 54.96-61.5 g,
protein 1.8-2.62 g, fat 0.2-0.39 g, carbohydrates 28.11-31.8 g, ash 1.04-1.7 g, carotene55 mg,
thiamine 0.13 mg, riboflavin1.19 mg, niacin 1.1 mg, ascorbic acid 8-60 mg and tartaric acid 2.11 mg
[20].
A pungent, mycotoxic oil is extracted from the fruit rind and used in perfumery and soap making [9].
The essential oil of the leaves contains d-limonene, 56% a-d-phellandrene, cineol, citronellal, citral;
17% p-cyrnene, 5% cumin aldehyde. The limonene-rich oil has been distilled from the rind for
scenting hair oil [20].
Tannin or dyestuff: There is as much as 9% tannin in the pulp of wild fruits, less in the cultivated
types. The rind contains up to 20%. Tannin is also present in the leaves. The rind of the unripe fruit is
employed in tanning and also yields a yellow dye for calico and silk fabrics [9,20].
The leaves and twigs are lopped for fodder. [20].
May be used as living hedge because of the spiny branches [9].
Medicine: Leaves, bark, pulp and fruit used in local medicine The leaves are said to cause abortion
and sterility in women. The bark is used as a fish poison in Celebes. Tannin, ingested frequently and
in quantity over a long period of time, is antinutrient and carcinogenic. Leaf extract from A. marmelos
has been found to have insecticidal activity against the brown plant hopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål),
an important pest of rice plants in Asia [9,20].
A decoction of the unripe fruit, with fennel and ginger, is prescribed in cases of hemorrhoids. It has
been surmised that the psoralen in the pulp increases tolerance of sunlight and aids in the maintaining
of normal skin color. It is employed in the treatment of leucoderma. Marmelosin derived from the pulp
is given as a laxative and diuretic. In large doses, it lowers the rate of respiration, depresses heart
action and causes sleepiness. For medicinal use, the young fruits, while still tender, are commonly
sliced horizontally and sun-dried and sold in local markets. They are much exported to Malaysia and
Europe.

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Because of the astringency, especially of the wild fruits, the unripe bael is most prized as a means of
halting diarrhea and dysentery, which are prevalent in India in the summer months [20].
There is as much as 9% tannin in the pulp of wild fruits, less in the cultivated types. The rind contains
up to 20%. Tannin is also present in the leaves. The rind of the unripe fruit is employed in tanning and
also yields a yellow dye for calico and silk fabrics [20].
Other products: The fruit pulp has detergent action and has been used for washing clothes. The shell
of hard fruits has been fashioned into pill- and snuff boxes, sometimes decorated with gold and silver.
A cologne is obtained by distillation from the flowers. In the Hindu culture, the leaves are
indispensable offerings to the 'Lord Shiva' [20]. The tree is very sacred in the Hindu religion.
[4,5,6,9,12,19,20]
Aegle marmelos is a species highly adaptable to different environmental conditions. It provides basic
materials for tanning and medicinal applications and fruit as supplement to daily food. This makes it a
suitable component of agroforestry landuse [12].

O. Cambodian wood classification :
not included

P. Silviculture and management :
Stand establishment promises most success by using planting stock or, where available, wildlings A.
marmelos is able to form suckers, to coppice and regenerate rapidly, however, it is not a plantaton
tree in the common sense [12].

Q. Propagation :
Aegle marmelos is planted in low numbers as fruit and cultural tree, by seeds, which are regarded as
recalcitrant [12], or by dividing suckers [9]. Aegle marmelos is commonly grown from seed in
nurseries and transplanted into the field. Seedlings show great variation in form, size, texture of rind,
quantity and quality of pulp and number of seeds. The flavor ranges from disagreeable to pleasant.
Therefore, superior types must be multiplied vegetatively. Experimental shield-budding onto related
species of Afraegle and onto Swinglea glutinosa Merr. has been successful. Occasionally, air-layers
or root cuttings have been used for propagation [20].

R. Hazards and protection :
The bael fruit seems to be relatively free from pests and diseases except for the fungi causing
deterioration in storage [20].

S. Conservation :
Not a threatened species [9].

T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :
Unknown

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U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
Indian Subcontinent, southern Himalayas, native; Indochina to Indonesia and Philippines, introduced
and naturalized [12].

V. Miscellaneous
4
:
Rutaceae belong to an order of 16 families known as Sapindales. Aegle belongs to the subfamily of
Aurantioideae which includes the three genera Citrus, Fortunella and Poncirus. Citrus is the most
important genus with 60 mostly cultivated species, among them: lemon (Citrus limon), the citron (C.
medica), the sour or Seville orange (C.aurantium), the edible or sweet orange (C.sinensis), the
mandarins, satsumas, and tangerines (C. reticulata), the limes (C. aurantifolia), and the grapefruit (C.
paradisi). Lesser known fruits include the qumquats, belonging to the genus Fortunella, and the
inedible trifoliate orange, Poncirus trifoliata [11].
Only one species of the Rutaceae has any value as timber, yielding valuable hardwoods, namely the
West Indian Silkwood, Xanthoxylum flavum.[11]

W. Further readings
5
:
Ahmal,I., Kaur, A.1998: Study on minor seed oils. Journal of Oil Tech. Association of India. 30(3),
114-116, 15 ref.
Alam, M.M., Siddiqui, M.B., Husain,W. 1990: Treatment of diabetes through herbal drugs in rural
India. Fitoterapia 61(3) 240-242, 2 ref.
Ganguli, L.K. 1994: Fungitoxic effect of certain plant extracts against rice blast ( Pyriaelaria oryzae)
and brown spot pathogen (Helminthosporium oryzae): Environment and Ecology 12(3) 731-733, 10
ref.
Singh RV, 1982. Fodder trees of India. Fodder trees of India., xv + 663 pp.; 34 pp. ref.
Singh SP, 1989. Wasteland development. Wasteland development., xx + 227 pp.; 96 ref.
Troup RS, Joshi HB, 1981. Troup's The Silviculture of Indian Trees. Volume III. Delhi, India; Controller
of Publications.
Verheij EWM, Coronel RE, 1991. Plant resources of South-East Asia. No. 2. Edible fruits and nuts.
Plant resources of South-East Asia. No. 2. Edible fruits and nuts., 446 pp.; [and fig.]; many ref.
Maikhuri, R.K., Semval, R.L., Singh,A.m and Nautiyal, M.C. 1994: Wild fruit as a contribution to
sustainable rural development - a case study from the Garhwal Himalaya. Int. J. of Sust. Dev.& World
Ecology 1(1) 56-58, 19 ref.
Singh, S.P. 1992: Budding in some frruit crops - a review. Advances in Horticulture and Forestry 2:
84-97, 36 ref.




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X. References:
4) Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House;
Phnom Penh, 915 pp.
5) Gardner, S., Sidisunthorn, P. and Vilaiwan Anursarnsunthorn, 2000: A Field Guide to Forest
Trees of Northern Thailand. CMU Herbarium Biology Dept. University of Chiang Mai, Thailand; 546
pp.
6) Jensen, M. 2001:Trees and Fruit of Southeast Asia. An illustrated field guide. Orchid Press,
Bangkok; 224 pp.
9) Barwick, M., 2004: Tropical and Subtropical Trees: A Worldwide Encyclopaedic Guide.
Thames& Hudson Ltd. London. 484 pp.
12) CABI Forestry Compendium 2003 (on CD)
11) Heywood, V.D. (Ed.) 1993: Flowering Plants of the World. Oxford University Press, New York;
336 pp.
17) Sosef, M.S.M., Hong, L.T., and S. Prawirohatmodjo (Eds.) 1998: Plant Resources of
Southeast Asia 5(3) Timber trees: Lesser known timbers. Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia, 859
pp.
19) Rehm, S. and G. Espig 1991: The cultivated Plants of the Tropics and Subtropics. Josef
Margraf Publ., Scientific Books; Weikersheim, Germany, 552 pp.
20) Salim AS, Simons AJ, Orwa C, Chege J, Ovuor,B, and Mutua A, 2002: Agroforestree
Database. World Agroforestry Centre (on CD ).
27)http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/
BotanicList.
asp




Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Afzelia xylocarpa (Kurz) Craib]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Afzelia xylocarpa (Kurz) Craib]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Afzelia xylocarpa (Kurz) Craib
B. English name (s) ³ No name available.
C. Synonym ³ Afzelia siamica Craib. [1], Pahudia cochinchinensis Pierre
[3], Pahudia xylocarpa Kurz. [13], Afzelia cochinchinensis
(Pierre) J. Leonard [6], Afzelia siamica Craib [2]
D. Other
1
³ mai te kha, tae kha, kha, go ca te, kha te kha (Laos) [1, 6,
13] - go do, c[af]te, g[ox]d[or], g[ox]t[of]te (Vietnam) [1, 6,
13]- makha-mong, makhaa-hau-kham, makhaa-laung,
makhaa-mong, makhaa-yai (Thailand) [1, 6, 13]

E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³: ebg
Source: [9]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ beng [3], kheng [6]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Fabales
Family: Fabaceae [2]/ Leguminosae [5]
Sub-Family: Caesalpinioidae [12]
Gunus: Afzelia J.E. Smith
Species: Afzelia xylocarpa (Kurz) Craib
Source :[ 2,5]




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H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: A. xylocarpa is a large deciduous, broad-leaved tree species that can reach a height up to
30 m [1] (15-20 sometimes up to 30 m [3, 4, 5, 6]). The stem is branchless for 6-9 m [7, 13] and may
reach a DBH of 80-150 cm [1] (average DBH: 60-100 cm [5], 150-200 cm [7], more than 100 cm [13]).
It has a tendency to be crooked and forked and often produces buttresses. The roots show up on the
ground. The crown is broad and rounded with big and angular branches.
[Bark]: The outer bark is greyish-yellow and rough, with many brown holes. The inner bark is reddish
and forms burls when cut.
[Leaves]: The leaves are pinnate, with 3-5 pairs [1] of rounded, oval and hairless leaflets which are 5-
6 cm long [3, 4] (5-9 cm long [1, 7]) and 4-5 cm wide [1].
[Flowers]: The inflorescence (=panicle) bears flowers which are small, with 7-8 fertile (=male organs)
up to 3 cm long [1] and 3 sterile stamens which are shorter. In Vietnam it flowers in March-April [1].
[Fruit]: The tree fruits in September-December [1] (October-December [13], March -May [3]). There is
a masting period every two years. The fruit (=woody pod) is 15-20 cm long and 7-9 cm wide [1],
elliptical-oblong, lignified when mature and of black color. It is dehiscent (=opening spontaneously
when ripe) but can remain for a long time on the tree before it opens. The seeds are large, ovoid,
trasversally arranged, shiny black or dark brown with a thick seed coat. There are 110-160 seeds per
kg [1].
[1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 13]

I. Wood properties:
[Wood Properties]: Afzelia wood is heavy and hard. The heartwood is reddish-yellow, red to dirty red-
brown, often with some streaks, and distinctive from the grey-white sapwood. The wood is diffuse-
porous with a density of 0.85-0.9 g/cm³ at 15% moisture content (basic specific gravity: 0.4-0.75 g/cm³
[12]). "The texture is moderately fine to moderately coarse. Planed surfaces are often glossy. The
wood seasons well only with little shrinkage and warping. It is moderately difficult to work, but easy in
comparison with other high-density woods. The wood takes a high finish. It is very durable with a
durability under exposure of about 10 years in tropical conditions. Other wood properties: "For A.
xylocarpa at 15% moisture content, the modulus of rupture is 95-125 N/mm², compression parallel to
grain 53-65 N/mm² and shear about 17 N/mm²" [7].
[7, 12]

J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
Approximate limits: 29°N to 10°N [6]. Afzelia xylocarpa is a tree species which occurs on well-drained
flatlands or transitional zones between evergreen and dry open dipterocarp forest in mixed deciduous
forests that stretch from Eastern India across Myanmar to Thailand, Cambodia and Laos. "The upper
canopy layer may reach 30 m or more, a secondary tree layer ranges between 10 and 20 m. Tree
canopies are usually closed and the portion of deciduous trees varies, but is above 50%. Teak
(Tectona grandis) can be the dominant species, increasing the economic importance of these forests"

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[14]. Other typical species are Xylia spp., Terminalia spp., Dalbergia oliveri, Pterocarpus
macropcarpus, Pentacme spp., Dipterocarpus turbinatus, Tetrameles nudiflora or Lagerstroemia
calyculata. It is also found in lowland primary forest. Trees occur rather scattered manner and do not
usually form pure stands.
[3, 4, 6, 7, 14]

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
In its natural area of distribution, it grows within an altitude range of 100-650 m a.s.l. [1] (100-600 m
[7], 500–700 m and 900 m [3], above 900 m [4]). It occurs in areas with a uniform rainfall regime with
1,000-1,500 mm/year [1, 6], a dry season of 5-6 months [6]. The mean annual temperature is 20-32ºC
[6], the mean maximum temperature of hottest month is about 27-39ºC [6] while the mean minimum
temperature of coldest month ranges from 12 to 24ºC [6]. The absolute minimum temperature is
>10ºC [6]. A. xylocarpa is a light demanding species but tolerates shade when young.
[1, 4, 6, 7]

L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
Coastal Cardamoms (A), Northern Cardamoms (B), Tonle Sap Floodplain (C), Redlands (c),
Northwestern Lowlands (D), Central Lowlands (d), Central Annamites (G).
[3]

[Seed Source Locations (Projection: UTM; Horizontal Datum: Indian coordinates)]:
Siem Reap (X:420907 Y:1498999), Siem Reap (X:422400 Y:1496105), Siem Reap (X:425135
Y:1492386), Kampong Thom (X:556470 Y:1461143), Kampong Thom (X:572874 Y:1397114), Preah
Vihear (X:507787 Y:1517235), Kratie (X:623145 Y:1419868), Kratie (X:601979 Y:1431509), Kratie
(X:606212 Y:1452676), Kratie (X:621558 Y:1465905), Kratie (X:614679 Y:1442622), Stung Treng
(X:571022 Y:1491570), Kratie (X:583722 Y:1425953), Kratie (X:587427 Y:1382032), Kampong Thom
(X:528689 Y:1436007), Battambang (X:271513 Y:1423836), Battambang (X:295855 Y:1402670),
Ratanak Kiri (X:711945 Y:1539248), Ratanak Kiri (X:710612 Y:1544801), Ratanak Kiri (X:709279
Y:1548799), Ratanak Kiri (X:733268 Y:1516148), Ratanak Kiri (X:734156 Y:1489717), Ratanak Kiri
(X:687735 Y:1516148), Battambang (X:254662 Y:1422695), Battambang (X:236107 Y:1421490),
Battambang (X:260445 Y:1393055), Battambang (X:250325 Y:1397393), Siem Reap (X:399052
Y:1513164), Ratanak Kiri (X:704001 Y:1504648), Stung Treng (X:641566 Y:1522661), Stung Treng
(X:587469 Y:1496461), Ratanak Kiri (X:721623 Y:1515900), Ratanak Kiri (X:704001 Y:1504648),
Kampong Thom (X:556986 Y:1403858), Stung Treng (X:661468 Y:1524695), Kampot (X:427602
Y:1215256), Stung Treng (X:589200 Y:1518300), Pursat (X:354350 Y:1348650), Preah Vihear
(X:513675 Y:1536861), Mondul Kiri (X:714256 Y:1349031).
[3]




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M. soil and site conditions :
It thrives on well-drained flats or on slopes with a deep, loamy soil, or sand on clayey or laterite soils
with a neutral pH.
[5, 6, 7]

N. Utilization and importance :
[Wood]: The hard and durable wood is highly valuable especially in Thailand. The wood is used in
various ways, for round wood, building poles, sawn or hewn building timbers, for heavy and light
construction, beams, flooring, wall panelling, shingles, engineering structures, bridges, railway
sleepers, woodware, industrial and domestic woodware, tool handles, musical instruments, wood
carvings, furniture, veneers, boats, vehicle bodies, wood based materials, plywood, fuelwood and
charcoal. The wood burls are specially valued because they form beautiful figures when the wood is
being cut. The wood is so valuable that it is sold by kilograms.
[1, 3 ,5 ,6 ,7 ,13]
[Non-wood]: The bark of A. xylocarpa contains the chemical substances catechol and pyrogallol which
have tanning properties and are used for tanning hides and skins. The bark is also used in local
medicine and veterinary medicine. The fatty cotyledons of young seeds are edible and used for
vegetable oil/fat. The seed pulp serves as an adhesive for cigarettes.
[4, 6, 7]
[Others]: "The tree has been planted in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh city zoo-park as an ornamental tree"
[5]. It is nitrogen fixing and suitable in agroforestry and for soil improvement.
[1, 5, 6]

O. Cambodian wood classification :
Luxury. [3]

P. Silviculture and management :
[General]: Afzelia xylocarpa is a light demanding tree species that occurs on well-drained flatlands or
in transitional zones between dense evergreen and dry open dipterocarp forest in mixed deciduous
forests. "The upper canopy layer may reach 30 m or more, a secondary tree layer ranges from 10 to
20 m. Tree canopies are usually closed and the portion of deciduous trees varies, but is above 50
percent. Teak (Tectona grandis) can be the dominant species, increasing the economic importance of
these forests" [14]. Other typical species, for example, are Xylia spp., Terminalia spp., Dalbergia
oliveri, Pterocarpus macropcarpus, Pentacme spp., Dipterocarpus turbinatus, Tetrameles nudiflora or
Lagerstroemia calyculata. It is also found in lowland primary forest. Afzelia occurs in a rather
scattered manner and do not usually form pure stands. It has a good coppice potential and fixes
nitrogen for soil improvement.

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[Establishment]: Planting is carried out only on a very small scale, mainly for genetic conservation
purposes. Planting stock or stumps are normally used for stand establishment. In the first years it is
quite shade tolerant.
[Management]: A. xylocarpa has good prospects for economic timber production in plantations but the
supply is limited and there is need for more research on improvement and management.
[1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 13, 14]

Q. Propagation :
Afzelia xylocarpa is propagated by natural regeneration, plantings and vegetatively by air layering,
cuttings or grafting.
[Seed collection and storage]: The fruits ripen from March to May [3]. Seeds are mature when the pod
has turned brown and the seeds are hard and dark colored. Fruits can be collected from the tree by
climbing or from covers on the ground after shaking the branches. It can remain on the ground for
several months without any damage. After collection the pods are dried in the sun on a tarpaulin until
they have all opened. The seeds can be extracted by shaking or beating the fruits in a bag. "It is
uncertain whether it is necessary to remove the aril before storage to avoid fungal attacks. If the seed
is stored with the aril, it is especially important to make sure the seeds are well dried. Removal of the
aril will reduce the bulk with about 25%" [6]. The seeds are orthodox and should be stored at 8-9% [6]
moisture content. Generally germination ability lasts 1-2 years [4] when seeds are stored in low
temperatures. "From Vietnam it has been reported that at room temperature the seeds can only be
expected to store for one year while cold storage at 5-10°C can prolong storage to 2-3 years" [6].
Each kg of seed contains about 110-160 seeds [3].
[1, 3, 4, 6]
[Nursery]: "The seedcoat of this species is so hard that pretreatment with boiling water may not be
sufficient to break the dormancy. Furthermore, the large aril delays germination and must be
removed. By using a sharp knife, it is possible to cut off the aril together with a small chip of the
seedcoat but care must be taken not to damage the radicle. If the seed coat is not scarified while
removing the aril, the seed should be nicked at the opposite end. After cutting, the seeds are soaked
in water for 12 hours before sowing" [6].

R. Hazards and protection :
[Pests]: The seeds are susceptible to insect attacks. Known pests include Aristobia spp., Batocera
spp. and Rhaphuma motschulskyi ganglbauere
[6]
[Diseases]: Fungus diseases are caused by Fusarium oxysporum, Phytophthora spp, Pythium spp.
and Rhizoctonia spp.
[6]
[Others]: No information available.

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S. Conservation :
High levels of timber exploitation and habitat loss are threatening Afzelia xylocarpa. Large trees are
scarce and hard to find. Thus it is in danger of extinction if adequate protection measures are not
implemented. "Within most of its area of distribution, mature trees have been reduced dramatically
and sometimes it is very difficult to find them for seed collection" [3]. This tree species is still exposed
to intensive logging in Cambodia. Planting is carried out only on a very small scale, mainly for genetic
conservation purposes. Therefore this species is considered as endangered (EN A1cd [14]),
according to the IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature) World List of Threatened
Trees (='IUCN Red Databook').
[1, 3, 6, 8, 10, 14]

T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :
Within Cambodia, this species is found in Kampong Thom, Kratie, Stung Treng, Preah Vihear, Siem
Reap, Battambang, Ratanakiri, Mondulkiri, Kampot and Pursat.
[3]

U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
[World Distribution]
[Native]: Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam.
[1, 3, 6, 12, 13]
[Introduced]:
China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan), Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Brunei, Papua, New
Guinea and Solomon Islands
[6, 12]

V. Miscellaneous
4
:
[Production and international trade]: "The production of wood from A. xylocarpa in Thailand was
25,000 m³ in 1985, 28,000 m³ in 1986, 40,000 m³ in 1987, and 34,000 m³ in 1988. The wood is mostly
used domestically to produce furniture and parquetry. The average price of sawn Afzelia timber in
Thailand was US$ 430/m³ in 1985 and 1986, increasing to US$ 715/m³ in 1988. Production and trade
figures are not available from other countries. Afzelia timber is not important in the trade in South-East
Asia except for Thailand" [7].

W. Further readings
5
:
Choldumrongkul A, Wasuwanich P, 1994. Insect boring of Afzelia xylocarpa Craib seed and its effect
on seed germination. In: Proceeding of the Forestry Conference, Surat thani. Thailand: Royal Forest
Department, 179-189.
[6]


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National Academy of Sciences, 1979. Tropical legumes: resources for the future. Tropical legumes:
resources for the future., 328pp., [ref. at ends of chapters].
[6]

Nagamura S, Pitpreecha K, Visaratana T, Kiratiprayoon S, Ganpinyo S, Phathong S, 1991. Growth of
Afzelia xylocarpa, Dipterocarpus alatus, Hopea odorata, Dalbergia cochinchinensis seedlings planted
under different relative light intensities created by artificial shading cages. In: Research Activities and
Achievements of the Forest Ecology Section, Royal Forest Department, Bangkok, Thailand, 93-102.
[6]

Pitpreecha, K., Kiratiprayoon, S., Ganpinyo, S., Sornsathapornkul, P., 1993. Afzelia xylocarpa. In:
Forest tree species planting. Bangkok, Thailand: Royal Forest Department, 144-150.
[6]

Piananuruk C, 1994. Cutting position and coppicing ability of Afzelia xylocarpa seedlings. In:
Supplementary papers of the National Forest Conference, Surat thani, Thailand, 21-25 November
1994 (Boontawee B, ed.). Bangkok, Thailand: Royal Forest Department, 31-35.
[6]

Smittinand T, 1980. Thai plants (botanical names-vernacular names). Bangkok, Thailand: Royal
Forest Department.
[6]

Switachart S, 1972. A study on seed germination of Makha Mong (Afzelia xylocarpa) by soaking in
different concentrations of sulphuric acid. Technical Bulletin, Royal Forest Department, Thailand, No.
R.138:5-10, 3 ref.
[6]
X. References:
[1] DANIDA, 2002: Seed Leaflet - www.dfsc.dk/pdf/Seedleaflets (Internet source)

[2] ECOPORT: http://ecoport.org/ep (Internet source)


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[3] CTSP, 2003: Forest Gene Conservation Strategy - Gene Conservation Strategy, Species
Monographs, Gene Ecological Zonation, Species Site Matching Model. (CD-ROM).

[4] Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.

[5] Lehmann L. et al., 2003: Forests and trees of the central Highlands of Xieng Khounang, Lao
P.D.R.

[6] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).

[7] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4, 5(1), 6-8. (CD-ROM).

[8] FAO: The State of Forest Management and Conservation in Cambodia -
http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/DOCREP/005/AC648E/ac648e04.htm
(Internet source)

[9] CTSP/DANIDA, 2004: List of Tree Species. 7pp.

[10] Omaliss, K. and Monyrak, M., 2006: Threatened Species Listing in Cambodia

[11] Bertram, A., 2006: Own observations.

[12] Inside wood - http://Inside Wood_A.xylocarpa.htm (Internet source)

[13] Sam, Hoang Van; Nanthavong, Khamseng; Kessler, P.J.A., 2004: Trees of Laos and Vietnam: a
field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important species. BLUMEA.

[14] Stibig, H-J. and Beuchle, R., 2003: Forest Cover Map of Continental Southeast Asia at
1:4,000,000. TREES Publications Series D: Thematic outputs no. 4.


Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Albizia lucidior (Steudel) I.C. Nielsen, Albizia gamblei Prain]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Albizia lucidior (Steudel) I.C. Nielsen, Albizia gamblei Prain]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Albizia lucidior (Steudel) I.C. Nielsen [4,5, 21]
Albizia gamblei Prain2
B. English name (s) ³
C. Synonym ³ Albizia lucida Benth., Inga lucidior Steud. (basionym),
Mimosa lucida Roxb. Albizia meyeri Ricker, Albizia gamblei
Prain [22].
D. Other
1
³ eBaF×ebg

E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³
Source: [-]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ pôôh bé: ng [ 4]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Leguminales
Family: Mimosaceae
Gunus: Albizia Durazz. [17]
Species: Albizia lucidior (Steudel) I.C.
Nielsen [4,21]
Source :[5 ; 17]





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H. Botanical characteristics :
Preliminary remark on the Genus Albizia: It comprises 150 species which occur in Africa,
Madagascar, tropical America and Asia. It is found throughout tropical Asia and 20 species are
indigenous within the Malesian region. Albizia is frequently planted as a shade tree for various crops
like tea or coffee and to improve soil fertility, occasionally as an ornamental tree. Only for the most
frequently occurring and traded species are technological and botanical data available [17].
[General]: Large deciduous tree, up to 30-45m high,[4,5] , with dark green crown;
[Bark]: Thin, grey, with many lenticels [5]..
[Leaves]: 1-2 pairs of side stalks, each with 1-4 pairs of leaflets. 5-10x2-4 cm, rarely to 14x5 cm; top
ones largest, narrowed at both ends; completely smooth, dark green and shiny above [5].
[Flower): Small heads of 6-10 flowers gathered into branched clusters at the ends of twigs, 10-40 cm.
Side flowers with stalks, 0.5-2.0 mm, calyx 1.5-3.0 mm with shallow teeth; corolla 5-7 mm, stamens
about 25 mm; central flower different from others [5].
[Fruit]: 10-30x2.5-3.5 cm, pale yellow or golden brown, very thin, smooth and rather glossy; 2-10
circular dark-brown seeds [5].

I. Wood properties:


J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
Temperate Asia: Cina Guangxi and Yunnan Provinces [21];
Tropical Asia: Bhutan, India, Nepal, INdochina, Burma, Thailand [21
India and Himalayas, South China, Burma, Indochina, [4], Northern Thailand [5].
A. lucidior occurs in evergreen or deciduous forests [4]. Albizia spp. are usually found scattered or in
small groups as a pioneer in open, secondary vegetation or in primary, deciduous or monsoon forest,
savanna and scrub vegetation, from sea level up to 1700 m elevation a.s.l. They occur in areas with a
seasonal climate, often on sandy soils or otherwise well-drained locations [17].

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
A.lucidior does not occurabove 1200 m elevation, usually in evergreen or deciduous forests [4].

L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
not determined

M. soil and site conditions :
Several species of Albizia can be planted in rocky and shallow sites with a pronounced dry season of
at least 4 months [17].


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N. Utilization and importance :
(Wood]: Used in construction [4], suitable as firewood (17)
[Non-Wood]: Shade tree, more noticeable in tea orchards where it is often left standing because of its
thin crown and soil improving qualities. Not a common tree and easily missed in the dense upper
canopy of evergreen forests, more noticeable in tea (miang) orchards where it is often left because of
its thin crown and soil improving qualities [5] A. lucidior is one of the many understorey Albizia trees,
of ecological but not of economic significance beyond the local level.

O. Cambodian wood classification :
not included

P. Silviculture and management :


Q. Propagation :


R. Hazards and protection :
not an endangered species

S. Conservation :


T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :
unknown

U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
Asia and Southest Asia, from India to Indochina, native

V. Miscellaneous
4
:
This species, Albizia lucidior, is one of 118 species indigenous or introduced in Asia; it is not a
common tree. [5].

W. Further readings
5
:
PROSEA 5/3 p.58-60: Sosef, M.S.M., Hong, L.T., and S. Prawirohatmodjo (Eds.) 1998: Plant
Resources of Southeast Asia 5(3) Timber trees: Lesser known timbers. Prosea Foundation, Bogor,
Indonesia, 859 pp.

X. References:
4) Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House; Phnom Penh,. 915 pp.


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5) Gardner, S., Sidisunthorn, P. and Vilaiwan Anursarnsunthorn, 2000: A Field Guide to Forest
Trees of Northern Thailand. CMU Herbarium Biology Dept. University of Chiang Mai, Thailand; 546
pp.

17) Sosef, M.S.M., Hong, L.T., and S. Prawirohatmodjo (Eds.) 1998: Plant Resources of
Southeast Asia 5(3) Timber trees: Lesser known timbers. Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia, 859
pp.

20) Salim AS, Simons AJ, Orwa C, Chege J, Ovuor,B, and Mutua A, 2002: Agroforestree
Database. World Agroforestry Centre (on CD).


21) Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN):
http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?313246. Internet source

22) International Legume Database and Information Service (ILDIS).
http://www.ildis.org/LegumeWeb?sciname=Albizia+lucidior. Internet source


Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth
B. English name (s) ³ East Indian walnut, acacia amarilla, English woman's
tongue, fry wood, Indian siris, lebbeck, siris tree, woman's
tongue tree [2]
C. Synonym ³ Acacia lebbeck (L.) Willd., Mimosa lebbeck L. [2],
Mimosa lebbek Blanco., Mimosa sirissa Roxb. [8]
D. Other
1
³ kokko (Trade name) [8] - lebbek (Ethiopia) [8] - daqn el-
Basha, dign el basha, labakh, laebach, lebbek (Arabia) [8] -
sirish, sirisha (Bangladesh) [8] - kokko (Myanmar) [8] -
aninapla, langil (Philippines) [8] - bois noir, bois savane, tcha
tcha (France) [8] - siris, sirs, sirisha (India) [8] - kitoke, tarisi,
tekik (Indonesia) [8] - batai, batai batu, kungkur, oriang
(Malaysia) [8] - kalo siris (Nepal) [8] - acacia chach algarroba
de olor, amor plantico, aroma, aroma fracesca, cabellos de
gel, faurestina, florestina, lengua de mujer, lengua viperina
(Spain) [8] - mkingu (East Africa) [8] - vagai, vagei (Sri
Lanka) [8] - ka `sê (Laos) [8] - cha kham, chamchuri, kampu,
ka se, khago, phruek, suek (Thailand) [1, 8] - bô kêt tây,
h[owj]p hoan, lim xanh, s[os]ng r[aaj]n, trât (Vietnam) [1, 8]

E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³ eRcs
Source: [-]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ chrehs [1], chreh [8]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Leguminosales / Fabales
Family: Fabaceae / Mimosaceae [5]
Source :[ -]


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H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]:Medium to fast-growing, deciduous tree with a height at maturity of up to 30 m [2] and a
DBH of up to 100 cm [2] (maximum). The tree form is fair (in rain forest) to poor (in open pasture)
[Bark]: The bark is grey-violet with rusty brown breathing pores, rough and fissured.
[Leaves]: The leaves are compound, bipinnate, hairless or slightly hairy on the axis. Leaflets in 2-4
pairs, each with 2-11 smaller pairs of oblong leaflets 15-45 x 8-22 mm, shortly stalked. Hairless
glands are raised, elliptical to circular, on the upper side of the stalk close to the base and between
most pairs of leaflets.
[Flowers]: The flower appears shortly after new leaves, white, heavily scented, with the stamens
(=male organ) free above the corolla, in heads 18-36 mm across excluding the stamens, on a stout
stalk 5-7.5 cm long, appearing singly or in small clusters in the leaf axils and in terminal panicles.
Stamens 30-40, yellowish-green on top side, white underside, up to 5 cm long. Flower-stalks up to 5
mm long. The corolla tube is 1 cm long. Flowers are bisexual (=hermaphroditic). In its natural habitat,
flowering occurs from September to October. Flowering (Laos, Vietnam): March to July [4]. Fruiting
(Laos, Vietnam): April to August [4].
[Fruits]: The fruits (=pods) are of pale-straw to light brown color at maturity, narrow-oblong, 15-26 x 3-
5 cm, papery, leathery, flat and not raised or constricted between seeds. Seeds brown, flat, orbicular
or elliptical, 8-10 x 6-7 mm, crosswise placed with 6-12 in each pod. Mature pods remain on the tree
for long periods and are available between May-July.
[2, 4, 8]

I. Wood properties:
The wood is yellow-brown, with a very distinct boundary between heartwood and sapwood. The
sapwood is pale, the heartwood is dark brown with black streaks and very decorative. It is moderately
heavy and hard, strong and fairly durable, with a specific gravity of 0.5-0.6 g/cm³. The wood seasons
well, works and polishes easily.
[6, 8]

J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
Approximate limits: 31°N to 16°S [5]. A. lebbeck grows in tropical and subtropical Asia and Africa, but
was widely introduced and cultivated all over the tropics. A. lebbeck is a dominant species in semi-
deciduous microphyll vine thicket (monsoon forest) on screes of quartz sandstone mountains and on
the banks of riverine sites, on stabilized dunes or low lateritic ledges above the beach. It also thrives
in broadleaved evergreen forests, coastal plant communities, deciduous forests, moist forests, rain
forests and is in general common in open forests.
[3, 4, 5, 8]
K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
This species occurs between 0-1,800 m a.s.l. [8] (0-750 m a.s.l. [4], 0-1,100 m a.s.l.) in areas with a
mean annual rainfall of 1,300-1,500 mm [8] (500-2,500 mm [5]) and a very dry winter. Mean annual

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temperature: 19-35°C [8] (10-37°C [2]). After the first year it can withstand cold winters and long, hot,
dry periods which can be 2 to 6 months long [2] (2-7 months [5]).
[2, 4, 5, 8]

L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
Coastal Cardamons (A), Central Lowlands (d), Central Annamites (G).
[7]
[Seed Source Locations (Projection: UTM; Horizontal Datum: Indian coordinates)]:
Stung Treng (X:613356 Y:1530728), Stung Treng (X:597481 Y:1469874), Ratanak Kiri (X:698999
Y:1507507), Ratanak Kiri (X:704310 Y:1548543), Battambang (X:269027 Y:1440093), Preah Vihear
(X:474543 Y:1582237), Kampong Thom (X:552057 Y:1410894), Stung Treng (X:662546 Y:1523018),
Koh Kong (X:332360 Y:1266062), Stung Treng (X:589200 Y:1518300).
[7]

M. soil and site conditions :
A. lebbeck grows well on a variety of soils, best on deep, fertile, well-drained loamy soils with a pH of
5.5-7.5, but poorly on heavy clays. Tolerates acidity, alkalinity, heavy and eroded soils and
waterlogged soils. Examples of soil types include, shallow sandy soils, laterite and loam laterite. The
species occurs on soils overlying basalt and among sandstone boulders and basalt outcrops on
breakaway slopes.
[2, 8]

N. Utilization and importance :
[Wood]: Used for veneer, roundwood, furniture, posts, sawn or hewn building timber and light
construction (flooring, panelling), box containers, industrial and domestic woodware, vehicle bodies,
pulp and paper and charcoal. It is also used for making agricultural implements and mine props. A.
lebbeck is an excellent fuelwood species with a calorific value of 5,200 kcal/g [8].
[5, 8, 11]
[Non-wood]: Albizzia is an excellent fodder tree. "The open canopy allows light penetrations for good
grass yields even in low rainfall areas" [2]. "The leaves contain 17-26% crude protein. 100 kg of
leaves yield 11-12 kg of digestible protein, and 37 kg of digestible carbohydrates" [8]. The pods
contain saponin and are not eaten in large amounts by sheep, although cattle eat them readily. The
fragrant flowers are highly regarded by bee-keepers for the light-coloured honey its nectar provides.
The trunk yields a reddish gum that is used as an adulterant of gum arabic. The bark is used locally in
India for tanning fishing nets (tannin content of 7-11% [8]). Leaves and seeds are used as medicine
for eye problems, and the bark to treat boils. Saponin from pods and roots has spermicidal activity.

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When dried and pounded, the bark can be used for soap. It is also used for mulches, lac and green
manures.
[2, 5, 8]
[Others]:
Erosion control: "Due to its extensive, fairly shallow root system, A. lebbek is a good soil binder and is
recommended for eroded lands and erosion control, for example along river embankments" [8].
Shade or shelter: "The species is commonly grown as a shade tree in pastures, tea, coffee and
cardamom plantations, and along avenues. It can be planted in exposed coastal situations and as
quick-growing shelter for less hardy plants" [8].
Nitrogen fixing: "A. lebbeck is not Rhizobium specific, and native strains are nearly always capable of
producing an abundance of nodules" [8].
Soil improver: "The nitrogen-rich leaves are valuable as mulch and green manure. Ornamental: In
India A. lebbeck is often planted along roads and in homegardens" [8].
The species is of current socio-economic importance in Cambodia (as defined on the National
Workshop on Tree Species Priorities organized by DFW and CTSP in 2000) [11].

O. Cambodian wood classification :
Luxury [3]

P. Silviculture and management :
[General]: A. lebbeck occurs in broadleaved evergreen forests, coastal plant communities, deciduous
forests, moist forests, rain forests, open forests and riparian forests. It is a nitrogen-fixing tree which is
commonly used as a shade tree in tea-, coffee-, and cardamom plantations.
[Establishment]: Typical spacing for fuelwood is 3 x 3 m and 5 x 5 m [8] for timber. Supplementary
watering (10 l/plant [5]) may be required during dry periods in the first year after planting.
[Management]: It coppices well (height: 1-1.5 m/year; basal diameter: 4-6 cm/year [2]), responds to
pollarding, pruning and lopping and will produce root suckers if the roots are exposed. Thinning
should be regulary conducted [5]. Regular weeding of plantings is a standard practice [5]. Fuelwood
plantations spaced at 3 x 3 m and clear felled on a 10-year rotation produce about 50 m³/ha (= 5
m³/ha/year [5]) of stacked fuelwood. "In Queensland, it reaches about 11 m in height and 50 cm DBH
in 30 years. Timber plantations in India clear felled after 25-30 years yield about 10-12 m³/ha per year
of timber, but under semi-arid conditions and on shallow soils, a mean increment of 2-3 m³/ha is
obtained" [8]. "A.lebbeck is probably not productive as a source of fodder under repeated cutting
(more than 2 cuts per year). It does not develop a shrubby habit and is thus not suitable for direct
browsing. However, larger trees can be lopped annually with removal of the entire green crown
without loss of vigour.
[2, 5, 6, 8]


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Q. Propagation :
Propagation is done by using cuttings, air layering and tissue culture. "It is best established using
potted seedlings, although bare-rooted seedlings, direct seeding and stump cuttings have all been
used successfully. Seed pretreatment involves scarification and immersion in boiling hot water then
cooling and soaking for 24 hours, or acid treatment to break seed-coat dormancy. Germination
improves after storage for 2-4 years [8], but satisfactory germination (50-60%) has been obtained
from fresh seeds. Freshly collected seed has about 70% germination capacity after 1-2 months. About
880 pods weigh 1 kg [8] and will yield about 300 g of seed" [8].
[5, 8]

R. Hazards and protection :
[Pests]: Leaf- and bark-feeding caterpillars, sap suckers, wood and seed borers and defoliators such
as psyllids can cause damages. In Nigeria, the striped mealy bug, Ferrisia virgata, harms the tree. In
Southeast Asia, leaves are largely unaffected by insects. Stand establishment can be adversely
affected by grazing of young plants by mice, rabbits and other wildlife.
[6, 8]
[Diseases]: "Root rot, stem cankers, heart rot, spot fungi and rust can damage the tree."
[8]
[Others]: The trees are vulnerable to strong winds and are killed by even light fires. Protection from
grass or weed competition will enhance the establishment
[5, 8].

S. Conservation :
No information available.

T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :
In Cambodia, it is found in Stung Treng, Ratanakiri, Koh Kong, Battambang, Preah Vihear and
Kampong Thom
[7]

U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
[World Distribution]:
[Native]: Australia, Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Thailand [2,
8]
[Introduced]: Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Barbados, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana,
Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile,
Colombia, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia,
Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Honduras, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho,
Liberia, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico, Morocco,

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Mozambique, Namibia, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Rwanda,
Sao Tome et Principe, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, St Lucia, St Vincent and the
Grenadines, Sudan, Surinam, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda,
Uruguay, Venezuela, Virgin Islands (US), Zambia, Zimbabwe
[8]

V. Miscellaneous
4
:
[Agroforestry]: A. lebbeck has good flowers for honey production.
[2]
W. Further readings
5
:
ICRAF. 1992. A selection of useful trees and shrubs for Kenya: Notes on their identification,
propagation and management for use by farming and pastoral communities. ICRAF.
[8]

MacDicken GK. 1994. Selection and management of nitrogen fixing trees. Winrock International, and
Bangkok: FAO.
[8]

NFTA. 1988. Albizia lebbeck - A promising fodder tree for semi-arid regions. NFTA 88-03. Waimanalo.
[8]

Sosef MSM, Hong LT, Prawirohatmodjo S. (eds.). 1998. PROSEA 5(3) Timber trees: lesser known
species. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.
[8]

t Mannetje L, Jones RM. 1992. Plant Resources of South-East Asia. No. 4: Forages. Pudoc Scientific
Publishers, Wageningen.
[8]

Webb DB, Wood PJ, Henman GS. 1984. A guide to species selection for tropical and sub-tropical
plantations. Tropical Forestry Papers No. 15, 2nd edition. Commonwealth Forestry Institute, Oxford
University Press.
[8]

Williams R.O & OBE. 1949. The useful and ornamental plants in Zanzibar and Pemba. Zanzibar
Protectorate.
[8]






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X. References:
[1] Sok, Sokunthet (RUA), 2006: Own obseravations.
[2] Species Fact Sheets (Module 9), 1994: Forestry / Fuelwood Research and Development Project.
Growing Mulltipurpose Trees on Small Farms (2nd ed.). Bangkok, Thailand. Winrock Interational.
320pp.
[3] Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.
[4] Sam, Hoang Van; Nanthavong, Khamseng; Kessler, P.J.A., 2004: Trees of Laos and Vietnam: a
field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important species. BLUMEA.
[5] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM)
[6] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4, 5(1), 6-8. (CD-ROM)
[7] CTSP, Cambodia Tree Seed Project-Institutional Capacity Building of the Tree Seed Sector, 2003:
Forest Gene Conservation Strategy-Part A: Conservation of Forest Genetic Resources. (CD-
ROM).
[8] World Agroforestry Center: AgroForestryTree Database –
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/BotanicSearch.asp (Internet
source)
[9] CTSP, Cambodia Tree Seed Project-Institutional Capacity Building of the Tree Seed Sector, 2003:
Gene-Ecological Zonation of Cambodia. (CD-ROM)
[10] FA/CTSP-DANIDA, 2005: Farmers Tree Planting Manual - Guidelines for Site Selection and Tree
Planting. (CD-ROM)
[11] FAO:
http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/DOCREP/005/AC648E/ac648e04.htm
(Internet source)


Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Albizia myriophylla Benth.]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Albizia myriophylla Benth.]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Albizia myriophylla Benth. [4]
B. English name (s) ³
C. Synonym ³ Albizia thorelii Pierre [4], Albizia microphylla J.F. Macbr.,
Albizia myriophylla Benth. var. foliolosa Baker, Albizia thorelii
Pierre, Albizia vialeana Pierre var. thorelii (Pierre)P.H.Ho,
Mimosa microphylla Roxb. [23]
D. Other
1
³ liane sucrée, bois sucré (French)

E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³ RtnMGaGUt eQIEGm
Source: [-]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ aèm vör, aém chhë [4]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Leguminosales
Family: Mimosaceae
Gunus: Albizia Durrazz.
Species: Albizia myriophylla Benth.
Source :[ 4]


H. Botanical characteristics :
A shrub, upright or climbing, [4]; a perennial, non-climbing shrub [21].

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Except for chemical- medicinal reserachtnis species has found no further interest concerning
botanical and technological information.
I. Wood properties:


J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
All over Southeast Asia, in evergreen or deciduous forests along rivers and creeks [4].
Albizia spp. are usually found scattered or in small groups as a pioneer in open, secondary vegetation
or in primary, deciduous or monsoon forest, savanna and scrub vegetation, from sea level up to 1700
m elevation a.s.l. They occur in areas with a seasonal climate, often on sandy soils or otherwise well-
drained locations [17]. In tropical Asia on Indian Subcontinent: India, in Indochina, Burma, Thailand,
Malaysia [23].

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
tropical climate

L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
not determined

M. soil and site conditions :
Several species of Albizia can be planted in rocky and shallow sites with a pronounced dry season of
at least 4 months. [17]

N. Utilization and importance :
[Wood]: Availabel wood could be used as fuelwood [17].
[Non-Wood]: The bark is sweet and often used as a condiment for cooking. In commerce a so-called
fermentation cake is produced for starting fermentation in the production of rice alcohol.
In medicine the fermentation cake is used in the preparation of medication against cough and
bronchitis. Pounded or chewed leaves are used to stop bleeding [4]. A. myriophylla is one of the many
understorey Albizia trees, of ecological but not of economic significance beyond the local level. In
ecent times A. myriophylla has been the subject of intensive chemical and medical research. The
results were reported by the Sotheast Asian Journal of tropixcal Medicine and Public Health in 2006
[23].

O. Cambodian wood classification :
not included

P. Silviculture and management :



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Q. Propagation :


R. Hazards and protection :


S. Conservation :
not an endangered species

T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :
unknown

U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
Southeast Asia

V. Miscellaneous
4
:
A. myriophylla is one of 118 tropical Albizias, 9 of which occur in northern Thailand. They comprise
mostly deciduous trees with spreading crowns. Here, A. myriophylla is described as a shrub or
climbing tree.
Bark]: Smooth bark without thorns. Other common features within the genus Albizia are:
[Leaves]: Bi-pinnate with opposite leaflets and raised glands along the stalks.
[Flower]: In fluffy heads with many long stamens which are much more obvious than the corolla. The
central flower in the head is often very different from the others with much shorter and thicker
stamens. Pods straight and flat with thin walls, often swollen over the seeds becoming completely dry
and usually splitting open when ripe.[5]

W. Further readings
5
:


X. References:
4 Di Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House; Phnom Penh, 915 pp.

5) Gardner, S., Sidisunthorn, P. and Vilaiwan Anursarnsunthorn, 2000: A Field Guide to Forest
Trees of Northern Thailand. CMU Herbarium Biology Dept. University of Chiang Mai, Thailand; 546
pp.

17) Sosef, M.S.M., Hong, L.T., and S. Prawirohatmodjo (Eds.) 1998: Plant Resources of
Southeast Asia 5(3) Timber trees: Lesser known timbers. Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia, 859
pp.

23) National Agricultural Library (NAL)http:77agricola.nal.usda. gov/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?Search-
Arg=Albizia+myriophylla

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Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Albizia saman (Jack.) F. Muell.]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Albizia saman (Jack.) F. Muell.]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Albizia saman (Jack.) F. Muell. [4]
B. English name (s) ³ cow tamarind, raintree, monkey pod, saman, French
tamarind, cow bean tree, saman tree (Engl.) [9,13,27], .
C. Synonym ³ Enterolobium saman Prain ex King, Samanea saman (Jack.)
Merr., Inga saman (Jacq.) Willd., Inga salutaris Kunth.,
Mimosa saman Jacq.; Pithecellobium saman (Jacq.
Benth.[4,6,8,12,27].
D. Other
1
³ arbre parasol, saman, gouannegoul (French), Regenbaum
(German) [4,13]; kam kram, cham cha (Thailand); acacia
(Philippines); Sam sa (Laos); còng, me tây (Vietnam) [6,8],
algarrobo, carreto negro (Spanish) [26]..

E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³ GMBil)araMg
Source: [3]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ âmpil´ barang´ [4]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Fabales
Family: Mimosoideae
Gunus: Albizia Durazz. [17] (Samanea Merr.[8]
Species: Albizia saman (Jack.) F. Muell.

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Source :[4 ; 11 ; 17]


H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]:Large deciduous or semi-deciduous tree, up to 30 m high, diameter up to 100 cm, large tree
up to 45 (60) m high and 200 cm diameter, very wide, umbrella-shaped crown, up to 30-60 m
diameter [6,8,13]. Fast-growing but with the trunk branching out at low height. Stem and branches
frequently covered by small epiphytes [13]. Branchlets puberulous to tomentose. Stipules present. [8]
[Bark]: Brown to black, developing ridges with age [6].
[Leaves]: Leaves evenly bipinnate, up to 15-30 cm long with 8-12 pinnae. Leaflets are 1.5-6.0 cm long
and 0.4-7.0 cm wide, blunt at base and tip, with a minute point at the tip and a short point at the base.
Leaflets are larger at apical end of pinnae than at base and number 12-16 in outer pinnae and 6-10 in
lower [6].
Leaves: Rhachis 15-40 cm long, with gland(s) just below the junction of the basal pair of pinnae and
distally at all other pairs of pinnae, circular, concave, c.(ca.=about) 0.5 mm diameter, pinnae 3-9 pairs,
11 cm long, with gland(s) at the junction of the leaflets. Leaflets opposite, the lowest pair ovate or
elliptic, middle pairs rhomboid, terminal pair obliquely obovate, 1.5-2.5 by 3-5 cm, 2-10 pairs per
pinnae, base half rounded and half truncate, apex rounded or obtuse, often emarginate or mucronate,
main vein diagonal, lateral veins densely reticulate, raised, upper surface glabrous, lower surface
densely short-pubescent [8].
Leaves bipinnate, oviform, folding up during the night or rainfall [13].
[Flowers]: Flowers are numerous, pink, alone or in sub-globose heads from the leaf corners, 5-7 cm in
diameter [6 ].
Inflorescence peduncles densely shortly yellowish pubescent, 2-5 together in the distal leaf axils, 5-10
cm long, bearing a terminal corymb. Flowers usually heteromorphic, marginal flowers, c. 3 cm long,
pedicellate, central flowers with 7 or 8 perianth segments. Calyx funnel-shaped 5-7 mm long,
tomentose or wooly, teeth 5, broadly triangulate, acute, 0.5-1.0 cm long. Corolla red or yellowish-red,
funnel-shaped, 10-12 mm long, distal part tomentose or wooly. Lobes triangular ovate, c. 2 mm long.
Stamens white at base, purple towards the top, 20-35 mm long, tube shorter than the corolla tube.
Ovary sessile, glabrous. Central flower sessile. Calyx 8-9 mm long, broadly tubular, tomentose-wooly,
teeth 7-8, 0.5-1.0 mm long, triangular, acute. Corolla c. 12 mm long, tubular, inside glabrous, outside
tomentose-wooly. Staminal tube longer than corolla [8].
Flowers small delicate brush-like flower heads, attractive by the numerous white filaments with pink
pollen bags.[13]
[Fruit]: Pods with fleshy pulp, 12-25 cm long, 2 cm wide with sweet, brown pulp [6].

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Pod strap-like, 15-30 by 1.5-2.3 cm long, straight, indehiscent, outside black when mature, inside
transversely septate. Seeds with pleurogram, elliptic, strongly biconvex, c. 8 by 5 by 4 mm, brown,
areole elliptic, c. 7 by 3 mm [8]. A ribbed pod, dehiscent, seeds embedded in sweetish pulp [9].
Flowering and fruiting June to January [8].
Flowering March to May and towards the end of the year. Foliage and flowers renewed twice annually
[13].

I. Wood properties:
Sapwood thin and yellowish, freshly cut heartwood brown, turning golden-brown on exposure. The
wood is soft and light-weight and very durable against rot and termites [9].
"The wood of S. saman is strong, durable or very durable, with a specific gravity of 420-640 kg/m³, a
light yellow sapwood and rich dark chocolate-brown heartwood. The rich colour and beautiful but
subtle grain of the heartwood, resembling black walnut (Juglans nigra), makes wood from larger trees
highly prized for furniture making (for example in Malaysia and Trinidad), panelling, decorative
veneers, and for turning for bowls, platters, and other handicrafts. In Hawaii and Thailand the wood is
used to make the famous, albeit mis-named, 'monkey-pod' bowls. The wood is often very cross-
grained, making it difficult to work unless when green." [12]
The wood is often turned when green, and this is feasible because the wood shrinks so little on drying
that products do not warp [12].

J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
A. saman originates from the grasslands of Central and northern South America [4,8,13,20], it is
widely cultivated and naturalized in Asia, Southeast and East Asia, [6] and Africa [4]; now occuring all
over the Asian tropics in India, Burma, Indochina, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia [8]. At least in
Central and South America the actual distribution has been much influenced by the introduction of
horses and cattle as seed spreaders [12]. A. saman occurs in broadleaved evergreen forests, dry
forests, riparian forests, even savanna woodlands and savannas. It is a truly tropical species growing
best in the seasonally dry and wet regions, but grows faster where mean annual precipitation exceeds
1,000 mm/ m². Within the limits of the area of distribution it grows in seasonally dry deciduous and
semi-deciduous forests as well as moist evergreen woodlands [12]. Geograpical limits are indicated
as 15º N-3º N [12].

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
Sandy coastal areas, along roadsides; up to1300-1500- 1800 m elevation [27,12,8], up to 700 m [6],
mean annual temperature 22 ºC, annual rainfall between 600 and 2500(-3000) mm, dry season less
than 6 months; light demanding but tolerates a wide range of soils. [6,27] The altitudinal range is
given as 0-1500 m, mean annual rainfall 600-3,000 mm/ m², with a bimodal summer rainfall regime.
The mean annual temperature range is 20-28ºC, (20-35ºC) the absolute minimum temperature must
not drop below 8ºC [12,26].

L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :

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not determined



M. soil and site conditions :
Sandy coastal areas [8] , tolerates a wide range of soils [6,9] Albizia (Samanea) saman needs well-
drained alluvial, fertile, neutral to moderately acid (>pH 4.6) soils for best growth (Franco et al., 1995),
but can also tolerate heavy clays (vertisols) and infertile, or seasonally waterlogged soils [12].
Tolerance towards alluvials, cambisols, regosols, vertisols and tropical soils [12].

N. Utilization and importance :
In tWood]: Hard and heavy, used in construction, suitable for tool handles, crates and boxes, carving
furniture, boats, veneer and plywood [6,8,17]. With its rich dark-and-light pattern, the wood is highly
prized for carvings, furniture and panelling. The wood shrinks so little that products may be carved out
of green wood without fear of splitting or warping as the wood dries. In Hawaii, bowls and other craft
products made from the wood are in such high demand that the local wood supply is supplemented by
imports from Indonesia and the Philippines. A moderately durable wood, it is also used in boat
building. The beautiful, high-quality wood is used for interior trim, crafts, boxes, veneer, plywood and
general construction [20].
[Non-Wood]: Planted as solitary tree or roadside tree, as a shade tree but also for ornamental
reasons. In the humid tropics Albizia saman is also employed as a shade tree for various cultivated
plants, e.g., cocoa, coffee, tea or pepper plantations [13].
The fruit forms 20-30 cm long pods with the seeds making a suitable fodder for cattle, pigs and goats
[8,13], the reason why in English the tree is also called cow tamarind. Pods, which fall to the ground
when ripe, have a crude protein content of 12-18% (dry matter) with 41% digestibility for goats, and
are popular with cattle, horses, goats and other animals. Some South American countries have begun
exporting the pods. Although the leaves are nutritious, they are not considered an important fodder
[20].
Fuel: The facts that A. saman wood produces 5200-5600 kcal/kg when it burns and that it regrows
vigorously after lopping or pollarding make it a valuable source of high-quality firewood and charcoal.
However, where there is a strong market for wood carvings, the wood is considered too valuable to be
used as fuel [20].
Fruit edible, leaves eaten raw in times of scarce food supplies [4] The bark also contains gum and
resin [6,20].
In traditional medicine a decoction of the inner bark and fresh leaves is applied as treatment for
diarrhoea, while a brew of small sections of the bark is taken to treat stomach-ache. A crude aqueous

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or alcoholic extract of the leaves is observed to have an inhibiting effect on Mycobacterium
tuberculosis.

O. Cambodian wood classification :
not included
P. Silviculture and management :
The characteristic spreading tree form of S. saman with a short bole, extremely heavy branching and
a wide, spreading crown mean that it is not adaptable to plantation conditions and has rarely been
planted successfully at close spacings (Raintree, 1987; Little and Wadsworth, 1989; Roshetko, 1995)
[12]. It is a light-demanding species and generally has a very extensive shallow root system. It is,
however, highly compatible with pasture and it is in extensive silvopastoral systems that S. saman
fulfils its true potential. It tolerates weeds, is suitable for coppicing and pollarding and is able to fix
nitrogen. (Raintree, 1987; Escalante, 1985; 1997; Roshetko, 1995). Planted at wide spacings (10 to
20 trees/ha), it provides shade and dry season fodder [12].

Wide spacings, however, can still be compatible with timber production. Given the preference for
heartwood, the demand for large girths and the specialist uses of S. saman wood (which never
produces clear sawlogs), wide spacing encourages rapid diameter growth and a thick bole with plenty
of heartwood. Branch wood is also often of sufficient diameter to be used. A. saman trees resprout
vigorously and can be managed for fuelwood by pollarding in agricultural areas, as in the Philippines
(Raintree, 1987) [20]. If trees are planted at close spacing, e.g. 1.5-2 m x 2 m, they will carry less
branches and form a better stem. Under favourable conditions the trees can attain 18cm dbh
(diameter at breast height) within 5 years. Mean annual increment is estimated to lie around 25m³/ha.
Due to the organic input under the trees the grass does not lose dry in matter content but contains
more protein. A. saman coppices well and reacts to pollarding with strong growth so that it can be
managed as a source of fuelwood [26].


Q. Propagation :
Seeds of A. saman are usually widely available and easily collected. Seed extraction however,
requires pounding of the hard dry pods and subsequent winnowing to separate the seeds from pod
fragments. There are between 4,400 and 7,700 seeds/kg. Seed requires pretreatment, or
scarification, prior to sowing. Hot water pretreatment by pouring boiled water (5 times the volume of
seed) over the seeds, soaking for two minutes then draining the hot water and soaking the seed
overnight in cold water before sowing is the most widely used method (Nitrogen Fixing Tree
Association, 1989). Mechanical scarification - by manual nicking (Roshetko, 1997), the hot wire
method (Robbins, 1986; Poulsen and Stubsgaard, 1995) or using the seed gun (Poulsen and
Stubsgaard, 1995) - are likely to be equally, or more (Roshetko, 1997), effective, though more tedious
and time-consuming. Container stock is normally used for successful establishment. Large bags (10 x

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20 cm) are used with a potting mixture of 3 parts soil, 1 part sand and 1 part compost. In the first 2-4
weeks seedlings are kept in partial shade. It generally takes 3-5 months to produce seedlings 20-30
cm tall [20]. Propagation is commonly done through potted seedlings, although cuttings and stump
cuttings may also be used [20].
Albizia saman has the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen. Trees have been shown to nodulate
effectively in Hawaii, Malaysia and the Philippines with a wide range of strains of Rhizobium (reviewed
by Allen and Allen, 1981). Seedlings therefore do not require inoculation with specific strains of
Rhizobium [20].

R. Hazards and protection :
In most places, A. saman is free from pests and diseases. Many defoliators, including the Leucaena
leucocephala psyllid, Heteropsylla cubana, attack the tree in various countries, but usually do not
cause severe stress problems. Cicadas also feed on A. saman [20]. A number of minor insect pests
affect S. saman in different areas, but none of these have, so far caused serious problems. The bean
maggot, Hylemya platura [Delia platura] infests cotyledons of S. saman seedlings and may kill them in
nurseries in Haiti (Timyan, 1996). In Costa Rica, parrots may harvest up to a third of the expanded
green fruits of S. saman (Janzen, 1982) [12].
Insect pests recorded are: Acizzia acaciaebaileyanae, Delia platura, Delia platura, Heteropsylla
cubana, Merobruchus columbinus (1), Pammene theristis (2), Psylla acaciabaileyanae (3),
Rastrococcus iceryoides (4), Stator limbatus (5)
Nematodes: Meloidogyne incognita (6)
Fungus diseases: Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. passiflorae (7), Fusarium pallidoroseum (8)
Footnotes: 1. damages seeds, 2. in Maharashtra, India, 3. non-preferred name of Acizzia
acaciaebaileyanae, 4. In Africa and Asia, this pest attacks cocoa, mango, cotton and A. lebbek as well
as A. saman, 5. a bruchid, which damages seeds, 6. nursery seedlings in Cuba were susceptible to
damage, 7. causes stem canker and gumnosis in Orissa, India, 8. non-preferred name for F.
pallidoroseum [12].
Roots threaten to lift up road and sidewalk cover [9].

S. Conservation :
not an endangered species[9]

T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :
in the lowlands

U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
Native of Central and South America, occures in Guatemala, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, but has been
introduced or naturalized in most tropical countries [5], e.g. in Australia, Fiji, New Zealand, Papua

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New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands Tonga, in Africa in Tanzania and Kenya, also in Southeast
Asia, in India, Burma, Thailand, Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines etc. [26].




V. Miscellaneous
4
:
This tree is called raintree because even on dry days it may “rain” below its crown. This rain is caused
by a minute cicada, Ptyleus grossus, protecting itself with foam against drought. The insects tap the
branches for its liquor and then excrete considerable amounts of water. This may be enough to cause
the formation of puddles below the tree [13].

W. Further readings
5
:
Hensleigh, T.E.& HolawayB.K. 1988: Agroforestry species for the Philippines. AJA Printers, Malabon,
404 pp.
Akkasaeng,R, Gutteridge,RC, Wanapat, M,1989: Evaluation of trees and shrubs for forage and
fuelwood in northeast Thailand. Int. Tree Crops Journal 5(4): 20-220; 3 ref.
Hunter, IR, Stewart, JL ,1993: Foliar nutrient and nutritive content of Central American multipurpose
tree species growing at Comayagua, Honduras. Comm. For. Review 72(3): 193-197; 19 ref.
MacDicken GK, 1994: Selection and management of nitrogen-fixing trees. Winrock International and
FAO Bangkok.
Perry LM 1980: Medicinal plants of East and South East Asia: attributed properties and uses.; MIT
Press. South East Asia.
Poulsen, KM, Stubsgaard, F 1995: Three methods of mechanical scarification of hardcoated seeds.
Tech. Note 27, DANIDA Forest Seed Center, Humlebaek, Denmark
Roshetko, JM 1995:Albizia saman: Pasture improvement, shade, timber and more NFT highlites. No.
95-02. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association, Arkansas; USA. Winrock International
Ahn JH, Robertson BM, Elliott R, Gutteridge RC, Ford CW, 1989. Quality assessment of tropical
browse legumes: tannin content and protein degradation. Animal Feed Science and Technology,
27(1-2):147-156; 25 ref.
Sunand, C., Sharmiastha, D, Bhaduri, SK, Dharmadas, S, 1993: Chemical evaluation of leaf fibre from
4 tropical trees; a social forestry resource. Bioresource Technology 46(3):259-261; 19 ref.
Takeda, S, 1990: Lac cultivation and host tree plantations in northern Thailand. South East Asian
Studies 28(2): 182-205; BIDC
Taylor DH and MacDicken KG 1990: Research on multipurpose treespecies in Asia. Proceedings
Int.Workshop, November 19-23, 1990, Los Banos
Thole, NS, Joshi, AL, Rangnekar, DV 1992: Nutritive evaluation of raintree (Samanea saman) pods.
Ind. J. of Animal Sciences 62(3): 270-272; 6 ref.

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Chicco CF, Garbati ST, Muller-Haye B, 1973. A note on the use of saman fruit (Pithecellobium
saman) in pig food rations. Agronomia Tropical (Maracay, Venezuela), 23: 263-267.



X. References:
4) Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House; Phnom Penh,. 915 pp.

6) Jensen, M. 2001: Trees and Fruit of Southeast Asia. An illustrated field guide. Orchid Press,
Bangkok; 224 pp.

8) Sam, H. V., Nanthavong, Kh. and P.J.A. Kessler 2004: Trees of Laos and Vietnam: A field
guide to 100 economically or ecologically important species. BLUMEA J. Plant Tax. and Plant Geogr.
, Nat. Herbar. Nederlande, Univ. Leiden, Branch. Leiden The Netherlands, 349 pp.

9) Barwick, M., 2004: Tropical and Subtropical Trees: A Worldwide Encyclopaedic Guide
Thames & Hudson Ltd.,London. 484 pp.
11) Heywood, V.D. (Ed.) 1993: Flowering Plants of the World. Oxford University Press, New York;
336 pp.

12) CABI Forestry Compendium Edition 2003 (on CD ROM)

13) BAERTELS, A. 1993: Farbatlas Tropenpflanzen-Zier- und Nutzpflanzen (Color Atlas Tropical
Plants- ornamental and fruit plants) Eugen Ulmer Publ.,
Stuttgart,Germany, illustrated, 384 pp.

17) Sosef, M.S.M., Hong, L.T., and S. Prawirohatmodjo (Eds.) 1998: Plant Resources of
Southeast Asia 5(3) Timber trees: Lesser known timbers. Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia, 859
pp.

20) Salim AS, Simons AJ, Orwa C, Chege J, Ovuor,B, and Mutua A, 2002: Agroforestree
Database. World Agroforestry Centre (on CD ROM).

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26) World Agroforestry Centre: http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Oroducts/AFDbases/AF/asp/
BotanicList.asp? (Internet source).


Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Anacardium occidentale L.]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Anacardium occidentale L.]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Anacardium occidentale L.
B. English name (s) ³ cashew [1] , cashew nut [2]
C. Synonym ³ Cassuvium pomiferum [4], Acajuba occidentalis
Gaertn. [7]
D. Other
1
³ cajou, anacardier, acajou, cachou, pomme de
cajou (France) [1, 2] - jambu monyet, jambu mede
(Indonesia) [1] - gajus, jambu monyet (Malaysia) [1] - kasoy,
balubad, balogo, kasui (Philippines) [1, 2] - thiho thayet si
(Myanmar) [1] - mamuang himmaphan, yaruang, mamuang
letlor (Thailand) [1] - [dd][af]o l[ooj]n h[ooj]t, [dd]i[eef]u, cay
dieu, dao lon hot (Vietnam) [1, 2] - anacardo, casa,
maranjon, merci, pajuil (Spain) [2] - kazu badam
(Bangladesh) [2] - yao kuo (China) [2] - andipapuppa,
andiparuppu, balia, bojan, gera-bija, gerybija, godambe,
hijali-badam, hijuli, jidi-mamidi, jidivate, kaju, kashu-mavu,
kempu geru bija, lanka-ambo, mindiri, mundri, muntha-
mamidi (India) [2] - kashu nattsu (Japan) [2] - caju, kaju,
montinkai (Sri Lanka) [2]

E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³: sVaycnÞI
Source: [9]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ svaay chantii [1, 11], chanty, kchov [3]

G. Taxonomic position(complete)³
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae


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Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Sapindales
Family: Anacardiaceae
Genus: Anacardium
Species Anacardium occidentale L.
Source :[ 2]


H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: Small to medium-sized, evergreen shrub or tree with a height of up to 12 m [1] (6-15 m [2],
4-10 m [4], 2-8 m [14], 0-6 m [12]). Bole is 0.5-1.5 m short [1], stout and crooked with a DBH of 25 cm
[2] (30-45 cm [13]) and has few irregularly orientated branches usually near the base, giving a
spreading appearance. Bark resinous, light grey or brown, smooth in the young stages but becoming
rough with abundant warts with age. The middle part of the bark has a tinge of brown with red sticky
and caustic fibers. Taproots are up to 3 m deep [1], persistent. Lateral roots are spreading beyond the
crown projection, with sinker roots to a depth of 6 m [1]. Crown dome-shaped, wide, early branched
and densely foliated. The leaves are commonly crowded at the ends of the branches.
[Leaves]: The leaves are alternate, simple, thick and leathery, hairless, opposite egg-shaped or
oblong, often notched at the apex, purplish-green or red-brown when young, later shining dark green
with entire margin and hairless. The leaf blade is 6-24 x 4-15 cm [2] (6-25 cm × 5-15 cm [8]) with
prominent midrib and veins, lateral veins pinnately spreading with 10-20 [2] bow-like pairs. The leaf
stalk is short (1-2 cm [2]), swollen at the base and flattened on the upper surface.
[Flowers]: The inflorescence is polygamous with ca. 60 hermaphrodite and 10 male flowers [8]. "The
inflorescence is a slightly branched lax terminal, drooping, many-flowered panicle, with the branches
at 90°to the axis" [8]. It is up to 25 cm long with fragrant male and hermaphrodite flowers. Flowers are
small, regular, sweet-scented, white to light green at flower growth, later turning to pinkish-red. The
size of flowers varies from 1-2 mm for male and 6-12 mm for hermaphrodite flowers [2]. The structure
of both types of flowers is similar except that the female organ is either absent or rudimentary in the
staminate flowers. The 5 outer flower leaves (=sepals) are green spear-shaped to oblong, 4-15 mm x
1-2 mm [8] and hairy. The 5 inner flower-leaves (petals) are linear, spear-shaped, 7-13 mm x 1-1.5 (-
2) mm [2, 8], reflexed in open flowers, pale greenish-cream with red strips at the time of flower growth
and later turning to red. There are 10 stamens (=male organs). The male flowers have 7-9 short (2-3
mm [2], 4 mm [8]) and 1-3 long (6-9 mm [2], 6-10 mm [8]) stamens, the female or hermaphrodite
flowers have 9 short and 1 long stamen projecting just above corolla [2]. Flower buds and fully open
flowers may be found in the same tree. In general, flowering normally occurs at the beginning of the
dry period and varies with latitude (Flowering season SE-Asia: January-May [12]). The flowers are
pollinated by insects (honey bees, flies, possibly also ants). Both cross- and self-pollination occur, but
there is evidence of some self-incompatibility. The fruiting starts in April [12].

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[Fruits]: The fruit (=drupe) is a kidney-shaped nut, about 3 x 1.2 cm [1] (3-5 x 2-3.5 cm [2], 2-3 x 1 cm
[4], 2-3 x 1.5-2.5 cm [8]), with a greyish green to grey-brown, resinous hard fruit coat. The fruit is
embedded in an enlarged and swollen flower stalk called a cashew apple (false fruit), which is pear-
shaped, 10-20 cm x 4-8 cm [1], waxy, red to yellow, soft and juicy. Seed kidney-shaped with reddish-
brown seed coat, two large white cotyledons and a small embryo. The kernel remaining after removal
of the testa is the cashew nut of commerce.
[1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14]

I. Wood properties:
[Wood Properties]: The wood is reddish brown, light and hard but crooked. "The timber has an
unusual feature, in that wood density and fiber length decrease with tree age" [2].
[5, 13]

J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
Approximate limits: 27°N to 28°S [2] (20°N to 24°S. [5]). Cashew's high adaptability is characterized
by its omnipresence in diverse latitudes. As a naturalized exotic it occurs in dry forests, dunes,
grasslands, savanna woodlands, savannas, coastal plant communities and is also found growing wild
in other situations. Cashew is a well-known backyard tree in South-East Asia.
[1, 2, 5, 12]


K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
Cashew grows well from 0-1,200 m a.s.l. [2, 8] (0-1,000 m [5, 7] but is best suited to lower altitudes.
Normally an altitude of 600 m a.s.l. [5, 13] is the limit for commercial cashew cultivation. It tolerates
both uni- and bimodal rainfall regimes but the latter one is more appreciated. The distribution of
rainfall within the rainy season is more important than quantity. However it can be grown in arid, semi-
arid and humid climates with annual rainfall range of 500-3,500 mm/yr [7] (500-3,700 mm [2], 500-
4,000 mm [5], 800-1,500 mm [8], 1,200-2,200 mm [13]). Heavy rains and cloudy weather during
flowering adversely affect nut yield. A dry season length of 3-5 months [8] (4-5 months [5], 4-6 months
[2]) is needed for a good flower flushing, fruit- and root development. It can also adapt to very dry
conditions as long as the root system has access to soil moisture. Cashew requires high
temperatures, the optimal temperature for growth is 22-26ºC [8]. It thrives in areas with a mean
annual temperature of 22-35ºC [2] (17-38 ºC [7]), a mean maximum temperature of 35-48ºC [2] in the
hottest month and a mean minimum temperature of 16-24ºC [2] in the coldest month. The absolute
minimum temperature is above 0ºC [2] because cashew is susceptible to frost damage [8, 15]. Other
sources mention cashew as a very frost resistant species [1]. A. occidentale is a strongly light-
demanding species and readily colonizes open ground. It does not tolerate excessive shade. However
it tolerates strong winds and termites.
[1, 2, 5, 7, 8, 13, 15]



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L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
No information available.

M. soil and site conditions :
Cashew can adapt itself to varying soil conditions, from the sandy sea coast to laterite hill slopes,
even soils which are too stony or too dry for other crops. It also grows well in soils which are very poor
in nutrients. However, it prefers shallow, fertile, well-drained to dry, bare sandy soils, hard laterite soils
and deep red loamy soils or soils rich in organic matter. The species can bear heavy, waterlogged
clay soils or saline soils but with an extreme poor growth. Brackish soils near seashores and
inundated or swampy soils are not suited. It prefers slightly acidic to neutral (pH 6.3-7.3 [2]) soil
conditions. "In drier areas (annual rainfall 800-1,000 mm), a deep and well drained soil without
impermeable layers is essential. A simple water budget with the aid of pan evaporation figures will
show the required soil depth." [1]. Suitable soils for growth include: ferrallitic, lateritic, rocky soils,
coastal sandy soils, luvisols, fluvisols and red soils.
[1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13, 15]

N. Utilization and importance :
[Wood]: A. occidentale is not really a timber species due to its low-quality timber. Unless trees are old
or uneconomical for nut production, they are not felled for timber or fuelwood purposes. However it
produces wood that can be used for round wood, sawn or hewn building timbers, light construction,
house- and shed posts, fencing poles and even for building boats. It produces excellent fuelwood and
charcoal. The wood pulp is used to fabricate corrugated and hardboard boxes or crates.
[1, 2, 5, 13]
[Non-Wood]: Food: The nutritious kernel (=cashew nut) is the main economic product of the species,
the world trade in cashew ranks third after almond and hazelnut. The nut is highly regarded as food,
usually roasted. Cashew nuts are also used as snack foods, in confectionery and baked products.
They are often marketed in cans of mixed nuts. Cashew apple is a good source of vitamin C, and can
be eaten fresh or mixed in fruit salad or squeezed to make fresh juice. In Cambodia the cashew apple
is eaten fresh with salt. Also the young leaves, buds and shoots are eaten raw in salads or cooked,
especially in time of shortage. The juice of cashew apple is slightly fermented and distilled to make
strong alcoholic drinks in Brazil, Guatemala, India and Mozambique.
Oil: The nut contains a high quality oil and the cake remaining after extraction serves as an animal
feed. However, due to the current high price of the kernels the oil is not usually extracted. By-products
of the nut collection are seed-coats which can be used as poultry feed and shells which are utilized as
a source of fuel and yield cashew nut shell liquid oil (CNSL). CNSL is used as a waterproofing agent
and a preservative e.g. to treat wooden structures and fishing nets and in the manufacture of
numerous industrial products. Distilled and polymerized the oil is used in insulating varnishes and in

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the manufacture of typewriter rolls, oil- and acid proof cements and tiles, brake linings, inks, etc..
CNSL has also been used to produce several pesticides, dyes and drugs.
Medicine: All parts of the tree are used in traditional medicine to treat wounds, toothache, dysentery,
scurvy, sores, warts, ringworm and psoriasis. "The leaves contain flavonoids, mainly glycosides of
quercetin, kaempferol and hydroxybenzoic acid. The bark contains anacardic acid, anacardol, cardol
and ginkol. The caustic liquid in the shell contains about 39% anacardic acid, which is a mixture of
alkyl salicyclic acid derivates. The bark and leaves are used as an infusion for tooth aches and sore
gums. The infusion may also be used as a febrifuge in malaria. Anacardic acid is bactericidal against
Staphylococcus aureus as well as being fungicidal. Extracts of the leaves have reportedly shown to
be hypotensive in rats. Infusion of the dried leaves have reputed anti-hyperglycaenic and anti-
ulcerative properties" [4]. The fruit sap is used as a medicine for leucoderma. Fruit and kernel can
also be used as an antidote against skin diseases and leprosy.
Tannins and dyes: The bark is used in the tanning industry, and the resinous sap from the bark yields
an indelible ink. The wounded bark exudes a yellow gum which has insecticidal properties and can be
used as an adhesive (woodwork panels, plywood, bookbinding).
[1, 2, 4, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15]
[Others]: In Cambodia's past Cashew was rather cultivated as an ornamental than as a fruit tree. It is
also grown as a shade tree, as a hedge and for dune stabilization. It is also suitable for shelterbelts
and windbreaks, for afforestation of barren, slash-and-burned farmland and coastal saline sandy
lands and for the rehabilitation of degraded lands.
[2, 8, 14]

O. Cambodian wood classification :
No class. [ 6]

P. Silviculture and management :

[General]: A. occidentale occurs in dry forests, dunes, grasslands, savanna woodlands, savannas,
coastal plant communities and is also found growing wild in other situations. As a well-known
agroforestry species it is often intercropped with coconut, citrus, banana, cassava and maize. Cashew
is a multipurpose species suitable for shelterbelts and windbreaks, for afforestation of barren, slash-
and-burned farmland and coastal saline sandy lands and for the rehabilitation of degraded lands. The
tree is easily cultivated, vigorous and requires little care. It is a strongly light-demanding and does not
tolerate excessive shade. It coppices easily.
[Establishment]: A.occidentale can be planted in the full sun. In general planting holes are 30 x 30 cm
[2] in size. On heavy or compact soils planting holes should be 50 x 50 x 50 cm [5] in size and refilled
with a soil-manure mix. Two or three seeds are planted per hole at a depth of 5-8 cm [2]. After
germination only one seedling is retained. For initial spacing 3.4 x 3.4 to 5 x 5 m [5] (6 x 6 m to 10 x
10 m [2]) is recommended to suppress weeds and maintain soil moisture. The seedling emerges 3

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weeks after sowing. The root grows fast, maintaining a depth of 1.5 times the height of the shoot [1].
The shoots grow in flushes that follow the onset of the rainy season. The seedling stem soon
branches and pruning may be needed to attain a trunk height of 0.5-1.5 m [1]. Fertilizer application is
not a common practice. The juvenile phase lasts only 3 or 4 years.
[Management]: To ensure a uniform stand, moisture should be stored (e.g. by mulching, terracing,
half-moon basin making), soil aeration should be improved by soil tillage, root penetration should be
eased by digging appropriate pits. Careful weeding - cleaning the area within 1 m of the trunk and
slashing the remainder - is essential until the trees shade out most of the weeds. "Weed control and
erosion prevention can be done by cover cropping (using legumes like Pueraria phaseoloides,
Calopogonium mucunoids, Mucana sp., Mimosa invisa etc.)" [5]. The wider spacing allows mixed- or
intercropping making this species ideal for agroforestry systems, esp. hedgerow systems. Fertilizers
promote growth of the seedlings and advance the onset of flowering in young trees, however it is not
necessary where only nuts are harvested. "Since A. occidentale has a low-spreading branching habit,
at about 2 years old trees may be pruned to form a strong scaffold, which removes dead,
unproductive and diseased branches. Trees are shaped by removing the lower branches and any
shoots arising from the base of the tree during the first 3 years. Thereafter little or no pruning is
necessary" [2]. After 5 years thinning is required to reduce competition. In closely spaced plantations,
thinning may be carried out to obtain 120 trees/ha [2] (44-69 trees/ha [1]). Final spacing varies from 8
x 8 to 20 x 20 m [5] (12 x 12 to 15 x 15 m). "Spacing experiments have shown that at ten years of age
productivity in plots with 44, 69, 111, 135 and 278 trees/ha was about 450 kg/ha. The larger tree size
compensated for smaller numbers of trees. Thus, only the canopy surface area determines
productivity. Hedged rows of trees planted at 2-3 m x 12-15 m almost double the canopy surface area
per ha and increase the yield over the first 10 years. The optimum width of the interrows depends on
climatic conditions and on planting material" [1]. The growth and development is relatively fast and
trees normally start bearing fruits from the 4th year. Trees reach maximum production at about age 10
years [2], and maximum productive rates can continue for a further 20 years [2] (25 years [1]).
"Replanting is costly and leads to loss of income for at least five years. Thus, cashew raising in
hedgerows is a good alternative. The resulting high productivity can be maintained by coppicing
alternate rows at 50-75 cm when adjacent hedges come within 1 m distance of each other. Tree rows
may also be grubbed out and replaced with superior selections. The replanted rows come into
production after 5 years. However, during that time the remaining hedges can expand fully and reach
top yields. When the gap between hedges again becomes less than 1 m the rows of unchecked trees
should be cut back, giving room for expansion of the rejuvenated/replanted rows. This system allows
continuous cropping at higher than normal productivity and gradually improving yield levels" [1]. After
the tree starts bearing, it is important to apply fertilizers and spray against pests and diseases.
[Harvest]: Harvest is seasonal and lasts 2-3 months [1]. Best quality is attained where freshly fallen
nuts are dried and stored immediately. Nuts should be gathered at least weekly. The area under the
tree should be weed-free and swept clean to facilitate nut collection. After removal of the cashew
apple the nuts are sun-dried to reduce moisture from 25% to below 9% [1]. With proper drying, the
kernel retains its quality, in particular the flavour. The nuts should not absorb moisture during storage.

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The equilibrium moisture content is about 9% at 27ºC and a relative humidity of 70% [1]. The cashew
apples ripen before the raw nuts are mature. Ripe apples for fresh use should be picked almost daily.
[Yield]: Yields of seedling trees are low in South-East Asia, usually in the range of 400-600 kg/ha/year
[1], the global average is slightly higher with 670-1,350 kg/ha/year [2]. "Average yields per tree
increase from 3 kg at ages 3-5, to 4 kg at ages 6-10, 4.7 kg at ages 11-15 and 5.3 kg from the 16
th
-
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th
year" [1]. Farmers in southern Myanmar reported a productivity at 6.1 kg/tree [1]. In general a
mature tree can yield 45-100 kg [2] of cashew apple and 9-8 kg [2] (some trees up to 45 kg [2]) of nuts
annually.
[1, 2, 5, 7, 12]

Q. Propagation :
Natural regeneration occurs when animals such as bats eat the cashew apple and scatter the nut. A.
occidentale is also a fairly good coppicer and also produces root suckers, therefore natural
regeneration may also occur vegetatively by coppice shoots and root suckers. However coppicing can
not be duplicated on a huge field scale. For commercial production cashew is propagated by seed.
Nuts are collected from heavily and regularly bearing trees with known parentage. Only fully mature,
medium-sized nuts of good shape with a high specific gravity are used. It is also a common practice to
select only those seeds which do not float in water or do not give a rattling sound. They give a higher
germination percentage and rate of growth. Seeds are collected during April and May [10]. Seeds with
a low moisture content are viable for 12 months [10] if stored in air tight containers. After 14 months
the seeds completely loose their viability. The number of viable seeds per kilogram varies from 120 to
250/kg [2] (120-125/kg [5], 150-200/kg [10]). Purity percent: 100% [10]. Moisture percentage: 6.5%
[10]. Germination percentage: 80-90% [10]. Plant percent: 50% [10]. No. of seedlings per kg of seed:
150 [10]. Pretreatment is not required. Seeds are sown in polybags with the stalk end facing upwards
and in a slanting position. Three to four kg of seeds/ha are needed for a layout of 7 x 7 m [4].
"Germination starts in about 10-30 days [2] (10-20 days[10]) and is completed within 2 months. As
trees propagated by seed vary considerably in growth rate, yield and quality due to outcrossing,
vegetative propagation can be used to produce planting materials from selected mother trees or
superior phenotypes. Techniques used include split- and wounded cuttings, air- and ground-layering
(most successful method), patch and forked budding (about 30% take), veneer, side, whip, cleft and
tip grafting" [2]. "Recently the first successes with propagation through tissue culture have been
obtained at Gembloux, Belgium" [1].
[1, 2, 5, 7, 10]

R. Hazards and protection :
[Pests]: The Helopeltis bug or tea mosquito (Helopeltis antonii) is a major pest and causes severe
damage to tender shoots and inflorescences, leading to drying up of the inflorescences and shedding
of fruits. This can cause a severe economic loss. It can be controlled by contact insecticides.
"Application of endosulfan and dimethoate at the time of emergence of new flushes and panicles has
been suggested. However, because A. occidentale is insect pollinated, extensive use of pesticides is
not recommended. Resistant accessions have been observed in India"[2]. Similarly other pests may

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be locally destructive, e g. wood borers, stem girdlers or sucking pests such as thrips. Other pests
include Acrocercops syngramma, Conopomorpha syngramma Meyrick, Crimissa cruralis, Hypatima
haligramma Meyrick, Lamida moncusalis Walker, Nephopetryx sp., Metanastria hyrtaca Cramer,
Monolepta longitarsus Jac., Oligonychus mangiferus Ratman, Paradasynus rostratus Distant,
Plocaederus ferrugineus, Rhynchothrips raoensis Ramakrishna, Selenothrips rubrocinctus and
Thylocoptila panrosema Meyrick.
[1, 2].
[Diseases]: Under hot and humid conditions anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) attacks
young shoots and flowers, which dry up and are shed. Infections of the fruits also cause necrosis and
shedding. This disease is often associated with insects and/or other fungi. Control is done by
removing and burning infected parts and selection of resistant material, the use of fungicides is
generally uneconomic. Another disease is powdery mildew (Oidium anacardii) which occurs in
plantations, esp. with humid environment and densely planted trees. Affected plant parts become
covered with white fungal growth. Leaves and flowers may shrivel, dry up and be shed. It can be
controlled by sulphur. Other fungi like Capnodium sp. (Sooty Mould), Corticium salmonicolor,
Cylindrocladium scoparium (Seedling Blight), Diplodia natalensis Evans. (Gummosis), Glomerella
cingulata, Gloeosporium mangiferae P. Henn., Oidium anacardii (Powdery Mildew), Phomosis
anacardii, Phytium ultimum Tron. (Seedling Root Rot), Pestalotia paconiae Servazzi (Leaf Spots),
Pestalotia dichatae (Leaf Spots), Phytophthora palmivora (Damping off) have been recorded.
[1, 2, 5]

S. Conservation :
[In-Situ Conservation]: "Field gene banks are maintained in Brazil (130 accessions), India (the NRCC
maintain 213 accessions, with 600 accessions in other parts of India), Mozambique (530 clones),
Thailand (744 cashew types) and the Philippines with 1,300 cashew accessions" [2].

T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :
Cashew is cultivated extensively throughout the regions of Cambodia as a commercial product. [4]

It is especially found in Phnom Penh, Mondulkiri, Rattanakiri, Kp. Thom, Kp. Cham, Kandal, Svay
Rieng, Kp. Saom, Battambang, Siem Reap, Pursat, Prey Veng. [16]

U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :

[Native]: Brazil
[Introduced]:Asia (Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar,
Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam),
Africa (Angola, Benin, British Indian Ocean Territory, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Congo
Democratic Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi,
Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda,
Zambia),

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Caribbean (Barbados, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Trinidad and
Tobago),
Central America (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama),
North America (Mexico),
South America (Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela)
Oceania (Australia, Fiji, Papua New Guinea)
[1, 2, 5, 11]

V. Miscellaneous
4
:
[History]: It was one of the first fruit trees from the New World to be widely distributed throughout the
tropics by the Portuguese and Spanish. [15]
[Nutrients]: "With a production of 420 kg of raw nuts per ha, 13 kg of nitrogen, 4 kg of P2O5 and 3 kg
of K2O are removed." [1]
[Nut properties]: The seed contains 21% protein and between 35 and 45% oil. [2]
[Nut-processing in Asia]: "The small-scale production in South-East Asia is suited to manual
processing, often followed by sorting and packaging procedures in central plants." [1]
[Pollination and seed dispersal]: "Is pollinated primarily by honey bees (Apis mellifera). Ants and flies
of the genera Ligyra and Helophilus also visit the flowers. Wind may also disperse pollen, although it
plays little part in pollination. It is a self-compatible species with a high level of outcrossing. However,
pollination is ineffective with pollen collected from staminoid flowers. A. occidentale produces floral,
panicle and leaf nectaries. Fruit-set under natural conditions ranges from 5 to 10%. In India,
pollination was not efficient and fruit-set has been increased by artificial pollination, whereas in
Tanzania, pollination and fruit-setting are efficient and do not normally limit yield. Seed dispersal
occurs through water (seashores, by ocean currents), by large fruit-eating birds (for example, toucans,
Ramphastidae) or by fruit bats such as Epomophorus wahlbergi." [2]

W. Further readings
5
:
Aiyadura SG, Premanad PP. 1965. Can cashew become a more remunerable plantation crop? India
Cashew Journal. 4(1):2-7.
[7]

Food and Agriculture Organization, 1982. Fruit-bearing forest trees: technical notes. FAO Forestry
Paper, No. 34:v + 177 pp.
[2]

French JH, Tingsabadh C, Taylor D, Byrnes F, Pan FJ, Wood H, Chung HH, Kamis Awang, Lasco
RD, Bhumibhamon S, Latimer W, 1994. Growing multipurpose trees on small farms. Growing
multipurpose trees on small farms., Ed. 2:li + 315 pp.; 69 ref.

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[2]

Gupta RK, 1993. Multipurpose trees for agroforestry and wasteland utilisation. Multipurpose trees for
agroforestry and wasteland utilisation., xv + 562 pp.; [18 pp. of ref + refs in text].
[2]

Johnson DV, 1973. The botany, origin, and spread of the cashew, Anacardium occidentale L. Journal
of Plantation Crops, 1:1-7.
[2]

Nayak MG, 1996. Training and pruning practices for cashew. Cashew, 10(2):5-9; [3 pl.].
[2]

Ohler JG, 1979. Cashew. Communication, Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, No. 71:260 pp.
[2]

Northwood PJ. 1966. Some observations on flowering and fruit setting in the cashew (Anacardium
occidentale L.). Trop. Agriculture, Trin. 43(1).
[7]

Verheij E.W.M. Coronel R.E. (1991) PROSEA - Plant Resources of South-East Asia; 2 - Edible fruits
and nuts.
[8]

Villachica H. Carvalho J. E. U. de. Müller C. H. Camilo Diaz, S. Almanza M. (1996) Promising
Amazonian Fruits and Vegetables.
[8]

X. References:
[1] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4, 5(1), 6-8. (CD-ROM).

[2] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).

[3] FA/CTSP-DANIDA, 2005: Farmers Tree Planting Manual - Guidelines for Site Selection and Tree
Planting. (CD-ROM).

[4] Kham, L., 2004: Medicinal Plants of Cambodia - Habitat, Chemical Constituents and
Ethnobotanical Uses.

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[5] Mandal, R.C., 2000: Cashew - Production and Processing Technology.

[6] FA, 2002 (draft), List of Trade Names of Commercial Wood in Cambodia, Trade Names of
Commercial Woods, unpublished.

[7] World Agroforestry Center: AgroForestryTree Database -
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/BotanicSearch.asp (Internet
source).

[8] ECOPORT: http://ecoport.org/ep?Plant=401&entityType=PL****&entityDisplayCategory=full
(Internet source)

[9] CTSP/DANIDA, 2004: List of Tree Species.

[10] Andhra Pradesh Forest Department: http://forest.ap.nic.in/Silviculture (Internet source).

[11] ARCBC BISS Species Database: http://arcbc.org/cgi-bin/abiss.exe/spd?spd=352&tx=PL&sub=0
(Internet source).

[12] Auroville TDEF: http://www.auroville-tdef.info/Individual.php?id=447 (Internet source)

[13] Nguyen et al., 1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. JICA/Vietnam Inventory and Planning Institute.

[14] Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.

[15] Purseglove, J-W., 1968: Tropical Crops - Dicotyledonae 1. London. 332 pp.

[16] Petri, M. (DED), 2006: Own observations.

Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Anisoptera costata Korth.]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Anisoptera costata Korth.]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Anisoptera costata Korth
B. English name (s) ³ No information available.
C. Synonym ³ Anisoptera cochinchinensis Pierre (1886), Anisoptera
marginatoides Heim (1902), Anisoptera mindanensis Foxw.
(1918) [1], Anisoptera oblonga Dyer, Anisoptera
cochinchinensis Pierre, Anisoptera robusta Pierre,
Anisoptera glabra Pierre, Shorea nervosa Kurz. [4]
D. Other
1
³ mai bak, mersawa (Trade Name) [12] - mersawa kesat
(Brunei) [1] - masegar, mersawa daun lebar, ketimpun
(Indonesia) [1] - mersawa kesat, mersawa terbak, pengiran
kesat (Malaysia) [1] - Mindanao palosapis, balingan
(Philippines) [1] - kaban-thangyin (Myanmar) [1] - bak, maiz
bak (Laos) [1] - krabak, krabak khok, krabak daeng
(Thailand) [1] - v[ee]n v[ee]n, v[ee]n v[ee]n tr[aws]ng, v[ee]n
v[ee]n xanh (Vietnam) [1]

E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³: epþók
Source: [8]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ phdiek, phdiek krâham, phdiek sâ [1]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Malvales
Family: Dipterocarpaceae
Gunus: Anisoptera Korth.
Species: Anisoptera costata Korth.

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Source :[ 1,4]


H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: A large to very large tree up to 50 (-65) m tall [1] (-20 m [10], 30-40 m [12]). Bole cylindrical,
straight, branchless for up to 35 m and with a DBH up to 150 cm [1] (100 cm [10], 170 cm [5], 200 cm
[2], 50-80 cm [12]). Few buttresses of up to 4 m high, thick, rounded, straight and spreading out up to
2.5 m, continuing up the bole as ribs up to 10 m high [5] ; (no buttresses are present [2]). Branches
thick, flat or angular and densely yellow stellate hairy.
[Bark]: The bark is greyish brown to light yellow, smooth and hairless when young, deeply fissured
when old and shedding off into small rectangular patches. Inner bark leathery and lamellated, up to 3
cm [5] (1-2 cm [12]) thick, with a cream yellow to brown yellow color.
[Leaves]: The leaves are single, alternate, leathery with a dull yellowish or greenish lepidote beneath.
Leaf shape elliptical to opposite egg-shaped, 6-20 x 3-11 cm [5] (6-18 cm x 7-11 cm [1], 10-15 x 5-8
cm [2]). Apex with a short blunt point, base rounded or nearly heart-shaped, hairless on upper
surface, star-shaped hairs on the lower surface, venation pinnate, secondary veins 15-20 pairs [5] (8-
22 pairs [1]), intramarginal vein present.
[Flowers]: The inflorescence is conical, axillary or terminal, 10-15 cm long, with star-shaped hairs.
Flower cream colored. Outer flower-leaves 5, hairy, lobes triangular. Inner flower-leaves 5, blunt,
narrow elliptic. Stamens (male organs) 25-35 [5] (30-35 [2]). Ovary (female organ) cylindrical, 2-
locular (2 ovules = immature seed). Flowering from November to March [5] (February-March [2],
December-March [12]).
[Fruits]: Fruiting from February to May [5] (April-May [2]). Fruit globular, brown, 1-1.5 cm in diameter,
with two large wings 10-12 x 1.5-2 cm [2] (10-16 x 1-1.5 cm [5]) and three short wings 1.5-2.5 x 0.2-
0.5 cm .
[1, 2, 5, 10]

I. Wood properties:
Medium weight hardwood with a white yellow color and indistinctive sapwood and heartwood. [12].
However other sources describe the sapwood and heartwood as very distinctive, with a pale yellowish
white sapwood and a pale yellow heartwood having a fine texture [1, 2]. Annual rings are not clear
cut, usually 5-7 mm wide. Resin conducted tubes and simple vessels are scattered. The wood-resin is
soft at first, then becomes hard, grey and strongly smelling. Wood density of 0.46-0.85 g/cm³ [1] at
15% moisture content. The specific density of dry wood is 0.64 g/cm³ [2] (0.61-0.71 g/cm³ [12]).
Volume shrinkage coefficient 0.49, fiber situation point 28%. Pressure strength along the grain 504
kg/cm². Static bending strength 1,150 kg/cm². Splitting strength 17.5 kg/cm. Collision bending strength
1.17. The wood is easy to saw, but makes the saw blunt because of its high content of calcium-oxate
crystals in the heartwood.
[1, 2, 5, 12]

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J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
Approximate limits: From 15°N southwards. Occurs in moist tropical evergreen rain forests, semi-
evergreen and dry evergreen forests of the lowlands. In natural forest it grows together with species
like Diperocarpus alatus, D.kerri, D. jourdanii, Hopea odorata, Hopea ferrea, Shorea spp.,
Lagerstroemia spp., Pterocarpus macrocarpus, Xylia xylocarpa, Afzelia xylocarpa and Peltophorum
ferrugincum. Occasionally it is also associated with bamboos. A. costata always occupies ecologically
dominant storey or predominant storey in the layered structure. Sometimes it grows gregariously in
pure stands.
[1, 2, 5, 7, 11, 12]

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
Occurs up to an altitude of 700 m a.s.l. in humid areas with a mean annual rainfall of 1,500-2,200 mm
and an average annual humidity of 75-85%. The mean annual temperature is 25-27°C. The dry
season can last for 4-6 months.
[1, 2, 11]

L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
No information available.

M. soil and site conditions :
It is suitable to degraded grey soil or yellowish brown soil on old alluvium or basalt tuff which can be
low in nutrients. It occurs from coastal to hillside areas, by streams, and lowland disturbed areas.
Water logging is not tolerated. Soil where it is distributed is usually poor in nutrients. It can also be
found gregariously in dry seasonal areas, where the trees can be shortly deciduous and relatively
small in size.
[2, 11]

N. Utilization and importance :
[Wood]: The wood (traded as 'mersawa') is of high commercial value and suitable for veneer,
plywood, furniture, flooring, interior finish, ship planking, general construction, telefone posts, wooden
tanks and tight cooperage.
[1, 2, 5, 10, 12]
[Non-wood]: The nut is edible.
[11]
[Others]: Shade and shelter-tree. Potential tree for soil- and water conservation and amenity. This
species is of current socio-economic importance in Cambodia (as defined on the National Workshop
on Tree Species Priorities organized by DFW and CTSP in 2000).
[9]

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O. Cambodian wood classification :
2
nd
class. [3]

P. Silviculture and management :
[General]: A. costata occurs naturally in moist tropical evergreen rain forests, semi-evergreen and dry
evergreen forests of the lowlands which can contain a considerable amount of deciduous tree species
(20-50%) forming forests that are usually 25-30 m tall, with closed canopies and a lower tree stratum
of 5-17 m in height. In natural forest it grows together with species like Diperocarpus alatus, D.kerri,
D. jourdanii, Hopea odorata, H. ferrea, Shorea spp., Lagerstroemia spp., Pterocarpus macrocarpus,
Xylia xylocarpa, Afzelia xylocarpa and Peltophorum ferrugincum. Occasionally it is also associated
with bamboos. A. costata always occupies ecologically dominant storey or predominant storey in the
layered structure. Sometimes it grows gregariously in pure stands.
[2, 5, 7,11]
[Establishment]: For stand establishment it is advisable to plant this species on grey soil generated on
old alluvium or basalt tuff or in secondary forest soil still covered by forest vegetation. Pure plantations
can be raised under the crowns of Indigofera teysmanii at 600 trees/ha density (3-6 m) or can be
planted mixed in 15-20 m wide rows with Dipterocarpus alatus and Hopea odorata. At an early stage
of the plantation it needs a slight shading, thus Indigofera teysmanii of Hopea odorata are suitably
used as support species. Planting is conducted during the first rains of the rainy season (June-July in
Vietnam).
[Management]: Tending should be carried out in 7 consecutive years. In the first to third year mainly
weeding, heaping soil to tree base, breaking the hard pan and cutting of climbers (twice a year, one
before and the other after the rainy season). In the 4
th
-5
th
year: Shoots thinning, stem shaping. In the
6
th
-7
th
year: Canopy opening, adjustment of density (final density is 300 trees/ha). There must be fire
control in the dry season.
[2]

Q. Propagation :
The species flowers and fruits very irregularly (once every 3-4 years). Thus seeds must be stored and
seedlings must be maintained for annual forest planting plans. After collection the seeds must be
treated an sown directly because they loose their germinability quickly. Seeds are sown in seedbeds
and then planted in P.E. pots (20 x 25 cm) (pot mixture consists of surface layer soil (80%) and
decomposed farmyard manure (20%). Seedlings are planted when they have attained a mean height
of 0.6-0.8 m and are 12-14 months old.
[2]

R. Hazards and protection :
No information available.



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S. Conservation :
A. costata is a rare and threatened tree species according to the IUCN -1994 EN-category. The
estimated number of individuals threatened by logging in Cambodia (as defined on the National
Workshop on Tree Species Priorities organized by DFW and CTSP in 2000) are >10,000 [9].
[6, 9, 10]

T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :
No information available.

U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
[Native]: Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia (Sumatra, W-Java, Borneo), Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar,
Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam (S-Vietnam).
[1, 2, 5, 10]

[Introduced]: No information available.

V. Miscellaneous
4
:
[Forest Genetics]: "A. costata is a very variable species which possibly hybridizes with A. curtisii" [1].

W. Further readings
5
:
Flore du Cambodge du Laos et du Viêtnam (various editors), 1960. Muséum National d'Histoire
Naturelle, Paris.
[1]
Masano, A.H., 1988. Perkecambahan benih Anisoptera costata Korth. [Seed germination of
Anisoptera costata Korth.]. Buletin Penelitian Hutan 498: 11-21.
[1]

X. References:
[1] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4, 5(1), 6-8. (CD-
ROM).

[2] JICA, 2003: Use of indigenous tree species in reforestation in Vietnam.

[3] FA, 2002 (draft), List of Trade Names of Commercial Wood in Cambodia, Trade Names of
Commercial Woods, unpublished.

[4] Gardner,S.; Sidisunthorn, P.; Anusarnsunthorn, V., 2000: A Field Guide to Forest Trees of
Northern Thailand.


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[5] Sam, Hoang Van; Nanthavong, Khamseng; Kessler, P.J.A., 2004: Trees of Laos and Vietnam: a
field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important species. BLUMEA.

[6] Keo Omaliss and Meng Monyrak: Threatened Species Listing in Cambodia: Status, Issues and
Prospects

[7] Stibig, H-J. and Beuchle, R., 2003: Forest Cover Map of Continental Southeast Asia at
1:4,000,000. TREES Publications Series D: Thematic outputs no. 4.

[8] CTSP/DANIDA, 2004: List of Tree Species.

[9] FAO: http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/DOCREP/005/AC648E/ac648e04.htm
(Internet source)

[10] ARCBC BISS Species Database: http://arcbc.org/cgi-
bin/abiss.exe/spd?SID=1869852&spd=5062&tx=PL (Internet source)

[11] Dipterocarpaceae in Thailand - Taxonomic and Biogeographical Analysis:
http://www.forest.go.th/Botany/main/Research/RP_thesis/taxonomy/Anisoptera.htm (Internet
source)

[12] Nguyen et al., 1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. JICA/Vietnam Inventory and Planning Institute.

[13] Petri, M. (DED), 2006: Own observations.

Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Annona muricata L]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Annona muricata L]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Annona muricata L. [4]
B. English name (s) ³ soursop, custard apple, [4,9]
C. Synonym ³ Annona bondplaniana Kunth ; Annona cearaensis Barb.
Rodr.; Annona macrocarpa Werkl.; Guanabanus muricata
(L.) Gomez. [26]
D. Other
1
³ guayabano, soursop (Engl.) anone, cachiman épineux,
corossol, corosselier, (French); tiëp bânla, tiep barang
(Cambodia); sirsak, nangka belanda, nangka seberng
(Indonesia); khan thalot, khièp thét (Laos); durian belanda,
durian benggala, durina makkah (Malaysia); duyin awza
(Burma); guayabano, atti (Philippines); thurian thet, rian nam,
thurian khaek (Thailand); mang câu xiêm (Vietnam) [6,26].

E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³: eTob)araMg
Source: [3]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ tiëp barang, tiëp bânla [4]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Magnoliales
Family: Annonaceae [4]
Gunus: Annona
Species: Annona muricata L. [4]

Source :[ 4 ; 6 ]



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H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: A tree , 5-9 m high, branching from near base [6]. A tree up to 7 m high [9]. Slender,
evergreen tree, 5-10m high, diameter up to 15 cm.; trunk straight [26].
[Bark]: Smooth, dull grey or grey brown, rough and fissured with age; inner bark pinkish and tasteless;
branches at first ascending with the crown, forming an inverted cone, later spreading; crown at
maturity spherical due to lack of apical dominance; twigs brown or grey, bearing minute, raised
lenticels; root system extensive and superficial, spreading beyond the diameter of the crown, although
shallow rooted. Juvenile plants have a taproot that is eventually lost [26].
[Leaves]: Alternate, short stalked, oblong-ovate, entire, 7-20 cm long, 2-5 cm wide, pointed at both
ends, dark green and shiny above, yellowish-green below, badly smelling when crushed [6]. Leaves
aromatic, rich, green, laurel-like, growing compactly [9]. Leaves alternate, 7.6-15.2 cm long, 2.5-7.6
cm wide, leathery, obovate to elliptic,glossy on top, glabrous on underside, simple, stipules absent;
blade oblanceolate, green on top, paler and dull on underside with 3-10 mm long fine, lateral nerves;
exuding a strong, pungent odour; petioles short [26].
[Flowers]: Large, yellowish-green, strong smelling, 1 or 2 together; flower stalk with short dense hairs
[6]. Flowers cauliflorous, forming on trunk and branches; with 3 triangular, fleshy petals which fall
immediately after pollination. Flowers have an unpleasant smell attracting flies and other insects, the
main pollinators [9]. Flower terminal or lateral, large; stalks stout, green, 1.3-1.9 cm long; 3 sepals,
minute, inconspicuous, broad, green, 3mm long, triangular; petals yellowish-green, 6 in 2 whorls of 3,
outer petals larger, ovate-acute, valvate, cordate with pointed apex (heart-shaped), 4-5 x 3.4 cm, 3
mm thick and fleshy, fitting together at edges in bud, rough on the outside; 3 inner petals, narrow,
smaller, 3.8 cm long, thinner, rounded, concave with fingernail-shaped base and overlapping edges;
stamens numerous, shield-shaped, united below; anthers parallel and opening longitiudinallly; carpels
numerous, overtopping the stamens, each with 1 ovule; pistils white, narrow, 5 mm long, with sticky
stigmata [26].
[Fruit]: Tender with leathery skin and soft, curved spines. Flesh whitish, very juicy with hard, dark-
brown seeds [6]. Fruit a syncarp, a multiple fruit composed of many united pistils, each ending in a
fleshy spine which grows from the old style. Each of the white, fleshy, sweetly aromatic segments
contains a single, black, shiny seed. The large, thin-skinned fruit has a light or bright green colour,
heart- or kidney-shaped, up to 3 kg in weight, up to 35 cm long [9]. Fruit 14-40 x 10-18 cm, weighing
up to 7 kg, ovoid, heart-shaped, an oblong syncarp composed of numerous united pistils; pistils end in
fleshy spine or short base of spine, 1.5 mm or more in length which grows from the style, often
asymetric due to incomplete fertilization of the ovules. Epidermis often shining, dark green with short
fleshy spines covering each carpel; pulp white, fibrous and juicy; seeds shiny, dark, brown or black,
oblong, up to 2 cm long, 0.7 cm wide [26].






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I. Wood properties:
The wood makes suitable firewood. The soft, whitish wood is sometimes used for construction
applications. Sapwood is whitish and heartwood brown. The wood is soft, light (specific gravity of
400kg/m³), not durable; it is rarely used as construction timber but has been used for ox yokes [26].

J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
A. muricata is thought to be a native of tropical America, including the West Indies, although its origin
is not definitely known. It is now widely distributed in lowlands of the tropics [6]. Cultivated today in the
tropical and subtropical Americas, in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Australia, with the
geographical limits approximately at 23º N and 25º S [12]. A. muricata thrives in the humid tropical
and subtropical lowlands. It is common on the coast and is found on slopes. Planted for its fruit, it has
become wild or naturalized in thickets, pastures and along roads [26].

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
A. muricata grows in tropical climates below 1000 m a.s.l. with a minimum of 1000 mm/m² of annual
rainfall; however, it tolerates up to 6 months of drought [6]. A. muricata will grow between 0-1000 m
elevation a.s.l., annual precipitation ranging from 1000 to 2500 mm/m², mean annual temperature
from 18ºC-25ºC, t minimum >5ºC [12]. The species is commonly cultivated in home gardens and is
found in rural garden areas on volcanic and raised limestone islands where it is occasionally
naturalized. Trees are not found on atolls. They withstand very little frost. A. muricata occurs
throughout the West Indies except in the Bahamas, and from Mexico to Brazil [26].

L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
not determined

M. soil and site conditions :
A. muricata does not tolerate water-logging but needs well drained, not too acid soil (6), high
tolerance to alkaline soils of light texture, otherwise tolerant [9,12].

N. Utilization and importance :
[Wood]: Can be used as fuelwood [17].
[Non-Wood]: Annona muricata is a fruit tree; the ripe fruit is eaten fresh or made into juice, preserve,
jam or jelly. A. muricata is the only Annona fruit that can be processed into preserves. It is high in
vitamins B and C and and is an important fruit in Southeast Asian cooking where the unripe fruit is
prepared in coconut milk. A. muricata can be consumed fresh for dessert when fully ripe or mixed with
ice cream or milk to make a delicious drink, as is done in Java and in Cuba and other parts of
America. However, more often the puree is consumed after squeezing the pulp through a sieve. It can
be made into fruit jelly, juice (with sugar added), nectar or syrup. In Indonesia a sweetcake (‘dodol
sisrak’) is made by boiling A. muricata pulp in water and adding sugar until the mixture hardens. In the

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Philippines, young fruits with seeds that are still soft are used as a vegetable. Mature but firm fruits
may be made into candy of delicate flavour and aroma. A. muricata fruit consists of about 67.5%
edible pulp, 20% peel, 8.5% seeds and 4% core by weight. Sugars constitute about 68% of the total
solids. The fruit is a good source of vitamins B (0.07 mg/100g) and C (20 mg/100 g) and a poor to fair
source of calcium and phosphorus. The most desirable characteristics of the fruit are its extremely
pleasing fragrance and flavour [26]. In traditional medicine many applications have developed: The
crushed leaves are applied to mature boils and abscesses or are used as a remedy for distention and
dyspepsia, scabies and skin diseases, rheumatism, coughs and colds. The leaves may also be used
to make a decoction, which is taken orally with salt for digestive tract ailments and to relieve fatigue. A
crushed leaf and seed decoction is taken orally for intestinal malaise. A massage of the leaves is
good for nervous shock, while a leaf or bark decoction is used for anxiety attacks. Flower or flower
bud tea is mixed with honey for colds, chest pain and nerve disorders, and the bark and young fruits,
which contain tannin, are used to treat diarrhoea and dysentery. The green bark is rubbed on wounds
to stop bleeding [26].

A. muricata is an early bearing tree suitable for intercropping between larger fruit trees like mango or
avocado. When these achieve crown closure the Annonas can be removed. So far the yield is on the
average low and seldom exceeds 12 to 24 fruit per tree. However, a 35 year-old plantation in Hawaii
has shown that the mean number of fruit /tree can be much higher, e.g. 33, 34, and 70 fruit/tree during
the years 4,5,and 6, respectively [12].
Leaves and roots are used in traditional medicine [6].
The pungent leaves are said to be sleep-inducing [9];
fruit pulp and leaves are used to treat diarrhoea, fever and scurvy [9].
Green fruit, leaves and and seeds are said to have insecticidal properties, the seeds are considered
to be poisonous for humans [9].
Annonaceae comprise a large number of fruit-bearing trees and shrubs. Species of genus Rollinia
have only local importance but from the genus Annona, A. muricata L., soursop, and A. reticulata L.,
the bullock´s heart are particularly grown in Central America and the West Indies. Until now the 2
species of commercial importance are A. cherimola Mill., cherimoya, and A. squamosa L., the custard
apple, and the crosses between these, called the atemoyas. Cherimoya originates from the highlands
of Peru and Ecuador and grows only in tropical highlands and in the subtropics. Cherimoya sold in
Europe originates mostly from Spain and Israel [19].

O. Cambodian wood classification :
not included [18]



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P. Silviculture and management :
Seeds may be sown directly into the field or in a nursery bed. Within 20-30 days 85-90% of the seeds
should germinate, and seedlings can be planted out after 6-8 months. Spacing in orchards should be
3 x 4 m to 4 x 6 m [26]. Commercial plantations in Brazil were a failure. It is not clear whether the
reasons were low yield, or limited storage potential. There are reports concerning inadequate
pollination and subsequent low yields. But also customers complained over the large amount of
seeds. Evidently more and coordinated research on higher yields and less numerous seeds is needed
[12]. Stand establishment possible by using direct sowing, but better with planting stock [12]. The area
around the base of the tree should be kept free from weeds or covered with mulch to avoid
dehydration of the shallow roots during the dry season. Annona muricata can tolerate dry soil
conditions, but the trees shed too many leaves if they experience prolonged drought, and in that
situation they would benefit from supplementary watering. Moderate application of fertilizer and
manure increases fruit production. This is necessary during the early stages of growth so as to
increase the slow growth rate. Trees usually assume a satisfactory form, but in some cases it is
necessary to limit the tree to a single trunk by cutting out competing twigs as early as possible [26].

Q. Propagation :
Flowers are protandrous, and the pollen is shed as the outer petals open towards the evening. The
inner petals open much later and only very slightly, admitting small insects attracted by the fragrance
of the flowers. Beetles of several species are important in carrying out natural pollination. Presumably
these insects effect cross-pollination, though rather inadequately, for few flowers set fruit and many
fruits are misshapen since numerous ovules are not fertilized. Hand pollination is effective in
improving fruit yield and quality. Fruiting starts in the 2nd year, and 5-year-old trees produce 10-50
fruits, depending on pollination efficiency and nutrient status. Sporadic flowering and fruiting can occur
all year round in favourable conditions [26]. Seed storage behaviour is orthodox, and the seeds
tolerate desiccation to 5%. Long-term storage under ideal conditions is possible [26].
The tree can be propagated clonally, in particular through various budding and grafting techniques on
seedling stock, as is the practice in parts of America. Only the most productive trees should be
selected for propagation; they should be planted 5 m apart. However, A. muricata is commonly raised
from seed. Seedlings are acceptable because populations are fairly uniform -seeds of the sweet type,
for instance, are generally true to type -and because the juvenile phase lasts only 2-4 years. Seeds
may be sown directly into the field or in a nursery bed [26].


R. Hazards and protection :
A. muricata trees are susceptible to seed borers which drill holes from outside into the seeds in the
fruit, killing it that way. Other noxious insects are scale insects and mealy bugs [9]. Caterpillars
(Diacotrichia, Pingasa and Pseudoterpna) attack the flowers and young leaves [26].Insect pests
include Bephata maculicollis, Ceconata annonella, Talponia backeri, Thecla ortygnus, scale insects
and Mediterranean fruit fly. The trunk borer Cratasomus spp. is a serious pest, as are many fruit

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borers in the orders Coleoptera, Diptera and Lepidoptera. Mousebirds also attack the tree. In the
Caribbean region A. muricata is attacked heavily by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and, in
the Manaus, Brazil, region by Pellicularia spp. [26].

S. Conservation :
Not a threatenend species

T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :
In private house gardens and small fruit orchards

U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
Tropical Central America and West Indian Islands native, Southeast Asia introduced [26]

V. Miscellaneous
4
:
Seeds considered poisonous for humans and an eye irritant [9]. Powder of dried leaves and sap from
fresh ones are useful in destroying vermin. A powder or oil from the seeds has been used to kill lice
and bedbugs. All tree parts have insecticidal properties and can be used, with fruit as bait, to kill fish
[26].

W. Further readings
5
:
Verheij E.W.M. & Coronel, R.E. (Eds.) 1991: Plant Resources of Southeast Asia. No.2, Edible fruits
and nuts. Pudoc, Wageningen, 446 pp.
Trinh Thuong Mai, 1995: Fruit trees in Vietnam. Chronica Horticultura 35(3): 8-9; 3 pl.
Granadino CA, Cave RD 1994: Inventory of arthropods and pathogenic fungi Annona in 4 localities of
Honduras. Turrialba 44(3): 129-139; 5 ref.
Chan, YK 1992: Breeding and varietal improvement of tropical fruits at MARDI. Acta Horticulturae No.
321:138-151; 12 ref.
Williams, L.O. 1981: The Useful Plants of Central America. Ceiba 24(1-4):1-381.
Fouque,A. 1976: Espèces Fruitières d´Amérique Tropicale. Institut Franais de Recherches Fruitières
Outre-Mer, Paris.
Carbajal D, Casaco A, Arruzazabala L, González R, Fuentes V, 1991. Pharmacological screening of
plant decoctions commonly used in Cuban folk medicine. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 33(1-2):21-
24; 7 ref.









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X. References:
4) Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House; Phnom Penh, 915 pp.

6) Jensen, M., 2001: Trees and Fruits of Southeast Asia. Orchid Press, Bangkok, 234 pp.

9) Barwick, M., 2004: Tropical and Subtropical Trees: A Worldwide Encyclopaedic Guide.
Thames & Hudson Ltd., London, 484 pp.

13) Baertels, A., 1993: Farbatlas Tropenpflanzen-Zier- und Nutzpflanzen (Colour Atlas Tropical
Plants- ornamental and fruit plants) Eugen Ulmer Publ. Stuttgart, illustrated, 384 pp.

19) Rehm, S. and G. Espig 1991: The Cultivated Plants of the Tropics and Subtropics. Josef
Margraf, Publ. Scientific Books; Weikersheim, Germany, 552 pp.

26) World Agroforestry Centre
http.www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/Speciesinfo.asp?
(Internet source)


Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Annona squamosa L]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Annona squamosa L]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Annona squamosa L. [4]
B. English name (s) ³ sweetsop, custard apple, sugar apple [4,6,9]
C. Synonym ³ Annona biflora Moç & Sessé, Annona cinerea Dunhal.,
Annona forskahlii DC. [26].

D. Other
1
³ pomme cannelle, achiman cannelle, attier (French);
chirimoya, anona (Spanish); tiep baay, tiep srok (Cambodia);
sirkaja, sarikaja, atis (Indonesia); khieb (Laos); non sari kaya,
buah nona, sri kaya (Malaysia); awza (Burma); atis
(Philippines); noina, mak khiap, lanang (Thailand); na mang
câu ta, na (Vietnam) [4,6,9,26].

E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³ eTobRsuk eTob)ay
Source: [-]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ tiëp ba:y, tiëp srôk [4]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Magnoliales
Family: Annonaceae
Gunus: Annona
Species: Annona squamosa L.
Source :[ 4 ; 11 ]


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H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: Shrub or small tree, 3-6 m high [6]; small deciduous tree, young branches densely
pubescent [12]. A small semi-deciduous tree, 3-7 m high, with broad, open crown or irregularly
spreading branches [26].
[Bark]: Bark light brown with visible leaf scars, smoothly to slightly fissured into plates; inner bark light
yellow and slightly bitter. Twigs become brown with light brown dots (lenticels) [26].
[Leaves]: Oblong to narrow elliptic, 7-17 cm long, 3.5-5.0 cm wide, slightly hairy or smooth beneath
[6]. Leaves alternate, ovate-oblong or elliptic oblong, thin, sparsely downy, dark green above, 8-15 cm
long, 2-5 cm wide. Pubescent when young with peculiar smell when crushed. Petiole 1.0-1.5 cm long
[12]. Leaves occur singly, 6-17 x 3-6 cm, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, pale green on both
surfaces, and glabrate or nearly so; sides sometimes slightly unequal, edges without teeth,
inconspicuously hairy at least when young, minutely dotted on examination with a lens; thin dull green
to dark green on top surface, and pale blue-green and covered with bloom on underside; apex short
or long pointed, base short pointed or rounded; petioles 0.6-1.3 cm long green, slightly pubescent
[26[.
[Flowers): In groups of 2-4 or sometimes alone, on slender stalks on young branchlets. Outer 3 petals
oblong to 2.5 cm long, green with purple base whereas inner 3 petals are reduced or absent [6]. Small
pendulous flowers singly or in pairs, in the leaf axils of young shoots or opposite leaves. Pedicel 1.5-
2.5 cm, hairy. The 3 sepals are short, deciduous, densely or thinly pubescent, 0.2-0.3 cm long. The 6
petals are biseriate, the 3 outer petals are lanceolate, thick, fleshy, trigonous, finely pubescent,
yellowish-green on the outside, yellowish-white inside, 2.0-2.5 cm long, 0.5-1.0 cm wide. The 3 inner
petals alternate the outer ones and are minute, sometimes absent, ovate and never more than 0.5-1.0
cm long. The stamens are numerous, yellowish-white in many rows in the glabrous, raised receptacle
(torus) 0.12-0.15 cm long and crowded in a whorl around the gynoecium. The pistils are also
numerous, dark violet, finely pubescent, found above the stamens. The stigmas are sessile, stuck
together and deciduous. The stamens and pistils form a cone-shaped structure at the center of the
flower [12]. Flowers greenish-yellow, fragrant, on slender, hairy stalks, produced singly or in short
lateral clusters about 2.5 cm long, 2-4 flowers, but not at the base of the leaves; sepals pointed, hairy,
green, about 1.6 cm long; 3 outer petals oblong, thick, and rounded at the tips, fleshy, 1.6-2.5 cm
long, 0.6 cm wide, yellow green, slightly hairy, inside light yellow, and keeled with a purplish or
reddish spot at the thin, enlarged base; inner petals 3, minute, ovate, pointed scales; stamens very
numerous, crowded, white, less than16 mm long; ovary light green, styles white, crowded on the
raised axis [26].
[Fruit]: The fruit is a syncarp formed by the fusion of numerous ovaries. It is irregularly heart-shaped
about 5-20 cm in diameter. The ripe fruit is yellowish green or purple. The flesh is white, soft, juicy,
with a mild agreeable flavour. The numerous seeds are obovoid or elliptic, dark brown or black, shiny,
slightly compressed, 1.0-1.5 cm long, 0.5-0.8 cm wide, each enclosed in the edible pulp [12].

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Fruit globose, 5-10 cm in diameter, greenish-yellow with powdery surface [6]. Fruit globose, with egg-
shaped soft scales, and grey-green skin, rapidly turning black when only slightly pressed. The flesh is
creamy, yellowish-white and tastes aromatic and sweet [13]. The aggregated fruit, formed from the
numerous pistils of a flower which are loosely united, is soft and distinct from other species of the
genus. Each pistil forms a separate tubercle, mostly 1.3-1.9 cm long and 0.6-1.3 cm wide [26]. The
fruit is round, heart-shaped, ovate or conical, 5-10 cm in diameter, with many round protuberances;
greenish-yellow when ripe, with a white powdery bloom. The pulp is white, edible and sweetly
aromatic; in each carpel is a seed embedded, oblong, shiny and smooth, blackish or dark-brown, 1.3-
1,6 cm long, numerous [26].
Commercial hybrids with A. cherimola are called atemoya or custard apple [6](the name custard apple
is in contradiction to [19] which states that this name applies solely to A. squamosa)

I. Wood properties:
The light yellow sapwood and brownish heartwood are soft, light in weight and weak [12,26].

J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
Originates from tropical America and West Indian Islands, reached India, spread over Southeast Asia,
now distributed world-wide in lowland tropics especially in Asia and the South Pacific. Geographically
the limits of the area of distribution are given as 16ºN -18º S. A. squamosa is native of tropical
America and the West Indies, but its original home is uncertain [26].

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
Grows in tropical climates, generally below 1,000 m elevation a.s.l., with minimum annual precipitation
of 1,000 mm/m² [6]. The following conditions have been specified: Elevation 0-1200 m a.s.l., 750-4500
mm/m² annual precipitation, rainfall bimodal, dry season of 2-5 months, mean annual temperature 29-
32ºC, minimum t of >18ºC [12]. Like many other fruit trees young plants need shade but later require
full sunlight. Trees do well in hot and relatively dry climates such as those of the low-lying interior
plains of many tropical countries. A. squamosa has the reputation, particularly in India, of being a
hardy, drought-resistant crop. This is only partly correct. Although the rest period and leaf fall enable
the tree to bridge a severe dry season, it requires adequate moisture during the growing season,
responding well to supplementary irrigation. The importance of moisture is shown by the fact that in
India as well as Southeast Asia, fruit set is largely limited to the onset of the rains, not withstanding
the prolonged flowering season [26].

L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
not determined

M. soil and site conditions :
A.squamosa is xerophytic and tolerates prolonged drought but it does not like water-logging, requires
well-drained [6], but no too acid soils [9]. It makes generally low demands on soil and water. Soil
properties required are good drainage, sandy or silty loams, clays. Best yields were obtained from

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sandy loams, or soils which are slightly acidic in the range of pH 5.5-6.5 [19,26]. The root system is
relatively shallow, so that it does not require very deep soil. In India, A. squamosa predominantly
inhabits hillocks, gravelly soils and waste land [12].

N. Utilization and importance :
[Wood]: Dead trees or broken branches can serve as fuelwood [17,20]. The light yellow sapwood and
brownish heartwood is soft, light in weight and weak, but the main reason for being rarely used is the
lack of a regular supply of wood with usable dimensions [26].
[Non-Wood]: A. squamosa is distributed throughout the tropics and is in first place a desert fruit. The
largest volume of fruit produced is eaten fresh, only a small portion is used as a flavouring or for
producing nectar [6]. Custard apple, A.squamosa, is the commercially most important Annona
species. It is commercially grown in Thailand, Malaysia and the Philippines, but also in other
countries, China or India, where large quantities are taken to local markets. In India the greater part of
the harvest originates from wild trees [19]. The pulp can be used as a flavouring in ice cream.
Between 50-80% of the fruit is edible. The vitamin C content is appreciable (35-42 mg/100 g) and
slightly higher than in grapefruit. The nutrient value of thiamine, potassium and dietary fibre is also
significant [26].
Applications in traditional medicine comprise macerated bark in rice alcohol for treatment of diarhoea;
crushed leaves mixed with water taken to treat malaria(20 leaves per adult, 10 leaves for a child) [4].
Leaves, shoots, bark and roots have been reported to have medicinal properties. The unripe fruit is
astringent, and the root is a drastic purgative [12,20]. Leaves, shoots, bark and roots have been
reported to have medicinal properties. Green fruits, seeds and leaves have effective vermicidal and
insecticidal properties [20].
A. squamosa can be planted as a shade or shelter tree as well as an ornamental, the attractive tree is
grown in gardens. The trees are grown as intercrop with mango, banana and coffee trees [26].

O. Cambodian wood classification :
not included

P. Silviculture and management :
In Australia and other regions A.squamosa is grafted onto A. glabra stock to avoid insect attacks.
However, A. glabra has become invasive in Northeast Queensland where it is forming pure thickets
[9].
Trees are planted 5-6 m apart or 10-12 m when grown with mango trees. This slow-growing tree must
be protected from browsing animals. If well looked after, it will start producing fruit after about 2 years.
Regular watering and weeding are required for good fruit production. Soil needs to be fertilized
generously for better fruit yield. Commercial fertilizer containing 3% nitrogen, 10% phosphoric acid
and 10% potash is recommended. A mature tree, 5 m high, produces several dozen fruits in a

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season. Biological control and chemicals including malathion and dimethoate acephate are used to
control pests. Trees are sprayed with bordeaux, fermate, phygon, and zerlate to control anthracnose
disease [26].


Q. Propagation :
Seed storage behaviour is orthodox. If kept dry, seeds retain their viability for several years. No loss in
viability occurs during 6 months hermetic storage at -20ºC and 1.5% m.c., but loss in viability occurs if
seeds are stored at room temperature [26].
A.squamosa can be directly sown. Freshly harvested seeds are collected from mother trees, washed
in tap water, air dried and sown into seed boxes, 1 cm deep , 2-3 cm apart, with planting soil
composed of 2 parts of fine sand and 1 part of garden soil. Germination of 90-95% can be achieved,
setting in after 20 days. When 4-6 pairs of leaves have fully grown transplanting can be done, where
the leaves are cut in half to reduce transpiration and the tip of the main root is cut to encourage
formation of side roots. Propagation with cuttings was not so successful [12].

R. Hazards and protection :
Seed borers , which are a common problem of A.squamosa, and mealy bugs are the dominating
insect pests. Larvae of the moth Anonaepestis bengalella are boring into the wood, the root grub of
Anomal sp..and 2 mealy bugs, Ferrisia virgata, and Planococcus lilacinus cause damge but can be
contained with insectides. Furthermore two fungi affect inflorescences and leaves but can equally be
controlled with fungicides and by burning affected branches and stems [12].
The most common pests of A. squamosa are mealy bugs (Planococcus spp.), fruit flies (Dacus spp.),
spotting bugs (Amblypelta spp.) and scales (Parasaissetia spp.). All these can be controlled in an
integrated pest management programme. In the Philippines, a fruit-boring moth (Annonaepestis
bengalella) is the most destructive insect. Another serious pest is a eurytomid wasp whose larvae
bore into the fruits.Insect pests include Bephata maculicollis, Ceconata annonella, Talponia backeri,
Thecla ortygnus, scale insects and Mediterranean fruit fly. The trunk borer Cratasomus spp. is a
serious pest, as are many fruit borers in the orders Coleoptera, Diptera and Lepidoptera. Mousebirds
also attack the tree. In the Caribbean region A. muricata is attacked heavily by the fungus
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and, in the Manaus, Brazil, region by Pellicularia spp.
The trees are susceptible to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and are attacked by Aleurocanthus
woglumi. The major root rot disease is bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum). Symptoms are
collar rot, dark internal discoloration of the root and the wood tissue, tree decline and eventual death.
Chemical control of the disease is not possible. A. squamosa rootstocks are highly susceptible. The
major fruit diseases are black canker (Phomopsis spp.), diplodia rot (Botryodiplodia spp.) and purple
blotch (Phyphthora spp.). The incidence of these fruit diseases increases under moist or wet
conditions. They can all be controlled by a regular spray programme using either mancozeb or copper
oxychloride [26].

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S. Conservation :
Not a threateneed species

T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :
In house gardens and small fruit orchards

U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
Central America, West Indies, Mexico, native; introduced to Australia, China, India, Malaysia,
Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand [26].


V. Miscellaneous
4
:
As with Artocarpus altilis, breadfruit , also A. muricata and A. squamosa are difficult to store and
transport due to their weight and soft skin. Ripe fruit is highly sensitive to damage and spoils rapidly.

W. Further readings
5
:
Hensleigh, T.E. and Holaway, B.K. (Eds.) 1988: Agroforestry Species for the Philippines. US Peace
Corps, Manila, Philippines.
Purseglove, J.W. 1974: Tropical Crops-Dicotyledons. Longman, Essex, England
Verheij E.W.M. & Coronel, R.E. (Eds.) 1991: Plant Resources of Southeast Asia. No.2, Edible fruits
and nuts. Pudoc, Wageningen, 446 pp.
Joughin, J.1986: The Market for Processed Tropical Fruit. G 196. Trop. Devel. Res. Inst.
London
Joy, C. 1987: Selected European Markets for Specialty and Tropical Fruit and Vegetables.G 201,
Trop.Devel. Res. Inst., London
Broughton, W.J. and Tan, G. 1979: Storage conditions and ripening of the custard apple Annona
squamosa L.. Sciencia Hortic. 10:73-82.
Hocking,D. 1993: Trees for Drylands. Trees for drylands. xiii+370 pp. Oxford and IHB Publishing, New
Delhi
Filipino Farm 1954: How to plant santol, atis, soursop and tamarind. Filip. Farm 1(7):17
Verkataratanam L, Satyanaranaswamy G, 1956. Studies on genetic variability in Annona squamosa.
Indian Journal of Horticulture, 15:228-238.
Little EL, Wadsworth FH. 1964. Common trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Agricultural
Handbook. No. 249. US Department of Agriculture. Washington DC.
Mbuya LP et al. 1994. Useful trees and shrubs for Tanzania: Identification, Propagation and
Management for Agricultural and Pastoral Communities. Regional Soil Conservation Unit (RSCU),
Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA).

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Popenoe W. 1974. Manual of the tropical and subtropical fruits. The Macmillann Company.
Smith JHN et. al. 1992. Tropical forests and their crops. Cornell University Press.
Viñas RC, 1972. Atis (Annona squamosa L. Annonaceae). In: Cultural directions for Philippine
Agricultural Crops. Vol. 1 (Fruits). Manila, Philippines: Public Affairs Office Press, Bur. Plant Indus,
31-36.


X. References:
4) Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House; Phnom Penh,
915 pp.

6) Jensen, M., 2001: Trees and Fruits of Southeast Asia. Orchid Press, Bangkok, 234
pp.

9) Barwick, M., 2004: Tropical and Subtropical Trees: A Worldwide Encyclopaedic
Guide. Thames & Hudson Ltd., London, 484 pp.

11) Heywood, V.D. (Ed.) 1993: Flowering Plants of the World. Oxford University Press,
New York; 336 pp.

12) CABI Forestry Compendium Edition 2003 (on CD ROM)

13) Baertels, A., 1993: Farbatlas Tropenpflanzen-Zier- und Nutzpflanzen (Colour Atlas
Tropical Plants- ornamental and fruit plants) Eugen Ulmer Publ. Stuttgart, illustrated, 384 pp.

19) Rehm, S. and G. Espig 1991: The Cultivated Plants of the Tropics and Subtropics.
Josef Margraf, Publ. Scientific Books; Weikersheim, Germany, 552 pp.

20) Salim AS, Simons AJ, Orwa C, Chege J, Ovuor,B, and Mutua A, 2002: Agroforestree
Database. World Agroforestry Centre (on CD ).

26) World Agroforestry Centre
http.www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/Speciesinfo.asp?
(Internet source)


Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Aquilaria crassna Pierre ex Lecomte .]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Aquilaria crassna Pierre ex Lecomte .]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Aquilaria crassna Pierre ex Lecomte
B. English name (s) ³ agarwood, aloeswood, eaglewood, Indian aloewood [2],
argar wood, aloe wood [3]
C. Synonym ³ Aquilaria agallocha Roxb. [1], Aquilaria malaccensis
Lam., Agallochum malaccense (Lam.) Kuntze, Aquilaria
agallocha Roxb., Aquilaria ovata Cav., Aquilariella
malaccensis (Lam.) Tiegh. [2], Aquilaria crassna Pierre [3],
Aloexylum agallochum Lour., Aquilaria secundaria DC. [7]
D. Other
1
³ bois d' aigle, bois d'aloès (France) [11] - ketsana (Laos)
[1] - tram, tram huong, do do bau [1], kanankoh [2] (Vietnam)
- agor (Bangladesh) [2] - alambac, tengkaras, alim, halim,
karek (Indonesia) [2] - agaru, sasi (India) [2] - akyaw
(Myanmar) [2] - gaharu, karas, calambac, tengkaras,
calambac, tengkaras (Malaysia) [2]

E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³: c½nÞRksña
Source: [12]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ chan crassna, changkrassna, chankrosna [3], daem chan
kroessnäa [6]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Thymelaeales
Family: Thymelaeaceae

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Genus: Aquilaria
Species: Aquilaria crassna
Source :[ 2]


H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: Medium-sized to large, evergreen tree with a general height of 15-20 m [3] but sometimes
up to 30 m [1] (-40 m [2]). Stem straight with a DBH of up to 40-50 cm [3] ( -60 cm [7], -100 cm [1]).
Crown thin with nearly horizontal branches.
[Bark]: Bark brownish grey, shallowly fissured and flaking in thin strips. Inner bark pale yellow, wet
with much water and with patches of fragrant, dark colored resin in old trees.
[Leaves]: The leaves are simple, spirally and alternate arranged with oval shape, 5-11 x 3-6 cm, base
broadly wedge-shaped, margin entire but often wavy, apex acuminate or acute. Upper surface glossy
and dark green or purple green, shining, lower surface light colored and hairless. Veins in 15-20 pairs,
more conspicuous beneath, veins and veinlets slender. Leaf-stalks 3-7 mm, hairy.
[Flowers]: Inflorescence umbellate, axillary or terminal. Flowers small and fragrant, yellowish green [1]
(snow-white [7], pale blue-yellow [9]). Flower stalks (=pedicles) 5-6 mm, densely yellow grey hairy.
Outer flower leaves (=sepals) in a tube, narrowly bell shaped, 5-6 mm, densely hairy on both sides,
lobes 5, egg-shaped. Inner flower leaves (=petals) 10, scale like, inserted on the throat of the outer
flower leaves, densely hairy. Stamens (=male organs) 10 in two rows, filaments 1 mm long, anthers
oblong. Ovary (=female organ) ovoid, densely with greyish white hairs, 2-locular, style absent or very
short, stigma head-like. Trees begin to flower at an age of 6-8 years from April to June [1] (March-
April [3]). Fruiting from July to September [1] (June-July [3].
[Fruits] The fruits (=capsule) are green and egg-shaped, 3 x 4 cm in size [9] (2-4 x 2-3 cm [1], 3.5-5
cm wide [7]), hard when dry, with short greyish yellow hair. The outer flower-leaves (=sepals) are still
persistent at the base. One capsule contains 1 or 2 seeds which are 5 x 10 mm in size, egg-shaped
and brown.
[1, 2, 3, 7, 9]


I. Wood properties:
[Wood properties]: Wood soft and very fragrant, consisting of irregular patches of dark wood in which
heavily scented oleoresins are concentrated. These patches develop as a result of physological
disturbances.
[1, 2, 11]
J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
Approximate limits: 27°N to 5°S [2]. A.crassna is widely distributed in South Asia and Southeast Asia
and occurs wild and sparsely in primary- and secondary forests on plains, hillsides and ridges. In
Cambodia it occurs especially in the mountainous regions.

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[1, 2, 3, 6, 9]

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
Grows at an altitude of 29-1,000 m a.s.l [2] (0-1,000 m [1], 300-800 m [3], 0-850 m [7]) with regional
differences. In Malaysia it can be found up to 750 m [7]. Some individuals have even been discovered
at 2,000 m [3]. A. crassna grows in rainfall summer regimes with a precipitation of 1,500 - 6,500
mm/yr [2] and a dry season length of 0-4 months [2]. The mean annual temperature is 22-28ºC [2]
(20-22ºC [7]), mean maximum temperature of the hottest month, 22-40ºC [2] and mean minimum
temperature 14-22ºC [2] of the coldest month. 5ºC [2] is the absolute minimum temperature. It is a
light demanding tree, but shade tolerant when young and can regenerate under a forest canopy of
0.4-0.6 shading [1, 3]. However other sources define A. crassna as a neutral tree, only inclined
towards light demanding [9].
[1, 2, 3, 7, 9]

L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
Coastal Cardamons (A), Northern Cardamons (B), Central Lowlands (d), Southern Annamites (g)
[3]
[Seed Source Locations (Projection: UTM; Horizontal Datum: Indian coordinates)]:
Pursat (X:290299 Y:1326205), Koh Kong (X:295591 Y:1318268), Pursat (X:335014 Y:1341815), Koh
Kong (X:368336 Y:1255832), Mondul Kiri (X:718332 Y:1353508), Koh Kong (X:286900 Y:1314675),
Pursat (X:349462 Y:1337891), Sihanouk Ville (X:352571 Y:1166659), Kampong Speu (X:379751
Y:1292040)
[3]

M. soil and site conditions :
A. crassna occurs on acid to neutral deep sandy clay soils (light to medium texture), ferralitic soils with
shallow to moderately deep layers and a free soil drainage. However it is well adapted to various
habitats including rocky, sandy or calcareous well-drained slopes, ridges and land near swamps.
[1, 2, 3, 7, 9]

N. Utilization and importance :
[Wood]: This species is of high commercial value. "The wood is very fragrant and has been traded
since biblical times for use in religious, medicinal and aromatic preparation" [3]. It is used for general
furniture, round wood, plywood, posts, stakes, sawn or hewn building timbers, for light construction,
carpentry/joinery, containers, crates, musical instruments, wood based materials, fuelwood and
charcoal. In Cambodia the fragrant wood (especially the root) is used as incense for funeral
ceremonials.
[1, 2, 3, 9]

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[Non-wood]: A.crassna frequently becomes infected with a fungus and begins to produce a very
aromatic resin commonly called 'aloeswood', 'agarwood' and 'oud' or 'chankrosna' in Khmer language.
The fungus and decomposition processes continue to generate a very rich and dark resin to form
within its heartwood. The resin is created as an immune response to the fungus infection and makes
one of the most sacred oils on the planet. In Japan it is used to anoint the dead and serves as a major
ingredient in many Buddhist incense mixtures. In Buddhism, it is considered one of the three incenses
integral to Buddhist practice together with sandalwood and cloves. The best quality is called 'Kyara'.
'Kyara' comes in four types: 'Green', 'Iron', 'Purple', and 'Black'. Agarwood can be extremely valuable
depending on the oleoresin content of the wood. It is also used for producing high quality cosmetics.
In Ayurvedic medicine it is used to treat a wide range of mental illnesses, it is a remedy for nervous
disorders such as neurosis, obsessive behavior and exhaustion and is believed to drive evil spirits
away. In Indochina the resin is used as a traditional medicine to treat asthma, chest congestion, colic,
diarrhea, diuretic, kidney problems, nausea, thyroid cancer, and lung tumors. "In traditional
Cambodian medicine, the wood is mixed with other drugs and used against malaria. Another variety
called A. sinensis is used in medicine for its active principles baimuxol and dehydrobaimuxol" [6]. "It is
also believed to be a very powerful aphrodisiac. In many cultures the women imbue their clothes as
well as themselves in the fragrance of it" [7]. Fibers if the bark are used for hammock making, clothing
articles and paper pulp.
[1, 2, 6, 7, 11]
[Others]: In Cambodia the tree can be used for amenity and aesthetic purposes and is also important
for ethical values. This species is of current socio-economic importance in Cambodia (as defined on
the National Workshop on Tree Species Priorities organized by DFW and CTSP in 2000).
[8]
O. Cambodian wood classification :
3
rd
class [4]

P. Silviculture and management :
[General]: A. crassna grows wild in deep primary- and secondary forests in the mountainous regions
of Cambodia. Generally it is found on plains, hillsides and ridges.
[Management]: It has not been widely established in plantations because of production uncertainties
of its main product, agarwood and little is known so far regarding tree management. "However,
plantations have mainly been established in parts of NE-India and Bangladesh. A trial was also
established in Peninsular Malaysia in 1928. After 67 years the trees had attained a diameter of 56 cm"
[2]. Further research is needed on conservation of natural resources, selection of appropriate material
and management in plantations, and induction of agarwood formation through artificial injury and or
inoculation with fungi. Also initial trial results in Cambodia showed that Aquilaria crassna is easy to
plant and very suitable for plantings under the canopies of mixed stands.
[2, 3, 6]



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Q. Propagation :
Distribution of the species is scattered, and it is very difficult to find mature trees for seed collection.
Seeds are collected directly from the tree or from the ground after shaking the branches. "In seed-
source areas, the ground is usually cleared and sometimes burnt to prepare for seed collection. To
ease collection, a cover can be spread out on the ground. The optimal time of collection is reached
when the fruits have changed in color from green to brownish. Maturity can be confirmed by a cutting
test" [3]. "In Cambodia some local people in the districts of Thmar Beng, Modulsima, and Sre Ambil
(Koh Kong Province) have collected seeds in natural forests or villages to produce seedlings in home
gardens. The seedlings have been distributed to neighboring villages in order to plant on farmland. At
present, these plantations exhibit good growth" [3]. The seed storage is recalcitrant. Stands can be
established by using natural regeneration and planting stock. "Seed requirements per hectare for
open plantations in Cambodia: 4,000 seeds/kg. Planting spacing: 2.5 x 2.5 m. Net seedlings required
per hectare: 1,600. Rate of loss: 1,920 (20% in planting site), 2,134 (10% in transit), 2,668 (20% at
the nursery). Germination rate: 60%. Purity: 95%. Total seed requirement: 1.18 kg" [5].
[2, 3, 5]

R. Hazards and protection :
[Pests]: No information available.
[Diseases]: The fungus Phialophora parasitica has been recorded as the disease causing the
formation of 'chankrosna' oil inside the agarwood. No other pests and diseases are known so far.
[2]

S. Conservation :
Due to the high value and the high demand of the 'chankrosna' wood in global markets, this species is
over-exploited and in danger of extinction if adequate protection measures are not implemented.
"Since its natural genetic variability is now endangered, there is need for research on improvement
and management. Distribution of the species is scattered, and it is very difficult to find mature trees for
seed collection. In Southeast Asia, agarwood collection is reportedly becoming more difficult year-by-
year as supplies of mature trees dwindle. In 2002, the second CTSP meeting on the Forest Gene
Conservation Strategy defined Aquilaria crassna Pierre as a priority species in need of immediate
conservation interventions and appropriate protection" [3]. The species is officially protected
worldwide under the CITES (Convention of the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild
Fauna and Flora) convention, is listed in CITES Appendix II (species which may become threatened if
trade is not controlled and monitored) [2, 7] and is classified as CR A1cd (=vulnerable) according to
IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature) World List of Threatened Trees. Estimated
number of individuals threatened in Cambodia (as defined on the National Workshop on Tree Species
Priorities organized by DFW and CTSP in 2000): >10,000 [8] threatened by logging.
[2, 3, 7, 8]



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T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :
This species generally occurs in the nothwestern and southwestern parts of Cambodia.
[6]

Pursat, Koh Kong, Mondulkiri, Sihanoukville, Kampong Speu, Kampot, Rattanakiri
[3, 10]


U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
[Native]: Northern India, Laos, Cambodia, Malaysia, Indonesia and Vietnam.
[7]

[Introduced]: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Iran, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore and
Thailand.
[2, 7]

V. Miscellaneous
4
:
[Production and trade]: "In 2000, the resin-wood cost US$ 800-1,500 for 1 kg. High demand,
particularly in Middle Eastern and Asian markets, combined with a decreasing supply, has pushed
prices progressively higher to the extent that top grade resin can sell for over US$ 10,000/kg in end-
use markets."
[3]

W. Further readings
5
:
Barden A. Awang Anak N. Mulliken T. Song M. (2000) Heart of the Matter: Agarwood Use and Trade
and CITES Implementation for Aquilaria malaccensis.
[7]

Chaudhari DC, 1993. Agarwood from Aquilaria malaccensis, (A. agallocha, Roxb.). MFP News,
3(4):12-13.
2]

Gibson IAS, 1977. The role of fungi in the origin of oleoresin deposits (agaru) in the wood of Aquilaria
agallocha Roxb. Bano Biggyan Patrika, 6(1):16-26; [2 pl.]; 13 ref.
[2]

LaFrankie JV, 1994. Population dynamics of some tropical trees that yield non-timber forest products.
Economic Botany, 48(3):301-309; 28 ref.
[2]


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Lok EngHai, Ahmed Zahaidi Yahya, 1996. The growth performance of plantation grown Aquilaria
malaccensis in Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 8(4):573-575; 6 ref.
[2]

Rahman MA, Basak AC, 1980. Agar production in agar tree by artificial inoculation and wounding.
Bano Biggyan Patrika, 9(1/2):87-93; 8 ref.
[2]

Rahman MA, Khisa SK, 1984. Agar production in agar tree by artificial inoculation and wounding. II.
Further evidences in favour of agar formation. Bano Biggyan Patrika, 13(1/2):57-63; 14 ref.
[2]

Rao KR, Dayal R, 1992. The secondary xylem of Aquilaria agallocha (Thymelaeaceae) and the
formation of 'agar'. IAWA Bulletin, 13(2):163-172; 15 ref.
[2]

Singadan, M., Yelu, W., Beko, J., Bosimbi, D. and Boland, D., 2001(draft), Some Aspects of the
Eaglewood Trade in Papua New Guinea.
[3]

Sumadiwangsa S, 1997. Agarwood as a high-value commodity in East Kalimantan [Kayu gaharu
komoditi elit di Kalimantan Timur]. Duta Rimba, 20 (205/206): 33-40.
[2]

Zich, F.A. and Compton J., 2001, The Final Frontier: Towards Sustainable Management of Papua
New Guinea's Agarwood Resource. TRAFFIC Oceania, WWF South Pacific Programme.
[3]


X. References:
[1] Sam, Hoang Van; Nanthavong, Khamseng; Kessler, P.J.A., 2004: Trees of Laos and Vietnam: a
field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important species. BLUMEA.

[2] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).

[3] CTSP, 2003: Forest Gene Conservation Strategy - Gene Conservation Strategy, Species
Monographs, Gene Ecological Zonation, Species Site Matching Model. (CD-ROM).


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[4] FA, 2002 (draft), List of Trade Names of Commercial Wood in Cambodia, Trade Names of
Commercial Woods, unpublished.

[5] FA/CTSP-DANIDA, 2005: Farmers Tree Planting Manual - Guidelines for Site Selection and Tree
Planting. (CD-ROM).

[6] Kham, L., 2004: Medicinal Plants of Cambodia - Habitat, Chemical Constituents and
Ethnobotanical Uses.

[7] ECOPORT: http://ecoport.org/ep?Plant=3302&entityType=PL****&entityDisplayCategory=full
(Internet website)

[8] FAO:
http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/DOCREP/005/AC648E/ac648e04.htm(Inter
net source)

[9] Nguyen et al., 1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. JICA/Vietnam Inventory and Planning Institute.

[10] Petri, M. (DED) 2006: Own observations.

[11] Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.

[12] CTSP/DANIDA, 2004: List of Tree Species.

Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg [4]
B. English name (s) ³ breadfruit tree [4]
C. Synonym ³ Artocarpus communis J.R. Forst.& G. Forst., Artocarpus
incisus L.f. [4]
D. Other
1
³ breadfruit, arbre a pain, [4] Brotfruchtbaum[13], sakéé,
khnaôr samlo (Cambodia); sukun (seedless), kelur, timbul
(seeded), (Indonesia, Malaysia); paung-thi, (Burma); rimas
(seedless), kamansii (seeded) sake (seedless), (Philippines);
khanun-sampalor (Thailand); sakê (Vietnam) [6,16].
E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³ saek/ xñúrsmø
Source: [-]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ saké, khnaö(r), sâmlâ [4]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Urticales
Family: Moraceae
Gunus: Artocarpus J.R. Forster & J.G. Forster [16]
Species: Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson)
Fosberg. [4]
Source :[ 4 ; 16]





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H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: A tall, beautiful, evergreen tree, reaching 15 to 20m, with diameter sometimes exceeding
60cm (1); terete, 6-15m tall, introduced and cultivated near villages as ornamental and fruit tree.[4]. All
parts exude a milky, bitter-tasting latex when cut [1,13]. The bole is normally straight, the crown
consisting of only a few large branches [1]. An evergreen or deciduous tree, up to 30 m tall and 180
cm in diameter, often buttressed; branches very thick [6].
[Bark]: The bark is smooth, brown with numerous corky lenticels [1].
[Leaves]: Evergreen, with alternate, stipulate leaves, which are deeply cut (7-11 lobes). Leaves large
up to 30-90 cm long. Upper surface glabrous except along principal nerves [1]. The leaves are large,
often deeply lobed, rough and leathery on the surface, upper side shiny green (13). Leaves alternate,
ovate to elliptical in form, 20-60 cm x 20-40 cm, first undivided, later deeply pinnately cut into 5-11
lobes, thick, leathery, dark green and shiny above, pale green and rough below. Leaf stalk 3-5 cm
long [6].
[Flowers]: Numerous, very small, monoecious, (meaning the same tree bears separately male and
female flowers). Male flowers arranged in cylindrical spikes 12-35 cm long; the female inflorescence is
ellipsoid or circular, 6-7cm long [1]. Male and female inflorescences separate, but on same tree,
axillary on 4-8 cm long flower stalks. Male stands drooping, club-shaped, 15-25 cm long and 3-4 cm
wide, spongy and yellow. Female stands upright, globose or cylindrical, 8-10 x 5-7 cm, with numerous
green flowers embedded in a receptacle [6]. Inflorescences on short twigs emanating from the stem.
Female flowers in inflorescences with hundreds of flowers [13].
[Fruit]: Two varieties of breadfruit trees exist: one is seed bearing the other sterile, which is the one
cultivated and considered as the breadfruit proper. The fruit is a globose or an ovoid syncarp (many
small fruit grown together into a large one) weighing between 0.5 and 3.0 kg. It is usually more
regarded as a vegetable than a fruit. There exist many cultivars, some produce seedless fruit [1]. The
fruit is formed from the entire female inflorescence, cylindrical to globose, 10-30 cm in diameter,
yellow-green, sometimes with short spines. All tree parts exuding white latex when cut [6]. Fruit a
globose syncarp of 10-20 cm diameter, green and warty on the outside. Inside a soft yellow-white
mass forms with the onset of maturity. Seeds resembling chestnuts, 2-3 cm in diameter [13].

I. Wood properties:
Specific gravity for A. altilis is given as 270 kg/m³. Sapwood yellow or brownish yellow, heartwood
orange with golden speckles. However, the wood can be used for a variety of light construction
purposes, e.g. structural elements in boats. The golden yellow colour darkens with age. The wood is
on average medium heavy (density 505-645 kg/m³ at 15% mc), durable, soft, but quite resistant in
spite of its low(?) specific gravity [20]. (this must be an error, low specific gravity or light weight ends
between 330-400kg/m³ (KayPanzer) A. heterophylla (jackfruit) and A. altilis (breadfruit) are
predominantly cultivated for fruit, not for wood [13,16].



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J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
Artocarpus altilis most likely was cultivated in New Guinea a few thousand years ago. It is a plant of
the Pacific Islands but long since to be considered native in Papua New Guinea, the Philippines and
Malaysia [27]. Today it is a common sorce as the average family´s staple or supplementary food in
countries of South and Central America America, West Indian Islands, Caribbean Islands, West and
East Africa, Madagascar, Seychelles, India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia and many more [20].
The dissemination of seedless types beyond Oceania is well documented and involves only a handful
of cultivars, primarily Tahitian. A. altilis as a fruit and survival tree has been an the representing tree
species of Oceania since Europeans first ventured into the region in the late 1600s. Originally from
the Pacific Islands and Polynesia, A. altilis is at home and naturalized in practically all tropical regions
as fruit and ornamental tree. It occurs semi-wild in numerous places at altitudes below 700 m asl
[1,4,13]. Artocarpus comprises about 50 species, distributed from Sri Lanka, India, Pakistan and
Indochina towards the Malesian Archipelago and the Solomon Islands; 16 species occur in Peninsular
Malaysia [16].

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
A. altilis thrives in humid tropical environment, at low altitude, at 0-2500m elevation asl, particularly
under an island climate; it requires between 1,500 and 2,500 mm, 1000-5000mm/ m² of annual
precipitation with a temperature range of 21ºC to 32 ºC, 23-27ºC [1,12]. A wet tropical species,
preferring 20-40 ºC, 2000-3000 mm/ m² annual rainfall disributed evely during the summer with two
peaks [6]. The limits of the area of distribution are approximately from 20º N to 20º S in north-south
direction [12].
Young plants require little shade but grown plants need full sunlight for best production. [1]

L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
not determined

M. soil and site conditions :
Shallow or water-logged soils are not tolerated, otherwise not a demanding species. A. altilis is the
dominant species in riverine swamp forests of New Guinea; however, most species prefer a clayey
soil [1,16]. A. altilis prefers moist, rich, well-drained soils at altitudes below 600 m asl.[6]

N. Utilization and importance :
A. altilis is a multipurpose tree cultivated for its highly nutritious, carbohydrate-rich fruit. It is now
grown worldwide as an indispensable food resource in under-supplied rural areas. The Solomon
Islands and Vanuatu presumably dispose of the richest diversity of seeds and few-seeded cultivars,
whereas the greatest range of seedless cultivars is found in eastern Polynesia,-Society Islands,
Marquesas, Pohnpei, and Chuuk in Micronesia. There exist hundreds of cultivars adapted to varying
climatic and soil conditions (Ragone 1997). A serious problem in local, regional and international

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marketing is the strongly limited storage time of ripe breadfruit. Even in the area of production it has to
be harvested a few days ahead of maturity to allow for local transportation without degrade to the fruit.
When over-ripe, the flesh becomes mealy and loses taste.The dried fruit can be converted to flour for
various usus in daily cooking [1].
Similar fruit-producing species of the Artocarpus genus are A. integer, cultivated in the Malay
Archipelago, with a fruit more similar to jackfruit, softer and slightly more aromatic. On the island of
Kalimantan (Borneo) and in the Philippines A. odoratissima is grown. The fruit is sweet and juicy and
seeds are roasted for consumption [13].
[Wood]: Although it is little utilized because its light weight (270kg/m³) it is firm and could be used for
boats, crates and boxes and in light construction. It has been used occasionally for surfboards in
Haiti[1]. Traditionally it was widely used for construction of houses and canoes because of its
resistance to termites and marine worms. The wood is used in Haiti to make bowls, carvings, and
furniture. [20] The trees are an important source of firewood on the atolls of the Pacific [20].
Timber narkets in the area are trading various Artocarpus species, but in limited volumes. With the
exception of the 4 fruit-bearing species, A. altilis, A. heterophyllus, A. integer and A. odoratissima
most Artocarpus species are used as a source of timber. In the timber trade distinction is made on the
basis of specific weight and 2 trade groups are formed: terap, light-weight hardwood, comprising A.
elasticus, A, scortechinii, timber of Parartocarpus spp. and Antiaris toxicaria, which is similar in
properties and uses. The second group is called keledang, medium-weight hardwood, with A.
anisophyllus, A. dadah, A. lanceifolius. Separation is not always easy and an arbitrary limit of
640kg/m³ at 15% m.c. has been set. Trade in 1992 was around 10,000 cubic meters, from Sabah,
Sarawak and Papua New Guinea. More recent figures are not available but it is evident that trade will
remain at the regional level. However, several species could become economically important because
they are fast-growing and the wood is suitable for a variety of uses [16].
[Non-Wood]: In first place the breadfruit tree is an important source of food [13]. Predominantly the
seedless varieties are cultivated. The fruit is cooked or baked. Fresh fruit are easily digestible but are
also cut into slices and dried in open air or copra ovens for conservation and later use. Seeds are
cooked, boiled, fried and roasted in different ways. Fruit should be harvested about three months after
flowering in an unripe state to allow for transportation and marketing in good condition [1]. Bark fibres
are used as binding and plaiting material. [16].The latex can be used for trapping birds, the foliage as
animal feed in times of drought. By burying the entire fruit in the ground the pulp starts fermenting,
yielding a product comparable to cheese [13].
Breadfruit is versatile and can be cooked and eaten at all stages of its development. It can be eaten
raw, boiled, steamed or roasted. Very small fruits, 2-6 cm or larger in diameter, can be boiled and
have a flavour similar to that of artichoke hearts. They can also be pickled and marinated. As
breadfruit is a seasonal crop that produces much more than can be consumed fresh, Pacific Islanders
have developed many techniques to use large harvests and extend availability of the fruit. The most
common method of preservation is by preparing the fermented, pit-preserved breadfruit called ma,
masi, mahr, furo or bwiru. In many areas, the male inflorescence is pickled or candied [20].

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Compared with other staple starch crops, breadfruit is a better source of protein than is cassava; it is
comparable to sweet potato and banana. It is a relatively good source of iron, calcium, potassium and
riboflavin. Fermented breadfruit and breadfruit paste are both traditional products. Processing
breadfruit into a snack such as chips, flour, pulverized starch or even freeze-drying it are all common
methods of consuming or preserving it. [20]
The seeds are cooked with the raw breadfruit or removed and roasted or boiled. They are firm, close-
textured and have a sweet, pleasant taste that is most often compared with chestnuts. Both fresh and
cooked seeds contain about 8% protein. The seeds are low in fat, compared with tree nuts such as
almond, brazil nut and macadamia nut, which contain 50-70% fat. They are a good source of minerals
and contain more niacin than cashews, almonds, macadamia nuts, brazil nuts, pecans, black walnuts
or chestnuts [20].
The food value is given as follows (in percent):
water 79.5
protein 1.5
lipids 0.2
sugar&starch 17.9
minerals 0.9
cellulose -
calcium 0.04
phosphorous 0.03
iron 0,5
carotene 15/100g(I.U.)
The calorific value of the fruit is 75-80cal/100 g. [1].
"Leaves are eaten by livestock and can be fed to cattle, goats, pigs and horses. They have even been
reported to be good food for elephants. Horses will eat the bark, young branches and shoots.
Therefore, it seems wise to keep horses away from new plantings. Excess ripe breadfruit, seeds,
cores and other breadfruit waste are fed to pigs and other animals.
Cordage can be made by combining the male flower spikes with fibre of paper mulberry (Broussonetia
papyrifera) to make elegant loincloths. The inner layer of bark, or bast, was used to make bark cloth
(tapa). Traditionally it had ceremonial and ritual uses, was also used for beddings and items of
clothing such as cloaks, loincloths and robes. Breadfruit bast makes good cordage with a diverse
range of uses such as harnesses for water buffalo and nets for catching sharks [20,26].
Various plant parts have medicinal uses [6]. Toasted flowers are rubbed on the gums around aching
teeth to ease pain. Latex is massaged into the skin to treat broken bones and sprains and is
bandaged on the spine to relieve sciatica. It is commonly used to treat skin ailments and fungal

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diseases such as thrush. The latter is also treated with crushed leaves. Diluted latex is taken internally
to treat diarrhoea, stomach-ache and dysentery. Latex and juice from the crushed leaves are both
traditionally used in the Pacific Islands to treat ear infections.
The root is an astringent and is used as a purgative; when macerated it was used as a poultice for
skin ailments. The bark is used in several Pacific Islands to treat headache. In the West Indies, the
yellowing leaf is brewed into a tea and taken to reduce high blood pressure. The tea is also thought to
control diabetes.
Leaves are used in Taiwan to treat liver diseases and fevers, and an extract from the flowers was
effective in treating ear oedema. Bark extracts exhibited strong cytotoxic activities against leukaemia
cells in tissue culture, and extracts from roots and stem barks showed some antimicrobial activity
against Gram-positive bacteria and may have potential in treating tumours [20,26].
A yellow dye can be extracted from chips of A. altilis wood. Leaves and fallen fruit make good aimal
feed (9).
[Others]: A. altilis gum is used to caulk canoes to make them watertight and can be used as an
adhesive to seal and prepare wooden surfaces for painting [20].
A sticky latex is present in all parts of the tree and has many uses. It is used as a chewing gum in the
Caribbean and elsewhere. The sap is widely used throughout the Pacific and other areas as birdlime
to catch birds for food and their feathers. In Korea, the latex is mixed with coconut oil for trapping
houseflies.
The inflorescence was used in Hawaii to make a yellow tan to brown dye.
The fat extracted from the seed is a light yellow liquid, viscous at room temperature, with a
characteristic odour similar to that of peanuts. It has a chemical molecular number and physical
properties similar to those of olive oil.
In Vanuatu and Hawaii the dried, hard flowers are burned as mosquito repellent" [20,26].
The leaves are frequently used for wrapping food for cooking. Senescent, ripe leaves develp a rough
surface and are sed for polishing and nuts used on strings as decoration [20].
A. altilis produces a lot of mulch for soil improvement, it is also a good shade tree and as such a
valuable component in agroforestry landuse, where black pepper, coffee but also yams and other root
crops and bananas are interplanted. In some Pacific Islands A. altilis serves as support for yam vines.
[26].

O. Cambodian wood classification :
not included





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P. Silviculture and management :
Young trees grown from stumps can be transplanted to orchards or planted along road side after
taking root and sprouting. Artocarpus requires good soil conditions and can grow rather rapidly. Partial
shade should be provided until the plants are well established. Spacing should be between 8x8 m
minimum and up to 10x10 m [1]. In plantations Artocarpus soon forms a closed canopy. Natural
pruning is satisfactory as the species is characterized by dense crowns which also greatly reduces
growth of weeds. The large amounts of litter, which easily decompose, also reduces weed
development.[16]

Q. Propagation :
The following description of cultivation techniques applies only to the sterile variety, which is
propagated by suckers, layers or root cuttings. Generally seeds germinate easily, about 85% for A.
altilis. Root suckers produced by A. altilis can be used for air-layering, however, the taking of root
cuttings is the more common method of propagation [16]. For these, sections of 2 cm diameter and
10-15 cm length are cut. They are planted at an angle in sandy soil, covered by a layer of 1 cm of
material and frequently watered [1] Seeds are usually rated as recalcirant and lose their viability
rapidly, meaning 0% germination after only 2 weeks for some species. Germination starts between 2
and 4 weeks but may last for up to 9 weeks after sowing[16].
A. altilis, A. hirsutus Lamk, A. integer, A. rigidus and A. sercicarpus can serve as rootstock for air
layering, budding and grafting of other major fruit producing species of Artocarpus.
Seeds are extracted from ripe fruits and immediately planted, as they lose viability within a few weeks.
They are planted about 5 cm apart and 1 cm deep. They germinate about 2 weeks after sowing.
Fresh seeds germinate easily, with a rate of about 85%. The germination bed should be kept moist.
Seedlings can be transplanted into individual containers as soon as they sprout. They grow quickly
and are ready for planting in the field when they are about 1 year old.
A. altilis is generally propagated vegetatively. Root suckers produced by the tree can be used for air-
layering. However, using root cuttings is the more common method of propagation. The time for
collecting roots is the most important factor for successful propagation. Best collection is during the
dormant season immediately preceding the renewal of growth, or at the beginning of that period,
when carbohydrate stores in roots are highest. The dormant period (2-3 months) begins immediately
after the crop ripens. A. altilis has also been successfully propagated using inarching, budding, stem
cuttings and marcotting [20].

R. Hazards and protection :
Rastrococcus invadens, or commonly known as mango mealybug. Several species of Artocarpus are
attacked by the fungi Corticium salmonicolor and Phellinus lamaoensis, while larvae of the moth
Glyphodes caesalis bore into shoots, flower buds and young fruit. However, these threaten primarily
A. heterophyllus, the jackfruit tree; no mention is made of attacks of A. altilis [16]. Breadfruit is a hardy
tree and is relatively free of diseases and pests, although scale insects, mealy bugs and Cercospora
leafspot may be seen on many trees. Pest problems seem to be regional [20]. Fruits may be affected

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by Phytophthora, Colletotrichum (anthracnose) and Rhizopus (soft rot), but these can be controlled by
prompt harvest of mature fruits and removal of diseased fruit [20].

S. Conservation :
Not a threatened species [1,16].

T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :
Occurring everywhere in the lowlands of the country

U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
Cultivated in the humid tropics world-wide[6], native in New Guinea, Malaysia and Philippines,
introduced elsewhere.

V. Miscellaneous
4
:
A close relative is the African breadnut tree, Treculia africana, also from the family Moraceae,grows in
rain forests of West Africa but also along rivers. The female flowers develop into a composite, globose
fruit with knobbly skin which may weigh up to 15 kg. It contains many seeds which are ounded into a
meal or eaten roasted or fried [9].

W. Further readings
5
:
Verheij E.W.M. & Coronel, R.E. (Eds.) 1991: Plant Resources of sSoutheast Asia.No.2, Edible fruits
and nuts. Pudoc, Wageningen, 446 pp.
Little, E.L. Jr.& Wadsworth, F.H. 1964: Common trees of >Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.
Agricultural Handbook no. 249. USDA. 548 pp.
Ragone,D,1977: Breadfruit, Artocarpus altilis(Parkinson) Fosberg. Promoting the conservation and
use of under-utilized and neglected crops.. INstitute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant research.
Gatersleben/International Plant Genetic Resource Nstitute, Rome.
Ragone, D 1995: Description of Pacific Island breadfruit cultivars..Acta Horticulturae 413;92-98; 8 ref.
Reeve, RM, 1974; Histological structure and commercial dehydration potential of breadfruit. Economic
Botany 28: 82-96.
Suharban M, Philip S, 1987: Fruit rot of breadfruit (Artocarpus incisa L. South Indian Horticulture.
35(5):397;
Waterhouse, DF, 1991: Possibilities of biological control of the breadfruit mealybug Icerya aegyptiaca
on Pacific Island Atolls. Micronesica No 3, Supplement:117-122; 11 ref.
Cambie RC, Ash J, 1994. Fijian medicinal plants. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research
Organisation, Australia.


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Matthews RF, Bates RP, Graham HD, 1986. Utilization of breadfruit in the tropics. Proceedings of the
Interamerican Society for Tropical Horticulture, 30:83-94; [34th Annual Meeting, San José, Costa
Rica, 28 Jul.-2 Aug., 1986]; 15 ref.

Ragone D, 1990. Conservation and use of breadfruit in the Pacific Islands. In: Harris W, Kapoor P,
eds. Contributions to an international Workshop on Ethnobotany. Botany Division, DSIR,
Christchurch, New Zealand, 82-85.

Rajendran R, 1991. Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg. In: Plant resources of South-East Asia.
No. 2. Edible Fruits and Nuts (Verheij EWM, Coronel RE, eds.). PROSEA foundation, Bogor,
Indonesia, 83-86.

Wootton M, Tumaalii F, 1984. Breadfruit production, utilisation and composition - a review. Food
Technology in Australia, 36(10):464-465; 19 ref.
Cobley L.S & Steele W.M. 1976. An Introduction to the Botany of Tropical Crops. Longman Group
Limited.

Hong TD, Linington S, Ellis RH. 1996. Seed storage behaviour: a compendium. Handbooks for
Genebanks: No. 4. IPGRI.

Ragone D. 1997. Breadfruit, Artocarpus altilis. Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized
and neglected crops. 10. Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research,
Gatersleben/International Plant Genetic Resources institute, Rome, Italy.

Raynor B. 1991. Agroforestry systems in Pohnpei. Practices and strategies for development. Forestry
Development Programme.

X. References:
1) FAO-SIDA 1988: Fruit-bearing forest trees. FAO Forestry Paper 34, Rome, Italy, 177 pp.

4) Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House; Phnom Penh,
Cambodia, 915 pp.,

6) Jensen, M., 2001: Trees and Fruits of Southeast Asia. An illustrated field guide. Orchid Press,
Bangkok, 234 pp.

9) Barwick, M., 2004: Tropical and Subtropical Trees: A Worldwide Encyclopaedic Guide
Thames & Hudson Ltd.,London. 484 pp.


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12) CABI Forestry Compendium Edition 2003 (CD)

13) BAERTELS, A. 1993: Farbatlas Tropenpflanzen-Zier- und Nutzpflanzen (Color Atlas Tropical
Plants- ornamental and fruit plants) Eugen Ulmer Publ., Stuttgart, Germany, illustrated, 384 pp

16) Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I. And W.C. Wong (Eds.) 1995: Plant Resources of
Southeast Asia 5(2) Timber trees: Minor commercial timbers. Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia,
655 pp.

17) Sosef, M.S.M., Hong, L.T., and S. Prawirohatmodjo (Eds.) 1998: Plant Resources of
Southeast Asia 5(3) Timber trees: Lesser known timbers. Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia, 859
pp.

18) Dept. of Forestry and Wildlife 2003: Cambodia Forestry Statistics to 2002.(in Khmer and
English) Planning & Accounting Off., Statistics Sect., Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 97 pp.

20) Salim AS, Simons AJ, Orwa C, Chege J, Ovuor,B, and Mutua A, 2002: Agroforestree
Database. World Agroforestry Centre (on CD).

26) World Agroforestry Centre:
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/products/AFDbases/AF/asp/BotanicList.asp (Internet source)



Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam
B. English name (s) ³ jackfruit [2], jack [4]
C. Synonym ³ Artocarpus brasiliensis Gomez (1812), Artocarpus
integer (Thunb.) Merrill, Artocarpus integra Merr., Artocarpus
integrifolia L.F, Artocarpus integrifolia L.F & A. integra Merr.,
Artocarpus maxima Blanco (1837)., Artocarpus philippensis
Lamk (1789), Artocarpus integrifolia auct. [7], Artocarpus
integrifolius auct. [4]

D. Other
1
³ jaca, jacueiro (Spain) [4] - jacquier (France) [4] - kathal
(Bangladesh) [4] - Jackfruchtbaum (Germany) [4] - nangka,
nongko (Indonesia) [4] - alasa, halasu, kathal, kathar,
phanas, pila, pilavu (India) [4] - miiz, miiz hnang (Laos) [4] -
jak (Sri Lanka) [4] - khnaôr, peignai (Myanmar) [4] - nangka
(Malaysia) [4] - kapiak (Papua New Guinea) [4] - jak, langka,
nangka (Philippines) [4] - banun, khanum, makmi, nangka
(Thailand) [4] - mít (Vietnam) [4]

E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³: xñ úr
Source: [-]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ khnaôr [5]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Urticales
Family: Moraceae [4]
Source :[ -]



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H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: Small tree with a height of 10-20 m [2] at maturity and a DBH of 30-60 cm [2]. Bole straight
but branching begins quickly. [2]
[Leaves]: The leaves are 4-25 x 2-12 cm [6], leathery, glossy, usually hairless. The upper surface is
dark green, the lower surface pale green. Leaves may be flat, wrinkled or with upcurled sides,
arranged alternately on horizontal branches, and spirally on ascending branches with 2/5 phyllotaxis;
broadest at or above the mid-portion; pinnately nerved, with 5-12 pairs of veins. [6]
[Flowers]: No information available.
[Fruits]: The fruits grow from the trunk and branches.The fruit (=syncarp) is barrel- or pear-shaped,
30-100 cm × 25-50 cm [7], with short pyramidal protuberances or warts. The fruit-stalk is 5-10 x 1-1.5
cm. The outer fruitwall is approx. 1 cm thick, together with the central core receptacle inseparable
from the waxy, firm or soft, golden yellow, fleshy perianths surrounding the seeds. The fruit have both
sexes occuring on one tree but separately. The seeds are numerous, oblong-ellipsoid, 2-4 cm × 1.5-
2.5 cm [7], enclosed by horny endocarps and subgelatinous exocarps. Fruit flesh thin and leathery;
embryo with ventral radicle, cotyledons fleshy, unequal; endosperm very small or absent. "A well-
developed fruit may contain up to 500 seeds, each weighing 3-6 g" [7].
[2, 6, 7]

I. Wood properties:
The timber is classified as a medium hardwood. It is resistant to termite attack, fungal and bacterial
decay, easy to season and takes polish beautifully. The wood is yellow at first, later becoming red,
with a specific gravity of 0.6-0.7 g/cm³ [6] but not as strong as teak.
[5, 6]

J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
It fruits in latitudes between 30°N and S in frost-free areas and bears good crops between 25°N and
S. Jackfruit is native to Malaysia where it is found mainly in evergreen forests but cultivated
everywhere in the tropics and subtropics for its edible fruits.
[3, 7]

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
In its original habitat jackfruit is found at altitudes of 400-1,200 m a.s.l. [5]. Elsewhere it grows at 0-
1,600 m a.s.l. [4] (0-1,000 m a.s.l. [2, 7]). For optimum production it requires a warm, humid climate
and evenly distributed rainfall. Mean annual temperature: 16-22°C [6] (16-35°C [2]), Mean annual
rainfall: 1,000-2,400 mm [6] (1,100-2,400 mm [4], 900-4,000 mm [2]). It extends into much drier and
cooler climates than Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg and Artocarpus integer. It has moderate
wind tolerance and does not tolerate drought or flooding [6] (it has some drought tolerance [7]). It can
also withstand lower temperatures and frost [2] (it has poor cold tolerance [7]). A dry season of 3-4
months [2] (2-4 months [4]) is tolerated.
[2, 4, 6, 7]

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L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
No information available.

M. soil and site conditions :
Jackfruit thrives well in deep, alluvial, sandy-loam or clay loam soils of medium fertility, good drainage
and a pH of 5-7.5. "It flourishes in rich soils of medium or open texture and grows even in the poorest
soils, including gravelly or lateritic soils, shallow limestone, shallow light soils, and sandy or stony
soils. It exhibits moderate tolerance to saline soils."
[6]

N. Utilization and importance :
[Wood]: A. heterophyllus wood is considered superior to teak (Tectona grandis) for furniture,
construction, turnery and inlay work, masts, oars, implements, fuelwood and musical instruments.
[6]
[Non-wood]: Edible fruit, immature fruits used as vegetation in cooked dishes such as curries. The
seeds, rich in vitamin A, sulphur, calcium and phosphorus, are eaten after boiling or roasting, dried
and salted as table nuts, or ground to make flour that is blended with wheat flour for baking. Fodder is
not good, but leaves and fruit rinds usable. The bark gives a dark, water-soluble resinous gum that
contains 3.3% tannin. The latex yields 71.8% resin, consisting of 63.3% fluavilles (yellow) and 8.5%
albanes (white). When boiled with alum, the sawdust or chips of the heartwood produce a rich yellow
dye used for silk and the cotton robes of Buddhist priests. In Nepal, the root is used as a medicine to
relieve diorrhea and unripe fruit as a laxaive [2]. Arils can be fermented and distilled to produce an
alcoholic beverage.
[6]
[Others]:
Erosion control: "A. heterophyllus can be planted to control floods and soil erosion in farms" [6].
Shade or shelter: "Trees planted at a close spacing act as a windbreak and are sometimes used as
shade for coffee" [6].
Boundary or barrier or support: "The trunk is occasionally used as living support for pepper" [6].
Intercropping: "In the Philippines, A. heterophyllus is planted with coconut groves. In Malaysia, trees
have been used as an intercrop in durian orchards, and in India the trees are intercropped with mango
and citrus. Young A. heterophyllus orchards may be intercropped with annual cash crops such as
banana, sweet corn and groundnut" [6].
It is also used for soil improvement, revegetation and land reclamation.
[4, 6]

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O. Cambodian wood classification :
No class. [1]

P. Silviculture and management :
[General]:A. heterophyllus grows naturally in evergreen forests.
[Establishment]: For stand establishment, the area should be cleared of all vegetation before digging
planting holes (60-80 x 40-50 cm [5]). During the stand development, trees should be thinned to a
spacing of 7.5-12 m because a lack of thinning may lead to die-back.
[Management]: "Pruning is limited to thinning the shoots when the trees are planted and some
clearing of the bearing branches to facilitate access to the fruit for wrapping up and harvesting [5]".
Dead branches should be removed from the interior of the tree so that sufficient light is obtained for
the developing fruit and to check the spread of pests. Both interrow- and circle weeding are applied to
suppress weed growth; mulching may be suitable and also conserves soil moisture. Watering of trees
during the dry season is recommended, however the soil at the base of the plant should be raised and
drainage pathways need to be constructed to avoid waterlogging. Fertilizer should be applied twice
per year before and after the rainy season. "The recommended rates vary from 1 kg compound
fertilizer per tree per application (Peninsular Malaysia) to 2-3 kg (the Philippines)" [5]. Coppicing
abilities are poor while height growth of 5 m in 5 years is possible [2]. Increment rates of 3-5 m³/ha/yr
can be observed. "In the Philippines, A. heterophyllus is planted with coconut groves. In Malaysia,
trees have been used as an intercrop in durian orchards, and in India the trees are intercropped with
mango and citrus. Young A. heterophyllus orchards may be intercropped with annual cash crops such
as banana, sweet corn and peanut" [6].
[2, 5, 6]

Q. Propagation :
Trees are propagated by grafting, direct sowing and using planting stock. The tree regenerates
rapidly."Seeds should be obtained from outstanding mother trees. Only large seeds are used.
Extraction includes thorough washing to remove the slimy coating around the seeds, and removal of
the horny part of the pericarp" [6]. The seed storage behaviour is recalcitrant. Viability is maintained
for 2 years in moist storage at 15°C [6]. Seeds are kept in polythene bags filled with perlite at 6°C [6].
There are about 430 seeds/kg [6]. Under suitable conditions, germination begins within 10 days, and
80-100% germination is achieved within 35-40 days after sowing. Soaking seeds in water or
gibberellic acid solution promotes germination. Seeds are laid flat or with the hilium facing down to
hasten germination.It is possible to grow seedlings from cuttings, and clonally propagated plants
produce fruits very early. Seedlings and vegetative propagules should be raised in containers and
arranged in rows in the nursery to minimize crowding and facilitate management. For rapid growth,
propagules may be grown in a mixture of compost and clay loam soil, and nitrogen fertilizers may be
applied every 2-3 months [6] with regular watering. The propagules thrive best under partial shade of
50-70% full sunlight [6]. Seedlings can be planted out when 20-25 cm tall. Grafted or budded plants
can be planted out 2-5 months after the operation, or when flushes in the scion part have matured.
Air-layered plants should be planted out 2-3 months after the rooted layer is severed from the plant.

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The seedlings should be moved by the time 4 leaves have appeared; a more advanced seedling, with
its long and delicate taproot is difficult to plant out successfully. In general, propagules should be
planted out before the roots grow outside the container and would be disturbed, as this can adversely
affect growth and development of the plant.
[4, 6]

R. Hazards and protection :
[Pests]: Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera umbrosa, Batocera rubus, Batocera rufomaculata,
Cosmoscarta relata, Glyphodes caesalis, Indarbela tetraonis, Ochyromera artocarpi.
[6]
[Diseases]:
Fungi: Corticium salmonicolor, Phomopsis artocarpina, Rhizoctonia koleroga, Rhizopus artocarpi ,
Rhizopus stolonifer, Septoria artocarpi.
Bacteria: Erwinia carotovora
Fungicide is commonly sprayed to protect trees from diseases.
[6]

S. Conservation :
No information available.

T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :
No information available.

U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
[World Distribution]:

[Native]: Bangladesh, India, Malaysia
[6]

[Exotic] : Algeria, Angola, Australia, Benin, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape
Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, China, Comoros, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic
of Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea,
Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Madagascar, Malawi,
Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Philippines,
Rwanda, Sao Tome et Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka,
Sudan, Surinam, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe.
[6]

V. Miscellaneous
4
:
[History of cultivation]: "A. heterophyllus reportedly originated in the rainforests of India and Malaysia.
The species then spread to neighbouring Sri Lanka, southern China, Southeast Asia, and further to

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tropical Africa, including Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Mauritius and Madagascar. A. heterophyllus was
probably introduced in the Philippines in the 12th century, and domestication of the crop started
thereafter. It is commonly planted on smallholder Indian cane farms, in home gardens in Fiji, and
occasionally in rural gardens and home gardens in other areas of the Pacific."
[6]


W. Further readings
5
:
Acedo AL. 1992. Multipurpose Tree Species Network Series: Jackfruit biology, production, use, and
Philippine research. Forestry/Fuelwood Research and Development Project.`
[1]

Lemmens RHMJ, Soerianegara I, Wong WC (eds.). 1995. Plant Resources of South-east Asia. No
5(2). Timber trees: minor commercial timbers. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.
[1]

Perry LM. 1980. Medicinal plants of East and South East Asia : attributed properties and uses. MIT
Press. South East Asia.
[1]

Roshetko JM and Evans DO. 1997. Domestication of Agroforestry trees in Southeast Asia.
Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
[1]

Verheij EWM, Coronel RE (eds.). 1991. Plant Resources of South East Asia No 2. Edible fruits and
nuts. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.
[1]

X. References:
[1] Sok, Sokunthet (RUA), 2006: Own obseravations.
[2] Species Fact Sheets (Module 9), 1994: Forestry / Fuelwood Research and Development Project.
Growing Mulltipurpose Trees on Small Farms (2nd ed.). Bangkok, Thailand: Winrock Interational.
320pp.
[3] Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.
[4] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).
[5] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4, 5(1), 6-8. (CD-ROM).
[6] World Agroforestry Center: AgroForestryTree Database -
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/BotanicSearch.asp

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[7] ECOPORT: http://ecoport.org/ep


Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Averrhoa bilimbi L.]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Averrhoa bilimbi L.]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Averrhoa bilimbi L. [6]
B. English name (s) ³ Billimbi, cucumber tree [6], tree sorrel [26]
C. Synonym ³
D. Other
1
³ tralong tong (Cambodia); belimbing asam, belimbing wuluh,
belimbing buluk (Indonesia, Malaysia); tayok zaungya
(Burma ); kamias, iba (Philippines); taling pling, kaling pring
(Thailand); khe tau (Vietnam) [6] cornichon des Indes,
zibeline, blinblin, blimblim (French) grosella china, mimbro
(Spanish) [26].

E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³ Rtlwgtwg
Source: [-]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ trôlüng tüng [4]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Geraniales
Family: Oxalidaceae[4], (Averrhoaceae)[11]
Gunus: Averrhoa
Species: Averrhoa bilimbi L.
Source :[11]




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H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: A shrub, [4]; a small tree with few, upright branches, 6-9 m high [6]. tree, 5-10 m high, short
trunk, dividing soon into a number of branches [26].
[Leaves]: Leaves pinnate, usually with 7-19 pairs of 5-12 cm long ovate leaflets and a single terminal
leaflet [6]. Leaves mainly clustered at the branch tips, alternate, imparipinnate; 30-60 cm long, with
11-37 alternate or subopposite leaflets, ovate or oblong, with rounded base and pointed tip; downy;
medium green on the upper surface, pale on the underside; 2-10 cm long. 1.20-1.25 cmwide [26].
[Flowers]: Axillary or cauliflorous, with red-purple-colored free petals, 10-22 mm long . Flowers small,
fragrant, auxiliary (axillary?) or cauliflorous, 5-petalled, yellowish-green or purplish marked with dark-
purple, 10-22mm long, borne in small hairy panicles emerging directly from the trunk and oldest,
thickest branches and some twigs, as do the clusters of curious fruits [26].
[Fruit]: Fruit is a yellowish-green berry, slightly lobed and up to 10x5 cm [6]. Fruit ellipsoid, obovoid or
nearla cylindrical faintly 5-sided, 4-10 cm long; capped with a thin, star-shaped calyx at the stem-end
and tipped with 5 hair-like floral remnants at the apex. Crispy when unripe the fruit turns from bright
green to yellowish-green, ivory or nearly white when ripe and falls to the ground. The outer skin is
glossy, very thin, soft and tender, and the flesh green, jelly-like, juicy and extremely acid. There may
be a few (6-7)flattened, disc-like seeds, 6 mm wide, smooth, brown [26]. Flowering begins in February
and continues flowering and fruiting until December [26].

I. Wood properties:
The wood is whitish, soft and can be used as firewood.[6] The wood is white, soft but tough, even-
grained, and weighs abot 560kg/m³. It is seldom available in adequate dimensions for carpentry [26[.

J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
Perhaps a native of the Moluccas, A. bilimbi is cultivated throughout Indonesia, it is cultivated and
semi-wild everywhere in the Philippines and is much grown in Sri Lanka and Myanmar. It is very
common in Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore, frequent in gardens across the plains of India, and has
run wild in all the warmest areas of that country. It is much planted in Zanzibar. Introduced into
Queensland around 1896, it was readily adopted and commercially distributed to growers [26].
It can be found everywhere in Southeast Asia but is now being cultivated all over the humid tropics
[6]..

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
Prefers seasonal humid climates with a drier season but not drought. Tolerates slightly saline soils,
but not flooding or permanent salinity. A. bilimbi is a tropical tree, more sensitive to cold than A.
carambola, especially when very young. Ideally, it prefers seasonally humid climates, rainfall should
be rather evenly distributed throughout most of the year but there should be a 2-3 month dry season.
The tree makes slow growth in shady or semi-shady situations. It should be in full sun [26].


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L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
not determined

M. soil and site conditions :
The tree does best in rich, moist, slightly acidic, well-drained soil, but also grows and fruits quite well
on sand or limestone, it will tolerate slightly saline soil [6].

N. Utilization and importance :
[Wood]: Predominantly used as firewood [6]
[ Non-Wood]: The fruit is much more acid (ph 4.5) than A. carambola. It is less consumed fresh and
more processed into curries [26]. Fruit consumed fresh or processed as jam, curries or pickled [19].
They yield 44.2% juice having a pH of 4.47, and the juice is popular for making cooling beverages.
Mainly, the bilimbi is used in place of mango to make chutney, and it is much preserved. To reduce
acidity, it may be first pricked and soaked in water overnight, or soaked in salted water for a shorter
time; then it is boiled with much sugar to make a jam or an acid jelly. The latter, in Malaysia, is added
to stewed fruits that are oversweet. Half-ripe fruits are salted, set out in the sun, and pickled in brine
and can be thus kept for 3 months. The flowers are sometimes preserved with sugar [26].
There are several different medical uses known in traditional medicine, e.g. in the Philippines, the
leaves are applied as a paste or poulticed on itches, swellings of mumps and rheumatism, and on skin
eruptions. Elsewhere, they are applied on bites of poisonous creatures. Malaysians take the leaves
fresh or fermented as a treatment for venereal disease. A leaf infusion is a remedy for coughs and is
taken after childbirth as a tonic. A leaf decoction is taken to relieve rectal inflammation. A flower
infusion is said to be effective against coughs and thrush. In Java, the fruits combined with pepper are
eaten to cause sweating when people are feeling "under the weather". A paste of pickled bilimbis is
smeared all over the body to hasten recovery after a fever. The fruit conserve is administered as a
treatment for coughs, beri-beri and biliousness. Syrup prepared from the fruit is taken as a cure for
fever and inflammation and to stop rectal bleeding and alleviate internal hemorrhoids It is taken as
laxative based on the content of oxalic acid. [1,6,26].
A. bilimbi is frequently planted as an ornamental tree [1].
[Other]: The high acidity of oxalic acid makes it possible to clean Kris (the traditional dagger) from rust
stain, to bleach rust stain from hands and white cloth, and also to clean tarnished brass items [26].


O. Cambodian wood classification :
not included




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P. Silviculture and management :


Q. Propagation :
With seeds, or by layering, cuttings [1] Propagated by seed, by layering and also by budding on 1-
year-old seedlings. The seedlings are transplanted into polyethylene bags and, after 6-12 months in
the nursery, outplanted with 4mx6m spacing, similar to A. carambola [6]

R. Hazards and protection :
Not unlike with A.carambola since the 2 species are closely related. A significant difference is that A.
bilimbi is considerably less cold tolerant [26].

S. Conservation :
not a threatened species

T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :
unknown

U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
grown all over the humid tropics [6] native in Malaysia and Indonesia, introduced in South America,
West Indian Islands, United States of America, Australia, Philippines [26].

V. Miscellaneous
4
:
Ecology, distribution, uses quite similar to A. carambola [6]

W. Further readings
5
:
Mackeen MM, Ali AM, El Sharkawy SH, Manap MY, Salleh KM, Lajis NH, Kawazu K. 1997.
Antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties of some Malaysian traditional vegetables (ulam). International
Journal of Pharmacognosy. 35(3): 174-178
Morton J. 1987. Bilimbi. p. 128-129. In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, Florida.
Nagy S, Shaw PE, Wardowski WF (eds.). 1991. Fruits of tropical and subtropical origin: composition,
properties and uses. Florida Science Source, Inc. Lake Alfred, Florida.
Warren JM, Emamdie DZ, Kalai. 1997. Reproductive allocation and pollinator distributions in
cauliflorus trees in Trinidad. Journal of Tropical Ecology. 13(3): 337-345.










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X. References:
4) Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House; Phnom Penh,.
915 pp.

6) Jensen, M., 2001: Trees and Fruits of Southeast Asia. An illustrated field guide.
Orchid Press, Bangkok, 234 pp.

9) Barwick, M., 2004: Tropical and Subtropical Trees: A Worldwide Encyclopaedic
Guide. Thames & Hudson Ltd., London, 484 pp.

13) Baertels, A., 1993: Farbatlas Tropenpflanzen-Zier- und Nutzpflanzen (Colour Atlas
Tropical Plants- ornamental and fruit plants) Eugen Ulmer Publ. Stuttgart, illustrated, 384 pp.

19) Rehm, S. and G. Espig 1991: The cultivated Plants of the Tropics and Subtropics.
Josef Margraf, Publ. Scientific Books; Weikersheim, Germany, 552 pp.

20) Salim AS, Simons AJ, Orwa C, Chege J, Ovuor,B, and Mutua A, 2002: Agroforestree
Database. World Agroforestry Centre (on CD).

26) World Agroforestry Centre
http.www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/Speciesinfo.asp?
(Internet source)




Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Averrhoa carambola L.]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Averrhoa carambola L.]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Averrhoa carambola L. [6]
B. English name (s) ³ star fruit, carambola, (English and Spanish) [6]
C. Synonym ³
D. Other
1
³ spü (Cambodia); fuand (Laos); belimbing manis (Malaysia,
Indonesia); zaung ya (Burma); balimbing (Philippines); ma
fuang (Thailand); khe (Vietnam). Carambolier (French) [1,6)

E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³ s<W
Source: [-]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ spü [4]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Geraniales
Family: Oxalidaceae (Averrhoaceae) [11]
Gunus: Averrhoa
Species: Averrhoa carambola L. [6]
Source :[4 ; 6 ; 11]











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H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: A small evergreen, multistemmed tree 3-5 m, exceptionally 10 m high; diameter about 15
cm at base [1]; small tree or shrub [13]. A small, usually much branched tree up to 15 m tall. Bushy
growth, usually with drooping branches [6].
[Bark]: Light brown, smooth or finely fissured.
[Leaves]: Alternate, pinnate, 15-25 cm long, disposed in a more or less horizontal plane; shortly
petiolate with 7-9 pendant leaflets. Leaf sensitive to contact in the same way as certain of Mimosa
spp. [1]. 3-6 pairs of 4-10 cm long, ovate leaflets and a single terminal leaflet [6]. Leaves
imparipinnate [13].
[Flowers]: They arise in panicles 2-5 cm long in axils of old or fallen leaves. Flowers are pentamerous
with a calyx of 5 pink petals surrounding the purple corolla. The androecium contains 5 fertile stamens
and 5 staminodes. The gynocium bears 5 slender, united styles [1).
Flowers grow in axillary panicles, with joined petals, up to 8 mm in length, light red with purple center;
erect inflorescences, panicles in leaf axils and on tips of sprouts , pink to purple, individual flowers up
to 2.5 cm long [13].
[Fruit]: A large indehiscent berry, between 5-8 cm long, with a characteristic shape in its section which
resembles a 5-pointed star. The colour is yellowish green, becoming orange-yellow when ripe. The
fruit has a sweet-acid taste (oxalic acid). Each cell of the fruit contains 5 arillate seeds [1]. Up to 12
cm long, ovoid 5-ridged, yellow fruit with a star-shaped cross-section, containing 10 t0 12 seeds. The
pulp of fresh fruit of cultivars is crisp and juicy, mildly acid, aromatic and refreshing. Wild forms have a
higher content of oxalic acid making them more sour.[13]. Fruit is 12x6 cm, shiny yellow-green when
ripe, with 5 pronounced ribs. Many cultivars have been produced, flowering and fruiting continue
throughout the year [6].

I. Wood properties:
The wood is whitish, soft and can be used as firewood.

J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
A native of tropical Southeast Asia, Malaysia and Indonesia, introduced in China, India, Burma,
Indochina, Thailand, Philippines, Australia; exotic in South America, West Indian Islands, Africa and
United States of America [1,26). It spread to many tropical countries as ornamental and fruit tree, but
increasingly it is also planted in subtropical regions [1].

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
A. carambola is planted throughout the tropics, from low to medium altitude up to 900 m elevation
a.s.l. It tolerates short cold periods, but young plants will die under frost. A. carambola prefers a
seasonal humid climate with a drier season but not drought. It can grow on slightly acid soil but does
not tolerate flooding or saline soils. [6]



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L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
not determined

M. soil and site conditions :
Tolerates slightly acid soil but not stagnant water or saline soil. A. carambola prefers deep, well-
drained clay loams but can grow successfully on sandy soils and heavy clays [26].

N. Utilization and importance :
Averrhoa carambola has been spread to many countries, but principally as an ornamental tree, it
appears that its value as a fruit tree has been less important [26].
[Wood]: Wood only suitable as fuelwood, because of lack of larger dimensions. The soft, whitish wood
is sometimes used for making small implements [26].
[ Non-Wood]: Fruit consumed fresh or processed as jam, curries or pickled [19], fruit juice added to
fruit salad to impart sweet-sour flavour [13].
Unripe fruit of A. carambola contains potassium oxalate, which is used in dyeing [26].
Fruit and fruit juice are used as laxative based on the content of oxalic acid [1]; it is also used in
traditional medicine for skin disorders and fevers [26].
[Other]; The acid fruit juice is used in some countries for cleaning rusty metal, (acid dissolves
corroded spots), and removing spots from linnen textiles [1].
extracted oil used in manufacture of cosmetcs [6].

O. Cambodian wood classification :
[not included

P. Silviculture and management :
A. carambola is insect pollinated, the pollinators being honeybees and Diptera species. Flowering
continues throughout the year and fruit is available most of the year. Seedling varieties should crop in
3-8 years, selected grafted varieties in only 1-2 years [26]. When young, A. carambola is delicate and
requires careful attention. Because it is a fast-growing tree, it requires pruning and thinning of excess
fruit at an early stage. Good crops are harvested from grafted varieties when they are 2-3 years old.
Yields of up to 900 kg/ha and year are common for 10-year-old trees [26].

Q. Propagation :
Seed storage behaviour is intermediate. The lowest safe moisture content is 12.3%; further
desiccation reduces viability. Cool temperatures damage the seeds. Viability can be maintained for 6
months with partially dried seeds at 5ºC. There are approximately 15, 000 seeds/kg [26].

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Propagated by seed, by layering and also by budding on 1-year-old seedlings. The seedlings are
transplanted into polyethylene bags and, after 6-12 months in the nursery, outplanted with 4 m x 6 m
spacing. The species flowers and fruits continuously provided the dry season is not too severe [1].

R. Hazards and protection :
Caterpillars (Diacotrichia, Pingasa and Pseudoterpna) attack the flowers and young leaves. A.
carambola fruit suffers from fruit fly maggots, particularly Dacus dorsalis (Southeast Asia), and fruit-
piercing moth (Othreis spp., Australia); bagging prevents infestation. Leaf spot (Cercospora averrhoa)
and pink diseases (Corticium) affect the tree in Southeast Asia, but postharvest rots are more serious:
the slightest blemish invites infection by Ceratocystis, Colletotrichum, Dothoriella and Phomopsis
fungi [26].

S. Conservation :
not a threatened species

T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :
unknown

U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
Native species all over Southeast Asia, but inroduced to many other tropical and subtropical countries

V. Miscellaneous
4
:


W. Further readings
5
:
Nicholson B.E, Harrison S.G, Masefield G.B & Wallis M. 1969. The Oxford Book of Food Plants.
Oxford University Press.
Perry LM. 1980. Medicinal plants of East and South East Asia : attributed properties and uses. MIT
Press. South East Asia.
Popenoe W. 1974. Manual of the tropical and subtropical fruits. The Macmillann Company.
Rice RP, Rice LW, Tindall HD. 1987. Fruit and vegetable production in warm climates. Macmillan
Press, London.
Sedgley M, Griffin AR. 1989. Sexual reproduction of tree crops. Academic Press. London.
Tankard G. 1987. Tropical fruit. A guide to growing and using exotic fruits. Viking O’Neil.
Timyan J. 1996. Bwa Yo: important trees of Haiti. South-East Consortium for International
Development. Washington D.C.
Verheij EWM, Coronel RE (eds.). 1991. Plant Resources of South East Asia No 2. Edible fruits and
nuts. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.
Williams R.O & OBE. 1949. The useful and ornamental plants in Zanzibar and Pemba. Zanzibar
Protectorate.

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X. References:
1) FAO-SIDA 1988: Fruit-bearing forest trees. FAO Forestry Paper 34, Rome, Italy, 177 pp.

4) Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House; Phnom Penh, 915 pp.

6) Jensen, M., 2001: Trees and Fruits of Southeast Asia. An illustrated field guide. Orchid Press,
Bangkok, 234 pp.

9) Barwick, M., 2004: Tropical and Subtropical Trees: A Worldwide Encyclopaedic Guide.
Thames & Hudson Ltd., London, 484 pp.

13) Baertels, A., 1993: Farbatlas Tropenpflanzen-Zier- und Nutzpflanzen (Colour Atlas Tropical
Plants- ornamental and fruit plants) Eugen Ulmer Publ. Stuttgart, illustrated, 384 pp.

19) Rehm, S. and G. Espig 1991: The cultivated Plants of the Tropics and Subtropics. Josef
Margraf, Publ. Scientific Books; Weikersheim, Germany, 552 pp.

20) Salim AS, Simons AJ, Orwa C, Chege J, Ovuor,B, and Mutua A, 2002: Agroforestree
Database. World Agroforestry Centre (on CD).

26) World Agroforestry Centre
http.www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/Speciesinfo.asp? (Internet source).

Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/species name (Internet source)





Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Azadirachta indica A. Juss]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Azadirachta indica A. Juss]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Azadirachta indica A. Juss
B. English name (s) ³ neem [2], cornucopia, Indian cedar, Indian lilac,
margosa tree, neem tree [8]
C. Synonym ³ Antelaea azadirachta (L.) Adelb., Azadirachta indica
var. siamensis Valenton, Azedarach fraxinifolia Moench,
Melia azadirachta L., Melia fraxinifolia Adelb., Melia indica
(A. Juss.) Brandis, Melia pinnata Stokes [5]
D. Other
1
³ neem (Trade name) [8] - kinin (Ethiopia) [8] - neem, nim
(Arabia) [8] - nim, nimgach (Bangladesh) [8] -
bowtamaka, tamabin, tamaka, tamar, tamarkha,
thinboro (Myanmar) [8] - bevu, kohomba, nimba
(China:Cantonese) [8] - azadirac de l’Inde, margosier,
margousier, neem, nim (France) [8] - balnimb, neem,
nim, nind, nimba (India) [8] - imba, intaran, membha,
mempheuh, mimba, mind (Indonesia) [8] - ka dao,
kadau (Laos) [8] - baypay, mambu, sadu, veppam
(Malaysia) [8] - neem (Nepal) [8] - mkilifi, mwarubaini,
mwarubaini kamili (East Africa) [8] - vembu, vepa,
veppam, veppu (Sri Lanka) [8] - cha-tang, kadao,
khwinin, sadao, sadao India, saliam (Thailand) [8] -
s[aaf]u d[aa]u, saafu daau, sเu-dเu (Vietnam) [8]
E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³: esþ A
Source: [-]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ sdau [8]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³:
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Rutales
Family: Meliaceae
Gunus: Azadirachta

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Species: Azadirachta indic
Source :[ 5]

H. Botanical characteristics :
[General] Medium-size tree with a height of 15-20 m. Bole, short (2-5 m long) with a DBH up to 100
cm, and a girth of 1.5-3.5 m. Crown rounded or erect oval with wide spreading branches up to 15-20
m diameter in old, free-standing trees. The rooting system consists of a strong taproot and well-
developed laterals. "Superficial laterals may extend 18 m. VAMs (vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae)
are associated with the rootlets" [9].
[Bark]: The bark is moderately thick (1.25-2.5 cm), grey to reddish-brown. The outer rind is rough,
woody, very much fissured, often peeling in thick slices. The sap is grayish-white.
[Leaves]: The leaves are unpaired pinnate, 20-40 cm long, crowded towards the ends of the
branches. Medium to dark green leaflets 9-15 but up to 31, sub-opposite, obliquely lanceolate
(=spear-shaped) or hooked, acuminate (=with a pointed tip), coarsely serrate (=saw-like, with notched
edges) and 3-8 cm long. The terminal leaflet is often missing. Leaf stalk very short, young leaves are
reddish to purple.
[Flowers]: The inflorescences bear about 150 flowers, occasionally 250. The flower is white, fragrant,
4-6 mm long and 8-11 wide in branched hairless axillary, more or less drooping panicles up to 25 cm
long. Calyx 5 and petals (=inner flower leaves) 5 (5 mm by 2) spoon shaped to oblong, slightly hairy
outside. Anthers 10, ovary (=female organ) hairless, 3-celled. The nectary is annular and fused at the
base of the ovary. It flowers from April to May (Pakistan).
[Fruits]: The fruit (=drupe) is hairless and olive-like 1.4-2.8 x 1.0-1.5 cm when mature and egg-shaped
to oblong, 1-celled, 1-seeded. Green when young, greenish-yellow to yellowish-red when ripe.
Exocarp thin, bittersweet mesocarp yellowish-white and very fibrous, 0.3-0.5 cm thick. The white, hard
endocarp of the seed encloses 1, rarely 2 and very rarely 3 elongated seeds having a brown testa.
They are 0.9-2.2 x 0.5-0.8 cm; with kernels 0.8-1.6 x 0.4-0.5 cm.
[2, 9]

I. Wood properties:
Heartwood reddish, hard and durable. The density of the wood is 0.72-0.93 g/cm³ at 12% moisture
content [8]. It shows some characteristics of a cabinetry wood, its grain is rough and does not polish
well. The wood is also tolerant against termites.
[8, 9]

J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
Approximate limits: 28°N to 30°S [8]. A. indica is said to grow ‘almost anywhere’ in the lowland
tropics. "It is considered to be native to dry areas in India, Pakistan, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan,
Bangladesh and China. It is cultivated as well as naturalized in Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia" [5].
It occurs generally in dry forests, deciduous forests, moist forests and mixed forests. In India and

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Pakistan, A. indica occurs naturally in mixed dry deciduous- and thorn forests with Acacia spp. and
Dalbergia sissoo. "In Indonesia, it is naturalized in lowland monsoon forest. In Africa, it is found in
evergreen forest and in dry deciduous forest" [8]. It is not a forest dweller but grows where there has
been human interaction. Under natural conditions, it does not grow gregariously.
[5, 8, 9]

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
Occurs at an altitude of 0-1,500 m a.s.l. [5] with an optimum at 700-800 m a.s.l. [9] mainly on plains
and low-lying undulating land (but not montane areas) in the drier tropical and subtropical zones.
Mean annual rainfall: 400-1,200 mm [8] (450-1,500 mm [2]). "With less than 400 mm it depends on
ground water and under such conditions can survive with ca. 130 mm" [9]. It tolerates long dry
seasons (1-8 months [5]). Mean annual temperature: 21-32°C [9]. Temperature range: 9.5-37°C [2]
(4-50°C [9]). Temperatures below 4°C may result in death of the plant. "In north Pakistan mature trees
seem better adapted to low temperatures, even tolerating 0°C" [9]. "Adult A. indica tolerates some
frost, but seedlings are more sensitive. A. indica requires large amounts of light, but it tolerates fairly
heavy shade during the first few years" [8].
[5, 8, 9]

L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
No information available.

M. soil and site conditions :
A. indica grows on a wide variety of neutral to alkaline soils but performs better than most species on
shallow, stony, sandy soils, or in places where there is a hard calcareous or clay pan not far below the
surface. It thrives best on well-drained, deep sandy soils. Optimum pH is 6.2-7.0 [9, 8] (5-7 [2]) with
extremes of 5.9-10.0 [9]. "It can grow on alkaline or saline soils but does not tolerate seasonally
waterlogged soils or deep sands with deep water table (It does not grow on saline soils [2]. In
Mogadishu, Somalia, tubewell irrigation water for neem seedlings is saline (EC 4.25 dS/m, total solids
2763 mg/l)" [9].
[2, 8, 9]

N. Utilization and importance :
[Wood]: Used for fuelwood, timber (very durable wood), excellent for charcoal [2]. Sawn wood, posts,
fences, wooden tools, shipbuilding and construction.
[2, 8]
[Non-wood]: A. indica oil has long been produced in Asia on an industrial scale for soaps, cosmetics,
pharmaceuticals and other non-edible products. The seed oil yield is sometimes as high as 50% of
the weight of the kernel. Neem oil is valued at about US$ 700/t (1990) [7]. Seeds from the neem tree
contain a compound called azadirachtin. Extracts can be made from leaves and other tissues, but the

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seeds contain the highest concentrations of the compound. People use azadirachtin along with other
neem compounds to make pesticides. Such pesticides are environmentally safe and can help control
more than 250 pests, including aphids, mites, locusts and stem borers on young plants. These
homemade remedies are often very effective in repelling pests or acting on insects as a feeding
deterrent. The strength of homemade preparations can vary due to the concentration of azadirachtin
and other compounds in the seed, which can in turn depends on the genetic source of the seeds.
Manufacturers also use neem tree parts in such products as soap, toothpaste, and acne ointment.
The bark has high tannin content (12-14%) [2]. Leaves are poor in fodder but valued in parts of India.
[2, 7, 8].
[Others]:
Erosion control: "Being drought resistant with a well-developed root system capable of extracting
nutrient from the lower soil levels, it is a suitable tree for dune-fixation. The large crown of A. indica
makes it an effective shade and shelter tree, planted widely as an avenue tree in towns and villages
and along roads in many tropical countries. Because of its low branching, it is a valuable asset for use
as a windbreak" [8].
Soil improver: "Farmers in India use neem cake (the residue left after extracting oil from the seeds) as
an organic manure and soil amendment. It is believed to enhance the efficiency of nitrogen fertilizers
by reducing the rate of nitrification and inhibiting soil pests including nematodes, fungi, and insects. A.
indica leaves and small twigs are used as mulch and green manure" [8].
Agroforestry: "Intercropping A. indica with pearl millet, Pennisetum glaucum, has given good results in
India" [8].
[8]

O. Cambodian wood classification :
No class. [1]

P. Silviculture and management :
[General]: A. indica can be widely grown in the lowland tropics. Under natural conditions, it does not
grow gregariously. It occurs generally in dry forests, deciduous forests, moist forests and mixed
forests. [8]
[Management]: Weeding of plantations in dry areas is essential, as the tree cannot withstand
competition, especially from grasses. It responds well to chemical and organic fertilizers. Trees
coppice freely with a rapid regeneration of 5-11 m in 8 years [2] and early growth from coppice is
faster than growth from seedlings. A. indica withstands pollarding well, but seed production is
adversely affected when trees are lopped for fodder. The best economic rotation for wood production
is considered to be 23 years [5].
[5, 8]


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Q. Propagation :
A. indica is propagated primarily through seed. The seed weight is about 550g/1,000 seeds [9] with a
considerable variation. Seeds are recalcitrant and are shed at relatively high moisture content, making
them susceptible to dehydration and chilling injuries. They have a short viability of 3-4 weeks [5].
Seeds stored at 4°C [5] show a high germination percentage. To maintain viability of the seeds, the
drupes must be cleaned properly by depulping, either manually or mechanically under a stream of
water to provide stones. Drying stones in shade is the most appropriate method although drying in the
sun, an oven or vacuum provides acceptable results more quickly. Stones give better germination
rates than seeds. A. indica is raised in the nursery and planted out as potted plants or seedlings.
Direct sowing of fresh seeds in the shelter of existing vegetation has also proved successful. No seed
pretreatment is required, although depulping and cleaning of seeds considerably improves the
germination rate. Mature seeds germinate within a week, with a germination percentage of 75-90%
[8]. Vegetative propagation is done by cuttings, air layering, grafting, marcotting, tissue culture.
Stands are established by using stump plants, direct sowing, planting stock, wildlings.
[5, 8, 9]

R. Hazards and protection :
[Pests]: Recorded insect pests are Aonidiella orientalis and Solenopsis sp.
[5]
[Diseases]:
Foliage diseases: The fungus Odium azadirachtae causes a powdery mildew of neem foliage and
several bacteria, including Pseudomonas viticola, P. azadirachtae and Xanthomonas azadirachtii,
cause leaf spot diseases.
Root diseases: Root rot is caused by the fungus Ganoderma lucidum. Sporadic infections occur in
young plantings of this species when stumps and roots of the previous tree crop are not removed from
the site. The fungus attacks the sapwood and causes a white spongy rot. Symptoms of infection are
pale, thin foliage and branch dieback. Fruiting bodies often occur at the base of the stem .
Stem diseases: A. indica is one of many plants affected by pink disease caused by the fungus
Corticium salmonicolor. The earliest sign of infection is the presence of white or pink pustules on dead
bark. A conspicuous pink layer of fungus mycelium spreads over the bark. In time, the bark may be
entirely destroyed and the outer layers of wood killed. Branches are killed quickly causing the foliage
to wilt and turn black.
Other fungus diseases include Fusarium oxysporum, Glomerella cingulata, Pseudocercospora
subsessilis.
[5]

S. Conservation :
No information available.

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T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :
No information available.

U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
[World Distribution]:

[Native] : India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Thailand
[2, 8]

[Introduced] : Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Barbados, Benin,
Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia [1], Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African
Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Democratic Republic of Congo,
Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji,
French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti,
Honduras, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali,
Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Panama,
Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Rwanda, Sao Tome et Principe, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles,
Sierra Leone, Singapore, Somalia, South Africa, St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Sudan,
Surinam, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, United States of
America, Uruguay, Venezuela, Virgin Islands (US), Zambia, Zimbabwe
[8]

V. Miscellaneous
4
:
[Leaf properites]: "Leaves contain 12.4-18.3% crude protein, 11.4-23.1 crude fiber, 43.3-66.6 N-free
extract, 2.27-6.24 ether extract, 7.7-8.4 total ash, 0.89-3.96 calcium and 0.1-0.3% phosphorus" [9].

W. Further readings
5
:
Boa E.R. (1995) A Guide to the Identification of Diseases and Pests of Neem (Azadirachta indica)
[9]
Childs FJ et.al. 2001. Improvement of Neem and its potential benefits to poor farmers. HYDRA
Publishing.
[9]
Faridah Hanum I, van der Maesen LJG (eds.). 1997. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 11.
Auxillary Plants. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, the Netherlands.
[9]
Hocking D. 1993. Trees for Drylands. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. New Delhi.
[9]
ICRAF. 1992. A selection of useful trees and shrubs for Kenya: Notes on their identification,
propagation and management for use by farming and pastoral communities. ICRAF.
[9]
National Research Council. 1992. Neem. A tree for solving global problems. National Academy Press,
Washington D. C.
[9]

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Perry LM. 1980. Medicinal plants of East and South East Asia : attributed properties and uses. MIT
Press. South East Asia.
[9]
Read M.D. French J.H. (1993) Genetic improvement of neem: strategies for the future.
[9]
Schmutterer H. (1995) The Neem Tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and Other Meliaceous Plants.
Sources of unique natural products for integrated pest management, medicine, industry and other
purposes.
[9]
Stoney C. 1998. Use of neem as a biological pest control agent. A publication of the Forest, Farm,
and Community Tree Network (FACT Net). Winrock International, Morrilton, Arkansas, USA.
[9]
Tewari D.N. Gahlot R.P.S. - Ed. (1992) Monograph on neem.
[9]

X. References:
[1] Sok, Sokunthet (RUA), 2006: Own observations.
[2] Species Fact Sheets (Module 9), 1994: Forestry / Fuelwood Research and Development Project.
Growing Mulltipurpose Trees on Small Farms (2nd ed.). Bangkok, Thailand: Winrock Interational.
320pp.
[3] Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.
[4] Sam, Hoang Van; Nanthavong, Khamseng; Kessler, P.J.A., 2004: Trees of Laos and Vietnam: a
field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important species. BLUMEA.
[5] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).
[6] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4, 5(1), 6-8. (CD-ROM).
[7] World Book 2004 (Deluxe)
[8] World Agroforestry Center: AgroForestryTree Database –
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/BotanicSearch.asp. (Internet
source).
[9] ECOPORT: http://ecoport.org/ep. (Internet source).


Supported by: German embassy, DED

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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Baccaurea ramiflora Lour.]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Baccaurea ramiflora Lour.]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. [4].
B. English name (s) ³ Burmese grape[4,6, 17],
C. Synonym ³ Baccaurea sapida (Roxb.) Muell. Arg., B. cauliflora Lour., B.
oxycarpa Gagnep., Pierardia sapida Roxb., B. wrayi King ex
Hook.f.[2,4,8,17].
D. Other
1
³ phnkiew (Cambodia); kanazo (burma); mafai setambun,
tajam molek (Indonesia); pupor, tampoi, tempui setambun,
tajam molek, (Malaysia-Peninsular); fái (Laos); mafai, mafai
farang, mafai ka, omfai, hamkang,khi mi,khrua sae, pha yio
(Thailand-NE); giau gia dat, giau tien, dz[aa]u, mi[ee]n,
dz[uw] [ows]i, gi[aa]lu, ti[ee]n d[aa]lt, Dâu quà nhon
(Vietnam) [2,8,17,27].

E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³ ep¶óv
Source: [-]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ phni:ëw [4]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Euphorbiales/ Malphigiales [ 27]
Family: Euphorbiaceae/ Phyllant haceae [ 27]
Gunus: Baccaurea Lour.
Species: Baccaurea ramiflora Lour.
Source :[4 ; 11 ; 27]


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H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: An evergreen tree 10-15 m high and 20-30 cm in diameter, branches covered with
appressed velvety pubescence [2]. Tree, 10-20 m tall [4]; small evergreen tree up to 10 m high, with
dense spreading crown and crooked trunk, becoming slightly fluted at base; branching pattern
strongly sympodial [5]. Trees up to 15 m high, up to 40 cm diameter [8].
[Bark]: Pale creamy or orange-brown, smooth or slightly flaking, thin [5]. Bark-orange-brown, inner
bark softly fibrous, often reddish-brown. Branches (sub)-glabrous. Crown rather dense [8].
[Leaves]: Simple, alternate, clustered at the tip of branchlets, obovate or lanceolate, rarely falcate,
when dry red-fulvous, papyraceous. Lateral nerves 6-8 pairs, stipules 5-6 mm long, velvety,
pubescent, early caducous [2].
Leaf 10-22 x 5-10 cm, spirally-clustered at intervals along twigs, narrowly elliptic or obovate with
shortly tapering tip and pointed base, untoothed or with scattered shallow teeth near the top. Young
leaves reddish, finely brown hairy, mature leaves dark green and shiny above, completely smooth. 6-
11 pairs of arched side-veins, joined at margin, raised above. Stalks 3-7 cm long and slender, swollen
at top [5].
Blade elliptic to obovate, 7.0-25.5 by 3.0-8.8 cm, papery, base attenuate to cuneate, margin entire,
apex cuspidate, upper surface glabrous, except for midrib, lower surface glabrous, veins 4-9 per side.
Petioles 1-5 cm long, kneed at both ends. Stipules 2.5-6.0 mm, pubescent, caducous [8.]
[Flowers]: Inflorescences are axillary to cauliflorous spikes, densely covered with red fulvous
pubescence. Male inflorescence 4-16 cm long, narrowly thyrsoid, usually 3-flowered. Pedicel very
short, pubescent. Male flower 1 mm wide, calyx obovoid, hat-shaped, 1.5 mm long or more. Stamens
6-7, anther 0.4 mm, free; filaments 0.5- 0.9 mm long, straight. Pistillode 0.6 mm high, terete. Female
inflorescence about 16 cm long, reddisch-fulvous pubescent. Bracts triangular, 2 mm long. Flower 3
mm long [2].
Flower small, pale orange or yellow-green, sometimes with violet tinge, male and female flowers on
different trees. Males in slender, unbranched clusters, slightly behind leaves, up to 10 cm long.
Individual flowers with short stalks and lanceolate bracts at base, 4 overlapping sepals, ± 2 mm,
incurved tips, densely grey hairy, no petals; 4-8 free stamens. Females in longer, drooping clusters on
older branches and on main trunk, up to 30 cm long. Individual flowers without stalks, sepals ± 6 mm.
Style short with forked stigmas, ovary brown, hairy [5].
Inflorescences axillary to cauliflorous racemes; densely covered with red-fulvous pubescence, bracts
triangular, 1.5-4.0 mm long. Male inflorescence up to 15.5 cm long, usually 3 flowers per bract. Male
flowers 1.1-4.0 mm diameter, yellow, pedicel 0.8-2.6 mm long; sepals 4 or 5, different in shape, 1.0-
2.4 mm long, stamens 5-9, free, filaments 0.5-0.9 mm long, straight. Female inflorescence just below
the leaves or really cauliflorous, up to 16 cm long, 1-3 flowers per bract. Female flowers 3-8 mm in
diameter, yellow; pedicel 1.5-3.0 mm long, sepals 4 or 5, elliptic, 3.5-5.0 mm long; ovary (2-) or 3- or
4-locular, ovules 2 per locule, stigmas sessile, not lobed [8].

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[Fruit]: A berry, ovoid, red when mature, 2.2-3.0 cm high, 1-2 cm wide. Seeds 1-2, 10 mm long and 4-
6 mm thick, red [2]. Fruit 2.5-3.5 cm, pale orange, ripening reddish or purplish, ovoid or ellipsoid,
hanging in long, string-like clusters from older branches and main trunk. Outer layer leathery, smooth
or indistinctly hairy, eventually splitting. 2-4 large seeds surrounded by a juicy translucent or pinkish
pulp [5]. Fruits globose to ovoid berries, 19-32 by 14-25 mm, red to orange to pink to purplish outside,
creamy inside, (sub)glabrous outside. Seeds 9-15 by 9-11 mm, arillode white [8]. Fruit oval, yellowish,
pinkish to bright red, or purple, 2.5-3.5 cm in diameter, glabrous, with 2-4 large, purple-red seeds.,
with white aril [27]. Importance of frit of Baccaurea marginal, used and sold locally [27].
Seedling with epigeal germination; cotyledons emergent, leafy, often bilobed; hypocotyl elongated;
first pair of leaves opposite or alternate, subsequent ones arranged spirally [17].
Flowering in March-April, fruiting in August-September [2,8,]. In Shishuangbanna, Yunnan Province of
china, people flock to the Botanical Garden to see the Baccaurea tress full of fruit, in green, yellow or
red , in such great number that the branches are bending down. The "famous wild tropical (fruit) tree"
is evergreen, up to 12 m highwith up to 60 cm diameter…" [27].

I. Wood properties:
Baccaurea species yield a medium-weight to heavy hardwood with a density of 630-950 kg/m³ at 15%
m.c. Heartwood yellowish brown, darkening to brown with an orange-yellow to purple-red tinge, not
clearly differentiated from the sapwood. Grain straight or interlocked, texture moderately fine and
uneven due to wide rays, wood with slight silver grain on quarter-sawn surface. Growth rings
indistinct, sometimes suggested by darker colored tissue; vessels moderately small to medium-sized,
angular, solitary and in radial multiples of 2-4(-more), tyloses sparse; parenchyma abundant,
apotracheal diffuse-in-aggregates; rays of 2 kinds, very fine or medium-sized to moderately broad;
ripple marks absent.
Shrinkage is moderate and the wood dries moderately slowly without serious degrade. The wood is
moderately hard and moderately strong. It is reputed to be durable and can be treated with
preservative [17]. As the supply of Baccaurea timber is limited the wood is traded and utilized only on
a local scale [17].

J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
Baccaurea ramiflora occurs from India, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, to Burma, China-
Canton/Yunnan/Hainan, Indochina, Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, in dense
tropical evergreen or semi-deciduous forests; along stream banks, in valleys usually mixed with
Pometia pinnata, Dracontomelum mangiferum, Deutzianthus tonkinensis and Phoebe sp. [2,8]. A tree
growing in the dense forests of tropical Asia [4]. A common understory tree of fire-free forests [5].
It is found in primary and secondary rain forests, below 1000 m [8]. There are about 55 Baccaurea
species occuring from India to Indochina, southern China, Andaman Islands, Thailand, throughout the
Malesian region, and towards Pacific Islands [17]. In southern China it occurs in mountain valley
forest and on hill sides [27]..

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K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
A tree of tropical climate, occurs below 1000 m [2,8]; a neutral tree, tending towards shade-
demanding [2]. Baccaurea species are generally uncommon, but may locally occur as an important
element of the lower storey of primary lowland rain forests [5]. Found in well drained as well as
swampy sites up to 1000 (-1800) m altitude, on a wide range of soils in primary and secondary
evergreen rain forest, kerangas and peat-swamp forest [17].

L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
not determined

M. soil and site conditions :
Occuring on wide range of soils, alluvial sediment, ferrallitic or sandy soils with a medium to deep
layer, moist and well drained; along stream banks [2, 8, 17].Often cultivated on sand, granite, moist
and well-drained, in valleys or on hill sides [8,17].

N. Utilization and importance :
Baccaurea is widely cultivated only in INdia and Malaysia. It is primarily and fruit tree which, according
to soil, climate and ecological environment, may grow into a tree over 20 m high or remain a small
tree not higher than
[Wood]: The wood is valuable and used in construction, manufacturing of household utensils [2,8].
The excellent wood is used for posts in house and boat construction and furniture manufacture[4].
[Non-Wood]: The trees are also planted as shade trees or as support tree in rattan cultivation [6].
Fruits are sour-sweet, edible but their quality is not as good as those of Baccaurea harmandii [2].
Several Baccaurea species are frequently cultivated for their generally sour-tasting fruits: B. dulcis, B.
motleyana, B. racemosa and B. ramiflora. Most other species have edible but less tasty fruits, also the
flowers are edible [19]. The arillode is edible, with a taste between sweet and sour [8].
Baccaurea species are also considered good support trees for rattan cultivation. The cultivated
species are used as shade and roadside trees.
The bark of a few species, together with other ingredients is used for dyeing or to coloring silk yellow,
red or mauve. The bark is also applied to treat skin diseases and inflammation of eyes [4,17]. Leaves
were analyzed in search of medicinal application and bio-active phenols were identified [27].
A

O. Cambodian wood classification :
not included

P. Silviculture and management :

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Q. Propagation :
Baccaurea can be propagated by seed but some fruit-producing species are also vegetatively
propagated by air-layering of female trees. Seeds of several species usually germinate after 2-6
weeks with a rate of over 65%. The germination rate of seed sown with adhering pulp is less
predictable and may range from 3-100% in approximately the same time. [17]

R. Hazards and protection :
Genetic erosion is feared in some of the fruit-producing species but no impact is seen from harvesting
timber[17].

S. Conservation :


T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :
unknown

U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
East and Southeast Asia, native

V. Miscellaneous
4
:


W. Further readings
5
:
Verheij E.W.M. & Coronel, R.E. (Eds.) 1991: Plant Resources of sSoutheast Asia.No.2, Edible fruits
and nuts. Pudoc, Wageneingen, 446 pp.
Bois, D 1922-27: Plantes alimentaires. 4 vos. Lechevalier, Paris.
Burkill, IH 1966: A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula. 2 vols., Min. of
Agriculture and Co-Operatives; Kuala Lumpur.
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research 1948-76. The Wealth of India. Raw Materials. ii vols., 2
nd

Ed. 1985. Publications and Information Directorate CSIR, New Delhi.
















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X. References:
2) Nguyen et al.1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. Agricultural Publishing House, Hanoi, 788 pp.

4) Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House; Phnom Penh, 915 pp.

5) Gardner, S., Sidisunthorn, P. and Vilaiwan Anursarnsunthorn, 2000: A Field Guide to Forest
Trees of Northern Thailand. CMU Herbarium Biology Dept. University of Chiang Mai, Thailand; 546
pp.

6) Jensen, M., 2001: Trees and Fruits of Southeast Asia. An illustrated field guide. Orchid Press,
Bangkok, 234 pp.

8) Sam, H. V.,Nanthavong, Kh.and P.J.A. Kessler 2004: Trees of Laos and Vietnam: A field
guide to 100 economically or ecologically important species.BLUMEA J. Plant Tax. and Plant Geogr.
49(2004) p. 201- 349 pp., Univ. Leiden Br., Leiden, The Netherlands

16) Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I. and W.C. Wong (Eds.) 1995: Plant Resources of
Southeast Asia 5(2) Timber trees: Minor commercial timbers. Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia,
655 pp.

17) Sosef, M.S.M., Hong, L.T., and S. Prawirohatmodjo (Eds.) 1998: Plant Resources of
Southeast Asia 5(3) Timber trees: Lesser known timbers. Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia, 859
pp.

18) Dept. of Forestry and Wildlife 2003: Cambodia Forestry Statistics to 2002.(in Khmer and
English) Planning & Accounting Off., Statistics Sect., Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 97 pp.

19) Rehm, S. and G. Espig 1991: The Cultivated Plants of the Tropics and Subtropics. Josef
Margraf, Publ. Scientific Books; Weikersheim, Germany, 552 pp.

27) Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/species name (Internet source)


Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Bombax ceiba L]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Bombax ceiba L]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Bombax ceiba L
B. English name (s) ³ Indian bombax, red cotton tree, silk cotton tree [2], red
silk cotton [5], cotton wood [13]
C. Synonym ³ Gossampinus heptaphylla Bakh., Bombax malabaricum DC.
[1], Bombax malabaricum DC., Gossampinus malabarica
(DC.) Merr., Salmalia malabarica (DC.) Schott & Endl. [2],
Bombax malabricum Linn. [5], Bombax thorelii Gagnep. [12]
D. Other
1
³ fromager, faux kapokier, kapokier du Malabar (France)
[2, 5, 11] - simul (Bangladesh) [2] - kapok kalingi, kapuk
hutan, randu agung (Indonesia) [2] - borla, boruga, bouro,
burajal, bural, burga, burgu, buroh, buruga, ilavu, ilavum,
kantesavar, kantysenbal, mocha, mullilapoola, mullilavu,
pagun, parutte, poola, ragat-senbal, rokto-simul, salmali,
saur, sauri, sawar, sayar, semal, semul, senur, shemolo,
shevari, shimul, shirlan, simal, simalo, simbal, simlo, somr,
tula, vamadruma (India) [2] - katu-imbul (Sri Lanka) [2] -
letpan (Myanmar) - kapok, tambaluang (Malaysia) [2] -
bombax, kapok (Papua New Guinea) [2] - babui-gubat,
bobor, bubui-gubat, malabulak, tag-linau, taglinan, taroktok
(Philippines) [2] - ngui, ngui ban (Thailand) [2] - ngiu pa, ngiu
deng (Laos) [12] - gao, moc mien (Vietnam) [12]


E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³: rka
Source: [6]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ ro-ka [6]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³:
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

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Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Malvales
Family: Bombacaceae
Gunus: Bombax
Species: Bombax Ceiba L.
Source :[ 2]

H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: Large deciduous tree up to 30-35 m [3, 10] tall (-45 m [2], 10-20 m [5, 11]) with a large and
lax spreading crown. The bole is cylindrical and straight with a DBH of up to 150 cm [2] (340 cm [12])
and covered with moderately prominent buttresses. Side branches are horizontal and straight in
young trees, usually in whorles, often as thick as the central trunk, giving the tree a layered
appearance. Branchlets are usually covered with stout prickles, although smooth-barked variants are
also known. The tuberous roots contain mucilaginous matter (a cell tissue that swells in contact with
water) that may be responsible for the remarkable hardiness in this species.
[Bark]: The bark is pale brownish grey, ash grey or cream colored, studded with sharp conical thorns
when young and rough with irregular cracks but becoming smooth when old.
[Leaves]: The leaves are alternate, digitately compound with 5-9 leaflets [2]. The leaflets have a size
of 12-20 x 5-8 cm [2] (8-15 x 4-5 cm [3]), are elliptic, kidney- or spear-shaped, tapering at both ends.
The leaf surface is completely smooth or partly hairy with a leaflet stalk, 1-2 cm short [2] (1.5-2.5 cm
[3]) and 15 pairs of lateral nerves. The main stalk is 15-25 cm [2] in length (10-19 cm [3]). In South-
East Asia, the leaves turn yellow and begin to fall in December. Then the trees are leafless for
approximately 3-4 months until foliage appears in March-April [2].
[Flowers]: B. ceiba generally produces flowers after 8-10 years of growth [2]. The flowers are
hermaphrodite and protandrous (=producing pollen before the female organs are receptive), with 3
floral morphs, yellow, red and intermediate crimson. The flowers are solitary, sometimes paired,
usually towards the apex of leafless branchlets, 5-12 cm in length [2] (8-10 cm [3]). Flower stalk 1-1.5
cm in length [2], hairless. Calyx thick, 1.5-3.5 x 2-5 cm [2] (1.5-2 cm [3]), bright green, cup shaped
with 5 short, pointed lobes [3] (2-4 lobes [2]), hairless outside. Inner flower leaves (=petals) bright red
(yellow and orange are also recorded), 4.5-11 x 1.8-4 cm [2], thick and fleshy, elliptic-opposite egg-
shaped, pointed and hairy outside towards the apex. The stamens (=male organs) are approximately
80 in 3 whorls [2] (50 in 2 whorls [3]), the outer whorl in 5 fascicles of 10 each, the middle whorl
consist of 20 and inner whorl of 10, filaments 3-7 cm in length, basally fused to form a short tube,
filaments of innermost whorl slightly longer than the outer whorls. The ovary (=female organ) is 5-
celled, style filiform, 5-lobed. The flowers appear in February-March [7] (December-February [2],
India: March-April [9], Laos/Vietnam: February to April [12]) when the tree is usually leafless.

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[Fruits]: Fruits ripen from March to May [2, 7] (India: April [9], Laos/Vietnam: May-July [12]). The fruit
(=capsule) is oblong, straight and hairless, 9-15 x 2.5-3.5 cm [2] (10-17 x 4-6 cm [3]), without ridges
but often with 5 shallow grooves. Seeds are many, smooth and oily, 0.5 cm [2] in length, embedded in
white silky floss.
[2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12]

I. Wood properties:
The wood of B. ceiba is creamy or pinkish-white, very soft and very light with an air-dry density of
about 0.385 g/cm³, with a straight grain and coarse texture. The heartwood is usually absent,
however, in some logs occasionally the central portion is reddish-brown. The wood is not durable if
exposed, but fairly durable under cover and lasts well under water. After felling, the timber requires
cutting and drying as soon as possible, because it is susceptible to sap stain and decay. It is also not
resistant to termites.
[2, 10]


J. Geographic distribution and vegetation :
Approximate limits: 33°N to 24°S [2]. Bombax ceiba is a common tree found along the streets of
towns and provinces in Cambodia and in other countries of South- and Southeast-Asia. It also grows
abundantly in deciduous forests, mixed deciduous forests, dry deciduous forests, evergreen rain
forests and savanna woodlands from the lowland to high elevations [10] (lowland to mid elevations
[8]). It can also be commonly found on tank bunds or on agricultural boundaries. In Vietnam it is found
scattered in natural forest. In Thailand it is rather uncommon in the forest.
[2, 3, 7, 9, 10, 12]

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
The tree grows from sea level up to 1,200 m in altitude [2] (0-800 m [10, 12]). In its natural habitat
rainfall is bimodal (500-4,500 mm/year) and best growth is obtained in regions where the dry season
lasts less than 5 months [2]. However, it is not severely affected by drought and, once established, it
is fire resistant due to its thick bark. The mean annual temperature is 20-30ºC, the mean maximum
temperature of the hottest month 30-37ºC and the mean minimum temperature of the coldest month
10-24ºC. It is resistant to slight frost, the absolute minimum temperature however is -2ºC. Temporary
flooding is also tolerated.
[2, 3, 10]

L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
No information available.

M. soil and site conditions :
Good growth of this species is obtained in deep young alluvial soils of valleys and hill slopes having a
considerable portion of sandy loam or sand with a good drainage but good moisture supply.

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Especially soil derived from granite is recommended. It is also found on stony sandstone soils and on
iron rich lateritic soils. However, it is growing in a wide variety of situations and is found on almost all
soil types except heavy clay soils, marshy soils and soils of mined limestone regions. Soils with an
acid to neutral pH are suitable. Suitable soil types include acid soils, alluvial soils, ferralsols, granite
soils, grassland soils, lateritic soils, sandstone soils, sandy soils, silty soils, tropical soils and ultisols.
[2, 7, 9, 10, 12]

N. Utilization and importance :
[Wood]: Generally the wood is used for veneers, sawing boards, splints, packing cases, tea and
rubber boxes, planking, building poles, fishing floats, fishing boats, dugouts, toys, scabbards, wooden
shoes, coffins, well-curbs and fuelwood. Other common uses include boarding, shingles, brush
handles, cheap plywood, light cooperage, musical instruments and frames. "In India the primary use
of the wood is for match boxes and pencils" [2]. B. ceiba is also suitable for wood wool-cement board,
mechanical and chemical pulp, fibre boards, particle boards and paper, however with only short fibers.
[1, 2, 10, 12]
[Non-wood]: B.ceiba is important as a tannin producing plant: The bark exudes a gum known as
'semul gum' or 'morcharus', which contains tannic and gallic acids. The gum may also be mixed with
ashes and castor oil, and is used as a cement for caulking iron saucepans. The silky cotton floss
(=seed cover) is suitable for stuffing lifebelts, cushions, pillows, upholstery and quills. Cushion and
mattress are stuffed with the silky cotton floss and considered to be vermin proof. It is also used as an
insulating material for refrigerators and soundproofing. Staples of the fruits are sometimes used to
pad the wood for planks and drums. The inner bark yields good fibers which are suitable for cordage.
The oil obtained from the seeds is edible and is used as a substitute for cottonseed oil or soap for
illumination. The seed cake is rich in protein and is an excellent cattle-feed. The tender leaves and
flower buds are eaten as vegetables, and the young shoots and leaves are also used as fodder. In
India, the prickles found on young stems are chewed as a substitute for betlenut (seed of Areca
catechu). The flowers are made into a conserve by boiling with poppy seed, sugar and goats milk, or if
dried and powdered are made into bread. Young roots have a high starch content, and are eaten
either raw or roasted. The flowers are a good source for honey. Many parts are used for medicinal
purposes: The flowers may be used as an astringent, as a cooling agent, or to treat cutaneous
troubles. The young roots are used to treat cholera, tubercular fistula and as a diuretic, for cough,
urinary complaints, nocturnal pollution, abdominal pain due to dysentery and a tonic for impotency.
Even the gum is edible with astringent, tonic and demulcent properties, it is used to treat dysentery,
haemoptysis in pulmonary tuberculosis, influenza and menorrhagia. "A decotion of the shoots have
reputedly been used to treat ulcers of the palate, enlarged spleen (with roots of Moghania
macrophylla, fruit of Terminalia chebula and borax), oedema (with Capparis zeylanica and Carissa
carandas), corns on foot (with fenugreek), syphilis, leprosy and spider or snake bite. The exudations
are effective in scabies (with mustard, tumeric and sulphur). The knots or stem are used on bleeding
gums (cooked with bark of Zyzyphus rugosa and Ichnocarpus frutescens in mustard oil and given to

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eat). The bark is reputedly used against cholera (with many plants), pleurisy, stings and as a diuretic"
[5]. It is used in bandages for lasting fractures or given in infusion for toothache before visiting the
dentist. "The seedlings have reputed antipyretic activity (ground with a few leaves of fistula and
Semecarpus anacardium), carbuncle (with Vitis sp.), for white discharge in urine, haematuria (with
Terminalia alata) and menorrhagia. Infusion of the leaves are reported to have hypotensive and
hypoglycaemic properties" [5].
[1, 2, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11]
[Others]: Bombax is fire resistant and used for revegetation in areas prone to fire. It has been
introduced as an agroforestry species in homesteads and farmlands. It is also commonly planted as
an ornamental tree due to its attractive flowers.
[1, 2, 10, 12]

O. Cambodian wood classification :
No class. [4]

P. Silviculture and management :
[General]: Bombax grows frequently in deciduous forests, mixed deciduous forests, dry deciduous
forests, evergreen rain forests and savanna woodlands from the lowland to high elevation [10]
(lowland to mid elevation [8]). Typically this species is raised in plantations and agroforestry systems
of the tropics but it is also grown as an ornamental tree. It produces root suckers, which survive only if
the parent trees are young and many die after 2-3 years. B. ceiba coppices only as a young adult.
[Establishment]: This species is a fast growing strong light demander, requiring full growing space
throughout its life for good development. In the beginning some aftercare is needed. Especially poor
drainage may cause dieback in seedlings, so excessive watering should be avoided. After two years
growth it is able to compete with weeds. In Assam (India) initial spacing is 6.7 x 6.7 m (225 plants/ha)
[2], whereas a spacing of 2.7 x 2.7 m has been used in Kerala (India). In savannas, seedlings and
saplings are repeatedly burnt back due to natural or man-made fires, but tend to recover well. In Java
(Indonesia), Bombax has been interplanted with Bischofia javanica using a spacing of 1 x 3 m [13].
[Management]: Generally, 3-4 weedings are conducted in the first year and 2-3 in the second year [2].
Due to its light demanding characteristics, thinning is important in plantations and should be
conducted in two or more stages during the rotation. In Assam (India), after the final thin spacings are
approximately 13.4 x 13.4 m (55 trees/ha) [2]. In Kerala (India), where trees are planted at 2.7 x 2.7
m, two thinnings are conducted after 8 and 12 years growth [2]. However, no definite regime for
thinning in mixed plantations has been reported. "In natural forests, B. ceiba is managed by selection
felling, with an exploitable DBH of 38-77 cm and a felling cycle of 15-30 years [2]. In plantations the
best system is clearfelling followed by artificial regeneration on a rotation of 25-40 years. The growth
rate of B. ceiba under suitable conditions is very rapid, both in the natural forest and in plantations. On
good sites, a DBH of 38 cm after 10 years growth and a 58 cm DBH after 20 years growth have been
recorded [2]. Other sources mention a DBH of 20-30 cm after 12 years [10]. Mature trees with a DBH

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of 57 cm may have a crown diameter of 12-15 m [2]. In Peshawar (Pakistan), stump-planted B. ceiba
under irrigation reached approximately 25.2 cm DBH and 12.95 m in height after 7 years growth.
"General standard volume tables for B. ceiba are given by Chaturvedi (1973) providing timber
volumes (without bark), and under-bark volume of stem timber and branch timber" (see chapter:
further readings [2].
[2, 8, 9, 10, 13]

Q. Propagation :
[Seed collection]: B. ceiba produces seeds regularly. Ripe fruits are collected before they open,
generally in April-May [7] and are dried in the sun to open and release the seeds with cotton. Each
fruit contains 200-400 seeds [2] which are highly viable and are dispersed by wind and will regenerate
naturally on favourable sites. The seeds are separated from the floss by putting them in gunny bags
and thrashing with a stick. Only fresh seeds are used for germination. They do not require any
pretreatment. However, other sources recommend a soaking into water for 12 hours [9].
Approximately 100 dry capsules weigh 2 kg, and the number of seeds varies from 21,430-38,500/kg
[2, 7].
[Propagation]: Propagation is done by direct sowing and transplanting of seedlings or stumps. In case
of sowing germination, success rates vary from 14-75% [2] and plant survival rate is 6-31% [2], with
highest rates found in fresh seeds. Stump planting is regarded as the best method to ensure success
in plantations, both direct sowing and branch cuttings have low success rates. In nursery a standard
bed of 12 x 1.2 m is sown with approximately 0.7 kg of seed in rows which are 15 cm apart. Standard
beds of this size are expected to produce approximately 3,000 seedlings. The germination period is
between 10-25 days. When seedlings attain 5 cm in height, they are transplanted into polythene bags
of varying sizes filled with soil mixture which has been successfully used for planting. After one years
growth, seedlings are suitable for transplanting or stump planting. Planting can be done in crow bar
holes or in pits 30 x 30 cm [2] filled with well-worked soil.
[2, 7, 9, 10]

R. Hazards and protection :
[Pests]: Known insect pests are Dysdercus cingulatus, Lohita grandis and Tonica niviferana.
[2]
[Diseases]: Fungus diseases include Corticium rolfsii, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina
phaseolina, Myrothecium roridum and Thanatephorus cucumeris.
[2]
[Others]:"In heavily grazed areas, the saplings may successfully establish where they are protected
from cattle. Dense weeds deter seedling development" [2].

S. Conservation :
No information available.

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T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :


U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
[World Distribution]
[Native]: Bangladesh, India, China, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka
[2]
[Introduced]: Bhutan, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand,
Taiwan, Vietnam, Australia, Papua New Guinea, Tropical America
[2, 8]

V. Miscellaneous
4
:
No information available.

W. Further readings
5
:
Alexander TG, Mary MV, Thomas TP, Balagopalan M, 1983. Influence of site factors in Bombax
plantations. KFRI Research Report, Kerala Forest Research Institute, No. 17:ii + 19 pp.; 12 ref.
[2]

Chaturvedi AN, 1973. General standard volume tables for Semal (Bombax ceiba L.). Indian Forest
Records, Silviculture, 12(7):1-7.
[2]

Forest Research Institute, 1973. Indian Timbers - Semul. Information series. Dehra Dun, India: Forest
Research Institute.
[2]

Ghose TP, 1943. Indian Kapok. Indian Forester, 69:155-166.
[2]

Nair NR, 1971. Commercial volume tables for the forest trees of Kerala. Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala,
India: Kerala Forest Department.
[2]

Nicolson DH, 1979. Nomenclature of Bombax, Ceiba (Bombacaceae) and Cochlospermum
(Cochlospermaceae) and their type species. Taxon, 28:367-373.
[2]

Robyns AG, 1963. A monographic study of the genera Bombax s. l. (Bombacaceae). [Essai de
monographie du genere Bombax s. l. (Bombacaceae)], Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux., 83:1-316.
[2]

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Sehgal RN, Venkaiah K, Satish Kumar, Khosla PK, 1991. Variation in wood specific gravity in different
morphoforms of Bombax ceiba Linn (Semul). Journal of the Indian Academy of Wood Science,
22(2):13-16; 16 ref
[2]

Venkatesh CS, Arya RS, 1980. Establishment, management and productivity of Bombax ceiba L.
grafted seed orchards. Indian Journal of Forestry, 3(2):103-110; [1 pl.]; 9 ref.
[2]

X. References:
[1] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4, 5(1), 6-8. (CD-ROM).

[2] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).

[3] Gardner,S.; Sidisunthorn, P.; Anusarnsunthorn, V., 2000: A Field Guide to Forest Trees of
Northern Thailand.

[4] FA, 2002 (draft), List of Trade Names of Commercial Wood in Cambodia, Trade Names of
Commercial Woods, unpublished.

[5] Kham, L., 2004: Medicinal Plants of Cambodia - Habitat, Chemical Constituents and
Ethnobotanical Uses.

[6] CTSP/DANIDA, 2004: List of Tree Species.

[7] Andhra Pradesh Forest Department: http://forest.ap.nic.in/Silviculture. (Internet source).

[8] ARCBC BISS Species Database: http://arcbc.org/cgi-
bin/abiss.exe/spd?SID=846002139&spd=4473&tx=PL. (Internet source).

[9] Auroville TDEF: http://www.auroville-tdef.info/GenInfo.php. (Internet source)

[10] Nguyen et al., 1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. JICA/Vietnam Inventory and Planning Institute.

[11] Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.

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[12] Sam, Hoang Van; Nanthavong, Khamseng; Kessler, P.J.A., 2004: Trees of Laos and Vietnam: a
field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important species. BLUMEA.

[13] PROSEA, 1998: Plant Resources of South East Asia 5 - (3) Timber trees: Lesser-known timbers.

[14] Petri, M (DED), 2006: Own observations.



Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Borassus flabellifer L]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Borassus flabellifer L]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Borassus flabellifer L
B. English name (s) ³ fan palm, palmyrah, toddy, toddy palm, palmyra
palm, wine palm, sea apple [1]
C. Synonym ³ Borassus flabelliformis L. (1774), Borassus sundaicus
Becc. [1]
D. Other
1
³ palmier à sucre, rondier, rônier, borasse (France) [1]
- palmira (Portugal) [1] - Fächerpalme, Lontaropalme,
Palmyrapalme (Germany) [1] - lontar, siwalan, tal, tala
(Indonesia) [1] - palma da ventagli (Italy) [1] - tan bin
(Myanmar) [1] - tan (Laos) [6] - wine palm (Philippines) [6] -
lontar, tah, tai (Malaysia) [1] - not, tan, tan-yai (Thailand) [1] -
loost, noost, thoost, thoost noot (Vietnam) [1]
E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³: etñat
Source: [3]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ thnaot, thnaôt [1], thnot [10]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³:
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Arecales
Family: Arecaceae
Gunus: Borassus
Species: Borassus flabellifer
Source :[ 1]




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H. Botanical characteristics :
[General] A large, solitary and evergreen palm tree with a height of 25 m [1] (10-20 m [2], -30 m [5],
25-40 m [6]). It can become very old (over 150 years), but its economic lifetime is about 80 years [11].
Stem massive, straight, up to 1 m [6] in diameter at base, conical up to about 4 m [6] high, thereafter
cylindrical and 40-50 cm [6] in diameter, occasionally branched, covered by leaf bases when young,
rough and ringed with leaf scars when older, fringed at the base with a dense mass of long
adventitious roots. Crown circular with fan shaped leaves. Under optimal ecological conditions 14
leaves unfurl per year, or one leaf per 26 days [11]. Less leaves are produced under marginal
conditions (8 per year or 1 per 45 days). "The Borassus, occurring in Indonesia from East Java
eastwards, differs slightly from B. flabellifer (Outer flower leaves (petals) in fruit imbricate at the base,
absence of scales on the leaf blades, less branched male inflorescence) and has been described as a
different species: B. sundaica Beccari" [6].
[Leaves]: The leaves (30-60 [5] per tree) are arranged spirally. Leaf-blade leathery, grey green, nearly
round and flat to fan-shaped, 1-1.5 m [6] (1.3 m [5]) in diameter and folded along the midrib. The
leaves are divided to the center into 60-80 regular, linear-spear-shaped, 0.6-1.2 m long [5], stiff single-
fold segments that are about 3 cm broad at base. Leaf stalks are strong and grooved, 1-1.2 m long
[5], black at the base and black-margined when young and edged with hard spines.
[Flowers]: Inflorescence located between the leaves, with flower stalk, shorter than the leaves, the
male and female dissimilar. Male and female inflorescences are carried on separate trees. The male
inflorescence is massive, up to 2 m long, consisting of about 8 partial inflorescences of three small
inflorescence axis each with are spike-like, fleshy, 30-45 cm long, bearing spirally arranged
overlapping reduced flower leaves, fused laterally and distally to form large pits, each containing
about 30 flowers, exserted singly in succession from the pit mouth. Flowers 3-merous with 6 stamens
(=male organs). Female inflorescence unbranched or with a single first order branch, covered with
sheath-like reduced flower leaves. Flower stalk massive, fleshy, thicker than the male one, bearing
large cupular bracts, the first few empty, the subsequent ones each subtending a single female flower
with several empty reduced flower leaves above the flowers; flowers larger than male ones, 3-merous,
tricarpellate. The palm starts flowering and fruiting 12-20 years after germination, usually in the dry
season. Male palms begin to develop the inflorescence in November or December while the female
ones commence one to two months later. Each palm may bear from eight to fifteen inflorescences per
year. The male inflorescence lasts approximately 45 to 60 days and the female 60 to 70 days.
(Flowering: March to April [8], February to April [9]). Fruiting: August to September [8] (May to October
[9]).
[Fruits]: The fruit (=drupe) is coconut-like, three-sided when young, becoming rounded or more or less
oval, 12-15 cm wide [6] (17.5 cm [9]) and 1.5-2.5(-3) kg [6] in weight. The outer covering is smooth,
thin and leathery of brown color turning dark purple to black after harvest. Inside is a juicy mass of
long, tough, coarse, white fibers coated with yellow or orange fragrant pulp. Seeds are shallowly to
deeply bilobed, pointed. Within the mature seed is a solid white kernel similar to coconut meat but
much harder. When the fruit is very young, this kernel is hollow, soft as jelly, and translucent like ice,

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and is accompanied by a watery liquid, sweetish and potable. Each palm may bear 8-15 bunches of
fruit with a total of about 80 pieces of fruit per year.
[1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 11]

I. Wood properties:
[Wood Properties]: The lowest 10 m of the trunk has hard and strong wood which is heavy, very
durable, with an air dry density of 1.02-1.14 g/cm³. Very resistant to termites, insect borers and decay
fungi.
[1, 6]

J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
Approximate limits: 25°N to 30°S. B.flabellifer is indigenous or naturalized throughout tropical and
subtropical South and Southeast Asia. It is particularly abundant in India, Myanmar and Cambodia,
where it is frequently planted. It is occupying large areas of wasteland, forming pure crops in the drier
parts of its geographical range, where the sugar palm (Arenga pinnata (Wurmb) Merrill) and the
coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) cannot compete, or it is intermixed with the wild date palm (e.g. India).
Usually it can be found by the side of roads on tank bunds or on agricultural boundaries, occasionally
found in the forest areas. In Cambodia it grows wild between the paddy fields.
[1, 2, 6, 8, 9, 11]

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
Prefers altitudes around sea level but grows up to 800 m a.s.l. [6, 11] (0-300 m [1]). It is very hardy
and can grow on the poorest conditions. B.flabellifer is usually grown in strictly seasonal tropical or
subtropical climates with a winter- or bimodal rainfall regime and an annual precipitation of 500-900
mm/yr [6] in dry areas and up to 5,000 mm/yr [6] in per-humid areas. The palm is very adaptable,
growing well in dry areas and is quite drought resistant, tolerating a dry season length of 4-8 months
[1]. The optimum mean annual temperature is around 30ºC [6] (20-29ºC [1]), the mean maximum
temperature of hottest month 32-45ºC [1] and the mean minimum temperature of coldest month 18-
25ºC [1], but it can withstand extreme temperatures of 8ºC [1] (0ºC [11]. Seedlings and juvenile trees
are frost- and fire-sensitive.
[1, 2, 6, 11]

L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
No information available.

M. soil and site conditions :
B.flabellifer may be grown on almost all soils with light to heavy texture and acid to alkaline pH, even
on the poorest conditions regarding nutrient supply. However it prefers soils of coastal areas and
black soils, rich in organic matter wit a free drainage. It also survives waterlogging quite well.
[1, 2, 6, 8, 11]


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N. Utilization and importance :
[Wood]: The whole trunk is used by removing the soft middle part. The lowest 10 m of the trunk has
hard and strong wood which is suitable for round wood, transmission poles, posts, piles, building
poles for buildings or bridges, carpentry/joinery, engineering structures and beams. The softer middle
part can be split into boards or used for wood based materials, block board, charcoal and fuel wood.
"The whole trunk can also be made into a small boat capable of carrying at least three people" [4].
[1, 4, 11]

[Non-wood]: Every part of the palm is a useful resource. In India it is called the tree with 800 uses.
Sugar products: The most important product of the toddy palm is the sap or juice, which is obtained
from tapping the inflorescences. The naturally fermented palm juice (teck thnot chhu) is a common
alcoholic beverage especially in rural areas with 5-6% [11] alcohol content and may later be converted
into distilled ethanol (arrack) with an alcohol percentage of 20-60% or vinegar. To make vinegar the
palm wine must be kept in a cool and dark spot for some time. Sugar palm juice is traditionally
processed into three types of sugar: Liquid sugar (sugar palm syrup), crystalline palm sugar and block
sugar. The most common type consumed in rural areas is sugar palm syrup which has about 80% dry
matter. A sugar palm sap-soybean-freshwater spinach (Ipomoea acuatica) mix is commonly used to
feed pigs.
Handicrafts: Almost all households in rural areas use palm leaves not only for thatching but also for
the walls. "In Cambodia 25 to 36 leaves are harvested twice a year from the palms that are not used
for tapping" [4]. The top young leaves are made into hats, boxes to store rice, baskets, fans, etc. In
the past they were used as writing materials, especially by the monks. The fibers of young leaves can
be woven into delicate patterns. Leafstalks are often used as poles for fencing or as fuelwood and can
be split into fiber to be used for weaving and matting. The bark is a source for making strong ropes.
Food: The edible fruits are much appreciated either for cakes or jelly. The young solid or gelatinous
endosperm of the seeds is also eaten fresh or prepared as a sweet with sticky rice and in syrup. The
top part of immature fruit is also cooked as a vegetable. The fresh pulp around the kernels is reported
to be rich in vitamins A and C. The mature fruit is soaked in water after which the wiry fibers are
extracted. The yellow pulp is mixed with rice starch, folded inside a banana leaf and later steam-
cooked. The tender mesocarp of young fruits is cooked in curry. The soft upper 10 m of the trunk
contains some starch, which may be harvested in times of food scarcity. The growing point of the
palm (palm heart or palm cabbage) is also edible. Seedlings can be peeled and eaten fresh or sun-
dried, raw, or cooked in various ways. In Myanmar they are considered a delicacy but they are slightly
toxic. "They also yield starch, which is locally made into gruel, with rice, herbs, chili peppers, fish, or
other ingredients added. It has been proposed for commercial starch production" [5]. The nectar of the
palm is also an important source for honey production.
Medicine: Many parts of B.flabellifer (fruits, roots, flowering stalks, bark and juice) are used in
traditional medicine: "The young plant is said to relieve biliousness, dysentery and gonorrhea. Young

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roots are diuretic and anthelmintic, and a decoction is given in certain respiratory diseases. Dried
roots can also be smoked to heal nasal complaints. The ash of the flower is taken to relieve heartburn
and enlarged spleen and liver. The bark decoction, with salt, is used as a mouth wash, and charcoal
made of the bark serves as a dentifrice. Sap from the flower stalk is prized as a tonic, diuretic,
stimulant, laxative and anti phlegmatic and amebicide. Sugar made from this sap is said to counteract
poisoning and it is prescribed in liver disorders. Candied, it is a remedy for coughs and various
pulmonary complaints. Fresh toddy, heated to promote fermentation, is bandaged onto all kinds of
ulcers. The cabbage, leaf petioles, and dried male flower spikes all have diuretic activity. The pulp of
the mature fruit relieves dermatitis" [5]. "It is also useful as an anti-inflammatory and for dropsy and
gastric conditions. Also has potential immuno-suppressive action. Constituents are: gum, fat and
albuminoids" [2].
[1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11]

[Others]: In India, Myanmar and Cambodia, toddy palms are often planted as a windbreak on plains or
to delimit rice fields. The palm also provides natural shelter to animals like birds and monkeys and
plants (ferns, orchids).
[5, 6, 11]

O. Cambodian wood classification :
No Class [3]

P. Silviculture and management :
B.flabellifer is occupying large area of wastelands, forming pure crops in the drier parts of its
geographical range, where the sugar palm (Arenga pinnata (Wurmb) Merrill) and the coconut (Cocos
nucifera L.) cannot compete, or it is intermixed with the wild date palm (e.g. India). Usually it can be
found by the side of roads on tank bunds, or on agricultural boundaries, occasionally found in the
forest areas. Toddy palm can be planted in the full sun and does not require much attention once it
has established. It responds well to water supply and manure. The trunk grows about 30 cm [6] in
height per year. However it has a relatively long juvenile growth period (8-14 years [1]) which may
limit its usefulness. In plantations thinnings are recommended to favor more productive female trees.
"In Myanmar and Cambodia, toddy palm is usually cultivated by smallholders as a cash crop in
addition to their main product, rice. Working time has to be divided between the two crops. Rice
usually requires most labor in the wet season, toddy palm in the dry season" [6]. In Cambodia and
Myanmar smallholders own 30-40 toddy palms on average (25 male, 15 female trees) [6] but at least
10 [4]. Harvesting and tapping normally starts when the palm is 25-30 years old and may continue for
80 years [6]. Less-productive palm trees are cut for timber when they are more than 10 m high and
between 70-100 years old [4].
[Tapping]: Both male and female inflorescences are tapped for juice collection. Although both male
and female inflorescences of B. flabellifer are tapped, the latter are preferred because they also have

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inflorescences during the rainy season allowing higher yields. "Cambodian tappers have developed a
technique to conserve inflorescences to be tapped after the normal harvest period" [4]. They use long
bamboo ladders for climbing. Every 6-12 months the ladders are removed for safety reasons. "When
the trees are located close to each other, one or two long bamboo poles are used as an aerial
'stairway' to facilitate movement between the trees, thus avoiding the need to descend and ascend
each tree and permitting the tapper to use his time more productively. The tapper must climb the palm
trunk just before the inflorescences open. To tap the inflorescences, some leaves are cut away for
easy access. In male palms a number of partial inflorescences (usually about 12) are tied together
after the flower buds have been stripped off. The stalks of these inflorescences are then
systematically squeezed with tongs daily. In female palms the inflorescences are handled individually.
Flowers are broken off and the flowering stalks are then squeezed for a number of days with larger
tongs to enhance the sap flow. After three days the tops of the stalks of the inflorescences are cut off.
The juice is channelled into a bamboo or plastic vessel, called an 'ampong', which can contain 2 to 4
kg of juice [4]. For each tree an average of four to six collection vessels are used according to the
number of inflorescences being processed at the one time. The sap flow of an individual tree may
continue for 3-6 months/year [6]. For each tapping a new slice as thin as possible is cut off from the
tapped end of the stalk with a razor- sharp knife kept especially for this purpose. The nightly flow of
sap is nearly double that of the flow in daytime. Collection is carried out twice daily (morning and
afternoon) in order to limit exposure of the juice to contamination by yeast and other fermenting micro-
organisms. Small pieces of bark from various tree species containing tannins (e.g. Shorea
cochinchinensis, Shorea roxburghii G. Don, Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merrill), or the leaves of
Anacardium occidentale L. and Schleichera oleosa (Loureiro) Oken are used as a anti-fermentation
agent and are placed in the collection vessel while the juice is being collected. Also slaked lime
(Ca(OH)2) is put into the vessels to prevent fermentation and deterioration. However, this affects the
flavor of the sap. If bamboo buckets are used, they are placed on a fire for a moment after thorough
cleaning.
[Production] Tappers are capable of tapping 20-30 palm trees twice a day [4] (30-40 palms/working
day [6]) if an assistant is available at the base of the trunk to receive the collected juice. The more
skillful the tapper is in climbing and tapping, the better the yield. Sap yields can be as high as 6 l per
day and palm. The annual production of palm sap amounts to 100-600 l/palm [6]. Other sources
mention a production of 169-246 l/year. Palm sugar yields up to 16-70 kg/palm or 19 t/ha/year at a
density of 275 palms per ha [6]. Fruit yields are 200-350/palm (if cultivated only for fruits) or up to 130
t/year if there are 275 female trees/ha [6]. However the yield varies greatly between palms. For the
production of 1 kg palm syrup about 4 kg [4] (5 kg [6]) of fuelwood is needed. Most Cambodian
farmers continue producing palm syrup and sugar because they can still find free fuelwood and it is
their main income during the dry season. However in areas where wood is already a limiting factor
(e.g. in Myanmar and parts of Cambodia) opportunity costs for fuelwood often exceed the value of the
syrup produced. Palms are cut down when they become too tall to be climbed easily.
[Processing]: "After harvest the sap may be boiled down into brown palm sugar. It is strained through
a coconut leaf sheath sieve to remove debris and the added bark or leaf parts, and is then poured into

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an open pan that is heated. When the liquid thickens it is poured into half coconut shells and allowed
to cool and solidify. This sugar is highly hygroscopic, as it contains all the dry matter from the sap.
The quality of the sugar is good. In Indonesia for example, the fine toddy palm sugar from Madura is
superior to that made from Arenga in West Java and commands better prices on Javanese markets."
[6]
[1, 4, 6, 9]

Q. Propagation :
It is easily propagated by using direct sowing, natural regeneration and sometimes planting stock. The
seeds are collected from August to September and have a long viability. Seed storage is recalcitrant.
Number of seeds/kg: 15-20. Germination percentage: 80%. Plant percent: 80%. Number of
seedlings/kg seed: 12-16 [8]. As a pretreatment large healthy seeds are soaked in cow dung and
water for a week and weathered in a pit. Then they are sown 7-10 cm [8] (10 cm [6]) or hammered
deep into the soil (preferably during rain) with a spacing of 3-6 m directly in the field because
seedlings are difficult to transplant [6]. Normally when planted, seed of toddy palm starts to germinate
within 30-60 days [8] (45-60 days [6] ). During germination a tubular sprout emerges from the seed,
protected by a cotelydonary sheath and grows down into the soil up to 90-120 cm depth. When
growth continues the tuberous part sends forth roots, separates from the sheath and begins to grow
upright. In 9-12 months the tip emerges above the ground, after which true leaves follow. After a
rosette stage of 4-6 years the trunk formation starts. They are usually planted in groups, in order to
facilitate tapping.
[1, 6, 8, 11]

R. Hazards and protection :
Toddy palm hardly suffers from diseases and pests.
[Pests]: Termites may occasionally attack seedlings. Certain beetle species (Oryctes and
Rhynchophorus) feed on dead plant material, but may at dense populations become harmful for living
palms. It is therefore necessary to clean stands of all kind of debris.
[Diseases]: Palms growing in rich black soil or soil liable to flooding may succumb to bud-rot, caused
by the fungus Phytophthora palmivora which also occurs on coconut. First symptoms are spots on
green leaf blades, which spread inwards to the bud. The bud then starts to rot and putrifies. The
fungus can successfully be combated by killing and burning diseased palms. Another fungus disease
is caused by Stigmina palmivora [1].
[Others]: Snakes and other venomous creatures sheltering in the crown may present a hazard to the
tapper.
[6]




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S. Conservation :
"Toddy palm is under pressure in all the countries where it is grown. In areas where coconut can be
grown, toddy palm may be substituted for phytosanitary reasons. For example in Thailand stands are
nearly eradicated."
[6]

T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :
Central Cambodia.
[6]
Kp, Speu, Takeo, Pursat, Kp. Chnnang, Kp. Cham, Kandal, Prey Veng, Sway Rieng, Kp. Thom,
Battambang, Siem Reap, Banteay Meanchey, Phnom Penh.
[7]


U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
[Native]: India
[10]
[Introduced (since long)]: Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam
[10]
[Introduced (recently)]: Indonesia, Sri Lanka, French Polynesia, Papua New Guinea
[1]


V. Miscellaneous
4
:
[Properties]: "Palm sugar is much more nutritious than crude cane sugar, containing 1.04% protein,
0.19% fat, 76.86% sucrose, 1.66% glucose, 3.15% total minerals, 0.861 % calcium, 0.052%
phosphorus; also 11.01 mg iron per 100 g and 0.767 mg of copper per 100 g" [5]."The fresh sap is
reportedly a good source of vitamin B complex and contains 17-20% dry matter. It has a pH of 6.7-6.9
(-7.5) and per litre contains some proteins and amino acids (360 mg N), sucrose 13-18%, P 110 mg,
K 1900 mg, Ca 60 mg, Mg 30 mg, vitamin B3.9 IU, and vitamin C 132 mg. The 7-9 g/l reducing sugars
are probably formed through enzymatic or microbiological reactions immediately after tapping. The
ash content of the sap os to 4-5g/l. A rather large, fresh fruit may weigh 2790 g (100%); perianth lobes
175 g (6.3%), exocarp 120 g (4.3%), mesocarp fiber 66 g (2.4%), mesocarp edible pulp 1425 g (51%)
and 3 seeds 1004 g (36%). The 3 seeds consist of shell 394 g, endosperm 609 g and embryo 1 g"
[11].
[World production and trade]: "Toddy palm is mainly grown for subsistence and is primarily produced
by smallholders. Surplus production may be sold on local markets. Sri Lanka (10 milion palms on
25,000 ha), India (60 milion palms), Myanmar (2.5 milion palms on 25,000 ha), Central Cambodia (1.8

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milion palms), Indonesia (0.5 million palms on 15,000 ha). In 1968 the toddy palm sugar production in
Cambodia was estimated at 35,000 t per year, and the national consumption at 10,000 t.
[6]
[History]: "It is almost generally assumed that B.flabellifer is a selection by man from the more
dieverse B.aethiopum Mart. of Africa. Its distribution probably followed Indian trade routes in
prehistoric times."
[11]

W. Further readings
5
:
Davis TA, Johnson DV, 1987. Current utilization and further development of the palmyra palm
(Borassus flabellifer L., Arecaceae) in Tamil Nadu State, India. Economic Botany, 41(2):247-266; 27
ref.
[1]
Flach, M. & Paisooksantivatana, Y., 1996. Borassus flabellifer L. In Flach, M & Rumawas, F. (Eds.):
Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 9. Plants yielding non-seed carbohydrates. Prosea
Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. pp. 59-63.
[6]
Gupta RK, 1993. Multipurpose trees for agroforestry and wasteland utilization. New Delhi, India:
Oxford & IBH.
[1]
Hocking D, 1993. Trees for drylands. Trees for drylands., xiii + 370 pp.; [Originally published by
Oxford & IBH Publishing, New Delhi, India]; 12 pp. of ref.
[1]
Jagadeesh HN, Damodaran K, Padmanabhan S, Aswathanarayana BS, Xavier F, Kamal SZM,
Guruva Reddy H, 1993. Studies on palmyrah wood. IPIRTI Research Report, No. 69:22 pp.; 6 ref.
[1]
Jagadeesh HN, Damodaran K, Aswathanarayana BS, 1996. Palmyrah wood - a potential source of
wood raw material. Wood News, 6(2):20-23; 1 ref.
[1]
Jambulingam R, Fernandes ECM, 1986. Multipurpose trees and shrubs on farmlands in Tamil Nadu
State (India). Agroforestry Systems, 4(1):17-32; 7 ref.
[1]
Kovoor A, 1983. The palmyrah palm: potential and perspectives. FAO Plant Production and Protection
Paper, No. 52:v + 77 pp.; [6 pl.]; 90 ref.
[1]
Khieu Borin. 1996. The sugar palm tree as the basis of integrated farming systems in
Cambodia.Contribution to Second FAO Electronic Conference on Tropical Feeds. Livestock Feed
Resources within Integrated Farming Systems.
[4]

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Khieu Borin & Preston, T.R. 1995. Conserving biodiversity and the environment and improving the
well-being of poor farmers in Cambodia by promoting pig feeding systems using the juice of the sugar
palm tree (Borassus flabellifer). Livestock Research for Rural Development, (7)2: 25-30.
[4]
Khieu Borin, Preston, T.R. & Lindberg, J.E. 1996. Juice production from the sugar palm tree
(Borassus flabellifer) in Cambodia and performance of growing pigs fed sugar palm juice. In
Sustainable Tropical Animal System, p. 1-11. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala,
Sweden. (M.Sc. thesis)
[4]
Mahendran S, 1994. The activities of the Palmyrah Development Board and some aspects of
agronomic research and development needs of the organization. Journal of the National Science
Council of Sri Lanka, 22(SUP A):S47-S53; 5 ref.
[1]
Morton JF, 1988. Notes on distribution, propagation, and products of Borassus palms (Arecaceae).
Economic Botany, 42(3):420-441; [12 pl.]; 81 ref.
[1]
Reddy ANY, Yekantappa K, Somesh Korcher, 1988. Nursery technique of Borassus flabellifer Linn.
Myforest, 24(2):114-116 + 2 pl.
[1]

X. References:
[1] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).
[2] Kham, L., 2004: Medicinal Plants of Cambodia - Habitat, Chemical Constituents and
Ethnobotanical Uses.
[3] FA, 2002 (draft), List of Trade Names of Commercial Wood in Cambodia, Trade Names of
Commercial Woods, unpublished.
[4] Khieu Borin: Sugar palm (Borassus flabellifer): Potential feed resource for livestock in small-scale
farming systems (internet source)

[5] Morton, J.F.,1988: Notes on Distribution, Propagation and Products of Borassus Palms
(Arecaceae). Economic Botany (1988) 42(3): 420-441
[6] World Agroforestry Center: AgroForestryTree Database –
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/SpeciesInfo.as (Internet source)
[7] Petri, M. (DED), 2006: Own observations.
[8] Andhra Pradesh Forest Department: http://forest.ap.nic.in/Silviculture (Internet source).
[9] Auroville TDEF: http://www.auroville-tdef.info/Individual.php?id=443. (Internet source).
[10] Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.
[11] PROSEA, 1996: Plant Resources of South East Asia 9 - Plants yielding non-seed
carbonhydrates.


Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub. [4].
B. English name (s) ³ lacquer tree, Bengal kino tree, flame of the forest [4].
C. Synonym ³ syn B. frondosa Roxb. ex Willd.[4], Erythrina monosperma
Lam.[20].
D. Other
1
³ giéng giéng (Vn)[2]

E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³
Source: [-]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ cha:r [4]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Fabales
Family: Papilionaceae
Gunus: Butea
Species: Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub
Source :[ 2 ; 4 ; 5]


H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: A small tree, 6-10 m, 25–40 cm in diameter, frequently short-boled, trunk striated like
Lagerstroemia tomentosa, crooked and twisted; crown open [2]. Tree, 8-10 m tall, [4]. Deciduous tree,
up to 15 m, irregular crown and crooked trunk. [5]. Easily recognized when flowering because of the
brilliant red flowers [2]; with pubescent branches; deciduous [13].

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[Bark]: Greyish to pale brown, smooth or slightly flaking, rough, nodose, 0.5 cm thick, red-brown
beneath, fibrous, exuding red, adstringent resin or gum when cut. Old branches crooked, young
branches densely hairy [2].
[Leaves]: Compound, trifoliate, consisting of 3 leaflets, rhachis 12-20 cm, slender, pubescent when
young, canaliculate above. The central leaflet greater than the lateral ones. Petiole 2.5–4.0 cm long, a
ring of filiform stipules near the leaf base. Lamina shortly rhomboid, green, 6-12 by 6-12 cm. Lateral
veins 5-6 pairs ascending, branched near the margin, venules reticulate. Lateral leaflets orbiculate, 5-
10 cm long and 4-5 cm wide[2]. Leaf trifoliate, central leaflet slightly larger than others, 10-17 cm,
broadly obovate with blunt or rounded tips and slightly tapering base; side leaflets narrower, ovate,
blunt at both ends. Young leaves with fine silky hairs, mature leaves leathery, smooth above, thinly
hairy below with 1 main vein and 7-8 regularly spaced side-veins. Main stalk 7.5 to 15.0 cm, side
leaflets stalks ± 1 cm [5].
[Flowers]: In clusters of 2-3 on young branches densely pubescent. Peduncle 3-4 cm long, pubescent
with 2 caducous bracts. The flowers are red, large, 4-6 cm long. Sepals connate, into a campanulate
(bell-shaped) tube, 1.5 cm wide and 1 cm long with 3 short lobes. Petals 5, long, red. Stamens 10,
diadelphous(9)+1), pubescent. Ovary ovoid, style silvery-white, pubescent, ovules 4-6 [2]. Flowers 5-6
cm, bright orange, densely clustered on short woody stumps along all branches, appearing after the
old leaves have fallen. Individual stalks 1.5-3.5 cm, twice as long as calyx. 5 silky petals, similar in
size, the lowest one strongly curved and hiding the stamens. There are 10 stamens, 1 free and 9
fused into a tube, 1 long curved style [5]. Flowers big, 3 to 5 cm wide, spectacularly shining blood-red
to orange, occasionally yellow papilionaceous flowers with enlarged alae [13].
[Fruit]: Large, 12-16 cm long, 3-4 cm wide, oblong, compressed, winged around, covered with silvery-
white hairs, reticulately veined. Pericarp coriaceous, slightly stiff. Seed elliptic, 2.5 cm long,
compressed and red-brown [2]. Fruit 15-20 by 4-6 cm, oblong, often slightly curved, rather thick and
woody, densely covered with very short, silky hairs, abruptly narrowed at base with persistent calyx,
stalks 1.2-2.5 cm [5]. Fruit: Forming flat pods containing 1 seed [13]. Flowering takes place in April [2].

I. Wood properties:
The wood is red, hard and durable, but not straight-grained [2]. Most of the trees are rather crooked.
The soft and not durable wood is light, about 570 kg/m³ air dry, white or yellowish-brown when fresh,
but often turning greyish because of susceptibility to sap stain. It is not of great value but is sometimes
used for utensils [20].

J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
B. monosperma occurs from India to Burma, Sri Lanka; in the premontane Himalayas up to 1200 m
elevation asl.. Natural distribution in dry forests, from India through SE Asia to Indonesia. Usually
growing in nearly pure stands or mixed with other species in the dry Dipterocarp forest such as D.
obtusifolius, Shorea siamensis, and Terminalia corticosa. It is not common in the wild, usually it can
be found in very degraded fire-damaged areas [2,5]. Occurs naturally widely in Indonesia, usually in

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lowland monsoon forest where it is associated with Azadirachta indica, Acacia leucophloea (Roxb.)
Willd., Albizia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr. and Cassia fistula L. [16].

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
B. sperma sheds its leaves during the dry season.It is short-boled with pubescent branches. It ccurs
naturally in the dry forests of Sri Lanka, Burma and India. This species prefers a climate with a distinct
dry and rainy season at elevaions between 200-500m asl. A light-demanding tree growing best on old
alluvial accreted soil, also on red basaltic soils [2].

L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
not determined

M. soil and site conditions :
Old alluvial soils and weathered red basalts [2], however, it grows on a wide variety of soils including
shallow, gravelly sites, black cotton soil, clay loams, and even saline or waterlogged soils. Seedlings
thrive best on a rich loamy soil with pH 6-7 under high temperature and high relative humidity [20].

N. Utilization and importance :
This species, Butea monosperma, is one of the most versatily usable small trees. The species is able
to thrive under quite variable and often rather poor conditons. In first place mention is made of its
spectecular bright red or orange flowers. But in rural India, Sri Lanka or Thailand it is the other uses
that rest in the center of interest. There is the strongly adstringernt Kino resin that assists in closing
wounds, the tannin and 2 colors of dyes and last not least the use of branches with leaves involved in
a process of clay agglomeration for reducing the salt content of water in ricefields. Finally, Butea
monosperma is one of two high quality-yielding feed tree species for scale insects producing shellack.
[Wood]: Valued for construction, but it is difficult to find straight pieces of lumber [4]. The wood makes
a fuel of moderate quality, however, it yields durable charcoal of high calorific content [2].
Leaves are sometimes used as a fuel. The wood is burnt for gunpowder charcoal.
[Non-Wood]:Bark is rich in tannin, also yields resin and gum. A bright yellow to deep orange-red dye,
known as butein, prepared from the flowers, is used especially for dyeing silk and sometimes for
cotton. This dye is used by Hindus to mark the forehead [20].
B. monosperma is also frequently planted as an ornamental tree because of the spectacular orange
flowers.
Young roots are edible
B. monosperma is used for producing a red dye from the roots and yellow dye from the flowers [13].
Binding material and ropes and footwear can be produced from the bark fibres [4].

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This coarse fibrous material obtained from the inner bark is used for cordage, caulking the seams of
boats and making paper [20].
Butea is also a well-known medicinal plant. For a long time the plant was the main source a most
effective adstringent. By cutting the bark a rapidly drying sap, the Butea or Benghal kino can be
obtained. In former times this was one of the most important adstringent compounds available for
application in medicine [13].
Together with the species Schleichera oleosa (Lour.) Oken, Flemingia macrophylla (Willd.) O.Kuntze
Butea monosperma is said to be one of the best feed plants for the semi-domesticated scale insect
Laccifer lacca Kerr, a small scale insect feeding on the sap and exuding a resin-like compound traded
under the name of shellack. There are still other species but Butea is among the best and Butea and
Flemingia are easier to cultivate. Only India and Thailand are still producing and exporting the end
product, shellac, in significant quantities.[19] A report from Dak Lac Province in Vietnam indicates that
the sticklac harvested from this tree is thicker and more brightly red than from other host tree species
[2].
Other: Seedlings and green branches are also spread in ricefields as a salt-filtering agent and green
manure. Leaf-decomposing bacteria produce a slime that is able to aggregate clay particles. In the
course of this process micro-cavities are formed loosening the compacted soil and allowing leaching
of noxious salts from the soil solution.So, B. monosperma is also an effective green manure and soil
improving plant [13].
IButea monosperma is revered by the Hindus and frequently grown around houses [4].

O. Cambodian wood classification :
not included

P. Silviculture and management :
Cultivated as lac insect feed tree in India[2], raised elsewhere as an ornamental tree, no information
on plantations in India

Q. Propagation :
Natural regeneration is strong under open forest canopy [2]. Natural regeneration by both seed and
root suckers is profuse. Artificial propagation is chiefly from direct-sown seeds, sown 25-30 cm apart
in lines 3-5 m apart. The taungya system is often used, as weeding during the first 1-2 years is
essential for the proper development of the plants. Root suckers and nursery seedlings can also be
used for propagation. Because of the good coppicing power of this species, it is also a reliable method
of natural propagation. Germination, which starts in about 10-12 days, is completed in 4 weeks. Fresh
seeds have a good germinative capacity (about 63%) at optimum germination temperature of about
30 ºC. Germination is hypogeous [20].



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R. Hazards and protection :
Seedlings and saplings are browsed and damaged by cattle. Rats and porcupines feed on fleshy
roots, killing the sapling.
Insect pests attack different parts of the tree. Several defoliators belonging to the families Arctiidae,
Eucosmidae, Lasiocampidae, Lymantriidae, Noctuidae, Notodontidae, Pieridae, and Sphingidae have
been recorded. Insects of the family Coccidae feed on the sap. The larvae of some insects of the
family Lycaenidae feed on the flowers [20]. Xanthomonas buteae causes black leaf spots, which in
case of a severe infection may cover the entire leaf surface and cause premature defoliation.
Phomopsis buteae and Pseudodiplodia buteae have also been recorded on the leaves [20].

S. Conservation :
not an endangered species

T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :
unknown

U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
India, Sri Lanka, Burma, Southeast Asia,native; Indonesia, Vietnam, introduced

V. Miscellaneous
4
:
This tree is not easily found in the wild, commonly in very degraded, fire-damaged areas. Frequently
planted for its fabulous flame-colored flowers [5].
Shellac is produced in large quantities only in India and Thailand, it is an important export product
(1991). Shellac is the resinous exudation of the scale insect Laccifer lacca Kerr., which is raised on a
variety of trees. The trees must be pruned and allowed to rest to ensure regular and high yields.

W. Further readings
5
:
Indian Farming 1976: Special Issue on Lac. Indian Farming 27(8): 3-35
Ganeshaiah KN, Shaanker RU, 1991. Seed size optimization in a wind dispersed tree Butea
monosperma: a trade-off between seedling establishment and pod dispersal efficiency. Oikos,
60(1):3-6; 32 ref.

Gupta RK, 1993. Multipurpose trees for agroforestry and wasteland utilisation. Multipurpose trees for
agroforestry and wasteland utilisation., xv + 562 pp.; [18 pp. of ref + refs in text].

Kumar P, 1989. Vegetative propagation in palas (Butea monosperma) through air layering. Indian
Journal of Forestry, 12(3):188-190; 3 ref.

Lal S, Ram M, Singh BP, Shrivastava SC, 1976. Bhalia: a versatile lac host plant. Indian Farming,
27(8):9-11; [3 pl.].

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Pathak PS, Patil BD, 1985. Seed weight affecting early seedling growth of Butea monosperma (Lam.)
Taub. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports, 3:23-24.

Sharma SK, 1993. Butea monosperma with abnormal leaves. Indian Forester, 119(11):948.

Vershney RK, 1967. Some observations on the stink bug (Cyclopelta siccifolia)- a pest of Butea
monosperma. Indian Forester, 93(11):765-767.

Viswanath S, Kaushik PK, Chand S, Pandey DK, 1994. The butea tree - for lac and rice production in
India. Agroforestry Today, 6(2):10.

afar R, Parminder Singh, Siddiqui AA, 1989. Antimicrobial and preliminary phytochemical studies on
leaves of Butea monosperma Linn. Indian Journal of Forestry, 12(4):328-329; 5 ref.
X. References:
2) Nguyen et al.: Vietnam Forest Trees, Hanoi 1997, 788 pp.

4) Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House; Phnom Penh,
915 pp.

5) Gardner, S., Sidisunthorn, P. and Vilaiwan Anursarnsunthorn, 2000: A Field Guide to Forest
Trees of Northern Thailand. CMU Herbarium Biology Dept. University of Chiang Mai, Thailand; 546
pp.

9) Barwick, M., 2004: Tropical and Subtropical Trees: A Worldwide Encyclopaedic Guide.
Thames & Hudson Ltd., London, 484 pp.

13) Baertels, A. 1993: Farbatlas Tropenpflanzen-Zier- und Nutzpflanzen (Color Atlas Tropical
Plants- ornamental and fruit plants) Eugen Ulmer Publ., Stuttgart, illustrated, 384 pp.

19) Rehm, S. and G. Espig 1991: The Cultivated Plants of the Tropics and Subtropics. Josef
Margraf, Publ. Scientific Books; Weikersheim, Germany, 552 pp.

20) Salim AS, Simons AJ, Orwa C, Chege J, Ovuor,B, and Mutua A, 2002: Agroforestree

26) World Agroforestry Centre
http.www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/Speciesinfo.asp? (Internet source)

Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp
B. English name (s) ³ pigeon pea, Congo pea [2]
C. Synonym ³ Cajanus bicolor DC. [5], Cajanus flavus DC., nom. illeg.
[5], Cajanus indicus Spreng., nom. illeg. [5], Cytisus cajan L.
[5], Cajanus cajan forma bicolor (DC.) Baker. [10], Cajanus
cajan var. bicolor (DC.) Purseglove [10], Cajanus cajan var.
flavus (DC.) Purseglove [10], Cajanus indicus Sprengel [10],
Cajanus indicus var. bicolor (DC.) Kuntze [10], Cajanus
indicus var. flavus (DC.) Kuntze [10], Cajanus indicus var.
maculatus Kuntze [10], Cajanus luteus Bello [10]

D. Other
1
³ ambrévade, pois d'Angole (France) [5] - kacang Bali,
kacang gude, kacang kayu (Indonesia) [5] - adhaki, arhar,
kandulu, thovaray, thuvara, togare, tur, tuvari, tuvarika, tuver
(India) [5] - thwàx h'ê (Laos) [5] - kacang, kacang dal, kacang
hiris (Malaysia) [5] - kardis, kidis, tabios (Philippines) [5] - ma
hae, thua maetaai, thua rae (Thailand) [5] - cay dau chieu,
dau sang (Vietnam) [5]

E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³: ·:.·· . ·:. ··.··
Source: [3]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ sânndaèk khloëng, sânndaèk krôab sa: [1]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³:
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Leguiminosales / Fabales
Family: Leguminosae / Papilionceae
Gunus: Cajanus
Species: Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.

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Source :[ 5]


H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: Cajanus cajan is a small, perennial tree or shrub with a height of 3-4 m [2] (up to 4 m [10],
0.5-4 m [9]) and a compact, open or bushy crown with slender branches. The stems have only a
diameter of up to 15 cm [9]. It is short living with only 1-5 years [5].
[Roots]: It has a strong deep taproot with thin roots up to 2 m deep [9]. "The primary structure of the
roots is usually tetrarch. In the cortex of young roots mycorrhizae can sometimes be observed within
the cells. The root system is well developed and well spread. It has well developed lateral roots in the
superficial layers of the soil. Root growth continues during the reproductive phase and the total length
approximately doubled after the onset of the flowering. There were about 1,500 m of roots beneath
each square meter of soil surface by the end of the reproductive phase" [10].
[Nodules]: "Pigeon pea is nodulated by Rhizobia of the cowpea group. The nodules on the roots of
plants grown on vertisols are generally small. The majority is on the upper 30 cm of the root system,
but some can be found even below 120 cm. The nodules of plants grown on alfisols are generally
larger and better developed than those on vertisols; plants on alfisols have also been found to have a
higher nitrogen fixation as estimated by the acetylene reduction technique" [10].
[Leaves]: The first two leaves of a twig are simple and opposite. The subsequent leaves consist of 3
narrow leaflets which are spirally arranged, green above and silvery green underneath. The main stalk
of the leaflet is 1-2 cm long [9] the secondary stalk half as long or less. The stipules are pointed 2.5-5
mm long [9] and persistent. The leaflets are spear-shaped or narrowly elliptic, covered with hairs on
both sides, the largest up to 7.5-8 x 2.8-3.5 cm [9] (10 x 3 cm [10]) with a pointed leaftip. Veins form a
parallel network and are prominent underneath. There are over ten times more stomata on the lower
than the upper surface of the leaves. Leaves also contain oil producing glands which are responsible
for the fragrance of pigeon pea plants. These oil producing glands are clearly visible under a
microscope.
[Flowers]: The inflorescence (=raceme) is 4-12 cm long [10] and grows axillary from a single stalk,
terminating at the insertion of 1-2 flowerstalks [9] or continuing for 1-3 additional nodes [9], rarely
branching, usually slightly shorter than the leaves and mostly with 2-6 flowers [9]. Flowers are red and
yellow with a total length of 2 cm [10] and flowerstalks to about 0.9 cm long [9]. The outer
flowerleaves (=sepals) are fused into a tube which is 3-5 mm long [9], with many hairs and glands and
a 4 mm long [9] lower lobe. The inner flower leaves (=petals) are hairless and about 14 mm long [9],
with a claw about 4 mm long [9]. "The majority of the flowers open between 11 am and 3 pm. They
are visited by bees and other insects" [10].
[Fruits]: The fruits (=pods) are green, green with purplish blotches, or purplish, linear egg-shaped with
a blunt or pointed tip, compressed and depressed between the seeds, about 4 x 1 x 0.3-0.4 cm [9] (3-
10 cm long [10]). The pods contain more number of oil producing glands than the leaves. There is
little or no shattering of dried pods in the field. Each pod contains 1-5 compressed egg-shaped or oval

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seeds [9] (2-3 or 8-9 seeds depending on cultivar [10]) of various colors, about 6 x 4 x 1.5 mm [9].
Seeds are smooth and coated, with a white, greyish, brown, red, purplish or speckled color. The
whole seeds contain 18-29% protein and 48- 59% starch [10].
[2, 9, 10]

I. Wood properties:
[Wood properties]: "The energy content of the wood averages 1,450 kJ/100 g" [6].

J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
Approximate limits: Cajanus cajan is probably indigenous to NE-Africa [10] or South Asia [2, 9] but is
now cultivated throughout the tropics at latitudes between 30°N and 30°S [10] (28°N to 15°S [5]). The
species is not found truly in the wild, thus its natural habitat conditions are uncertain. It prefers grassy
habitats in savannas, shrubland and wasted land and is not common in forests.
[2, 3, 5, 9, 10]

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
This species is normally grown at altitudes between sea level and 2,000 m a.s.l. [6, 9, 10] (200-2,000
m [5]), but in Venezuela some cultivars can be found as high as 3,000 m [13]. The annual rainfall
range for growth is reported to be 400 in semi-arid climate to 4,000 mm in humid climate [10] with the
optimum between 600-1,500 mm [10] (400-2,500 mm [9], 600-2,000 mm [5], 600-1,000 mm [6]). A dry
season of up to 6 months [5] is tolerated. The temperature range for growth is reported to be 10-45°C
[9] (15-40°C [2], 13-32ºC [5]) with the optimum between 18-38°C [6, 9, 10] (20-29ºC [5]). The absolute
minimum temperature should be more than 10ºC [5] and it is easily damaged by frost.
[2, 5, 6, 9, 10]

L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
No information available.

M. soil and site conditions :
C. cajan is grown in a wide range of soils with varying physical and chemical characteristics. It thrives
in well drained, medium deep to deep sandy loams but will also grow in heavier soils. The major soils
are alluvials, vertisols and alfisols, with a pH range from 5 to 7 or more [6, 9] (the pH for successful
growth is reported to be 4.5-8.4 [10] with the optimum between 5.0 and 7.0 [10]). It is sensitive to
salinity and has not been produced on saline soils. The plant tolerates an electrical conductivity
(salinity) from 0.6 to 1.2 S/m [6]. It is also susceptible to waterlogging for more than 3-4 months [2, 9].
Poor fertility, sandy soils, and low moisture are however tolerated very well.
[2, 5, 6, 9, 10]

N. Utilization and importance :
[Wood]: Cajanus cajan has a life span of 1-5 years [5], thus producing only timber in small
dimensions. The sticks are an important household fuel in many areas. "The heat value with 1,450

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kJ/100 g [6] is about twice as high as the same weight of coal, and it has several advantages over
traditional trees, such as its rapid growth potential, possibility of producing other crops on the same
land, and production of a seed crop. Farmers sow it instead of grain because of its wood. Its
productivity levels more than make up for the comparatively poor fuel characteristics" [9]. Other uses
include light construction such as roofing, wattling on carts and tubular wickerwork lining for wells and
baskets (e.g. India). "On an experimental basis, C. cajan has been found to produce a pulp for paper
similar to that of hardwoods, and the pulp might be suitable for making good-quality writing and
printing paper" [9].
[5, 6, 9]
[Non-wood]: Food: "The seeds of C. cajan can be used as a vegetable. Very young pods are
harvested before the seeds are distinct and are cooked in curries or used to make relishes. The dry
seeds have several products such as tempe (a traditional Indonesian food prepared by fermenting
with a Rhizopus mould then soaked, dehulled and cooked legume seeds), and 'ketchup' (pigeonpea
sauce, a replacement for soy sauce in Indonesia that is made by fermenting C. cajan with Apergillus
oryzae). C. cajan flour (mixed with wheat to improve the protein level of baked products) and clear
noodles of a quality higher than that of mung bean are made from dehulled seed. Fresh seeds contain
vitamins, especially provitamin A and vitamin B complex. Per a 100 g edible portion, dry seeds
contain 7-10.3 g water, 14-30 g protein, 1-9 g fat, 36-65.8 g carbohydrates, 5-9.4 g fiber and 3.8 g
ash." [9].
Oil: "An essential oil can be collected by the steam distillation of pigeonpea leaves and other aerial
organs. It contains a mixture of compounds including the terpenoid alpha - copaene. The function of
this glandular secretion is unknown. It may have some insect repellent role. Such glandular hairs are
found on all aerial parts of the plants, except some parts of flowers such as petals and stamens" [9].
Fodder: "C. cajan fodder alone may be a bit low in energy. The leaves can provide a good substitute
for alfalfa in animal feed formulations, particularly in areas not suitable for alfalfa. The pods are used
as cattle feed but are limited by their low protein (15-24% of protein [2]) and high fiber content. They
have therefore been used as a roughage source for cattle. C. cajan grain has been successfully used
for poultry feed. In Hawaii, a mixture of equal quantities of cracked pigeonpea and cracked maize has
been proved the best poultry ration" [9].
Medicine: "It has many traditional uses as medicine. In Java, for example, the young leaves are
applied to sores, herpes and itches" [9].
[2, 9]
[Others]: It is often grown near houses to make fences and is useful as a tall hedge on dry soil and on
the bunds of paddy fields. It is often grown as a shade crop, cover crop or windbreak. "The root
system is reported to break plough pans, thus improving soil structure, encouraging infiltration,
minimizing sedimentation and smothering weeds. Leaf fall at maturity adds to the organic matter in
the soil and provides additional nitrogen. It seems to have special mechanisms to extract phosphorus

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from black vertisol soils. Using the nitrogen-balance method, it has been proved in northern India that
long-duration C. cajan can fix up to 200 kg N/ha over a 40-week period" [9].
[5, 9, 13]

O. Cambodian wood classification :
No class [1]

P. Silviculture and management :
[General]: Cajanus cajan is not found truly in the wild, thus its natural habitat conditions are uncertain.
It prefers grassy habitats in savannas, shrubland and wasted land and is not common in forests. It
shows fair to good coppicing abilities and fixes nitrogen very well.
[Establishment]: Stand are established by using primarily direct sowing but also natural regeneration,
planting stock and wildlings. For monocropping systems, seeds should be sown in high densities
(50,000+ seeds/ha [2]) on well-prepared fields. Gaps may be filled later with seedlings grown from
containers.
[Management]: Cajanus cajan is usually grown as an annual [5] but also perennial [10] shrubby
legume. "For hedgerow intercropping, the hedges should be cut at height of 0.5-1 m when the grain
crop is fully mature. The hedges can be cut 2-3 times a year in areas where the dry season lasts 4-6
months. At pod maturity, branches of C. cajan are cut at about 0.5 m. Higher levels of pruning can
result in higher and unacceptable levels of plant mortality. As a field crop, C. cajan may be typified as
rather undeveloped. The tall genotypes particularly are cumbersome in cultivation. Weeds must be
controlled to prevent slow initial growth. Wind may bend the plants, but staking is not practised. In
intensive cropping of short-duration cultivars, irrigation may be required. C. cajan’s response to
fertilizers is rarely economic; a phosphate dressing is generally recommended at 20-100 kg/ha." [9]
[Pea harvesting and processing]: "Entire air-dried plants are threshed, usually by hand or with cattle,
and seed is cleaned. Clean bins prevent insect attack, which can be considerable. Storage as split
peas reduces bruchid attack. Processing includes dhal making,either wet (after sprinkling heaps of
seed) or dry, by milling. In the West Indies, canning and freezing of fresh pigeon peas is a million-
dollar export business, for instance to the United States" [6].
[Timber yield]: "In perennial crops, 2-10 tons/ha/yr [2] of woody stalks are harvested" [10].
[Seed yield]: "Pigeonpea is a relatively low yielding crop. The growth of pigeonpea is greatly
influenced by temperature. In traditional cropping systems, the highest pigeonpea yields, exceeding 4
tons per ha are obtained with late maturing cultivars, which grow well in frost free regions of north
central and north west India. The most important variable determining yield is pod number per plant,
or rather pod number per unit area. Earlier formed pods, are produced at the more basal nodes of the
branches and later formed pods at the more apical nodes. They contain almost the same number of
seeds. Moreover the seeds of the almost the same average weight. This indicates that the plants set
just as many or few pods as they are capable of filling." [10]

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[Agroforestry]: "In Southeast Asia, C. cajan is grown as a support for vanilla. Due to its hardiness,
ability to grow on residual soil moisture, and slow early growth, C. cajan is an ideal, non-competitive
crop to plant with cereals. In traditional cropping systems, it is mixed with cereals, oil seeds, short-
season pulses or cotton, with the cereal as the main crop and C. cajan as the bonus crop. In Kenya, it
is an important food legume, cultivated commercially for dry seed and as a green vegetable. In
Zambia, smallholder farmers generally grow it in their backyards and around the fields of annual
crops. In Uganda, it is combined with millet in a cropping system. Also honeybees collect nectar from
the plant, which is an important honey source. The honey has a distinctive greenish hue in the comb.
C. cajan serves as a host for silkworm (in Madagascar) or the lac insect (in northern Bengal and
Thailand)" [9].
[2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 10]

Q. Propagation :
[Seed collection and storage]: The pods are picked when the seed has reached physiological maturity
and is just beginning to lose its bright green color. There are 5,000-14,000 seeds/kg [9] (4-24 g/100
seeds [10]). Seed storage behavior is orthodox with no problems for long-term storage under
preferred conditions. They can be stored up to 4 months [2] in humid tropics, longer in drier regions.
No pregermination treatment of seeds is needed. Seedlings show no dormancy problems and the
hypogeal germination is generally good except in cool conditions. The most rapid germination of
seedlings occurs between 29 and 36°C [10]. Emergence is complete 2-3 weeks [9] after sowing.
[Propagation]: Direct seeding is the best method, however stand establishment is also possible by
using natural regeneration, planting stock and wildlings. Stem cuttings rarely succeed.
[2, 5, 9, 10]

R. Hazards and protection :
[Pests]: "Because of its long flowering period, damage by pests such as agromyza fruitflies and
heliothis borers may be compensated for by renewed flushes. Chemical control is cumbersome and
expensive in the tree’s tall, indeterminate forms" [9]. Nodules can also be damaged by the larva of a
fly Rivellia angulata. The seed oil of Cajanus cajan is slightly sticky in nature, probably one of the
reasons why egg parasitoids have not been very successful in controlling the pod borers in pigeon
pea. Other insect pests include: Exelastis atomosa, Helicoverpa armigera and Melanagromyza
obtusa.
[9, 10]
[Diseases]: "C. cajan has more than 100 pathogens. They include fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes
(cyst nematode, reniform nematode, root-knot nematode) and mycoplasm-like organisms. A disease
of economic importance is fusarium wilt (Fusarium udum), which is found in Bangladesh, Ghana,
Grenada, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Malawi, Mauritius, Nepal and Tanzania. Control measures include
cultural practices like rotation with tobacco over several years and breeding for resistance. Sterility
mosaic is the most important disease of C. cajan in India and Nepal. Others include phytophthora
blight and cercospora leafspot" [9]. Other fungi are Gibberella indica and Heterodera cajani.

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[9]

S. Conservation :
No information available.

T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :


U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
[World Distribution]:

[Native]: India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Pakistan
[9]
NE-Africa
[10]
[Introduced]:
Afghanistan, Angola, Argentina, Australia, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Brazil,
Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, El Salvador, Eritrea,
Ethiopia, Fiji, Ghana, Grenada, Japan, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mauritius, Nepal, New
Zealand, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, United States of America,
Zambia, Zanzibar, Zimbabwe.
[9]

V. Miscellaneous
4
:
[Growth Analysis]: "The growth rate is linearly related to Leaf Area Index (LAI) and is greatest at the
highest population density. On the other hand, dry matter and leaf number per plant declined at
increasing population densities. In intercropping systems in which pigeonpea is shaded by a faster
growing companion crop such as sorghum, the growth rate and LAI are, not surprisingly, much lower
than in comparable pigeonpea grown as a sole crop. However, after the harvest of the intercrop, the
amount of light available to the plants is greatly increased. In an intercropping system, the roots of
different species have been found to intermingle freely with each other" [10].
[Photosynthesis]: "The rates of photosynthesis and transpiration in pigeonpea is relatively low. Light
saturation of photosynthesis occurs at only 1/3 full sunlight in young leaves and at less than 1/4 full
sunlight in old leaves. Peak photosynthesis occurred at lower light levels as the leaf aged, at around
800 microE/m²/sec in young leaves and 400 microE/m²/sec in old leaves. Pigeon pea leaves of all
ages had a similar efficiency of carbon fixation of 0.27 mg CO2/m²/(microE/m²) at very low light levels.
CO2 is fixed more slowly at low light levels, and transpiration rates is also reduced. During the dark
hours, pigeonpea leaves lose 0.25 micro grams H2O/cm²/sec/KPaVPD, equivalent to more than 5 g of
water per 100 cm² of leaf for a night with 80% relative humidity. Photosynthesis declines between -10
and -11 bars (1.0 amd 1.1 Mpa) leaf water potential and at -20 bars was close to zero. At -50 bars, tip
death of some branches results limited to leaves that were unfolding or younger" [10].

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[Nutrient Uptake]: "Nitrogen, Phosphorus and potassium uptake takes place throughout the vegetative
phase and continue during the reproductive phase. During the growing season, the percentage
content of these elements in the various vegetative and reproductive organs declines. Nitrogen
percentage in the leaves declined from a maximum of around 5% to 1.5% at the time of abscission,
and of phosphorus from 0.3% to less than 0.1% showing that over two - thirds of the content of these
elements were remobilized during the process of leaf senescence. Remobilization from the leaves can
account for most of the nitrogen in the seeds and for at least half the phosphorus" [10].
[Pod set]: "As many as 90% of the flowers of Pigeon pea are shed without setting pods. Potential
fertile flowers in pigeonpea do not bear pods unless others are removed. Moreover due to the
perennial nature of pigeonpea, sufficient amount of nutrients must be retained for their survival and
continued growth of the vegetative structures. The relatively small proportion of assimilates partitioned
into the reproductive structures of pigeonpea, reflected in low harvest indices, may be related to their
intrinsic prenniality" [10].


W. Further readings
5
:
Ali SI, 1973. Flora of Pakistan. Caesalpiniaceae. Karachi, Pakistan: University of Karachi.
[9]

Borkar SL, Patil PP, Ingle SN, 1996. Infestation of pod borers in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) as
influenced by different pesticides and spraying schedules. Journal of Soils and Crops, 6(2):146-
150.
[9]

Katayama K, Ito O, Matsunaga R, Adu-Gyamfi JJ, Rao TP, Anders MM, Lee KK, 1995. Nitrogen
balance and root behavior in four pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan]-based intercropping systems [in
India]. Fertilizer Research, 42(1/3):315-319; 14 ref.
[9]

Prasad K, 1995. Weed control in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) maize (Zea mays) intercropping system
under rainfed condition. Journal of Research, Birsa Agricultural University, 7(1):57-59; 4 ref.
[9]

Purseglove J.W. (1984) Tropical Crops - Dicotyledons
http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=reference&ReferenceID=527687
[9]

Rai RK, Singh KP, 1995. Efficacy of certain oilcake amendments on Heterodera cajani, Fusarium
udum and associated wilt of pigeonpea. International Journal of Tropical Plant Diseases,
13(2):213-219.

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[9]

Rao DLN, Gill HS, 1995. Biomass production and nutrient recycling through litter from pigeonpea
(Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.). Bioresource Technology, 54(2):123-128; 8 ref.
[9]

Reed W, Lateef SS, 1990. Pigeonpea: pest management. The pigeonpea., 349-374; 27 ref.
[9]

Swaminathan C, 1996. Effect of bark leachates of multipurpose trees on germination and seedling
growth of maize, pigeonpea and sesame. Allelopathy Journal, 3(1):77-80; 8 ref.
[9]

Vandenbeldt RJ. 1988. Cajanus cajan: it’s more than just a pulse crop. NFT Highlights. Waimanalo,
USA.
[9]

van der Maesen, L.J.G., 1985. Cajanus DC. and Atylosia W. & A. (Leguminosae). A revision of all
taxa closely related to the pigeonpea, with notes on other related genera within the subtribe
Cajaninae. Agricultural University Wageningen Papers 85-4. 225 pp.
[9]

X. References:
[1] Sok, Sokunthet (RUA), 2006: Own observations.
[2] Species Fact Sheets (Module 9), 1994: Forestry / Fuelwood Research and Development Project.
Growing Mulltipurpose Trees on Small Farms (2nd ed.). Bangkok, Thailand: Winrock
Interational. 320pp.
[3] Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.
[4] Sam, Hoang Van; Nanthavong, Khamseng; Kessler, P.J.A., 2004: Trees of Laos and Vietnam: a
field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important species. BLUMEA.
[5] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).
[6] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4, 5(1), 6-8. (CD-ROM).
[7] CTSP (Cambodia Tree Seed Project), 2003: Institutional Capacity Building of the Tree Seed
Sector , Dec. 2003, Forest Gene Conservation Strategy-Part A: Conservation of Forest
Genetic Resources.
[8] Various Authors, 1973: Flore du Cambodge, du Laos et du Viêt-nam (Fascicule 18th), Muséum
National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.

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[9] World Agroforestry Center: AgroForestryTree Database –
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/BotanicSearch.asp
(Internet source)
[10] ECOPORT: http://ecoport.org/ep (Internet source)


Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Carallia brachiata (Lour.) Merr.]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Carallia brachiata (Lour.) Merr.]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Carallia brachiata (Lour.) Merr. [2]
B. English name (s) ³ False kelat, freshwater mangrove, corkwood
C. Synonym ³ Carallia integerrima DC., Carallia lucida Roxb., Carallia
scortechinii King [26].
D. Other
1
³ meransi, sabar buku (Brunei); kitamiyang (Indonesia-
Sundanese); ringgit darreh (Indonesia-Sumatra-Kubu);
sepat, meransi (Indonesia Java); meransi, (Malaysia-
Peninsular); rabong, radipah (Malaysia-Sarawak); bakawan-
gubat (Philippines-general); anosep (Philippines-tagalog);
katolit (Philippines-Iloko); maniawga-yat (Burma); tra meng
(Cambodia); bong nang, halay, koueum (Laos); chiang phra
nang aer (Thailand-general);
ma m[ax], s[aw]ng, m[ar], sen d[ow], xâng mâ nguyên
(Vietnam) [2,17].

E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³ RTEmg
Source: [3]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ tromê:ng [4]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Myrtales
Family: Rhizophoraceae
Gunus: Carallia Roxb. [17].
Species: Carallia brachiata (Lour.) Merr. [17]
Source :[ 11 , 17]


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H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: Although Carallia brachiata belongs to the family Rizophoraceae and occasionally develops
stilt roots it is not a mangrove species. However, distribution in the coastal forests of northern
Australia and its name of sweetwater mangrove indicate that it is a species tolerant of stagnant water.
The lack of extensive information is partly due to the fact thatit occurs throughout its area of
distribution but remains a rare species.
A tree, 20-25 m high, sometimes up to 30 m; up to 50-60 cm in diameter. Trunk straight and
cylindrical; young branchlets flat , opposite, green, then turning brown-red [2]. A shrub or tall tree, 8-
30 m, occasionally with a few aerial roots, 1.0-1.5 m from the trunk´s bottom[4]. Evergreen tree, up to
20 m high, usually much smaller [5]. Shrubs or small to fairly large trees up to 36 (-50) m tall; bole up
to 50 cm in diameter, occasionally with small buttresses (up to 1 m high), sometimes with small stilt
roots or aerial roots at base[17].
[Bark]: Bark green-brown, thin and glabrous; inner bark red-brown [2]. Pale creamy-brown to warm
red-brown, quite smooth with many lenticels [5]. Bark surface smooth to finely cracking or shallowly to
deeply fissured, lenticillate, often hoop-marked, grey to reddish-brown or dark brown, inner bark
striate, yellowish-brown to pinkish-brown [17].
[Leaves]: Simple, opposite, stipulate. Leaf blade 4-10 cm long, 2.5-4.5 cm wide, variable in shape:
obovoid, oval or elliptic, apex mucronate, base cuneate, margin entire, dark green, glossy above,
greenish and obviously red-brown dotted beneath; penninerved. Petiole stout, 0.5 cm long. Stipule
subulate, embracing 2 young leaves at the branch tip; leaving a brown scar ring when falling [2].
Leaves 4-17 x 2.5-8.0 cm, simple, opposite-planar, oval to broadly obovate with blunt or abrupt tip and
slightly pointed base, untoothed or with scattered fine teeth. Mature leaves leathery, completely
smooth, glossy dark green above, yellow green with many tiny dark dots below. At least 15 pairs of
side-veins with many intermediate ones, looped near margin, mid-vein sunken above. Stalks 0.4-1.0
cm, stout. Buds narrowly conical, thinly coated with resin, enclosed by a pair of large (1-2 cm)
stipules, which fall early, leaving distinct ring scars. Twigs dark brown slightly swollen at nodes [5].
Leaves decussate, simple, elliptical to obovate or narrowly obovate, margin entire to dentate or
serrate, often with black dots beneath; stipules interpetiolar, lanceolate [17].

[Flowers]: Bisexual, minute, white clustered in axillary cimes, consisting of 3-5 flowers. Calyx
campanulate, with 4-8 irregular lobes. Petals 4-8, stalked, inserted at the margin of the disc. Filament
filiform, anther oblong. Ovary inferior, tetra-locular, style filiform [2].
Flower ±0.6 cm,white or pale yellow-green, bisexual, in head-like clusters (cymes), at leaf axils.
Individual flowers without stalk; main stalks 1.0-2.5 (-6) cm. Calyx bell-shaped with 5-8 short teeth, 5-8
free petals with short stalks, 10-16 slender stamens, petals and stamens attached to top of calyx tube
around a thin disc, 1 slender style with 3-4 lobed stigma, all parts completely smooth [5]. Flowers in a
sessile or peduncled cyme or solitary; bisexual, sessile or stalked, with 2 bracteoles; calyx (4-)5-8

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lobed, petals 5-8, free, clawed; stamens twice the number of petals, generally free, unequal in length;
disc annular; ovary inferior or semi-inferior, 5-8 locular with 10-12 ovules in each cell (rarely 1-locular
with 10-12 ovules), stigma discoid or capitate [17].
[Fruit): A globose capsule, 0.5 cm in diameter, calyx persistent at the tip, orange when mature [2].
Fruit 0.5-1.0 (1.8) cm, pale reddish-orange to dark red-purple, globose with persistent calyx teeth at
top, slightly grooved fleshy with 1(2) large kidney-shaped seeds surrounded by a thin orange coating
(aril) [5]. Fruit a 1-celled berry, small, pulpy, crowned by floral remains, 1(-5)-seeded, pink to red when
ripe. Seed ellipsoid or reniform. Seedling with epigeal germination; cotyledons leafy, green, hypocotyl
elongated; all leaves opposite, in some species densely and sharply dentate [17]. Flowering March-
April in Thailand, fruiting September-November in Northern Australia [17].

I. Wood properties:
The species Carallia is a medium-weight to nearly heavy-weight hardwood, with specific gravity of
640-1050 kg/m³ at 15% m.c. Heartwood buff or reddish-yellow, indistinct to moderately distinctly
demarcated from the paler, sometimes yellowish-white sapwood. Grain straight, interlocked or slightly
wavy; texture coarse and uneven due to the presence of large rays; wood with conspicuous silver
grain on radial surfaces. Growth rings indistinct or absent; vessels medium-sized to moderately large,
mostly solitary, but also in radial or tangential multiples of 2-3, usually blocked by tyloses, white
deposits common; parenchyma moderately abundant to abundant; paratracheal aliform to confluent,
and apotracheal in broad wavy bands, which often branch and diffuse but are not conspicuous; rays
of 2 distinct sizes, medium-sized to very broad, the broad ones conspicuous; ripple marks absent [17].
Shrinkage upon air-drying is low and the wood seasons well, but end splitting and surface checking
should be prevented by protecting the ends against rapid drying out. It takes 2 and 5 months,
repectively, to air-dry boards 13 mm and 38 mm thick. The wood is strong and it is easy to saw and
plane and takes a good finish. Immediately after sawing the timber should be treated with anti-stain
chemicals. To obtain the attractive silver grain, boards must be quarter-sawn, which limits their width
to about 20 cm. The wood is durable under cover, but in contact with the ground or when used outside
it is considered non -durable. It is susceptible to termite and marine borer attack. The absorption of
preservatives is moderate (95-130kg/m³); the sapwood is attacked by Lyctus [17].

J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
Carallia encompasses 15 species which occur in Madagascar and from Sri Lanka and India to
Indochina and the Malesian region. However, most species have limited areas of distribution, but C.
brachiata occurs throughout the area of distribution [17].
Occurs in Madagascar, India, Indochina and Malesia and towards the Solomon Islands and Northern
Australia. In Vietnam C. brachiata occurs sparsely in tropical evergreen forest, particularly in
secondary forests of most provinces; it needs humid soils and grows along stream banks. In China,
India, Philippines, Malaysia and Vietnam [2]; in dense forests of plains and hills, clear water or salt
water formations [4]. It is a rare tree growing scattered in moist evergreen forests and in swamp
forest, in lowland to montane forests up to 1800 m elevation a.s.l. Also found in primary, less often in

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secondary forests, in mixed dipterocarp forest, freshwater swamp forest, kerangas (heath forest), on
hills and ridges but mostly on peat soils or podsolic soils, rarely in savannas [17].

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
Occurs up to 1800 m elevation, in primary, less in secondary forests, rarely in savannas. Occurs
along margins of streams and swamps

L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
not determined;

M. soil and site conditions :
Preferably on peat soils or podsolic soils, needing humidity

N. Utilization and importance :
[Wood]: Wood moderately valued, used in construction and general implement manufacture [2].
Applications in general construction, house building, posts, cabinet work, furniture, flooring, musical
insstruments, handles of spears or choppers, picture frames, ornamental veneers, panelling,
packaging and boxes. Suitable for railway sleepers, transmission posts and all kinds of novelty items.
Yields good fuelwood and charcoal [17].
[Non-Wood]: Applications in traditional medicine, e.g. juice generated by lacerating leaves believed to
reduce fever; pulverized bark rubbed on body in case of smallpox. Leaves and bark used to treat
sapraemia and and itching [17].

O. Cambodian wood classification :
: 3
rd
class [ 4]

P. Silviculture and management :


Q. Propagation :
Carallia may be propagated by by seed or by cuttings, however, it seems that seed soon loses its
viability. Seed of C. brachiata achieved between 45% and 100% of germination in 1-3.5 months
including one seed lot which did not start to germinate until after 52 days. Seedlings may be kept in
the nursery for 2 years before outplanting in the field. Direct sowing was unsuccessful because of the
sensitivity of seedlings against drought. Seedlings require shade and outplanting into open sites will
be risky. Carallia coppices well and reproduces freely from root suckers [17].

R. Hazards and protection :



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S. Conservation :
Not an endangered species [17].

T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :
unknown

U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
Native in Madagascar, Sri Lanka, India, Indochina through Malesia to northern Australia, introduced in
Papaua New Guinea .

V. Miscellaneous
4
:


W. Further readings
5
:
Sosef, M.S.M., Hong, L.T., and S. Prawirohatmodjo (Eds.) 1998: Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
5(3) Timber trees: Lesser known timbers. Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia, 859 pp.

X. References:
2) Nguyen, N.C. et al.: Vietnam Forest Trees, Hanoi 1997 788 pp.

4 ) Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House; Phnom Penh,
915 pp.

11) Heywood, V.D. (Ed.) 1993: Flowering Plants of the World. Oxford University Press, New York;
336 pp.

17) Sosef, M.S.M., Hong, L.T., and S. Prawirohatmodjo (Eds.) 1998: Plant Resources of
Southeast Asia 5(3) Timber trees: Lesser known timbers. Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia, 859
pp.

20) Salim AS, Simons AJ, Orwa C, Chege J, Ovuor B, and Mutua A, 2002: Agroforestree
Database. World Agroforestry Centre (on CD ROM).

26) World Agroforestry Centre
http.www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/Speciesinfo.asp?
(Internet source)

27) Wikipedia http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/species name (Internet source)

34) www.townsville.qld.gov.au/nad/PlantDisplay.asp?species (Internet source).


Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Carica papaya L.]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Carica papaya L.]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Carica papaya L.
B. English name (s) ³ papaya, pawpaw, melon tree [4]
C. Synonym ³
D. Other
1
³ lhong, doeum lahong (Cambodia); papaya, gedang, kates
(Indonesia); houng (Laos); papaya, betek,ketalah,
(Malaysia); thimbaw (Burma); papaya, kapaya, lapaya
(Philippines; malakor, loko mak uaithet (Thailand); du du
(Vietnam) [6], papaye (French); lechoza (Venezuela, Puerto
Rico, Philippines); fruta bomba (Cuba); mamâo (Brazil) [19].

E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³ lð ú g
Source: [-]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ lhông [ 4]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Violales
Family: Caricaceae
Gunus: Carica
Species: Carica papaya L.
Source :[4 , 11]




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H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: A shrub, 2-8 m tall [4]; a fast-growing tree-like herb, 2-10 m high, 10-30 cm in diameter;
usually no branches, but it will branch if the top is cut off [6]; a tree, 6-8m tall, rarely branched, with a
green, soft-wooded stem, covered by triangle-shaped scars and a leaf cluster on the top [13]. A large-
leaved, fast-growing tree with soft wood, most varieties are dioecious, most important export variety is
"solo", with female and hermaphrodite flowers. Dioecious varieties need one male tree for 25 females
to insure sufficient fruit generation [19].
[Leaves]: Spirally arranged, clustered towards top of stem, with up to 1 m long leaf stalks and palmate
or deeply lobed leaf plates, 25-75 cm in diameter, smooth, prominently veined and toothed [6]. Very
large leaves on long stalks, digitally lobed [13].
[Flowers]: Cream-white to yellow, male, female or hermaphrodite on separate individuals and looking
somewhat different [6]. Mostly dioecious, inflorescences in leaf axils, male ones branched and
drooping, with narrow, funnel-shaped piped flowers, 4 cm long. Female inflorescences short and
branched fork-style, flowers larger, yellowish white [13].
[Fruit]: A fleshy berry, 7-30 cm long and weighing up to 10 kg. Skin thin, smooth, turning from green to
yellowish or orange when ripening. Flesh yellow to orange, soft, edible and sweet, with grey-black
seeds along central cavity [6]. Fruit melon-like in form, quite different sizes, from 500g to 1000g, but
also up to 10kg and more. The fruit varies in shape between globose-elliptic and oblong cucumber-
shaped. The flesh is whitish, deep yellow, orange or red with large differences in taste and a butter-
like consistency. The inner part of the fruit cavity is covered by pepper-corn-sized, grey-black seeds
with a taste resembling cresse-weed [13].

I. Wood properties:
The stem does not lignify and has no wood-technologically usable properties [13].

J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
Carica originated in Central America, in Mexico and Brazil. From both countries exist prehistorical
descriptions of the fruit and its many medicinal uses. It occurs from the moist tropics to the subtropics
as far as located outside frost temperatures [19]. It reached Asia by the end of the 18
th
century, today
it is cultivated all-over Southeast Asia, Western Papua New Guinea and northern Australia. Not a
forest species but widely cultivated in plantations and on farms [6,13].

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
C. papaya is being cultivated in tropical and warm subtropical countries worldwide today [6,13]. Water
requirements are high, minimum is 1500 mm/m² equally distributed over the year. But under drier
climates mulching of the root area is recommended. Carica should be protected by windbreaks were
winds or storms occur to prevent breaking of the stem [19]. It thrives in warm areas with sufficient
rainfall and a temperature range of of 21-33ºC and occurs up to 1600 m or below the frost-risk zone
[6].



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L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
Not det ermined

M. soil and site conditions :
C. papaya tolerates any kind of well-drained and not too dry soil, but it is sensitive to waterlogging and
flooding [6].

N. Utilization and importance :
[Wood]: The stem does not produce wood [6].
[Non-Wood]: The ripe fruit is eaten fresh or used in salads, drinks, jam, candies. The green fruit is
finely cut and used in salads or cooked as vegetable [13,19].
Through scarifying of the green fruit one obtains an alkaloid, carpaine [6] and also latex from which
papain is extracted, purified and exported. Papain is the dried milky latex, it is a protein-spitting
enzyme. A single plant can produce up to 500 g/year, but the usual quantity is 100-150g. Selling fresh
fruit is economically more rewarding but papain is produced when fruit has no markets. It is normally
used in stabilizing beer, tenderizing meat, in dental and practical medicine, as a vermifuge and for
adding no-shrinkage properties to woolen and silk textiles [13,19]. The black seeds are edible, they
have a sharp, spicy taste [27].
Nutritional value per 100g [27].
Energy: 40kcal 160 kJ
Sugars 5.9 g
Dietary fibre 1.8
fat 0.14 g
protein 0.61 g
vitamin A 55 micro gram 6%
ß-carotene 276 microgram 3%
thiamin vitamin B1 0.04mg 3%
riboflavin vitamin B2 0.0mg 3%
niacin vitamin B3 0.338 mg 2%
vitamin B6 0.1mg 8%
vitamin C 61.8 mg 103 %
calcium 24 mg 2%
iron 0.10 mg 1%

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magnesium 10 mg 3%
phosphorous 5 mg 1%
potassium 257 mg 5%
sodium 3 mg 0%
Tea prepared from flowers and leaves is applied in cases of food poisoning and as antidote in case of
poisoning. Damaged fruit as well as leaves make fodder for pigs. Leaves find pharmaceutical use
because of the content of the alcaloid carpain which is administered against amoebes and bacterial
infections [19]. Stem, leaves and roots are eaten in times of extreme food scarcity [4,19]. Papaya is
said to have supporting action on fat combustion and also to increase production of hormons including
sexual hormons in males and females [12]. In India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka and other parts of the
world papaya has been longtime used as a contraceptive and for abortion. These effects were
confirmed in medical research with monkeys [27]. In ethnomedicine further uses are for the ripe fruit
as treatment against ringworm, green fruit against high blood pressure and aphrodisiac. The fruit can
be directly applied to superficial skin sores. The seeds are anti-inflammatory and analgesic and for the
treatment of stomach ache. The roots are used as an analgesic [27].

O. Cambodian wood classification :
Not included [ 18]

P. Silviculture and management :
Planting space is variable according to soil and site conditions, between 2x3m to 2x3.5 m. In
plantations the first fruit can be harvested towards the end of the first year. In the tropics flowering and
fruiting occur almost continuously, while in subtropical climate the cold season interrupts fruit
production. Yields are highest in the second year and may attain up to 60-80 t/ha under most
favourable conditions. Yields decline, reaching 50t/ha in the third year,and harvesting gets more
difficult with increasing height of stems. In commercial plantations trees are therefore kept for only 3-5
years [19]. Because of the softness of fruit and susceptibility to pressure they are predominantly
consumed in the producing countries [13,19].

Q. Propagation :
Normally papaya is propagated from seed. With fast-growing varieties 5 seedlings are set per planting
hole or adequate number of seeds. As soon as the first flower buds appear after 5 months seedlings
are thinned to leave just the desired number of male plants.

R. Hazards and protection :
Carica papaya is threatened by a considerable number of noxious agents such as bacterial infections,
canker, rots, fungal infections, damping off, fruit rot (Monilia sp.), nematodes, phytoplasmal diseases,
as enumerated by the American Phytopathological Society [27].


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S. Conservation :
Not a t hreat ened species

T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :
All over t he count ry on suit able soils

U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
In tropical and warm subtropical climates the world over, native of Central America, introduced
elsewhere.

V. Miscellaneous
4
:


W. Further readings
5
:
Becker S, 1958: The production of papain - an agricultural industry of tropical America. Economic
Botany, 12:62-79.
Brücher H, 1989: Useful plants of neotropical origin and their wild relatives. Useful plants of
neotropical origin and their wild relatives., 296 pp.; [ref. at ends of chapters, many fig., many pl.].
Verheij EWM, Coronel RE, 1991: Plant resources of South-East Asia. No. 2. Edible fruits and nuts.
Plant resources of South-East Asia. No. 2. Edible fruits and nuts., 446 pp.; [and fig.]; many ref.
Nair PKR, 1980: Agroforestry species. A crop sheets manual. Agroforestry species. A crop sheets
manual., ix + 336 pp.; [1 fig., 20 pl. Publication no. ICRAF 003e]; many ref.
Conover RA, Litz RE, Malo SE, 1986: 'Cariflora' - a papaya ringspot virus tolerant papaya for South
Florida and the Caribbean. Hortscience, 21:1072.























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X. References:
4) Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House; Phnom Penh, 915 pp.

6) Jensen, M., 2001: Trees and Fruits of Southeast Asia. An illustrated field guide. Orchid Press,
Bangkok, 234 pp.

11) Heywood, V.D. (Ed.) 1993: Flowering Plants of the World. Oxford University Press, New York;
336 pp.

13) Baertels, A., 1993: Farbatlas Tropenpflanzen-Zier- und Nutzpflanzen (Colour Atlas Tropical
Plants- ornamental and fruit plants) Eugen Ulmer Publ. Stuttgart, illustrated, 384 pp.

19) Rehm, S. and G. Espig 1991: The Cultivated Plants of the Tropics and Subtropics. Josef
Margraf, Publ. Scientific Books; Weikersheim, Germany, 552 pp.

17) Sosef, M.S.M., Hong, L.T., and S. Prawirohatmodjo (Eds.) 1998: Plant Resources of
Southeast Asia 5(3) Timber trees: Lesser known timbers. Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia, 859
pp.

26) World Agroforestry Centre
http.www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/Speciesinfo.asp?
(Internet source)

27) Wikipedia http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/species name (Internet source)



Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Cassia fistula L.]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Cassia fistula L.]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Cassia fistula L. [4]
B. English name (s) ³ golden shower, golden rain tree, pudding-pipe tree; Indian
laburnum [4,6, 9,13].
C. Synonym ³ C. excelsia Kunth[9]; C.rhombifolia Roxb.; Cathartocarpus
fistulus (L.) Pers. [6]. Bactyrilobium fistula Willd., Cassia
bonplandiana DC., Cassia fistuloides Collad., Cathartocarpus
excelsus G. Don, Cathartocarpus fistuloides (Collad.) G.
Don, Cathartocarpus rhombifolius G. Don
D. Other
1
³ caneficier, casse en baton (French); riechhpühss(Cambodia);
ngu, ngu sahwe, pwabet (Burma); khuun, rajaphruek
(Thailand); khoun (general), Lom Leng (Sayaburi Prov.-
Laos); muóng hoà ng yén, bò cap nuóc (Vietnam) [2, 6].
E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³ raCq<ws
Source: [-]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ riëch chhpühss [4]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Fabales
Family: Caesalpinioideae
Gunus: Cassia L.
Species: Cassia fistula L.
Source :[2 ; 8 ; 13]


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H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: An evergreen or deciduous tree, 10-15 m high, 40-50 cm diameter [2,4, 6,9]. Deciduous
tree with rather narrow, deep crown and slender drooping branches [5]. Small to moderate-size tree
up to 15 m tall [6]. Deciduous tree up to 20 m high, up to 50 cm diameter, with large crown; branches
glabrous, spreading and drooping [8,13].
[Bark]: Bark pale brown, smooth or slightly cracked [5]. Bark greenish grey when young later turning
reddish brown and peeling off in in scales [6]. Bark pale brown or dark grey, smooth or slightly
cracked; inner bark reddish brown. Stipules small, usually falling early. Petioles 6-10 cm long, rhachis
15-20 cm long [8].
[Leaves]: Paripinnately compound, alternate, 15-25 cm long. Leaflets opposite, 3-8 pairs broad-elliptic
to oblong elliptic, 7-12 cm long, 4-6 cm wide, top acute, rarely obtuse, base broadly cuneiform,
glabrous on older trees. Petiole 7-10 cm long, petiolule 5-10 mm. Stipule small, caducous [2]. Leaf 30-
40 cm, with 3-8 pairs of leaflets, 7-12 x 4-8 cm, ovate-oblong, blunt at both ends, with silky hairs when
young, but completely smooth when mature, without glands. [5]. Compound leaves 30-60 cm long on
7-10 cm long stalks, with 3-8 pairs of leathery leaflets, each about 12 cm long and 6 cm wide [6].
Leaves paripinnate, 30-40 cm long. Leaflets opposite, 3-8 pairs, broadly ovate-elliptic, 7-18 by 4-8 cm,
base cuneate to obtuse, with silky hairs when young, glabrous when mature, without glands;
secondary veins numerous; petiolules 4-10 mm long [8].
[Flowers]: Inflorescence axillary, racemose, pendulous. Bract 8-10 cm long, caducous. Pedicel 15-25
mm long, glabrous. Sepals elliptic 5-10 mm long, tomentose outside. Petals yellow, broad elliptic, 30-
35 mm long, 10-15 mm wide, with short claw. Stamens 10, anthers and filaments unequal, anthers
pubescent. Ovary and style pubescent, stigma small [2]. Flower 3.5-5.0 cm, bright yellow, in drooping,
unbranched clusters, 20-40 cm long, usually on old branches, appearing just before the young leaves
sprout. Stamens 3 cm long, with a swelling in the middle of the filaments, 3 cm long, other stamens 5-
10 mm long, anthers smooth. Ovary and style with silky hairs [5]. Inflorescences axillary, clustered
racemes, 20-40 cm long, pendent, lax. Bracts 8-10 mm long, caducous. Pedicels 15-35 mm long,
glabrous. Flowers bright yellow. Sepals 5, ovate elliptic, 5-10 mm long, velutinous outside. Petals 5,
broadly ovate, 20-35 by 10-15 mm, subequal, claw short. Stamens 10, unequal, 3 long ones with
filaments 3-4 cm long, anthers 5 mm long opening by apical and basal slits, 4 shorter ones with
filaments 6-10 mm long, anthers opening by basal pore, reduced stamens 3 with filaments 3-5 mm
long and minute anthers. Ovary and style velutinous, stigma small [8].
[Fruit]: A pod, cylindrical, green when young, blackish-brown and indehiscent when mature, 20-60 cm
long, 1.5-2.0 cm wide, glabrous, pendulous [2,6,13].
Fruit a pod, 20-60 x 1.5-2.0 cm, black, smooth, usually hanging straight downwards like tubes, not
splitting, falling as one piece and breaking up into many small sections on the ground [5]. Pods,
pendulous, terete, tube-like, 20-60 cm long, 1.5-2.0 cm in diameter, indehiscent, glabrous, black.
Seeds numerous, 25-100, flat, elliptic, hard, 8-9 mm long. 5 mm wide, brown, glossy [2]. Seeds
separated by spongy septa, elliptic, flattened, 8-9 by 4-6 mm, glossy, brown [8]. The orange seeds are

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tightly packed in a sweet, sticky pulp, eaten by birds and monkeys [9]. Flowering June-July [2];
flowering April to July, fruiting May to August [8]; main flowering season March-Mai [13].

I. Wood properties:
Sapwood and heartwood distinct, hard, heavy and durable [2,9]. Sapwood white, heartwood
yellow.[17] Specific gravity amounts to 835kg/m³ at 12% m.c.; grain straight to slightly interlocked,
difficult to season, cracks, splits, warps, difficult to work (with traditional tools); used for manufacture
and repair of traditional rural tools and implements, cart wheels, shafts, spokes, tool handles, posts for
houses, rice pounders, axe handles, plates for machinery, haarows,ploughs, boat spars, tent poles
toy and carvings. C.fistula yields good charcoal. Due to the limited availability of timber the trade is
also limited to local markets [12,17]. The wood is heavy to very heavy, very hard and strong with
straight to slightly interlock-grained and medium coarse-textured. It is diffuse porous with fairly distinct
growth rings. The heartwood is yellowish-red to brick-red or reddish-brown. The wood is difficult to
season, as it develops cracks, splits and warps; green conversion and stacking under cover is
recommended . The timber is very durable but it is also difficult to work, saw and machine [12].

J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
Presumably a native species of the forests of Burma, India and Sri Lanka (9,13); distributed in Egypt,
India, Nepal, China, Indochina, Laos and Vietnam [2], Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia [8,12]. The limits
in north-south direction are approximately 30ºN to 10ºS. A tree of the open forest formations of
tropical Asia, occurring in moist forest, mixed deciduous and dry deciduous dipterocarp forest,and
coniferous forest, often cultivated as roadside tree [4,5,8,12].
In Indonesia found in lowland monsoon forests associated with Acacia leucophloea, (Roxb.) Willd.,
Albizia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr., and Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub. [16] but also in dry-deciduous
forest [9].

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
C. fistula grows in a dry (sub)tropical climate, with average annual temperature of 25ºC., mean annual
rainfall over 1200 mm/m², 4 months dry season. It is a neutral tree inclined towards light-demanding,
young trees slightly shade-demanding and drought-tolerant. Occurs from sea level up to 1,000 m asl
[2,8]. Altitudinal range 0-1200 with 500-3000 mm/ m² of rain distributed over the summer with 2 peaks.
The dry season should last 4-5 months with a mean annual temperature of 18ºC-29ºC [12]. C.fistula is
adaptable and will tolerate, at least survive, drought, fire, weeds, shade, and react with formation of
suckers or coppicing after having been cut [12].

L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
not determined




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M. soil and site conditions :
The soil tecture should be medium with unimpeded drainage, and a slightly acid soil reaction. Suitable
soils are granitic, lateritic, sandstone or tropical soils, but C.fistula will survive in areas with brackish
water. C.fistula occurs in dry forest and in moist forest, it develops a shallow root system, it is drought
but not frost hardy, it can survive wind, fire, drought weeds and shade [2,8,12].

N. Utilization and importance :
[Wood]: The reddish heartwood is used in construction, for implements, and agricultural tool-making.
[2,8,9]. The wood is used for ploughing tools and pillars [4]. C. fistula provides a useful timber which is
widely used on a local scale within its natural area of distribution. The wood is used for wheels and
shafts of carts, turnery, tool handles, ploughs, harrows and rollers, house building posts, rice
pounders, bows, for boat spars, and bed plates for machinery; also for tent poles and tent pegs, toys
and carvings for making high-grade charcoal and for boat building, furniture, pick-axe and axe
handles, mallet heads, railway keys and similar articles where strength and toughness are primary
considerations. Although C. fistula timber has very good properties, its limited availability means that it
is not widely traded on a commercial scale [12,27].
[Non-Wood]: TThe fruits, because of the pleasant smell, are used to perfume tobacco leaves [4]. The
pulp of fruits and the bark are often chewed with betel nut leaves. The marrow is edible and an
additive (manna) to laxatives, as are the dried leaves [13]. Santal people of India eat the flowers.
The bark is rich in tannin and yields a dye. The bark of C. fistula has a tannin content of about 10-12%
(CSIR, 1948). It can be a substitute for wattle (Acacia spp.) tannin [12].
C. fistula is a source of natural dyes. A powder prepared from C. fistula seeds has pesticidal
properties while extracts from the flowers have been reported to have fungicidal properties [12].
C.fistula is also used in local medicine as remedy after scorpion stings and snake bites.[2,4,8]. Pods
and seed used as a laxative in the Middle East and India [8,20].
In Indonesia the flowers and leaves are used as a purgative and the roots for treating scabies and
skin ulcers.[9] Because of the rich and brilliant flowering C. fistula is called the golden shower [9] and
it is frequently planted for ornamental purposes[8,9].
The roots, bark, seeds and leaves of this species are used in traditional medicine. They are reported
to have a wide range of medicinal properties and are used to treat many ailments. Many chemical
compounds have been isolated. An antidiabetic herbal drug preparation from this species has been
tested [12]. In Ayurveda medicine and practice medications are applied which have been
manufactured from the seeds, buds,and fruit. The seeds are said to be an emetic.
Comparable applications in traditional medicine are reported from Zimbabwe and Ghana. In Est Asia
the uncooked pod pulp is used against constipation, in the Caribbean Islands pulp and leaves are
used for treatment of a variety of afflictions [20,22].

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(Others]: In Sri Lanka the flowers are offered in religious ceremonies in pagodas [12].
The Golden Shower Tree, called Dok Khuen, is the national flower of Thailand, indicating the
appreciation of the people for the rich flowering of this species. It is also the flower of the State of
Kerala in India. In ceremonies in honor of the God Vishnu flowers of C. fistula are part of the ritual [20,
22,27].
C. fistula is an ornamental tree (Venkataramany, 1968) that can also be planted for restoration of
degraded lands. Since C. fistula is not palatable to domestic animals , it may be suitable for
reforestation of areas which have become overgrazed [12].

"Seeds contain 24% crude protein, 4% crude fat, 7% crude fiber, and 50% carbohydrates with a 81%
in vitro digestibility. The foliage contains 16% crude protein, 40% carbohydrates with a 88% in vitro
digestibility [20].
O. Cambodian wood classification :
not included

P. Silviculture and management :
C.fistula is a slow-growing tree, but flowering at an early age [5]. Stand establishment can be
achieved with stump plants, planting stock, also by direct sowing, less fast by natural regeneration.
However, it is seldom raised in plantation and yield data do not exist [12].

Q. Propagation :
C. fistula is not grown in plantations therefore yield information and management experience are
rare[12].
However, direct sowing, stump plants and raising nursery stock from fresh seeds are viable methods.
Planting for ornamental purposes is still the predominant reason for raising planting stock from
seedlings [9].

R. Hazards and protection :
Of 8 known insect species 2 are really dangerous and need control: Eurema blanda and Xyleutes
persona. E. blanda feeds on young plants in nurseries and at times migrates in large swarms. The
larvae of X. persona, the bee hole borer, bore into the stems of young plants or into branches of older
trees. It occurs in Sri Lanka, Burma and China, the moths emerging from February until October.
Catopsilia pomona form crocale, Catopsilia pomona, Catopsilia pyranthe, Indarbela quadrinotata,
Nephopterix rhodobasalis are controllable. Felling and burning affected trees seems the best control
measure [12]. Three species of fungi can cause damage on leaves of grown trees and seedlings, but
can be controlled with fungicides: Glomerella cingulata, Khuskia oryzae and Phyllactinia guttata, are
causing mildew on leaves [12].


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S. Conservation :
not an endangered species [9].

T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :
unknown

U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
Pan-tropical to subtropical ornamental tree, predominantly in Asia and SE Asia, native,
introduced and naturalized in many tropical countries of America and Africa [5,13].

V. Miscellaneous
4
:
Genus Cassia is a regular component of open, dry forests. Many of its species produce beautiful
flowers, often the year aound. Besides C. fistula the following are widely planted and cultivated: C.
grandis, a large tree from tropical America, with pink flowers;
C. javanica, a native of Java, with pinkish-white flowers;
C. marginata from Sri Lanka and India, with pink-coloured flowers in July and August;
C. moschata, a tall tree in tropical America, flowers orange to salmon-pink;
C. multijuga, from tropical America, flowers bright yellow in upright racemes;
C. nodosa, from Malaysia, flowers bright pink in large tufts along the entire shoot length [13].
FAO (Gohl, 1981) reports the leaves to contain, on a zero moisture content basis, 17.6 g protein, 66.8
g total carbohydrate, 30.2 g fiber, 7.8 g ash, 3 270 mg Ca, and 330 mg P per 100 g. Flowers contain
ceryl alcohol, kaempferol, rhein, and a bianthroquinone glycoside, which on hydrolysis, yields fistulin
and rhamnose. Leaves contain rhein, rheinglucoside, and sennosides A and B. The rootbark contains
tannin, phlobaphenes, and oxyanthraquinone substances, which probably consist of emodin and
chrysophanic acid; also contains (bark and heartwood) fistuacacidin, barbaloin, and rhein. Stembark
contains lupeol, beta-sitosterol, and hexacosanol" [20].

W. Further readings
5
:
Murthy VK, Rao TVP, Venkateswaran V 1967: Chemical examination of Cassia fistula L. Tetrahedron
23(1):514-518
Misra TN, Singh RS, Pande HS, Pandey, RP, 1996: Chemical constituents of hexane fraction of
Cassia fistula pods. Fitoterapia 67(2): 173-174;6 ref.
Krishnamurthy T, 1993:Minor forest products of India. New Delhi, India:Oxford&IHB
Vishnava MM, Tripathi AK, Gupta KR 1993: Constituents of Cassia fistula roots. Fitoterapia 64(1):
93;14 ref.
Abraham KJ, Daniel M, Sabins SD, 1988: Phytoalexins of Cassia fistula L. and Morinda tomentosa
Heyme: National Academy of Science Letters 11(4): 101-102;5 ref.

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Barthakur, NN, Arnold, NP, Alli,I, 1995: The Indian Laburnum(Cassia fistula L.) fruit. an analysis of
chemical constituents. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 47(1):55-62[1 pl]; 22 ref.
Khanna, RK, Subhash, Chandra, 1996: Forest/Domestic waste as a source of natural dyes. J. of
Economic & Taxonomic Botany 20(2):497-500;
Kashiwada Y, Iizuka H, Yoshioka K, Che RF, Nonaka G, Nishioka I 1990: Tannins and related
compounds, XCIII. Occurrence of enantiomeric proanthocyanidins in the Leguminosae plants Cassia
fistula L. and C. javanica. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 38(4):888-893;13 ref.
Fagbayide JA and Fawusi MOA 1994: Comparative studies in seed germination and seedling
management in Cassia fistula L. and Cassia nodosa (Buch-Ham ex Roxb). Indian Journal of
Agriculture Research 28(2):133-140.
Chowdhury SA, Kamal AKMM, Alam MN, Gafur MA, Ray BK, Ahmed K, Faruq O, 1996. Sennoside,
B. rich active concentrate from Cassia fistula. Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial
Research, 31(2):91-97.

Irwin HS, 1964. Monographic Studies in Cassia (Leguminosae - caesalpinioidae) I Sect. Xenocalyx
Memoirs, New York Botanical Garden, 12(1):1-114.

IMorimoto S, Nonaka GI, Chen RF, Nishioka I, 1988. Tannins and related compounds. LXI. Isolation
and structures of novel bi- and triflavonoids from the leaves of Cassia fistula L. Chemical &
Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 36(1):39-47; 9 ref.


Prakash A, Rao J, Gupta SP, Behra J, 1993. Evaluation of botanical pesticides as grain protectants
against rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae Linn. Botanical pesticides in integrated pest management., 360-
365; 17 ref.

Pearson and Brown, 1981
Rao and Purkayastha, 1972,

X. References:
2) NGUYEN et al. 1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. Agricultural Publishing House, Hanoi, 788 pp.
4) DY PHON, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House; Phnom Penh,. 915
pp.
5) Gardner, S., Sidisunthorn, P. and Vilaiwan Anursarnsunthorn, 2000: A Field Guide to Forest
Trees of Northern Thailand. CMU Herbarium Biology Dept. University of Chiang Mai, Thailand; 546
pp.

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6) Jensen, M., 2001: Trees and Fruits of Southeast Asia. An illustrated field guide. Orchid Press,
Bangkok, 234 pp.
8) Sam, H. V.,Nanthavong, Kh.and P.J.A. Kessler 2004: Trees of Laos and Vietnam: A field
guide to 100 economically or ecologically important species.BLUMEA J. Plant Tax. and Plant Geogr.
49(2004) p. 201- 349 pp., Univ. Leiden Br., Leiden, The Netherlands
12) CABI Forestry Compendium Edition 2003 (on CD ROM)
13) Baertels, A., 1993: Farbatlas Tropenpflanzen-Zier- und Nutzpflanzen (Color Atlas Tropical
Plants- ornamental and fruit plants) Eugen Ulmer Publ. Stuttgart, illustrated, 384 pp.
17) Sosef, M.S.M., Hong, L.T., and S. Prawirohatmodjo (Eds.) 1998: Plant Resources of
Southeast Asia 5(3) Timber trees: Lesser known timbers. Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia, 859
pp.
18) Dept. of Forestry and Wildlife 2003: Cambodia Forestry Statistics to 2002.(in Khmer and
English) Planning & Accounting Off., Statistics Sect., Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 97 pp.
19) Rehm, S. and G. Espig 1991: The Cultivated Plants of the Tropics and Subtropics. Josef
Margraf, Publ. Scientific Books; Weikersheim, Germany, 552 pp.
20) Salim AS, Simons AJ, Orwa C, Chege J, Ovuor,B, and Mutua A, 2002: Agroforestree
Database. World Agroforestry Centre (on CD).
22) International Legume Database and Information Service (ILDIS).
http://www.ildis.org/LegumeWeb?sciname=. (Internet source).
27) Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/species name (Internet source)


Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Cassia javanica L.]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Cassia javanica L.]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Cassia javanica L.
B. English name (s) ³ pink shower (Engl.) [17]
C. Synonym ³
D. Other
1
³ Johar (trade name); bobondelan (Indonesia-Sundanese);
boking-boking (Indonesia-Sumatera); trengguli (Indonesia-
Javanese) bebusok, busok-busok; (Malaysia-Peninsular);
antsoan (Philippines-Bikol); bo pruek, (Cambodia); khoun
loy, (Laos); chaiyaphruk, kalapaphruk (Thailand-central);
kalaphruk (Thailand-northern); b[uf] c[aj]p. [17] Muóng Hoa
Dào (Vietnam)[2].
E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³ bURBwk
Source: [-]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ bô prük [4]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Fabales
Family: Caesalpinioideae
Gunus: Cassia L.
Species: Cassia javanica L.
Source :[ 17]





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H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: A medium-sized tree, deciduous, 7-15 m, [4]; 10-20 m in height, and 60 cm or more in
diameter. Crown large, umbellate [2,5]. A semi-deciduous, small to medium-sized, sometimes fairly
large tree up to 25 (-40) m tall; bole often curved, up to 60 cm in diameter, small buttresses
sometimes present, trunk of young trees and branches either smooth or spiny [17].
[Bark: Brownish grey, not fissured and bearing many lenticels. Inner bark pink, 6-8 mm thick. Twigs
tomentose, then glabrescent and brown [2]. Bark surface smooth sometimes shallowly longitudinally
fissured, greyish to pale brown or red-brown, sometimes blackish mottled, inner bark yellow to orange
[17].
[Leaves]: Paripinnately compound. Leaflets 6-10 pairs, ovate, top obtuse or slightly pointed, few
tomentum when young, then glabrous, 5-6 cm long and 2.5 cm wide. Lateral veins 15-18 pairs,
slightly evident; venules reticulate. Petiole 10-15 cm long. Stipule acutely ovate, blade cordate [2].
Leaflets 2.5-5.0x1.5-2.5 cm [5]. Leaves alternate, distichous, with up to 17/-20) pairs of leaflets;
stipules 2-lobed, caducous [17].
[Flowers]: Inflorescence axillary, consisting of many corymbs, 15 cm or more, long. Rhachis
pubescent. Bract looks like stipule. Bud globose or ovoid. Sepals nearly equal, sparsely pubescent at
the back. Petals ovate, 20-25 mm long and 9-11 mm wide, apex obtuse or mucronate, light pink.
Stamens 10, unequal. Ovary slightly pubescent, stigma obtuse [2]. Flowers in upright clusters behind
leaves [5].
Flowers in an axillary or terminal, many-flowered, subsessile, distinctly bracteate raceme, 5-merous,
calyx deeply divided, lobes firm, imbricate, reflexed; petals widely spreading, whitish to reddish or
buff; stamens 10, irregularly accrescent towards the abaxial side of the flower, longest ones S-
shaped; ovary superior, linear and curved, stigma terminal or subterminal [17].
[Fruit]: A pod, cylindrical, slightly articulate, 35 cm long or more, 15-20 mm wide, containing a lot of
large, ovate seeds [2]. Pods 20-60 cm, black, cylindrical, not splitting. [5]. Fruit a woody, pendulous,
short-stiped, linear pod with septa between the numerous seeds, indehiscent, dark brown to black.
Seed brown, smooth and glossy, lying transversely in the pod [17].
Seedling with epigeal germination, cotyledons emergent, semi-fleshy; first few leaves arranged
spirally. C. javanica trees show Troll´s architectural model, with sympodial growth and all axes
plagiotropic, the architecture being built by their continual superposition. In East Java C. javanica
flowers in October-December and fruits in the dry season. It has been observed flowering and fruiting
in a mast fruiting year in Peninsular Malaysia [17). Flowering in October-November, fruiting in
February-April [2].

I. Wood properties:
Wood light yellow with coarse grain, with poor resistance to termites and other insects. C. javanica
yields a light-weight to heavy hardwood with a density of 400-875kg/m³ at 15% m.c. Heartwood pale
yellow when fresh, turning red or pale orange brown with age, demarcated sharply or not sharply from

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the 2-5 cm wide sapwood; grain is interlocked; texture moderately fine, taste bitter [17]. Growth rings
not always distinct , the boundaries indicated by a fine line of parenchyma forming a more or less
distinct, but interrupted ring; vessels medium-sized to moderately large, solitary and in radial pairs,
reddish gummy deposits in many vessels; parenchyma abundant, apotracheal diffuse, and
paratracheal vasicentric, aliform to confluent, the latter connecting 2-4 vessels; rays very fine, not
visible to the naked eye, ripple marks occasionally locally just discernible.
Shrinkage of the wood is low; it seasons well with little or no degrade. The wood is hard and strong. It
works well and finishes well. The sapwood is very perishable, the heartwood moderately durable
when exposed to the weather or in contact with the ground, but very durable for interior work. The
sapwood is susceptible to Lyctus beetle attack [17].

J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
Cassia in the narrow sense comprises about 30 species with a pantropical distribution. Only a few
species occur naturally in tropical Asia and only 3 in Malesia. It occurs in India, Burma, Indochina,
Southern China, Thailand and throughout Malesia. [2,4,17] (In contrast to the country called Malaysia,
Malesia defines a larger region of homogenous botanical structure including the Malay Archipelago,
Indonesia, Pacific Islands, Thailand, Indochina, Burma, southern China and Queensland in northeast
Australia. (Whitmore, T. C. 1993)). C. javanica has been planted for so long that the natural area of
distribution is difficult to reconstruct. Geographically the north-south limits of the area of distribution
are given as 4ºN to 21ºS. [12]. C. javanica is also planted as an ornamental tree in Central and South
America. C. grandis L.f. and C. fistula L. have been introduced into the Malesian area for ornamental
purposes [17].

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
C. javanica is usually found in more open sites in the forest, up to 400 m altitude, but can also occur in
closed evergreen primary forest. It is often naturalized in secondary forests close to locations where it
has been planted. C. javanica is not resistant to fire [17].
It is light-demanding and fast growing, occuring along streams, at mountain foots, or at the edges of
tropical evergreen or deciduous forests, below 800 m a.s.l.[2]


L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
unknown

M. soil and site conditions :
The tree likes humid, deep soil, usually occurs in mixed stands with Alangium kurzii, Schima crenata
and Syzygium zeylanicum [2]. In Java it has been reported from fertile volcanic loams, and from
marshy, sandy and limestone soils [17].


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N. Utilization and importance :
[Wood]: Cassia javanica L. is the only species with some importance as a timber tree [17].
The wood of a few Cassia species, particularly C. javanica, is used for general construction, furniture
and cabinet making. The wood is also suitable for posts, sawn or hewn timbers for house
construction, smaller pieces for fuelwood or charcoaling [12]. Some of the introduced ornamental
species may grow into medium-sized trees and may provide timber of larger dimensions when cut.
[Non-Wood]:C. javanica is also an attractive ornamental tree [2,17]. It is extensively used as an
ornamental and roadside tree, particularly forms of subsp. agnes (de Wit.) K. Larsen with larger
flowers.
Some species are highly valued medicinal plants (e.g. C.fistula). The fruit is considered a laxative,
seeds can be chewed with betel. The wood is used in a decoction for young mothers [4]. The pods
and seeds are used in local medicine as a purgative[17].
The bark has been used for tanning leather, although the tannin content is rather low with about 12%
[17]. In another application the bark and seeds are used as antipyretic [22).
In agroforestry land use systems C. javanica can be planted as a shade and fuelwood tree but it is
also valuable in view of its soil improving properties [12].

O. Cambodian wood classification :
not included

P. Silviculture and management :
No data are available on experience gained with the plantations established in Java. C. javanica
tolerates shade and extended drought; it can coppice and pollard; seed storage is orthodox but for a
limited time only. Stand establishmen succeeds best with stump plants, through natural regeneration
or with planting stock [17].

Q. Propagation :
"C. javanica can be propagated by seed or by vegetative means. There are 5700-8400 dry seeds /kg.
Pods can easily be collected from the ground, but have to be opened with a chopping knife. Seed
storage is variable: Fresh seed can only be stored for 6 weeks in airtight containers, but storing dry
seeds for over one year has also been reported. Seeds start to germinate after 7 days and 80% of the
seedlings appear within 14-30 days. The germination rate is about 70%; 50% of the seeds sown yield
good plants. Other records, however, show a germination rate of 20-65% in 5 days to well over 1
year. For India, where late and prolongued germination is a problem, it is reported that mechanical
scarification may be used to overcome seed dormancy. The planting of large cuttings of C. javanica in
the Philippines was unsuccessful as only 10% of the cuttings survived. Air-layering failed altogether
[17].

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R. Hazards and protection :

S. Conservation :
not an endangered species nor threatened by genetic erosion [17]

T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :
unknown


U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
Pantropical, in India, Burma, Southern China, Indochina, Thailand and throughout Malesia where it is
naturalized; C. javanica is a native species of Java [17].

V. Miscellaneous
4
:
"C. javanica trees show Troll´s architectural model, with sympodial growth and all axes plagiotropic,
the architecture being built by their continual superposition. In East Java, C. javanica flowers in
October-December und bears fruit in the dry season. It has been observed flowering and fruiting in a
mast fruiting year in Peninsular Malaysia.
Until the beginning of the 1980´s, Cassia was considered to be a very large genus of over 500
species, but then the genus was split into 3 genera: Cassia s.s. includes far fewer species than the
latter 2 genera, that have approximately 270 and 250 species, respectively. C. javanica is very
polymorphic and several subspecies are distinguished, e.g., C. agnes (de Wit.) Brenan, C. bartonii
F.M." [17]
C. javanica is worth trying as a timber plantation tree. It is considered to grow comparatively fast and
may provide timber of fair quality. In addition it is an attractive tree, offering the potential of combining
its uses as an ornamental and timber tree.


W. Further readings
5
:
Guzman E de, Umali RM, Sotalbo ED, 1986: Guide to Philippine flora and fauna. Natural Resources
Management Center, Ministry of Natural Resources and University of the Philippines. Manila,
Philippines: JMC Press Inc.
Gupta RK, 1993: Multipurpose trees for agroforestry and wasteland utilization. New Delhi, India:
Oxford & IBH.
Hocking D, 1993: Trees for drylands. Trees for drylands. xiii + 370 pp.; [Originally published by Oxford
& IBH Publishing, New Delhi, India]; 12 pp. of ref.
Luna RK, 1996: Plantation trees. Plantation trees. xii + 975 pp.; [refs at ends of sections].
Singh SP, 1989: Wasteland development. Wasteland development. xx + 227 pp.; 96 ref.

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Sosef MSM, Hong LT, Prawirohatmodjo S, eds. 1998: Plant Resources of South-East Asia. No 5(3).
Timber trees: lesser-known timbers. Leiden, Netherlands; Backhuys Publishers.
Todaria NP, Negim AK, 1992: Pretreatment of some Indian Cassia seeds to improve their
germination. Seed Science and Technology, 20(3):583-588; 10 ref.


X. References:
2) NGUYEN et al.1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. Agricultural Publishing House, Hanoi, 788 pp.

4) DY Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House; Phnom Penh,. 915 pp.

5) Gardner, S., Sidisunthorn, P. and Vilaiwan Anursarnsunthorn, 2000: A Field Guide to Forest
Trees of Northern Thailand. CMU Herbarium Biology Dept. University of Chiang Mai, Thailand; 546
pp.

13) Baertels, A.1993: Farbatlas Tropenpflanzen-Zier- und Nutzpflanzen (Color Atlas Tropical
Plants- ornamental and fruit plants) Eugen Ulmer Publ. Stuttgart, illustrated, 384 pp.

17) SOSEF, M.S.M., HONG, L.T., and S. Prawirohatmodjo (Eds.) 1998: Plant Resources of
Southeast Asia 5(3) Timber trees: Lesser known timbers. Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia, 859
pp.



Supported by: German embassy, DED

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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Cassia siamensis (Lam.) H. S. Irwin & Barneby]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Cassia siamensis (Lam.) H. S. Irwin & Barneby]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Cassia siamensis (Lam.) H. S. Irwin & Barneby
B. English name (s) ³ Thailand shower [2], Bombay blackwood, ironwood,
Kassaof tree, kassod tree, Siamese acacia, Siamese senna,
Thai copper pod, yellow cassia [5]
C. Synonym ³ Cassia arayatensis Naves, Cassia florida Vahl, Cassia
siamea Lam., Senna sumatrana Roxb., Senna siamea [5]

D. Other
1
³ cassia (France) [5] - minjiri (Bangladesh) [5] - johar,
johor (Indonesia) [5] - beati, kassod, kilek, manjakonnai,
manje-konna, minjori, minjri, ponavari, sima-tangedu,
simaiavari, simethangadi, vakai, vakoi (India) [5] - khi lek
(Laos) [5] - wa (Sri Lanka) [5] - johor, juah, petai belalang
(Malaysia) [5] - casia (Nepal) [5] - robles, Thailand shower
(Philippines) [5] - minjri (Pakistan) [5] - khi lek ban, khi lek
yai, kilek, phak chili (Thailand) [5] - mu[oof]ng (Vietnam) [5]

E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³: GgÁan
Source: [-]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ angkanh' [1]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³:
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Leguminosales/Fabales
Family: Caesalpiniaceae
Gunus: Cassia
Species: Cassia siamensis
Source :[ 5]

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H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: Medium-sized evergreen tree with an average height of 20 m [2] (5 m in arid conditions [2]).
Crown dense, round and spreading. Bole 2-3 m tall with a DBH of 50 cm [2] at maturity. Root system
shallow with a radius of 7 m [8] in the 1st year, later up to 15 m [8], which can easily be uprooted by
strong winds.
[Bark] The bark is smooth, grey and slightly longitudinally fissured. .
[Leaves]: The leaves are alternate, pinnately compound, 23-33 cm [8] (15-30 cm [5]) long, with
slender, green-reddish, tinged axis. Leaflets in 6-12 pairs [8] (6-14 [5]) on short stalks of 3 mm,
oblong, 3-7 cm long, 12-20 mm wide, dark green, rounded at both ends, with a tiny bristle tip.
[Flowers]: The flowers are in clusters, upright at ends of twigs, large branched, 20-30 cm long, 13 cm
broad, with many bright yellow flowers 3 cm across, with five similar flower parts. Outer flower leaves
(=sepals) overlapping like roof tiles, blunt at the apex, inner flower leaves (=petals) subequal to
heteromorphic, yellow. Male organs (=stamens) 10, facing away from the flower axis; filaments
straight and not more than twice as long as the anthers. Female organs (=ovary) superior, linear and
curved. Flowering period is July-December, fruiting January-April.
[Fruits]: The fruits (=pods) are numerous, long, narrow, 5-25 cm long, 12-20 mm broad, flat, dark
brown, strap shaped, with a long stalk, cylindrical to compressed, dehiscent (=opening spontaneously
when ripe), with partitions between the numerous seeds. Seeds are bean-shaped, shiny, dark brown,
8 mm long, with distinct areole.
[2, 4, 5, 8]

I. Wood properties:
Medium-weight to heavy hardwood with a density of 0.6-1.01 g/cm³ [8] at 15% moisture content. The
heartwood is black-brown with paler streaks, sharply demarcated from the 6 cm wide, pale sapwood.
The grain is interlocked and occasionally straight. Texture is slightly coarse but even. shrinkage of the
wood during seasoning is moderate to high but it seasons with little degradation. Wood is resistant to
termites, strong, durable, difficult to work, with a tendency to pick up in planing and it takes a high
polish. Sapwood is permeable to pressure impregnation. "Wood sawdust can cause irritation when in
contact with the skin" [5]. The sapwood should be removed as soon as possible after felling to prevent
insect attack of the heartwood.
[5, 8]

J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
C. siamensis originates from the secondary forest formation of plains in Southeast Asia but was
cultivated in the other tropical regions of the world in various types of lowland forests. In Cambodia, it
is planted in the big cities as a shading tree.
[3, 4]


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K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
C. siamensis can grow at altitudes of up to 1,380 m a.s.l. [5] (0-1,000 m [8], 300-500 (-1000 m) [9])
under a wide variety of climatic conditions ranging from humid (mean annual precipitation: 2,800 mm
[5]) to arid (400-500 mm [5, 8]). In India a minimum of 1,000 mm [5] rainfall is recommended for a
good development. However it is particularly suited to lowland tropics with a monsoon climate. It can
endure dry seasons with a length of 4-6 months [5] (4-8 months [8]). Mean annual temperature: 21-
24°C [4] (20-28°C [5]). Absolute maximum temperature is 24-36°C [5]. Regarding light requirements it
is a neutral tree, inclining towards light demanding [4] (it is a strong light demander [5]). It is
susceptible to cold and frost. When mature, it is drought-resistant, but seedlings cannot withstand
prolonged drought, and are also susceptible to fire" [5]. It will grow only when its roots have access to
groundwater.
[4, 5, 8, 9]

L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
Coastal Cardamons (B), Northwestern Lowlands (D), Central Lowlands (d).
[7]
M. soil and site conditions :
The tree is able to grow on a variety of soils but prefers moist but well drained, deep and fertile
calcarous soils in flat terrain and hill slopes with a light to medium texture and a pH of 5.5-7.5 [2]. It
grows even fast in comparatively infertile soils. Denuded shallow soils are also tolerated but its growth
will stagnate in arid areas, with the tree becoming stunted after 4 to 5 years. Coppice growth will also
be reduced. It is sensitive to poor drainage but it will grow only when its roots have access to
groundwater. C. siamensis is suitable for use on fluvisols, vertisols, xerosols/calcisols, aerisol/alisols,
alfisols, ferrasols, lateritic soils and nitosol/nitisols according to FAO classification. "In West Bengal, it
has been grown in lateric soil after deep soil working" [5]. It is not suited for infertile soils due to its
inability to fix nitrogen.
[2, 4, 5, 8]

N. Utilization and importance :
[Wood]: The high quality timber is used for sawn timber, wooden tools, poles, posts, general
construction, cabinetwork, pulpwood, fuelwood and charcoal. In Thailand, heartwood is used as a
tranquilizer and antipyretic for the treatment of venereal diseases.
[2, 3, 5, 9]
[Non-wood]: Leaves and seeds are used as fodder but are toxic for pigs. Young leaves and flowers
are used in curry. Leaves are also used in medicine as a laxative for the treatment of leucorrhoea,
and as a diuretic, flowers as an antihypertensive, tranquilizer and laxative. Especially in Cambodia a
decoction is used against scabies. It provides very useful mulch, especially in alley cropping systems.

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A well-grown tree can yield 500 kg/year of fresh leaves. The tree is also a source for honey and
tannin.
[2, 9]
[Others]: It is used as a host-tree for sandalwood (Santalum album), and as a nurse crop for
Swietenia mahogani, to reduce borer attack. It is suited for intercropping, hedgerows, windbreaks,
shelterbelts, erosion control planting and for shade cocoa-, coffee- and tea-plantations. It is a common
shade tree, in many South East Asian towns and cities. It has been used to revegetate degraded
agricultural land and is planted in Taungya systems. It may be used as a shade tree for coffee. C.
siamensis does not fix nitrogen through Rhizobium symbiosis in nodules, although there is some
evidence that nitrogen-fixing activity may occur in the warty, lenticellate bark. Thus it is not
recommended for use on infertile soils [5].
[2, 5]

O. Cambodian wood classification :
Luxury Class [3]

P. Silviculture and management :
[General]: C. siamensis originates from the secondary forest formation of plains in Southeast Asia but
was cultivated in the other tropical regions of the world in various types of lowland forests. In
Cambodia, it is planted in the big cities as shading tree.
[Establishment]: Weeding is necessary in the 1
st
and 2
nd
year of growth. Moisture conservation (e.g.
trenching, microcatchments) helps in the establishment phase and accelerates the growth for trees
planted in semi-arid areas. In fuelwood plantations, spacing ranges from 1 x 1 m to 1 x 3 m [5] (2 x 2
m = 2,000 seedlings [2]). In hedges used for alley cropping or as a shelterbelt, spacing between
plants in the row should be 0.25-0.5 m.
[Management]: C. siamensis does not fix nitrogen. It is very fast growing. A height increment of 2.5
m/year has been recorded, and in West Bengal it can attain a height of 7.9 m with a stem girth of 24.1
cm in 3 years [5]. It reaches 15 m in height and 15 cm in DBH after 10 years [2]. Unless carefully
pruned, the tree ages ungracefully, the crown is becoming straggling and misshapen with upright and
drooping branches. It shows high coppicing abilities and is suitable for pollarding. In fuelwood
plantations the wood yield amounts up to 10-15 m³/ha/yr [2] or 74-198 t/ha at a rotation of 7-10 years.
It is used as a host-tree for sandalwood (Santalum album), and as a nurse crop for Swietenia
mahogani, to reduce borer attack. It is also important for intercropping, hedgerows, windbreaks,
shelterbelts, erosion control planting and to shade cocoa-, coffee- and tea-plantations.
[2, 3, 4, 5, 8]

Q. Propagation :
Propagation is practiced by stump plants, direct sowing and planting stock. "The seed storage
behaviour is orthodox. There are 35,000-45,000 seeds/kg [8]. Mature seeds have a hard seed coat,

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and scarification is required. Immersion in concentrated sulphuric acid for 10-30 minutes has been
proven to be effective. With the 1
st
method, germination is about 90% within 60 days. Germination of
untreated seeds is about 75% in 4-29 days [8] (40% [2]). Viability can be maintained for 3 years in
hermetic storage at room temperature with 11-15% moisture content" [8]. "Net seedlings required per
ha: 2,500. Number of seeds needed: 10,420 seeds or 0.26 kg/ha. Seed purity: 95%. Germination rate:
40%. Rate of seedling-loss: 20% (3,000) in planting site, 10% (3,334) in transit and 20% (4,168) at the
nursery" [2].
[2, 5, 8]


R. Hazards and protection :
[Pests]: Insect pests: C. siamensis is fairly resistant to termites but is susceptible to scale insects,
caterpillars (Eurema blanda) and defoliating insects. Some of these pests are: Catopsilia crocale,
which defoliates young plants; Xyleutes persona, a bee-hole borer; Indarbela sp., a caterpillar which
damages bark; Celosterna scabrator, which bores tunnels in the stem and roots; and caterpillars of
Labdia sp., which bore into dry pods. Other pests include Catopsilia pyranthe, Diapromorpha belteata,
Eurema blanda, Frankliniella schultzei, Indarbela quadrinotata, Megalurothrips distalis, Scirtothrips
bispinosus, Thrips tabaci, Xyleutes persona, Zeuzera coffeae. "It has been reported that the sapwood
should be removed as soon as possible after felling to prevent insect attack of the heartwood" [8].
[5, 8]
[Diseases]: Fungi: "Among the fungal diseases, Ganoderma lucidum causes spongy-rot and butt rot.
Fomes lucidus is a parasitic wound fungus that invades the tree through the roots, causing a white
soft decay in the lower stem. After the tree dies, the blood red sporophore appears. Phaeolus
manihotis (Polyporus baudonii) is a serious root disease causing dieback" [5].
[Others]: Erianthemum ulugurense has been reported to grow on the tree as a parasitic plant. "The
major disadvantage of the species is that it has a shallow root system, which make it susceptible to
strong winds" [5].
[Protection]: "Suggested control of pests and diseases includes biological control by parasites and
predators, slow release insecticides, use of pheromones and silvicultural methods" [5].

S. Conservation :
No information available.

T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :

It is common in Kompong Thom, Siem Reap and Kampot [7]





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U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
[Native]:
Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia, China, S-India, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri
Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam
[Introduced]:
Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana,
Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica, Kenya, Nigeria, Puerto Rico, Sierra Leone, South Africa, St Lucia, St
Vincent and the Grenadines, Tanzania, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, Virgin Islands (US),
Zambia
[3, 5, 8]

V. Miscellaneous
4
:
[History]: It is widely planted throughout the tropics and is locally naturalized. Plantations were
established in the 1920s in Ghana, Nigeria and Sierra Leone, mainly for its quality fuelwood.
[8]

W. Further readings
5
:
Banik S, Nadaf AB, Bhosale LJ, 1995. Growth performance of Cassia siamea and Acacia
auriculiformis plantations under pit method. Journal of Non-Timber Forest Products, 2(1/2):63-66; 3
ref.
[5]

Faridah Hanum I, van der Maesen LJG (eds.). 1997. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 11.
Auxillary Plants. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, the Netherlands.
[8]

Farnsworth N.R. Bunyapraphatsara N. (1992) Thai Medicinal Plants Recommended for Primary
Health Care System.
[9]

Kannan D, Paliwal K, 1995. Effect of nursery fertilization on Cassia siamea seedling growth and its
impact on early field performance. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 8(2):203-212; 21 ref.
[5]

Kiepe P, 1995. Effect of Cassia siamea hedgerow barriers on soil physical properties. Geoderma,
66(1-2):113-120; 15 ref.
[5]

Kiepe P, 1996. Cover and barrier effect of Cassia siamea hedgerows on soil conservation in semi-arid
Kenya. Soil Technology, 9(3): 161-171.
[5]

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Padma V, Satyanarayana G, Reddy BM, 1996. Studies on pre-sowing seed treatments in three
species of Cassia. Seed Research, 24(1): 51-54.
[5]

Pradhan PC, Behera BP, 1997. Efficiency of planting methods on establishment of Cassia siamea in
slopy red lateritic soils of Orissa. Indian Journal of Soil Conservation, 25(1): 86-87.
[5]

Rath B, Pradhan PC, Behera BD, Sahu D, 1997. Efficacy of planting methods and establishment of
Cassia siamea in slopy and red laterite soil of Orissa. Environment and Ecology, 15(1): 49-51.
[5]

Timyan J. 1996. Bwa Yo: important trees of Haiti. South-East Consortium for International
Development. Washington D.C.
[8]

Webb DB, Wood PJ, Henman GS. 1984. A guide to species selection for tropical and sub-tropical
plantations. Tropical Forestry Papers No. 15, 2nd edition. Commonwealth Forestry Institute, Oxford
University Press.
[8]

X. References:
[1] Sok, Sokunthet (RUA), 2006: Own obseravations
[2] Species Fact Sheets (Module 9), 1994: Forestry / Fuel wood Research and Development Project.
Growing Multipurpose Trees on Small Farms (2nd ed.). Bangkok, Thailand: Winrock International.
320pp.
[3] Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.
[4] Sam, Hoang Van; Nanthavong, Khamseng; Kessler, P.J.A., 2004: Trees of Laos and Vietnam: a
field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important species. BLUMEA.
[5] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).
[6] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4, 5(1), 6-8. (CD-ROM).
[7] AUTHOR, 1973: Flore du Cambodge, du Laos et du Viêt-nam (Fascicule 18
th
). Paris.
[8] World Agroforestry Center: AgroForestryTree Database -
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/BotanicSearch.asp (Internet
source).
[9] ECOPORT: http://ecoport.org/ep (Internet source)

Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Casuarina equisetifolia L]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Casuarina equisetifolia L]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Casuarina equisetifolia L
B. English name (s) ³ coast she-oak, whistling pine, Australian pine,
Australian oak, horsetail beefwood, swamp oak, beefwood,
ironwood [1], redwood tree [2], Australian beefwood, beach
she-oak, beefwood tree, casuarina, common ru, horsetail
casuarina, horsetail tree, ironwood, sea pine, she oak,
swamp she oak, wild pepper [4], bull oak, whistling pine [9]
C. Synonym ³ Casuarina litorea L. [1], Casuarina equisetifolia J.R.
and G. Forster, Casuarina littoralis Salisb., Casuarina littorea
Oken., Casuarina muricata Roxb., Casuarina sumatrana
Jungh. [4]
D. Other
1
³ mu ma huang, pu tong mu ma huang (China) [1] –
casuarine a feuilles de prele, bois de fer, fialo, filao, pich pin,
pin d'Australie (France) [1, 4] - Eisenholz, Keulenbaum
(Germany) [4] - cemara laut, jemara laut, ai samara, aru,
eru, tjemara laut (Indonesia) [1, 4] - casuarina, jangli saru,
jau, savukku (India) [1] - mokumao, ogasawa matsu (Japan)
[1] - son th'ale, `sôn tha lé, pè:k namz, pêk nam², sôn th’ale
(Laos) [1, 4] - kasa ghas (Sri Lanka) [1] - pino australiano,
casuarina (Spain) [10] - tin yu, pink-tinyu, tin-yu (Myanmar)
[1, 4] - ru, ru laut (Malaysia) [1] - yar (Papua New Guinea) [1]
- agoho (Philippines) [1] - son thale, ku, son-thale (Thailand)
[1, 4] - phi lao, c[aa]y phi lao, duong, filao, phi-lao (Vietnam)
[1, 4]

E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³: sav
Source: [3]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ snga:w [4], sngav [3]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³:

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Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Casuarinales
Family: Casuarinaceae
Gunus: Casuarina
Species: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Subspecies: Casuarina equisetifolia
equisetifolia, Casuarina equisetifolia incana
(Benth.) L. Johnson
Source :[ 1]


H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: Casuarina equisetifolia is a medium-sized to tall evergreen, dioecious or monoecious tree
with a height of 6-35 (60) m [4] (8-16 m in Australia, -35 m in SE-Asia [1], 15-20 m [7], 10-30 [9]) at
maturity. "The subsp. incana is typically a small tree and may be reduced to only a large shrub 6-10 m
tall on poor sites" [1]. This species has a life span of 40-50 years [8] with a fast early growth. Trunk is
straight, cylindrical, usually branchless for up to 10 m, with a DBH of 100-150 cm [4] (20-40 cm [7], 50
cm [1], 100 cm [10]) occasionally with buttresses. "The form in wild populations is very variable, from
crooked low branching trees on exposed seashores to straight stemmed forest trees with a narrowly
conical form in more sheltered situations and in plantations" [8]. Bark is light grey-brown, smooth on
small trunks, becoming rough and thick, furrowed and flaking into oblong pieces on older trees.
Encircling bands of lenticels are prominent on the young bark. The inner bark is reddish or deep dirty
brown and astringent. It contains 6-18% [2] tannin. Crown is finely branched, initially of conical shape
but tends to flatten with age. Twigs are drooping, needle-like, furrowed and entirely green or green
only at their tips. They have a diameter of 1-2.5 mm [1] (0.5-1 mm [4]), are 23-38 cm long [1] and
angular to rounded in cross-section, hairless or sometimes hairy. Although C. equisetifolia is an
evergreen tree species, it sheds a large amount of twigs throughout the year.
[Leaves]: The minute teeth-like reduced leaves are in whorls of 7-8 per node [1].
[Flowers]: Flowers are unisexual (monoecious). Inner- and outer flowerleaves (=petals and sepals, or
perianth) are absent and have been replaced by 2 leaf like structures, the bracteoles. Male flowers
occur on simple terminal, elongated spikes 7-40 mm long [4] and are arranged in whorls with 7-11.5

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whorls per cm [4] of spike with a single stamen (=male organ). Female flowers are cylindrical, cone-
or globe-shaped, 10-24 x 9-13 mm [1] and are borne on lateral woody branches. "In areas with a
pronounced wet and dry season, flowering and fruiting are more regular once or twice per year.
Where there is no distinct wet or dry season, flowering and fruiting tend to be irregular and may occur
throughout the year" [1]. In India two flowering periods can be observed from February to April and
from September to October with two corresponding fruiting periods in June and December. Casuarina
is wind pollinated.
[Fruits]: The fruits (='pseudo-cones') are woody and globe-shaped to cylindrical, 10-35 mm x 9-15 mm
[1], with pointed bracteoles (=reduced leaves) more or less extending from the surface of the 'cone'.
Fruitlets bear a single, yellow-brown to dull brown winged fruit 6-8 mm long [1]. In subspecies incana
the young shoots and 'cones' are frequently covered in fine white hair. The seeds are solitary.
[1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10]

I. Wood properties:
C. equisetifolia yields a heavy and strong hardwood with an air-density (r15) of 0.9-1.0 g/cm³ [1, 4]
(0.978 g/cm³ [7]). The sapwood is slightly heavier than the heartwood. Green logs have a moisture
content of 40-60%. The heartwood is dull reddish brown, pale red, pale brown to dark red-brown or
reddish grey and cannot be distinguished easily from the yellowish or pale yellow-brown to pinkish
sapwood. Rays are prominent, resin filled and wavy on the radial faces of sawn timber and annual
rings are distinctive. Grain is straight, slightly interlocked or wavy. Fiber are 895-1,230 µm long [1].
Texture fine to moderately fine and even. Shrinkage is moderate to very high, and in the latter case
the wood is difficult to season due to severe warping and cracking. The wood is difficult to use for fine
carpentry. Logs are also very difficult to saw in small circular saw mills and air-dried timber is difficult
to machine because of its density and hardness. The heartwood is highly resistant to pressure
treatment, but sapwood is amenable to such treatment. The wood is so hard that nail holes must be
predrilled. "The wood is very susceptible to attack by the dry-wood termite Cryptotermes brevis and
has only limited durability unless treated with preservatives" [1]. However another source mentions
the heartwood being resistant to dry-wood termites [4]. It also impregnates relatively well and is
suitable for applications involving exposure to water if properly treated. The highly regarded wood
ignites readily even when green and produces little ash which can retain the heat for long periods.
The energy value of wood is 24,000 kJ/kg [1] (5,000 kcal/kg [4]), whereas the value of charcoal
exceeds 33,500kJ/kg [1] (7,000 kcal/kg [4]).
[1, 4, 7, 8, 10]

J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
Approximate limits: 20°N to 32°S [1] (22°N to 22°S [10]). Casuarina equisetifolia is cultivated around
the tropics and beyond, in coastal and semi-arid regions but also in mountainous zones. Subspecies
equisetifolia is commonly confined to a narrow strip adjacent to sandy shores rarely extending inland
to lower hills. It is found on sand dunes, in sands alongside estuaries behind foredunes and gentle
slopes near the sea. It grows at the leading edge of dune vegetation which is subject to salt spray and
inundation with sea water at extremely high tides. Subsp. incana has been recorded growing on rocky

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headlands. C.equisetifolia may form pure stands on the coastal dunes growing over a ground cover of
dune grasses and salt tolerant broadleaved herbs, or can be part of a richer association of trees and
shrubs collectively termed the 'Indo-Pacific beach flora'. Tree associates in this vegetation include
Barringtonia asiatica, Calophyllum inophyllum, Eugenia sp., Heritiera littoralis, Hibiscus tiliaceus,
Pongamia glabra, Thespesia populnea and Pandanus sp. "In Australia it also grows in narrow belts
adjacent to mangrove forests or scattered in open woodlands dominated by eucalypts" [1]. It may
even occur in mangrove forests and coastal forests [6]. "Under extreme edaphic situations it forms
natural pure stands or mixed stands with Casuarina cunninghamiana, which is native to Australia and
New Caledonia" [10]. In Cambodia the species is spontaneous and grows on sandy coasts in small
groups. "It has the potential to become a weed under certain conditions" [1].
[1, 6, 9, 10]

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
In its natural habitat C. equisetifolia is commonly confined to a narrow strip of sandy coasts, rarely
extending inland to lower hills near the coastline, Casuarina grows between 0-100 m a.s.l. [1] (0-20 m
[6]). In general it can be found at 0-1,400 m a.s.l. [4, 10] (0-1,500 m [1]), in Tanzania up to 1,800 m
[10] and in the Andes even up to 2,000 m [10]. The climate in its natural range is semi-arid to
subhumid. In most regions there is a distinct dry period of 4-6 months, although this seasonality
decreases towards the equator in Southeast Asia and in the southern parts of its range in Australia.
Subspecies equisetifolia occurs rather in hot humid to hot sub-humid climate, while subspecies incana
grows mainly in the warm sub-humid zone. Generally areas with a mean annual rainfall of 350-5,000
mm [1] (200-3,500 mm [4], 700-2,000 mm [10]) with a distinct wet and dry season are suited. In case
of groundwater access annual precipitations as low as 300 mm are tolerated. The mean annual
temperature ranges between 10 and 35°C [4] (18-26°C [10]). Mean maximum temperature of the
hottest month is in general 30-35°C [1], in India values of 37-47°C [1] have been observed. Mean
minimum temperature of the coldest month is in general 10-20°C [1] and 7-17°C [1] in India.
Subspecies equisetifolia is not frost resistant, while subsp. incana tolerates 1-3 frosts/year [1] within a
few kilometers of the sea. Casuarina is a light demander, shade intolerant and sensitive to fire. Many
areas where the species naturally occurs are susceptible to tropical cyclones or typhoons. Thus
Casuarina shows a general tolerance to strong and even salt-laden winds.
[1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10]

L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
No information available.

M. soil and site conditions :
Casuarina grows on well drained and rather coarse textured soils, especially sands more than 2 m [1]
deep, often covering a layer of sandy loam for moisture retention. It may fail on poor sands where the
subsoil moisture conditions are unsatisfactory. The species tolerates both calcareous and slightly
alkaline soils, saline soils and inundated soils but is intolerant of prolonged waterlogging. It grows well

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in soils with a pH from 5.0 to 9.5 [1]. A high nutrient availability is not required. "It has also been
successfully grown in tin-mine spoils and sterile pumice" [1].
[1, 4, 5, 7, 10]

N. Utilization and importance :
[General]: Casuarina is a nitrogen-fixing, multipurpose tree-species of considerable social, economic
and environmental importance in many tropical areas of the world, providing a wide range of products
and services for industrial and local end-users [1].
[Wood]: "The wood is highly regarded as a fuel and produces high quality charcoal. The energy value
of the wood is 24,000 kJ/kg (5,000 kcal/kg [4]) and that of the charcoal exceeds 33,500 kJ/kg (7,000
kcal/kg [4])" [1]. It has been used for both domestic and industrial fuel such as for railroad
locomotives. Other wood uses include masts for fishing boats, rafters, boat oars, piles, house posts,
electric poles, furniture, tool handles, wagon wheels and mine props. "In India, the wood is a source of
wood fiber for production of paper pulp using neutral sulfate and semi-chemical processes, and as a
raw material for rayon fibers. The fiber is long, 895-1,230 µm" [1]
. [1, 4, 7]
[Non-wood]: Casuarina is also important as a dye and tannin-producing plant. The bark, contains 6-
18% [2] of tannin which has a red pigment and is used for tanning but also for toughening fishing nets.
"It penetrates the hide quickly and furnishes swollen, pliant, soft leather of pale reddish-brown color"
[4]. "In China, and elsewhere in Asia, leaf litter is often removed from plantations and used as fuel" [1].
Many parts of the tree are used in traditional medicine: Root extracts are used for medical treatment
of dysentery, diarrhea and stomach-ache. In West Malaysia a decoction of the twigs is used for
treating swelling and the powdered bark is used for treating acne.
[1, 2, 4, 6, 10]
[Others]: C. equisetifolia is used to control erosion along coastlines, estuaries, riverbanks and
waterways and also for revegetation. It is widely planted on sandy soils in coastal China and Vietnam,
providing protection against winds and shifting dunes and a stable base for agriculture. "In Sarawak,
Indonesia the species is protected because of its importance in controlling coastal erosion" [4]. In
South China, approximately 1 million ha have been established with Casuarina trees in shelterbelts
along the coastal dunes. The abundance of highly branched twigs absorbs wind energy amazingly
well and the species' general tolerance to strong winds, cyclones and typhoons has encouraged its
use in protective planting. In areas with hot and dry winds the tree protects crops and animal herds.
Casuarina even grows vigorously on barren and polluted sites like former bauxite mines (e.g.
Northern Queensland, Australia) and colonizes sterile tin tailings. The tree is also a nitrogen fixing
species: Root nodules containing the actinorhizal symbiont Frankia enable C. equisetifolia to fix
atmospheric nitrogen. These root nodules can be prolific. Casuarina is commonly grown as an
ornamental along streets, parks and seashores. It is also remarkably suited for boundary planting

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because it does not intercept much of the incoming solar radiation and yields substantial quantities of
green leaf manure.
[1, 4, 7, 9 ]
O. Cambodian wood classification :
No class. [3]

P. Silviculture and management :
[General]: C.equisetifolia may form pure stands on the coastal dunes growing over a ground cover of
dune grasses and salt tolerant broadleaved herbs, or can be part of a richer association of trees and
shrubs collectively termed the 'Indo-Pacific beach flora'. Tree associates in this vegetation include
Barringtonia asiatica, Calophyllum inophyllum, Eugenia sp., Heritiera littoralis, Hibiscus tiliaceus,
Pongamia glabra, Thespesia populnea and Pandanus sp. Casuarina is highly recommended for
plantations in areas close to the sea on loose sand.
[Establishment]: Plantations are established using containerized seedlings, rooted cuttings or bare-
root seedlings. Plants are typically suitable for outplanting after 3-4 months when they are 25-30 cm
[1] (50 cm [10]) tall. "In Vietnam, however, seedlings 1-1.2 m tall with a strong root ball are preferred
when planting on moving sands" [1]. Seedlings should be planted in well-drained light soils, not clay
soils to decrease the risk of diseases and pests. They are planted 40 cm [1] deep in order to
withstand strong winds. In areas with very low overall precipitation, only planting of container plants is
advisable and it may be necessary to water the young plants until their roots reach the groundwater. A
planting density of 2,500 stems/ha [1] is commonly used, but some farmers in India plant up to 8,000-
10,000 stems/ha [8] for production of fuelwood and small poles. The commonly used spacings are 2 x
2 to 3 x 3 m [10]. When planting to provide protection against soil erosion, closer spacings can be
used. Smaller seedlings are quickly suppressed by more vigorous seedlings. Young trees compete
poorly with weeds, therefore weeding is important during the first two years. They are also susceptible
to drought until their roots reach the groundwater table, which may take up to 2-3 years after planting.
The shoots grow actively throughout the year except during cool and dry months.
[Management]: C. equisetifolia has a life span of 40-50 years [1] and displays rapid early growth rates
(about 2-3 m/year [1] in height) and good form in cultivation. The rotation period ranges from 4-5
years [4] (8-15 years [10]) for fuelwood and 10-15 years [4] for poles. C. equisetifolia is a rather poor
self-pruner. Pruning is necessary up to 2 m [4] in dense plantations to make them accessible for
maintenance. "In China, India and Vietnam, all branches within reach are regularly pruned by farmers
who use them for fuel" [1]. Early thinnings are essential for timber production as trees have a high
demand for light. If close thinnings are used approx 50% of the trees are removed by thinnings at age
5 or 6 [10]. The ability to coppice is limited and is generally restricted to trees up to 4 years old.
However, trees respond reasonably well to hedging. Under favorable sites, it can attain a height of 4-5
m/year [1] (2 m/year [4], >3 m/year [8]) with good tree forms during the first 2 years. At 10 years a
height of 10 m [8] and a diameter of 20 cm [8] may be reached. On good sites an mean annual
volume increment of 6-18 m³/ha [10] (15 m³/ha at 10 years [1]) can be expected. However, mean
annual increments usually fall in the range of 4-5 m³/ha/year [4]. "In central Vietnam, a mean annual

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increment of 8-12 m³/ha [1] can be obtained from plantations 1.5 x 1 m spacing on 4-7 year rotations.
In Puerto Rico, mean annual increments in height and diameter at breast height recorded for
plantations less than 5 years old are 1.1-4.5 m [1] and 1.3-5.4 cm [1], respectively. Growth rates
reported elsewhere in China, Egypt, India, Kenya, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam are within
or higher than these ranges" [1]. "In South China, where an estimated 1 million hectares in
shelterbelts along the coastal dunes have been established since 1954, heights of 7-8 m and
diameters of 5-7 cm are achieved in about 4 years. In India, plantations using 1 x 1 m or 2 x 2 m
spacing on 6-15 year rotations yield 50-200 t/ha [4]. Height growth culminates when the trees are 7
years old and volume increments at about 25 years [10]. The dry weight per tree ranges from 15 to 25
kg [1] at 3 years of age, depending on site quality. In Asia, leaf litter from plantations is often removed
as fuel and this draws heavily upon soil phosphorus and potassium reserves. This can result in
reduced yield in the subsequent rotation.
[Agroforestry]: Casuarina is a species suitable for agroforestry systems especially for arid and semi-
arid areas. It fixes approx 60 kg N/ha/year [10] enhancing soil fertility. Although litter decomposes very
slowly, thus impending the development of the undergrowth this effect is broadly used in Asia for
afforestation of Imperata savannas. "Experiments at Prabhunagar, India, showed citrus trees grew
larger under C. equisetifolia than in pure stands" [4]. In Asia C. equisetifolia also is occasionally mixed
with Leucaena leucocephala or on very poor sites with Vitex spp.
[1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10]

Q. Propagation :
Propagation is done by using seeds and cuttings.
[Seed collection and storage]: The female 'cones' mature about 18-20 weeks [1] after anthesis and
release small winged seeds within 3 days when dried under full sun. Ripe 'cones' are plucked from the
branches before they dehisce, dried in the sun and thrashed to separate the winged seeds. 1 kg of
'cones' (about 250 'cones') yields 20-60 g of seed [1]. There are about 650-760 seeds/g [1] (260
seeds/g [4], 750-1,000 seeds/g [5], 300-800 seeds/g [10]) but on average only 270 seeds or 38% [1]
(50% [4]) are viable. The fruits on one tree do not all mature at the same time often causing a problem
for seed collection. The dried seeds retain their viability for 20 months [5]. Seed storage is classified
as orthodox and airtight storage in cool room is recommended to maintain satisfactory viability for
extended periods. Seeds should rather be stored for 5 years in a cool room (3-5°C) [1] (3°C with 5-9%
mc [4]) or freezer (-16°C) [1] than at room temperature (25°C) [1]. Seed does not require
pretreatment. If stored under these cool and dry conditions the viability of the seeds can be preserved
for 2 years [10] or more.
[Nursery technique - Seedlings]: The seed is usually broadcast on seed beds filled with finely sifted
soil, a mixture of sand and peat moss. Seeds can be sown without pretreatment but should be
protected from ants. In India, primary beds are covered with hay and overhead shade [5]. Germination
is epigeal and starts after 4-10 days [10] (14-21 days [1], 7-20 days [5]). Germination rate: 40-60% [5],
70-80% [10]. The young seedlings are watered at regular intervals and kept lightly shaded. After 4-6
weeks they are approximately 10 cm tall [10] (3-10 cm [4]) and are then transplanted either to

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polybags, containers or nursery beds, at densities of 100-400 seedlings/m² to obtain bare-rooted
planting stock. Appropriate watering, correct spacing of plants and adequate light should prevent
damping-off in the nursery. Excessive watering should be avoided and 50% shade is suitable until
seedlings are ready for out-planting. Inoculation of the seedlings with pure strains of the mycorrhizal
fungus Frankia is recommended when the species is introduced to a new area. After 5-8 months the
plants have reached a height of about 50 cm [10] and can be field planted on sites that have been
thoroughly prepared beforehand.
[Nursery technique - Cuttings]: Although propagation is mainly by seed, cuttings are increasingly
used. It is easily propagated by rooting of stem cuttings, lateral or side shoots, terminal twigs, heel
cuttings or basal sprouts. Shoots should be 1 year old and can be cut or girdled. Suitable cutting
material is 2 mm in diameter [1] and 10-15 cm in length [1], and rooting is enhanced through use of
the hormones IBA (Indolebutyric acid) or IAA (Indoleacetic acid). "In Southern China, cuttings are
taken from branchlets 1 mm in diameter [4], 5 cm length [4] and soaked in a solution of Napthalyacetic
acid (NAA) before being placed in polythene tubes" [4]. Air layering on branches 1-2 cm in diameter
[1] yields better results than cuttings when propagating clonal material from old trees.
Micropropagation by tissue culture is feasible, but mass production of planting stock by this method is
not practiced.
[1, 4, 5, 7, 10]

R. Hazards and protection :
C. equisetifolia is only rarely attacked by diseases and pests, unless if grown under unfavorable
conditions.
[Pests]: Over 50 species of insects are known to feed on the species, but serious pest problems have
not occurred. A borer beetle, Sinoxylon anale, girdles small stems (about 1 cm in diameter), causing
them to break at the point of attack. Insect pests include casuarina tussock moth, Lymantria xylina,
white-spotted long-horn beetle, Anoplophora macularia, and cotton locust, Chondracis rosea. Ants
attack fresh seeds. The wood borers Zeuzera spp. and Hypsiptla robusta are known to cause severe
damage to the wood. Another less important pest is Apate monachus.
[Diseases]: The most serious disease is blister bark disease which has been observed in Thailand
and Vietnam. Infected trees die rapidly after exhibiting symptoms of foliar wilt and cracking of the bark
where blisters develop enclosing a black powdery mass of spores. Blister bark disease is associated
with the fungus Trichosporum vesiculosum. Pruning may allow a infection of fungal pathogens,
especially Trichosporium vesiculosum and Formes lucidus. "In India losses of over 75% have been
registered in some stands" [10]. Other fungus diseases include Botryosphaeria ribis, Corticium
salmonicolor, Phellinus noxius and Phomopsis casuarinae. "Bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas
solanacearum), causes yellowing foliage and wilting and death has been reported in China and India"
[4]. Other serious recorded diseases include stem cankers and dieback caused by Phomopsis
casuarinae, and Botryosphaeria ribis and pink disease (Corticium salmonicolor). "Brown rot caused by
Phellinus noxius is causing tree decline in Taiwan" [1]. As in other actinorhizal plants,
endomycorrhizal (VAM) infection occurs easily. Another bacterial disease is caused by Ralstonia

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solanacearum. For disease control, lopping and pruning of branches should be stopped to prevent the
primary establishment of a disease. Diseased trees should be removed as early as possible and
spread of the disease checked by making trenches around groups of diseased trees to avoid root
contact
[Others]: Seedlings are susceptible to browsing by rodents and crabs. C. equisetifolia is not fire
resistant particularly when young making a protection necessary.
[1, 4, 10]

S. Conservation :
No information available.

T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :
In Cambodia the species is spontaneous, met on sandy coasts in small groups. [9]
Kp.Saom, Kep, Kampot, Koh Kong, Phnom Penh [11]


U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
[Native]:
Australia, Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia, Fiji, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New
Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Thailand, Tonga, Vanuatu, Vietnam
[4, 6, 9]
[Introduced]:
Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad,
China, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican
Republic, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau,
Haiti, India, Israel, Jamaica, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Mali, Martinique, Mauritania, Montserrat,
Myanmar, Netherlands Antilles, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Puerto Rico, Senegal, Sierra Leone,
Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, St Kitts and Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Sudan,
Tanzania, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, United States of America, Virgin Islands (US),
Zanzibar
[4, 6, 9]

V. Miscellaneous
4
:
[[Terminology]: "One of the common names of Casuarina species, ‘she-oak’, widely used in Australia,
refers to the attractive wood pattern of large lines or rays similar to oak but weaker. The specific name
is derived from the Latin ‘equinus’, pertaining to horses, and ‘folium’, a leaf, in reference to the fine,
drooping twigs, which are reminiscent of coarse horse hair" [4]. "Casuarina is from the Malay word
‘kasuari’, from the supposed resemblance of the twigs to the plumage of the cassowary bird" [1].

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Breeding]: "In cultivation, C. equisetifolia hybridizes with C. glauca and C. junghuhniana." [4]
W. Further readings
5
:
CATIE, 1991. Casuarina equisetifolia, multiple use tree in Central America [Casuarina equisetifolia L.
ex J.R. Forst & G. Forst., árbol de uso múltiple en America Central]. Rep. No. 173, Tech. Series.
Turrialba, Costa Rica: Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigacíon y Enseñanza (CATIE).
[1]
Ha Chu Chu, Le Dinh Kha, 1996. Planting and uses of Casuarina equisetifolia in Vietnam. In:
Pinyopusarerk K, Turnbull JW, Midgley SJ, eds. Recent Casuarina Research and Development.
Proceedings of the 3rd International Casuarina Workshop. Canberra, Australia: CSIRO Forestry and
Forest Products, 223-225.
[1]
Dahl N, 1996. Cauarina equisetifolia: its use and future in mine rehabilitation in Northern Australia. In:
Pinyopusarerk K, Turnbull JW, Midgley SJ, eds. Proceedings of the 3rd International Casuarina
Workshop. Canberra, Australia: CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products, 201_203.
[1]
Kondas S, 1983. Casuarina equisetifolia - a multipurpose tree cash crop in India. In: Midgley SJ,
Turnbull JW, Johnston RD, eds. Casuarina Ecology, Management and Utilization. Proceedings of the
1st International Casuarina Workshop. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO, 66_76.
[1]
National Research Council, 1984. Casuarinas: nitrogen-fixing trees for adverse sites. Washington,
DC: National Academy Press.
[1]
Phi Quang Dien, 1996. Preliminary results of Casuarina equisetifolia provenance trials in Vietnam. In:
Pinyopusarerk K, Turnbull JW, Midgley SJ, eds. Recent Casuarina Research and Development.
Proceedings of the 3rd International Casuarina Workshop. Canberra, Australia: CSIRO Forestry and
Forest Products, 113-118.
[1]
Turnbull JW, 1983. The use of Casuarina equisetifolia for protection forests in China. In: Midgley SJ,
Turnbull JW, Johnston RD, eds. Casuarina Ecology, Management and Utilization. Proceedings of the
1st International Casuarina Workshop. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO, 55-57.
[1]
Hocking D. 1993. Trees for Drylands. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. New Delhi.
[4]

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MacDicken GK. 1994. Selection and management of nitrogen fixing trees. Winrock International, and
Bangkok: FAO.
[4]

X. References:
[1] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).

[2] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4, 5(1), 6-8. (CD-ROM).

[3] FA, 2002 (draft), List of Trade Names of Commercial Wood in Cambodia, Trade Names of
Commercial Woods, unpublished DFSC, 2000, Seed Leaflet No.26

[4] World Agroforestry Center: AgroForestryTree Database –
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/SpeciesInfo.asp?SpID=477.
(Internet source)

[5] Andhra Pradesh Forest Department: http://forest.ap.nic.in/Silviculture (Internet source).

[6] ARCBC BISS Species Database: http://arcbc.org/cgi-
bin/abiss.exe/spd?SID=1916179720&spd=5425&sub=0&tx=PL (Internet source).

[7] Nguyen et al., 1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. JICA/Vietnam Inventory and Planning Institute.

[8] PROSEA, 1997: Plant Resources of South East Asia 11 - Auxiliary plants.

[9] Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.

[10] Lamprecht, H., 1989: Silviculture in the Tropics. GTZ.

[11] Petri, M (DED), 2006: Own observations.



Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn.[2]
B. English name (s) ³ silk cotton tree, true kapok, white silk cotton tree, [6] kapok
tree,[26]
C. Synonym ³ C. thoningii A.Chev., C. guineensis (Thonn.) A.Chev., C.
casearia L Medicus, Eriodendron anfractuosum DEC.,
Bombax pentandrum, B. guineensis Schum. & Thonn., B.
orientale Sprengel [4,6,20], Eriodendendron caribaeum
G.Don, E.guineense G.Don [20]
D. Other
1
³ koo (Cambodia); kapok, randu, kapu (Indonesia); nguiz
baanz (Laos); kabuk-abu pohon kapok (Malaysia); nun
(Thailand); gòn, gau (Vietnam) [4,6], arbre à boure, fromagier
[26].
E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³
Source: [3]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ kôor [4]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Malvales
Family: Bombacaceae
Gunus: Ceiba
Species: Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn.
Source :[4 ; 11 ; 27]



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H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: A semi-deciduous, large-sized tree up to 20-30 m high and 80-120 cm in diameter; trunk
cylindrical. Twigs greenish, spiny; inner bark with water-storing parenchyma. Buttresses widely
spreading, often plank-formed [2]. Tree 4-15 m tall [4]. Deciduous tree up to 25 m [5]. A fast growing
deciduous tree with straight bole, sometimes buttressed, reaching 30 m in height (var. pentandra).
Bole and branches more or less covered with conical spines. Branches extending horizontally,
whorled in groups of 3, giving a pagoda-shaped thin crown [6]. Impressively large tree up to 60 m tall
with smooth stem. In the juvenile phase the crown is formed by horizontally arranged branches, when
old occasionally developing strong buttresses several meters high [13].
[Bark]: Bark glabrous, green, with some ridges around the trunk, smooth or covered with large conical
spines.[2]
[Leaves]: Digitately compound, with 5-7 lanceolate leaflets; petiole 7-14 cm long [2]. Leaflets 6-12 x
1.5-3.0 cm, main stalks 8-20 cm [5]. Leaves alternate, with 8-25 cm long petioles, palmately
compound with 5-11 smooth, oblong-lanceolate leaflets, 5-16 cm long [6]. Leaves with 2-9 leaflets,
10-18 cm long, imparipinnate, often coloured red when sprouting on the tip of long shoots [13].
[Flowers]: White or pink, solitary or in short cymes at leaf axil. Calyx cupulate, with 5 unequal lobes.
Sepals 5, oblong-oval, 2.5 cm long, white pubescent outside. Stamens few, adnate at the base, upper
part divided into 5 bundles, anther reniform. Ovary superior, 5-locular, numerous ovules in each
locule, stigma pentafid [2]. Flower 2.0-3.5 cm, creamy-white, petals fused together at base, 5-6
stamens, style with a single tip [5]. The numerous flowers are dirty-white, about 3 cm long, with a
foetid milky smell, appearing in groups at the beginning of the dry season when trees are leafless
[6,9]. After leaf fall flowers form at the end of sprouts , they are dirty-white with numerous stamens in
groups. Sepals up to 3.5 cm long, wooly pubescent. Bats pollinating the flowers [13]. The flowering is
described with the following details: Flowers open after dark and emit a strong odour, emitting nectar
at the base of the large, bisexual flowers. As soon as the flowers are open they are visited by bats
feeding on pollen and nectar. When the morning dawns bees profit from the nectar continuing the
pollination of the flowering tree [26].
[Fruit]: A woody capsule oblong-oval, pendulous, 15 cm long and 3-4 cm wide, dehiscing into 5
segments when mature. Inside of pericarp densely hairy, seeds numerous, round, glossy [2]. Fruit 8-
10 cm, straight, with 5 grooves [5]. Fruits are ellipsoidal capsules, 7.5-30.0 cm long becoming brown
when ripe, opening with 5 valves. Seeds embedded in copious, white, pale yellow or grey floss [6].
Fruit in the form of leathery, elliptic, 10-30 cm long capsules with numerous small black seeds. The
uni-celled, 2-4 cm long seed hairs cannot be spun into a thread because of a thin wall and a large
lumen. They do not arise from the seed shell but are formed by the inner fruit wall epidermis.
Flowering in March-April, fruiting in August-September[2]. The seed capsules split along 5 lines, each
capsule releasing between 120-170 round, black seeds packaged in a mass of grey wooly hair or
fibres. The seeds with hair attached are dispersed by the wind and encounter best starting conditions
on abandoned cultivated land [26].


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I. Wood properties:
Wood white, soft and light [2]; C. pentandra wood is variable in colour, from white to light brown, but
sap-staining fungi may darken it. The wood is very light, with specific gravity of 250 kg/m³. The wood
machines easily but not satisfactorily. Machining characteristics include excellent planing and sanding
and resistance to splitting when screwed. Shapes and bores poorly but mortises well. Logs and
lumber are very susceptible to insect and fungal attack, but preservative treatment is easy; either
pressure-vacuum systems or open-tank methods give good absorption and penetration. The wood is
easy to peel for veneer. Reported uses of wood include plywood, packaging, lumber core stock, light
construction, pulp and paper products, canoes and rafts, farm implements, furniture and matches [20].

J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
It is believed that this tree originated in Central America, but this happened so long tme ago that the
way of distribution cannot be accurately reconstructed. Because of its wide range of uses it has been
cultivated for a long time and can now be found pantropically between 16º N and 16º S [20]. From
evergreen forests in Brazil and northern South America and dry savannas in Africa [11], it was
introduced into Asia at least 1500 years ago [5]. Distributed in Burma, China, Cambodia, Laos,
Vietnam, Malaysia and Indonesia; in East, West and Central Africa, and in the tropical zones of the
Americas [2,6,26]. The tree can be found in a variety of forest types, moist evergreen, deciduous, dry
forest and gallery forest. However, as a pioneer species it is most frequently found in secondary
forests of various development stages [26].

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
A tree of tropical climate, light-demanding, growing under a variety of conditions, but thriving better
below 500 m elevation, and with at least 1000 mm/m² of annual precipitation, particularly during the
vegetation period [6]. Biophysical limits are approximately defined as follows: 0-900 m elevation asl;
between 750-3000 mm/ m² mean annual precipitation and mean annual temperature between 18-
38ºC [26].

L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
not determined

M. soil and site conditions :
Prefers wet, deep, but well-drained soils[2], thrives specifically on deep, permeable volcanic soils, as
found in Java, Indonesia. [26].

N. Utilization and importance :
[Wood]: Usable for manufacture of ordinary implements, boats and floats [2]. Also for the preparation
of match sticks. Large trees are peeled for rotary veneer which is used as corestock (middle layer) in
plywood production

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[Non-Wood): Young flowers and fruit consumed as vegetable; resin from the trunk is sold for
preparing a drink, adding sugar and water. From young leaves, crushed with ice, a poultice is
prepared and applied to the forehead against headache; from the bark a remedy for diarrhoea can be
prepared [4].
The seed capsules yield kapok, the floss in the fruit, usable for thermal and accoustic insulation [6].
Kapok fibres consist to 65% of cellulose and hemi-cellulose, they are smooth, water-repellent and of
high elasticity. Under water they exhibit a flotation force of 30 times their own weight. That is why
kapok makes such good insulation and stuffing material and why it had been used for life-belts over a
hundred years until the arrival of synthetic materials. Fibre plantations in Java, Indonesia, yield 130-
150 kg of fibres after3 years and may produce between 2000-4000kg/ha later. In rural areas kapok is
still widely used still used for stuffing seat cushions and matresses [13]. The natural fibre is superior in
comfort to synthetic foam matresses and cushions. Practically the entire supply of kapok is obtained
from Java [16]. Edible oil, also used in soap manufacture, can be extracted from seeds [2,13]. An
other report indicates that C. pentandra seed contains 20-25% non-drying oil, similar to cottonseed oil,
which is used as a lubricant, in soap manufacturing and in cooking [20]. The pressed seed cake
contains around 26% protein and is fed to domestic animals.
There are various medicinal applications, e.g., compressed fresh leaves are used against dizziness;
decoction of the boiled roots is used to treat oedema; gum is eaten to relieve stomach upset; tender
shoot decoction is a contraceptive and leaf infusion is taken orally against cough and hoarse throat.
However, in some people the floss can provoke an allergy irritating eyes and nose [26]. There is also
this application in veterinary medicine: In Tamilnadu, India, the leaves are pounded together with
fermented boiled rice water and the extract is administered to cows orally as a remedy for
reproductive problems. The dose is approx. 500 ml three times a day for three consecutive days [26].
C. pentandra can be used as a roadside tree or shade tree in pepper plantations [2,13];

O. Cambodian wood classification :
not included

P. Silviculture and management :
In agroforestry landuse Ceiba pentendra is planted in a 7.3x7,3 m grid to leave enough space for
intercropping, which may continue over 5 years.

Q. Propagation :
Easily propagated from seeds, fruiting starts after 3-4 years; regeneration after coppicing is strong [2].
Fruit is collected by hooked knives, seeds dried in the sun and separated from the floss by shaking
the dehiscent fruits in a bag. Viability is limited and related to the seed oil which degrades rapidly. It is
estimated that between 10,000 and 45,000 seeds, depending on provenance, are weighing 1 kg.
Generally seed propagated, C. pentandra can also be easily raised by cuttings. Natural reproduction
from seed is occasionally rare, as the fruit is collected for the valuable kapok floss. There is therefore

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little scope of reproduction from self-sown seeds [20], except where seeds are blown to abandoned
agricultural land [26]..

R. Hazards and protection :
Insect defoliators include Ephyriades arcas, Eulepidotis modestula, Oiketicus kirbiyi and Pericalia
ricini. The tree is also a host to parasitic plants such as Dendropthoe falcata and Loranthus spp.
Pathogenic fungi that attack the tree include Armillaria, Calonectria, Camillea, Cercospora [20].

S. Conservation :


T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :
unknown

U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
In Southeast Asia, Indonesia, Malaysia; cultivated in Java; in West-Africa, in tropical America. [2,6]


V. Miscellaneous
4
:
Bombacaceae is a small family of tropical trees comprising Baobab, balsa, durian and kapok trees.
Most species are found in South America, above all in Brazil, a few occur in Southeast Asia, some
unusual ones in Africa and Madagascar. They live mostly in dense rain forests in South America and
in open savanna and weedy habitats in Africa. Many species are deciduous and their entire, palmate
or digitate leaves and stipules, are shed at the end of the rainy season. During this leafless period the
flowers open. They are massive for most genera of the family and even when they are small they are
showy with white or brightly coloured flowers. They are always bisexual and frequently emerge from
the branches and trunks aand even near the base of the plant in some tropical forest genera like
Durio [11].
The fibre or floss from the inner wall of the fruit is unique in that it combines springiness and resilience
and is resistant to vermin, to make it ideal for stuffing pillows, mattresses and cushions. It is light,
water repellent and buoyant, making it ideal for life jackets, lifeboats and other naval safety apparatus.
It is an excellent material for insulating iceboxes, refrigerators, cold-storage plants, offices, theatres
and airplanes. It is a good sound absorber and is widely used for acoustic insulation; it is
indispensable in localhospitals, since mattresses can be dry sterilized without losing original quality.

W. Further readings
5
:
White F, 1983. The vegetation of Africa. Natural Resources Research, UNESCO, 20:356 pp.; [Also
available in French]; 50 pp. ref.
Zotz G, Winter K, 1994. Photosynthesis of a tropical canopy tree, Ceiba pentandra, in a lowland forest
in Panama. Tree Physiology, 14(11):1291-1301; 30 ref.
Basilevskaia, 1969. Plantes médicinales de la Guinée. Conakry, Guinea.

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Berni CA, Bolza E, Christensen FJ, 1979. South American timbers - the characteristics, properties
and uses of 190 species. South American timbers - the characteristics, properties and uses of 190
species., x + 229 pp.; 154 ref.
Dileep M, Sudhakara K, Santhoshkumar AV, Nazeema KK, Ashokan PK, 1994. Effect of seed size,
rooting medium and fertilizers on the growth of seedlings of Ceiba pentandra (Linn.) Gaertn. Indian
Journal of Forestry, 17(4):293-300; 8 ref.
Lamprecht H, 1989. Silviculture in the tropics; tropical forest ecosystems and their tree species,
possibilities and methods for their long-term utilization. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische
Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), GmbH, Eschborn, Germany.
Mashingo MSH, Mtenga LA, Lekule FP, 1994. Kapok (Ceiba pentandra) seed cake in diets of
fattening pigs. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 42(4):311-315; 13 ref.


X. References:
2) Nguyen, N.C. et al.: Vietnam Forest Trees, Hanoi 1997 788 pp.
3) Lamprecht, H. 1989: Silviculture in the Tropics. Tropical Forest Ecosystems and their Tree
Species - Possibilities and Methods for their long-term Utilization. Paul Parey Publ. Hamburg and GTZ
(English Edition) Eschborn 296 pp.
4 ) Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House; Phnom Penh,
915 pp.
5) Gardner, S., Sidisunthorn, P. and Vilaiwan Anursarnsunthorn, 2000: A Field Guide to Forest
Trees of Northern Thailand. CMU Herbarium Biology Dept. University of Chiang Mai, Thailand; 546
pp.
6) Jensen, M., 2001: Trees and Fruits of Southeast Asia. An illustrated field guide. Orchid Press,
Bangkok, 234 pp.
11) Heywood, V.D. (Ed.) 1993: Flowering Plants of the World. Oxford University Press, New York;
336 pp.
12) CABI Forestry Compendium 2003
17) Sosef, M.S.M., Hong, L.T., and S. Prawirohatmodjo (Eds.) 1998: Plant Resources of
Southeast Asia 5(3) Timber trees: Lesser known timbers. Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia, 859
pp.
19) Rehm, S. and G. Espig 1991: The Cultivated Plants of the Tropics and Subtropics. Josef
Margraf, Publ. Scientific Books; Weikersheim, Germany, 552 pp.
20) Salim AS, Simons AJ, Orwa C, Chege J, Ovuor,B, and Mutua A, 2002: Agroforestree
Database. World Agroforestry Centre (on CD ).

Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Chrysophyllum cainito L.]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Chrysophyllum cainito L.]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Chrysophyllum cainito L. [4]
B. English name (s) ³ star apple, golden leaf tree, cainito [6, 32]
C. Synonym ³ Chrysophyllum acuminatum Lam., C. brachycalix Urb., C.
claraense Urb., C. oliviforme subsp. oliviforme, Achras
caimito Ruiz & Pavon., Cynodendron oliviforme (L.), Baehni.,
Guersentia oliveforme Raf.,Cainito pomiferum Tuss., C.
bonplandii Klotzsch. ex Miq., C. monopyrenum Spreng., C.
sericeum Salisb. [32]
D. Other
1
³ caimitier, pomme de lait (French); caimito, guayabillo
(Spanish); sawo ijo, sawo hejo, sawo kadu (Indonesia); sawo
duren, pepulut (Malaysia); hnin-thagya (Burma); nam nom
(Laos); caimito (Philippines); chicle durian (Singapore); sataa
appoen (Thailand); vú-sùe (Vietnam) [4,6,32].

E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³ TwkedaHeKa
Source: [-]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ oek dâh kôôt [ 4]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Ebenales
Family: Sapotaceae
Gunus: Chrysophyllum

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Species: Chrysophyllum cainito L. [4,27,32]

Source :[ -]


H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: A shrub, 4-8 m tall [4]. An evergreen tree up to 15 (35) m tall and 60 cm in diameter with
white gummy latex. Branchlets numerous, with many brown hairs. [6,26] An evergreen, decorative
tree up to 15 m high [13]. Bole usually straight, cylindrical, often fluted or spurred at the base,
buttresses small or absent [26].
[Bark]: Surface rough, irregularly fissured, brown; inner bark fibrous, orange-white mottled to yellow-
white, exuding white latex. Young twigs reddish-brown and hairy [26].
[Leaves]: Alternate, oblong to obovate, 5-16 cm x 3-6 cm, leathery, rust-red below with almost parallel
secondary nerves. Leaf margins thickened [6]. Leaves alternate, distichous or spirally arranged,
simple, oval or oblong, 7.6-12.7 cm long, 3.8-5.8 cm wide, deep green, hairless and glossy above,
golden-brown with a sheen like satin beneath; exstipulate; apex mostly abruptly short pointed, short
pointed at base, with untoothed edges and slightly thickened; tertiary veins often parallel to the
secondaries and descending from the margin. Petiole 1.3-1.6 cm long, reddish-brown, hairy [26].
[Flowers]: Flowers arising from leaf corners on current season´s shoots, in groups of 5-35 small
yellow to purplish-white, flowers with 5 sepals, 1-4 mm long [6]. Inflorescences axillary, ramiflorous or
cauliflorous. Flowers unisexual or bisexual, fasciculate or, rarely,solitary; small and inconspicuous,
purplish-white, axillary. Calyx a single whorl of 4-6; usually 5 imbricate or quincuncial sepals,
sometimes accrescent in fruit, frequently ciliate. Corolla 5-lobed, globose, campanulate or cylindrical;
tube shorter than, equalling or exceeding the lobes; lobes (min. 4) 5 (max. 8), simple. Stalk slender,
hairy, reddish-brown, 64-95 mm long. Stamens 4-8, usually fixed in the corolla tube; ovary superior,
(min 4) 5 (max. 12)-locular with 1 ovule per cell (axile placentation); style included; anthers extrorse in
bud, hairy or glabrous. Staminodes rarely present, as small lanceolate or subulate structures in the
corolla lobe sinuses, alternating with the stamens; disc absent [26].
[Fruit]: Fruit a berry, 5-10 cm in diameter, obovoid-globose, yellow-green or purplish brown with thin
leathery skin and white or purple, soft juicy flesh [6]. Fruits globose, the size of an apple with soft
flesh, the seed compartment resembles a 9-pointed star when perpendicularly cut. Flesh jelly-like,
sweetish, of a pleasant taste, but without a typical aroma [13]. Fruit is commonly round, sometimes
oblate, and 5-10 cm in diameter. Rind thick, leathery, smooth surfaced, somewhat glossy, dull purple
in some varieties, light green in others; with a gummy latex; flesh white and jelly-like. On cutting the
fruit transversely, it is found differentiated into 2 kinds of flesh; directly under the tenacious skin is a
layerof soft , somewhat granular flesh, concolourous with the skin, and not very juicy; enclosed by this
are 8 translucent, whitish segments in which the seeds are embedded. Normally there is 1 seed in
each segment, but frequently several are aborted, leaving 3-5 in the fruit [26]. Seeds ovate to elliptic

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in outline, laterally compressed, 2 cm long, hard, brown and glossy with an adaxial scar. When the
fruit is halved transversely, the cut segments present a star-like appearance, giving the tree the
common name of star-apple. Two races are common, one green-fruited and the other purple fruited;
they are not known to differ in flavour or characteristics except colour. The generic name is based on
the Greek words for gold and leaf and refer to the leaves of some species that are often covered with
golden hairs underneath [26].

I. Wood properties:
Wood hard and durable [13]; the tree is cultivated for its fruit, but if felling becomes necessary the
wood is found to be of fine structure, firm and heavy, specific gravity between 650-900kg/m³, straight
grained, pink to dark reddish or brown. Sapwood and heartwood reddish-brown to dark brown, strong,
hard, but not durable, fairly straight-grained [26].

J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
Originates in tropical West Indies Islands and in Central America [6]; in Southeast Asia most common
in the Philippines, but also found in Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Singapore;
nowadays cultivated everywhere in warm regions as ornamental and fruit tree [4,6,19].

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
Warm tropical climates, wet or dry but hot (4, 32), within a wide climatic range in tropical lowlands [6].
Occurs up to 400 m elevation a.s.l [26].

L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
not det ermined

M. soil and site conditions :
Grows well in moist soil types;[6]; grows well on almost all soil types: fertile, well-drained and slightly
acid soils are preferred. C.cainito grows well on both sandy soils and on deep clayey loams [26].

N. Utilization and importance :
[Wood]: Wood suitable for construction and as firewood [6,17]. Suitable for construction, carpentry,
furniture. It dries moderately slow, with slight splits. Moderately difficult to work, but with extraordinary
durability. Suitable for indoor construction, mouldings, light tool handles, joinery, furniture, cabinet -
making. Yields good veneer, but wood of this species will remain rare [26]. Suitable for marine
construction, railway cross ties, factory floors and agricultural implements [32].
[Non-Wood]: Fruit mostly eaten fresh, used in ice cream or processed to jam [6,13,32]. Unripe fruit
contains a sticky, adstringent latex, but a sweet and pleasantly flavoured pulp surrounds the ripe fruit.
Basically the wood fibre is suitable for quality paper-making but raw material is scarce [26]. The bark
yields tannin.

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Bark, latex and and seeds are used in traditional medicine [6], seeds are diuretic, leaves are
adstringent and used as compress on wounds. The fruit is used against bleeding and cooked against
fever [32]. Undersides of leaves are grated and applied as a poultice on a wound. A leaf decoction is
taken orally for hypoglycaemia. Fruit is used in treating haemorrhage or is cooked and used for fever.
C. cainito is also planted as an ornamental tree because of the bright blue-green colour on the upper
side of leaves and the copper-tone on the underside of the foliage [6,9,26]. Branches are suitable as
an orchid-growing medium [6].
In the Atlantic region of Costa Rica, Central America, C. cainito together with Terminalia amazonia,
Averrhoa carambola, Persea americana Diospyros discolor is planted on abandoned pastures in a
rehabilitation project [32]. Annual growth is described as satisfactory for the fruit trees and for
Terminalia amazonia better than in single species plantations or in secondary forests under shadow
comparable to plots planted with maize (Zea mais) in Taungya systems [32].

O. Cambodian wood classification :
Not included [ 18]

P. Silviculture and management :
Chrysophyllum cainito is primarily a garden or orchard tree, hence there is little information on
plantation establishment and management. Spacing is established from the beginning, based on a
10x10 m or 12x12 m grid because debranching [pruning) is not required. Weekly watering is required
during the first 6 months, later only during the flowering season. In the West Indies trees are not
fertilized but it is considered useful for increasing yield on poor and infertile soils [32]. Some trees
yield heavy crops of fruit, others bear little. Young trees are sensitive to water stress in their 1st year,
and growth during that time is slow. Once the tree is established, growth rate and development
become more rapid. Deep mulching with straw or lawn clippings, application of fertilizer and frequent
dry-season
watering all seem necessary for success with this species. C. cainito commences to bear fruit in its
3rd to 5th year and usually reaches its full production in its 6th to 7th year. Flowering occurs in the
summer, and the fruits mature from late fall to summer. The fruit ripening season in the West Indies is
April and May; it is reported that trees do not fruit in the Virgin Islands. Bats disperse the fruit [26].
Nutritional analysis gives the following results:
sugar 5%
phosphorous 16mg/100g
calcium 17 mg/100g
iron 0.3-0.68 mg/100g
niacine 1mg/100g [32].



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Q. Propagation :
Seed storage reaction is intermediate, seeds should not be dried before storage. Viabilitycan be
maintained for 6 months if stored in moist condition at 20 ºC. Germination reaches 81% on
dessiccation to 4% m.c.( which is in equilibrium with 30% of relative humidity). Germination decreases
to 23 % after 14 months of hermetic storage at 10 ºC.; seed weight amounts to 1100seeds /kg [26].
Propagation is usually by seed, which should be sown in light sandy loam. Germination rate is 70% in
14-40 days. Since there is much variation among seedlings, asexual means of propagation, such as
grafting or layering, are preferable. This enables perpetuation of choice varieties that may originate.
Budding will probably prove satisfactory. It is reported that cuttings can be grown if made from well-
ripened shoots and placed over strong moist heat. Natural regeneration is best at about 50% relative
light intensity [26].

R. Hazards and protection :
Insect pests include twig borers, carpenter moth, mealy bugs, scales and fruit flies. The oriental fruit
fly Dacus dorsalis is a serious pest of ripening fruit and renders the fruit unfit for human consumption.
Wrapping young fruit and collecting and destroying the infested fruit may reduce the damage. Birds,
bats and wild cats can also cause considerable damage. The fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae
causes dry, sooty rot on fruits, which copper fungicides can control. In Queensland, Australia,
Fusarium solani kills young trees and affects limbs of older trees. An unidentified fungal pathogen
shrivels immature fruit in Florida [26].

S. Conservation :
Not a threatened species [9].

T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :
Not determined, but found in many gardens in Cambodia [4].

U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
Native to Central America and Caribbean Islands; introduced to India, Indochina, Thailand, Malaysia,
Indonesia, Philippines, countries in East and West Africa, and South America. and other tropical
countries [26,32].

V. Miscellaneous
4
:
Sapotaceae is a large family of tropical trees, occurring pantropically, mainly in lowland and lower-
montane rain forests. [11]








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W. Further readings
5
:
Anon. 1986. The useful plants of India. Publications & Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi,
India.
Dassanayake MD, Fosberg FR. 1983. Flora of Ceylon. Vol. 10. Amerind Publishing Co. New Delhi.
Hearne DA. 1975. Trees for Darwin and northern Australia. Australian Government Publishing
Service.
Hong TD, Linington S, Ellis RH. 1996. Seed storage behaviour: a compendium. Handbooks for
Genebanks: No. 4. IPGRI.
Popenoe W. 1974. Manual of the tropical and subtropical fruits. The Macmillann Company.
Sosef MSM, Hong LT, Prawirohatmodjo S. (eds.). 1998. PROSEA 5(3) Timber trees: lesser known
species. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.
Timyan J. 1996. Bwa Yo: important trees of Haiti. South-East Consortium for International
Development. Washington D.C.
Verheij EWM, Coronel RE (eds.). 1991. Plant Resources of South East Asia No 2. Edible fruits and
nuts. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.


X. References:
4) Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House; Phnom Penh, 915 pp.

6) Jensen, M., 2001: Trees and Fruits of Southeast Asia. An illustrated field guide. Orchid Press,
Bangkok, 234 pp.

9) Barwick, M., 2004: Tropical and Subtropical Trees: A Worldwide Encyclopaedic Guide.
Thames & Hudson Ltd., London, 484 pp.

11) Heywood, V.D. (Ed.) 1993: Flowering Plants of the World. Oxford University Press, New York;
336 pp.

12) CABI Forestry Compendium Edition 2003 (on CD ROM)

13) Baertels, A., 1993: Farbatlas Tropenpflanzen-Zier- und Nutzpflanzen (Color Atlas Tropical
Plants- ornamental and fruit plants) Eugen Ulmer Publ. Stuttgart, illustrated, 384 pp.

17) Sosef, M.S.M., Hong, L.T., and S. Prawirohatmodjo (Eds.) 1998: Plant Resources of
Southeast Asia 5(3) Timber trees: Lesser known timbers. Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia, 859
pp.

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19) Rehm, S. and G. Espig 1991: The Cultivated Plants of the Tropics and Subtropics. Josef
Margraf, Publ. Scientific Books; Weikersheim, Germany, 552 pp.

20) Salim AS, Simons AJ, Orwa C, Chege J, Ovuor B, and Mutua A, 2002: Agroforestree
Database. World Agroforestry Centre (on CD ROM).

27) Wikipedia http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/species name (Internet source)

32) http://www.herbaria.plants.ox.ac.uk/adc/downloads (Internet source)


Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Chucrasia tabularis Ant. Juss]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Chucrasia tabularis Ant. Juss]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Chucrasia tabularis Ant. Juss. [4]
B. English name (s) ³ Burma almondwood, chickrassy, chittagong wood [16]
bastard cedar, East Indian mahogany, Indian redwood, white
cedar [12].
C. Synonym ³ Chickrassia tabularis (A.Juss.) Wight&Aen., Dysoxylum
esquirolli H. Lev., Swietenia chickrassia Roxb. (8); Chukrasia
velutina M. Roem., Chukrasia velutina (Wallich) Roemer,
Chukrasia tabularis var. velutina (M. Roem.) W. Theob.,
(Botanists do not agree on whether C. velutina is a separate
species or not) [12,16].
D. Other
1
³ surian batu, trade name in Indonesia and Malaysia; repoh,
cherana puteh, suntang puteh (Malaysia); yinma, tawyinma,
kinthatputgyi, (Burma); vory yong, (Cambodia); nhom, nhom
hin, nhom khao, (Laos); siat ka (Thailand-SE); yom-hin,
(Thai-general), fakdap (Thai-Chanthaburi), lát hoa, Vietnam.
[2,16,20]

E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³ vlø ×eyag/ Ereyag
Source: [-]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ rê:-yôô:ng, voë(lli) yôông [4]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Sapindales
Family: Meliaceae subfamily Swietenioideae
Gunus: Chukrasia A.H.L. Juss. [16]
Species: Chukrasia tabularis A. Juss.
Source :[2 ; 4 ; 8 ; 1 ; 11 ;12]

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H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: A tree up to 30 m in height and up to 100 cm in diameter. Trunk straight with large
butresses, branches dense. [2] A tree, 8-20 m tall [4]. Evergreen tree up to 35 m high [5]. Deciduous
trees up to 40 m high, diameter up to 120 cm, buttresses present [8]. Deciduous, monoecious,
medium-sized, sometimes fairly large trees, up to 30(40) m tall; bole branchless for up to 18 (32) m,
with a diameter of up to 110(175) cm, without buttresses [16].
[Bark]: Bark blackish, lenticellate, shortly reddish tomentose [2]. Dark brown, coarsely fissured, inner
bark red [5]. Bark scaling into rectangular blocks. Inner bark reddish-brown or pinkish. Sapwood
straw-colored, heartwood yellow to reddish-brown. Twigs grey.[8] Bark surface rusty brown or deep
brown, with lenticels, inner bark reddish [16].
[Leaves]: Paripinnate compound. Petiole 30-40 cm long, cylindrical. Folioles 7-10 pairs, alternate
sometimes nearly opposite, 10-12 cm long and 5-6 cm wide, ovate or lanceolate, apex mucronate.
Petiolule 0.4-0.8 cm long. Lateral veins 10-15 pairs, a bundle of hairs at axil of veins, venules obvious
beneath [2]. Leaf 30-85 cm, odd-pinnate (5)8-13 pairs of alternate or sub-opposite leaflets, 7-13x3.0-
4.5 cm, narrowly ovate or oblong with tapering tips and oblique base, no teeth. Young leaves finely
hairy, mature leaves completely smooth, 7-10 pairs of side veins. Leaflet stalks 0.3-0.5 cm, main stalk
7-11 cm [5].
Leaves bipinnate with incised or lobed leaflets when young, 30-80 cm long. Petioles 4-9 cm long,
swollen at base, base oblique, margin entire (when mature), apex tapering, venation pinnate,
secondary veins 10-15 pairs, domatia present, petioles 2-6 mm long [8].
Leaves paripinnate with alternate, entire, asymmetrical and acuminate leaflets, impari-pinnate and
lobed or incised when juvenile, glabrous or with simple hairs [16].
[Flowers]: Inflorescence a panicle, terminal, erect, then pendulous, tomentose. Bract oblong,
caducous. Flowers hermaphrodite, yellowish, 1.5 cm long. Pedicel shorter than the flower. Sepals
0.25 cm long, shortly stellate-tomentose outside. Petals 5, 1.5-2.0 cm long, linear, slightly curved then
spreading, margin enrolled, shortly tomentose outside, glabrous inside. Stamens 10, filament connate
into cylindrical tube, glabrous, a little shorter than the petal, slightly swollen at the base. Anthers 10,
glabrous, extrorse (turned to the outside). Ovary tomentose, stigma short, cylindrical [2]. Flower 2.5-
3.0 cm, pale yellow often tinged dull red outside in spreading, branched clusters at or slightly above
leaf axils, sometimes appearing terminal; individual stalks ± 0.3 cm, smooth. Calyx 1-2 mm, densely
brown hairy, 4-5 narrow petals, ± 0.7 cm, curved backwards, minutely velvety. Stamen tube
cylindrical, slightly narrower towards top with 10 anthers on flat or shallowly toothed rim. Ovary
smooth, longer than style, surrounded by thin cup-shaped disc [5].
Inflorescences form panicles, axillary, sometimes terminal. Bracts narrowly triangular, often caducous.
Flowers bisexual, calyx 5-lobed, densely brown hairy. Petals 5, free, slightly curved, spreading, hairy
outside, glabrous inside. Stamen tube cylindrical, slightly narrower towards top, glabrous with 10
anthers attached to the margin. Ovary tomentose [8].

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Flowers unisexual, in axillary (sometimes appearingly terminal) thyrses, 4- or 5-merous, up to 16 mm
long; calyx lobed, petals free, contorted, reflexed in open flowers, white; staminal tube cylindrical,
narrowing towards the apex, entire or weakly lobed, with the anthers attached to the margin; disc
small, ovary flask-shaped, 3-5 locular, each locule with many ovules, style slender [16].
[Fruit]: Elliptic, slightly mucronate at tip, 4.0-4.5 cm long and 2.5-3.5 cm wide, many seeds piled up in
each fruit-locule. Seed 1.0-1.2 cm long and 0.4 cm wide, endosperm absent [2].
Fruit up to 4 cm, yellow-grey, slightly hairy when young, wrinkled when ripe, splitting into 3 sections,
densely packed with winged seeds [5].
Fruit a capsule, ovoid, woody, dark brown, 2.0-4.5 by 2.0-3.5 cm, opening by 3-5 valves from apex.
Seeds many, 1.0-1.3 cm long, winged [8].
Fruit an erect, woody, ovoid or ellipsoid capsule, opening by 3-5 valves from the apex; valves
separating into a woody outer and inner layer, apex of those of the inner layer deeply bifid; locules
appearing as one locule due to the breaking down of the septae; columella with sharp ridges. Seeds
60-100 per locule, flat, with terminal wings, arranged in layers, alternately "head-to-toe"; embryo with
thin cotyledons. Seedling with epigeal germination; cotyledons leafy; first 2 leaves opposite,
subsequent ones arranged spirally; terminal leaflet present in seedling leaves but abortive in mature
plants [16].
Flowering in July, fruiting in December or following January. Natural regeneration is satisfactory,
flowering in June-July, fruiting in November to following January. C. tabularis flowers and fruits
annually, seeds are ripe in in January-March. The winged fruits are disseminated by the wind [2,8,16].


I. Wood properties:
Chukrasia (surian batu) is a moderately heavy and moderately hard wood.The heartwood is pale
reddish-brown, yellowish-red to red, darkening to dark yellowish-brown, reddish-brown to medium
dark-brown on exposure, sharply differentiated from the yellowish-white, pale yellowish-brown,
pinkish-brown or greyish-brown sapwood. Dark streaks may be rather prominent. The specific gravity
is 625-880 kg/m³ at 15% m.c. The grain is interlocked and sometimes wavy, producing a special
figure, texture moderately fine but uneven. Freshly cut wood has a fragrant odor, but dried wood has
no characteristic odor or taste. Planed surfaces have a high lustrous satiny sheen [16].
At 15% m.c. the modulus of rupture is 82-101 N/mm², modulus of elasticity10,800-14,300 N/mm²,
compression parallel to grain 47-64 N/mm², compression perpendicular to grain 11-12 N/mm², shear
15-18 N/mm², cleavage c. 60 N/mm² radial and 71 N/mm² tangential and Janka side hardness 8,990-
9,230 N. The rates of shrinkage are rather low: from green to 15% m.c. 1.3% radial and 1.7%
tangential, from green to oven-dry 3.9% radial and 6.0% tangential. Usually the wood dries fairly
rapidly without degrade, but a slight tendency to check and warp and some liability to collapse have
been reported. Fine surface hair checks may develop when drying thick boards. In Malaysia kiln
schedule E is recommended. Tests in Malaysia showed that the wood is difficult to very difficult to saw
and cross cut, slightly difficult to turn, very difficult to bore, but easy to plane. It produces a moderately

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smooth finish, but some picking up of grain may occur on quartersawn material during planing and
moulding. However, tests in other areas showed that the wood can be easily sawn and machined.
Surian batu has good nailing and screw-holding properties, it can be stained effectively and polished
excellently. The steam bending properties are rated as good. It can be readily peeled and sliced into
veneers and the veneer can be glued satisfactorily into decorative plywood. In Malaysia Chukrasia is
considered as moderately durable under exposed conditions, but elsewhere it is sometimes classified
as non-durable. The resistance against termite attack varies from good to poor. The wood is
moderately to extremely resistant to preservative treatment [12,16].


J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
Chukrasia consists of one or possibly two species and is distributed in Nepal, India, Pakistan, Sri
Lanka, Bangladesh, Southern China, Indochina, (Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam), Thailand, Peninsular
Malaysia, Indonesia, (Kalimantan), and Japan [8,12,16]. It is a species of the wet tropics, strongly
localized today because of over-exploitation in the past decennia [12]. It usually grows on limestone
mountains, at altitudes below 800 m, mixed with Dracontomelum dao, Garcinia spp., and Peltophorum
tonkinensis [8]. In Vietnam below 800 m, usually on limestone mountains mixed with Pentace
tonkinensis, Garcinia spp., Amoora gigantea and Dracontomelum duperreanum [2]. C. tabularis grows
also in dense forests of India and the Indochinese and Malay Peninsulas [4]. Chukrasia is usually
found scattered in lowland evergreen dipterocarp rain forest, moist semi-evergreen forest or
deciduous forest at 300-800 m altitude. In Peninsular Malaysia it occurs occasionally as colonist on
bare land including road cuttings and abandoned shifting cultivation areas [5,16,26]. Major stands of
C. tabularis are found in India, Bangladesh, Thailand and Malaysia. It has been planted in many
countries outside Southeast Asia such as Nigeria, Cameroon, South Africa, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and
Costa Rica [20].

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
In its natural surroundings the annual precipitation is 1800-3800 mm and more. Minimum temperature
range 2.5-15.5 ºC, maximum 36.0-40.5 ºC [16]. Grows below 800 m, slow growing and light-
demanding but shade tolerant when young [2,8]; also on limestone in Sarawak (East Malaysia) [16].
On average this species thrives at elevations from 0-900 m with mean annual precipitation of 1400-
4000 mm/ m² distributed evenly over the summer months, tolerating a dry season of up to 5 months.
The mean annual temperature should lie in the range of 20-25ºC. C. tabularis will tolerate 850 mm
annual rainfall but react with slow growth. The area of distribution would be confined by a north-south
extension of 27º N to 0º N [12]. Open vegetation provides good growth condition as it is a light-
demanding species tolerating shade only at a young age [12, 26]. Chucrasia has the ability to self-
prune,coppice, pollard, while being tolerant to wind and shade [26].

L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
not determined.


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M. soil and site conditions :
Chukrasia usually avoids heavy wet soils, it is found on limestone [8], occasionally on bare land [16].
It will grow on limestone soils, brown forest soils and alluvial soils but remain stunted on infertile
calcareous soils. Soil types may include alfisols, alluvial soils,cambisols and limestone soils [12]. Soil
acidity may vary from pH 4.0 to almost neutral with pH 7.5. Free drainage must prevail, the ground
can be level or steeply sloping, preferrably with a south exposition [12].

N. Utilization and importance :
[Wood]: Chucrasia wood exhibits some of the beauty of a typical mahogany. It is used in construction
and furniture-making [2]. Highly prized for high grade cabinet work [4]; decorative panelling, interior
applications such as doors, windows, flooring, for carving and turnery. It is also used for railway
sleepers, ship and boat building, furniture, musical instruments, including pianos, packing cases,
sporting goods, truck beds, mallet heads, anvil blocks, brush wares, drawing equipment, rifle butts,
sliced and rotary cut veneer, plywood, wood-based panels and pulp [12]. In India it is also used for
medium heavy construction work, posts, beams, scantlings and planks. [8,16]
[Non-Wood]: Young leaves and bark have a high tannin content and the bark yields a reddish gum
which is sold together with gums from other trees [12.16]. The bark is adstringent and is used in
traditional medicine as a febrifuge. Also. the bark contains 15% of tannin, the leaves even more with
22%. If adequately treated flowers will yield either a yellow or a red dye [12]. In South China an
extract from twigs has been used as a repellent against Pieris rapae, an insect damaging rice plants
[12].
Chucrasi tabularis could make a valuable component of agroforestry landuse. Because of its self-
pruning properties and the straight bole it can be used as an alley tree in combination with banana,
citrus or guave fruit trees as intercrops [12].

O. Cambodian wood classification :
First Class [4,18]


P. Silviculture and management :
Chukrasia has been planted in many countries outside Southeast Asia, e.g. in Nigeria, Cameroon,
South Africa, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and Costa Rica. Natural regeneration in the evergreen forests of
India is adequate but it is sparse in the semi-evergreen forests. C. tabularis is regarded as a pioneer
species and common in former shifting cultivation areas. Young trees coppice well [16]. "In India,
growth of seedlings proved moderately fast in the first 2 years. After the first 2 years the plants had
reached a height of 1.2-2.1 m , after 3 years 2.8-3.4 m, with a diameter of 4-5 cm and after 6 years
5.5 m tall and a diameter of 15 cm indicating a mean annual diameter increment of 2.5 cm". Another
source from India records a height of 6.6 m and a diameter of 5.2 cm for 5-year-old plants. A planting
trial in western Java using seeds from Sumatra showed a mean height of 13 m and a mean diameter

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of 18 cm 10 years after planting. In the arboretum of the Forest Research Institute Malaysia the
largest tree, aged 33 years, had attained a height of 33 m, a clear bole of 16m and a diameter of 66
cm after 40 years. Chukrasia also grows well in plantations on exposed sites and may achieve over 1
cm diameter increment annually [16].
C. tabularis can be propagated vegetatively from stem and root cuttings (Rashid et al., 1986). Stem
cuttings from juvenile material have a 97% success rate, while for root cuttings it is only 50%. About
10,800 seedlings can be produced from a single harvest of shoots from one-year-old stock plants
growing in a hedge bed area of 100 m² (Pandit, 1996) [12].
For plantations, sites are generally prepared by burning after clear felling; however, since seedlings
are sensitive to drought, efforts should be made to reduce the danger of early mortality, such as
providing partial shade with faster-growing species. This technique is used in West Bengal (Forest
Research Institue India, 1974) [12].

At least three weedings during the rainy season are necessary for the first three years. The seedlings
are liable to attack by shoot borers; hence, mixture with other, non-meliaceous, species is desirable.
As it has a tendency to branch and fork, thinnings, especially the early ones, should be comparatively
light. C. tabularis can be badly browsed and debarked by deer and therefore fencing around
plantations is necessary [12].

Q. Propagation :
Shoots from stock plants can be cut every 21-24 days. Juvenile cuttings have been fond suitable for
orchard establishment. Research work with provisionally selected plus-trees from a wild population
was succesfully carried out for the establishment of a clonal orchard by the Chittagong University of
Bangladesh. Equally effective for orchard establishment is patch budding [12]. C. tabularis
regenerates naturally through seed, which is generally satisfactory, as well as through coppice. Ripe
fruits, collected from trees during March and April, are spread out in the sun for 2-3 days to dehisce,
and the seeds are separated by gentle thrashing, care being taken to protect them from being blown
away, or capsules are dried in shade until they split open, and the seeds are released by gentle
tumbling or shaking. An adult tree with a good crown size can produce 8-16 kg of fruits, giving 1-2 kg
of seeds. The number of seeds per kilogram varies from 45,000 to 100,000; germinative capacity
varies from 25 to 90%. Seeds can be stored in gunny bags for about 5 months, being recalcitrant to
intermediate. Direct sun drying should be avoided, as it may cause overheating and desiccation of the
sensitive seeds. Seeds require no pretreatment and are sown with overhead shade in light porous
soil. Germination is fair: in Malaysia 35% of the seeds sown germinated in 1-2.5 weeks, in India 80-
90% in 1-4 weeks. Where seed is plentiful, the best method is broadcast sowing in strips 0.6 m wide
and 1.8 m apart. Best results have been obtained by raising seedlings in well-drained boxes and pots
before transplanting. Seedlings are pricked out and transplanted to the nursery beds when about 1
month old and 6-8 cm high. The species can also be propagated by air-layering, entire transplants or
stumps. Seed storage behaviour is orthodox; loss in viability after 1 year of hermetic air-dry storage at

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room temperature; little loss in viability (by 4%) following 6 months of hermetic storage at 10 deg. C
with 6% mc. Fresh seed retain its viability for a relatively short period, about 3 months. [26].

R. Hazards and protection :
As a member of the Meliaceae family Chukrasia populations world-wide remain heavily infested by
the shoot borer Hypsipyla robusta. The fact that many trees show the tendency to fork early, indicates
that this may be a trait attributable to the destruction of leader shoot buds by Hypsipyla. Light to
moderate or lateral shading has led to some reduction of Hypsipyla damage. It is evident that, it a a
long-term solution is needed, then it can only be expected from genetics research with Hypsipyla
resistant clones. A related research program has been initiated at the Institute of Forestry and
Environmental Sciences at Chittagong University, Bangladesh. Damage caused by the collar borer
Plagiophleus longiclavis can be controlled by spraying the soil around the stem collar with Furadan
3G, a commercial product on the basis of carbofuran as active ingredient [12].

S. Conservation :
Red-listed because of near-exhaustion of seed trees, therefore an endangered species in Vietnam [2].

T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :
unknown

U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
East to Southeast Asia, native: West and South Africa, Central America, introduced [12,16].

V. Miscellaneous
4
:
Chukrasia is a very distinctive genus among the genera of the tribe Swietenieae of the subfamily
Swietenioideae. It is characterized by the large flowers, the more or less entire staminal tube, and the
arrangement and number of seeds [11,16].

W. Further readings
5
:
Chudnoff, M., 1980:Tropical timbers of the world.For.Prod. Lab., USDAForest Service pp.591-592.
Gamble JS, 1984. A manual of Indian timbers. (Reprint) Dehra Dun, India: Bishen Singh Mahendra
Pal Singh.
Latif MA, Younus-uzzaman M, Gupta SRD, De BC, 1989. Natural durability of some important timber
species of Bangladesh. Bano Biggyan Patrika, 18(1-2):31-35; 6 ref
Mabberley DJ, 1995. Meliaceae. In: Dassanayake MD, ed. A Revised handbook to the flora of Ceylon.
Vol.9. Washington D.C., USA: Smithsonian Institution and National Science Foundation, 229-30
Rai SN, 1985. Notes on nursery and regeneration technique of some species occurring in southern
tropical wet evergreen and semi-evergreen forests of Karnataka (India) Part II. Indian Forester,
111(8):644-657; 3 ref.

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Sekhar AC, Sharma RS, 1965. Physical and mechanical properties of woods tested at FRI. Report 9.
Indian Forest Records.
Venkataramany P, Rashid MA, Joshi HB, Venkataramanan SV, Ram Parkash, 1981. Troup's The
Silviculture of Indian Trees. Vol. 3. India: Govt. of Indian Press, 160-164.

X. References:
2) NGUYEN et al. 1996: Viet nam Forest Trees. Agricult ural Publishing House, Hanoi,
788 pp.

4) DY PHON, P. , 2000: Plant s used in Cambodia. Olympic Print ing House; Phnom
Penh, . 915 pp.

5) Gardner, S., Sidisunt horn, P. and Vilaiwan Anursarnsunt horn, 2000: A Field Guide
t o Forest Trees of Nort hern Thailand. CMU Herbarium Biology Dept . Universit y of Chiang
Mai, Thailand; 546 pp.

8) Sam, H. V. ,Nant havong, Kh. and P. J. A. Kessler 2004: Trees of Laos and Viet nam:
A field guide t o 100 economically or ecologically import ant species. BLUMEA J. Plant Tax.
and Plant Geogr. , Nat . Herbar. Nederlande, Univ. Leiden Br. Leiden The Net herlands ,
349 pp.

12) CABI Forest ry Compendium Edit ion 2003 ( on CD ROM)

16) Lemmens, R. H. M. J., Soerianegara, I . And W.C. Wong ( Eds. ) 1995: Plant
Resources of Sout heast Asia 5( 2) Timber t rees: Minor commercial t imbers. Prosea
Foundat ion, Bogor, I ndonesia, 655 pp.

20) Salim AS, Simons AJ, Orwa C, Chege J, Ovuor, B, and Mut ua A, 2002:
Agroforest ree Dat abase. World Agroforest ry Cent re ( on CD ) .

26) World Agroforest ry Cent re
ht t p. www. worldagroforest ry. org/ sea/ Product s/ AFDbases/ AF/ asp/ Speciesinfo. asp?
( I nt ernet source)




Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Cinnamomum cambodianum Lecomte]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Cinnamomum cambodianum Lecomte]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Cinnamomum cambodianum Lecomte
B. English name (s) ³ Chinese cassia [7]
C. Synonym ³ None known.
D. Other
1
³ cannelier, cannelle (France) [4, 7] - gudatvak (India) [7]

E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³: eTBirU
Source: [3]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ tep porou [1], tep tieru [4], tepirou [5], teep piiruu [7]

G. Taxonomic position(complete)³:
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Lauraceae
Family: Lauraceae
Gunus: Cinnamomum Schaefer
Species: Cinnamomum cambodianum
Lecomte
Source :[ 5,8]


H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: Cinnamomum cambodianum is an evergreen large tree with a height of 15-25 m [1] (-17 m
[2], 10-15 m [4, 7]) with a large and dense crown. The trunk is usually straight and cylindrical with a
beautiful form and a DBH of 30-80 cm [1] (30-50 cm [2]). All parts of the stem are aromatic.

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[Bark]: The outer bark is greyish and sparsely covered with lenticels. The inner bark is 1.2-1.5 cm [2]
thick, yellowish white and aromatic.
[Leaves]: The rounded leaves are opposite and oval, 6-15 x 3-8 cm [1] (9 x 4 cm [7], 12-14 x 7-9 cm
[2]).
[Flowers]: The flowers are small, bisexual (=hermaphrodite), arranged in sub-terminal or axillary stalks
and of light yellow color .
[Fruits]: The fruit is egg-shaped and 6-8 mm [1] in diameter. The color of young fruits is grey-yellow,
turning to red-brown when mature.
[1, 2, 4, 7]

I. Wood properties:
[Wood Properties]: Cinnamomum spp. is a light-weight to medium-weight hardwood. The heartwood
varies in color from greyish green to pinkish, reddish or pale brown, sometimes turning red brown or
walnut brown on exposure (reddish-grey for C. cambodianum [1]) and is usually not distinctly
demarcated from the straw colored pale pink or pale brown sapwood (pale grey for C. cambodianum
[1]. The density is 0.37-0.86 g/cm³ at 15% moisture content [9]. Other wood properties: "Modulus of
rupture at 12% mc: 44-93.5 N/mm². Modulus of elasticity 7,315-12,570 N/mm². Compression parallel
to grain: 28-52 N/mm². Compression perpendicular to grain: approx. 5.5N/ mm². Rates of shrinkage
(from green to 12% mc): 1.6% (radial), 4.8% (tangential). Rates of shrinkage (from green to oven dry):
3.3% (radial), 5.7% (tangential)" [9].
[1, 9]

J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
Approximate limits: 30°N to 30°S [8]. This tree species is found in Cambodia and Vietnam, in dense
and moist primary and secondary forests along river- and stream banks in valleys and at the foot of
mountains. There it grows in clusters of 5-10 trees [1] usually mixed with Elaeocarpus dubius,
Actinodaphne pilosa, Polyanthia cerasoides, Michelia balansae and Canarium album. In Cambodia it
can also be found in evergreen hill mountain forests in the upper slopes of Bokor and the Cardamon
Mountains and in Ratanakiri and Kampong Thom.
[1, 2, 7, 8]

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
Normally it occurs at altitudes of 600-700 m a.s.l. [1, 4] (200-600 m [2]) but in Cambodia it is also
found at altitudes up to 1,500 m a.s.l. [1]. Cinnamomum is adapted to a wide range of climatic
conditions. It tolerates short periods of drought. As a forest tree it is partially shade tolerant, but
mature trees grow well in full sunshine.
[1, 2, 4, 8]





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L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
Central Annamites.
[1]
[Seed Source Locations (Projection: UTM; Horizontal Datum: Indian coordinates)]:
Ratanak Kiri (X:732948 Y:1551895), Ratanak Kiri (X:732419 Y:1567241), Ratanak Kiri (X:766785
Y:1500486), Ratanak Kiri (X:701601 Y:1570885), Ratanak Kiri (X:728014 Y:1536309), Kampong
Thom (X:544510 Y:1403022).
[1]
M. soil and site conditions :
C. cambodianum grows well in deep fertile and moist soils. However it also occurs in well drained
leached hillside soils of low fertility and strong acidity with a pH of 4-6 [8]. It also tolerates short
periods of waterlogging.
[1, 2, 8]
N. Utilization and importance :
[Wood]: The timber is straight and white and can be used in construction, for sawing boards, columns,
posts and farming implements. It is also used for fuelwood.
[2, 6]
[Non-wood]: The bark is also chewed with betel or is used in the kitchen as food. It also contains an
essential oil that is used in traditional medicine: "Main actions are a warming stimulant, carminative,
anti-spasmodic and antiseptic. It has also been reputedly used for indigestion, tuberculosis and
regulation of menstrual pains. The stem bark is often used as a cardiac tonic, anti flatulent and
relieves fatigue. Steam inhalation of the leaves are used to treat nasal cataracts. Patients treated with
other anti coagulants should be monitored carefully whilst taking this herb, due to the coumarin
contents in the herb" [7].
[1, 2, 4, 6, 7]
[Others]: No information available.

O. Cambodian wood classification :
No class. [10]

P. Silviculture and management :
[General]: C. cambodianum grows in dense and moist primary and secondary forests along river and
stream banks in valleys and at foot of mountains. There it occurs in clusters of 5-10 trees [1] usually
mixed with Elaeocarpus dubius, Actinodaphne pilosa, Polyanthia cerasoides, Michelia balansae and
Canarium album. In Cambodia it can also be found in evergreen hill mountain forests. It is a shade
demanding tree when young but mature trees grow well in full sunshine.
[1, 2, 7]

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Q. Propagation :
Generally, natural regeneration is very good under the forest canopy.
[Seed Collection]: "Seeds are usually collected from the tree or from the ground by shaking the
branches. In seed source areas, the ground is usually cleared and sometimes burnt to prepare for
seed collection. To ease collection, a cover can be spread out on the ground. The optimal time of
collection is reached when the fruits have changed in color from green to brownish. Maturity can be
confirmed by a cutting test" [1].
[1, 2]

R. Hazards and protection :
[Pests]: "Ceylon cinnamon pests, which have also been reported on other Cinnamomum are
caterpillars of the cinnamon butterfly (Chilasa clytia), leafminers (Acrocerops spp.), caterpillars of a
leafwebber (Sorolopha archimedias), and mole crickets (Gryllotalpha spp.) damaging young
seedlings" [8].
[Diseases]: "Diseases may include stripe canker (Phytophtora cinnamomi), pink disease (Corticium
salmonicolor, Syn: C. javanicum), white rot (Fomes lignosus), rust (Aecidium cinnamomi) and
anthracnose (Glomerella cingulata). A serious witches broom disease has been recently found on
Chinese cassia in Vietnam. Control with the natural antibiotic berberine has been successful" [8].

S. Conservation :
"As the wood is very valuable and in high demand, this species is under high pressure from over-
exploitation and is in danger of extinction unless measures are taken to provide adequate protection
illegal logging. The number of mature trees has been reduced significantly and it is now difficult to find
significant sources of germplasm. In 2002, the second CTSP meeting on the Forest Gene
Conservation Strategy defined Cinnamomum cambodianum Lecomte as a priority species in need of
immediate conservation intervention and appropriate protection" [1].

T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :
It has been found in the upper slopes of Bokor and the Cardamon Mountains and in Ratanakiri and
Kampong Thom in Cambodia. Cinnamomum cambodianum is endemic to Cambodia.
[1, 4]

U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
[World Distribution]
[Native]: Cambodia, Vietnam [1]
[Introduced]: Apparently this species does not occur yet outside of its natural range.
[3]



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V. Miscellaneous
4
:
[Chemical properties]: "Volatile oils up to 4% (cinnamaldehyde 65-75% & eugenol 4-10%), tannins,
coumarins, and mucilage" [7].

W. Further readings
5
:
No information available.


X. References:
[1] CTSP, 2003: Forest Gene Conservation Strategy - Gene Conservation Strategy, Species
Monographs, Gene Ecological Zonation, Species Site Matching Model. (CD-ROM).

[2] Nguyen et al., 1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. JICA/Vietnam Inventory and Planning Institute.

[3] Bertram, A. (2006): Own observations.

[4] Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.

[5] CTSP/DANIDA, 2004: List of Tree Species. 7pp.

[6] FAO: The State of Forest Management and Conservation in Cambodia -
http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/DOCREP/005/AC648E/ac648e04.htm
(Internet source)

[7] Kham, L., 2004: Medicinal Plants of Cambodia - Habitat, Chemical Constituents and
Ethnobotanical Uses.

[8] PROSEA, 1999: Plant Resources of South East Asia 13 - Spices

[9] PROSEA, 1995: Plant Resources of South East Asia 5 - (2) Timber trees: Minor commercial
timbers.

[10] Department of Forestry and Wildlife, 1988: Cambodian Forestry Law No. 35, 25th June 1988.
Phnom Penh.



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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. & Panzer) Swingle]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. & Panzer) Swingle]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. & Panzer) Swingle
B. English name (s) ³ lime, sour lime, common lime [1]
C. Synonym ³ Limonia aurantifolia Christm. & Panzer (1777), Citrus
javanica Blume (1825), Citrus notissima Blanco (1837) [1],
Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle, Citrus acida Roxb.,
Citrus hystrix ssp. acida (Roxb.) Engl., Citrus lima Lunan,
Citrus limetta var. aromatica Wester, Citrus medica var.
acida (Roxb.) Hook. f., Limonia acidissima Christm. [2]
D. Other
1
³ lime acide, limettier, limettier acide (France) [1, 4] -
jeruk nipis, jeruk pecel (Indonesia) [1] - limau asam, limau
nipis (Malaysia) [1] - muli (Papua New Guinea) [1] - dayap
(Philippines) [1] - naaw (Laos) [1] - somma nao, manao
(Thailand) [1] - chanh, chanh ta (Vietnam) [1]
E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³: RkUcqµamUl/RkUcqµaExµ r/RkUcqµa
Source: [3]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ krôôch chhmaa muul [1], kroôch chmâa [4], kro:ch
chma: khmè [7]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³:
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Rutales [2] / Sapindales [5]
Family: Rutaceae
Gunus: Citrus
Species: Citrus aurantifolia

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Source :[ 2]


H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: Small evergreen tree with a height of 5 m [1] (8 m [4]). Crown is dense and irregularly
branched with armed twigs bearing short stiff and sharp spines. Root suckers and suckers on older
branches are characterized by stout sharp spines and are common. All growing parts of the plant are
deliciously smelling.
[Leaves]: The leaves are alternate, elliptic to egg-shaped or opposite egg-shaped, 4-8 cm x 2-5 cm [1]
(3-8 cm × 2-5 cm [5]) with a bluntly toothed margin. The leaf-tip is pointed; the leaf-base is rounded,
with gland dots and hairless.
[Flowers]: Inflorescences are short alternate, 1-7(-10)-flowered [1] (7 flowers [4]). The flowers are
either perfect or male, small and often solitary or in few clusters in the axils of the leaves on shoots
which have just flushed. Outer flower leaves are cup-shaped, 4-6-lobed. Inner flower leaves (=petals)
4-6 [1] (4 [4]), each one 8-12 mm long [1] and sweet-smelling. Stamens (=male organ) 20-25(-34) [1].
Ovary (=female organ) 9-12(-15)-celled [1], style abruptly distinct. "The stigma is receptive as the
flower opens and remains so for a few days. Pollen is not released until the flower has opened.
Copious secretion of nectar by a floral disk attracts insects, especially honey bees, which pollinate the
flowers. Self-pollination occurs, but self-incompatibility limits fruit set" [1].
[Fruits]: The fruit (=berry) is globe-shaped to egg-shaped, 3-6 cm in diameter [1] (4-6 cm [5]),
sometimes with apical papillae. The thin skin (peel) is greenish-yellow when ripe, leathery, rough and
contains aromatic oil glands. The segments consist of yellow-green pulp-vesicles which are very acid,
juicy and fragrant. Seeds are small, plump, egg-shaped, pale and smooth with white embryos
(polyembryonic). Generally the 'West Indian' limes from Central America have a larger fruit than in
other regions. The fruit ripens after 5.5-6 months [1].
[1, 4, 5]

I. Wood properties:
No information available.

J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
The lime grows naturally in the lowland tropics, most commonly in coastal regions and is now
cultivated throughout the tropics and in warm subtropical areas
[1, 5].

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
It grows up to an altitude of 0-1,000 m a.s.l. [1] or more (0-2,200 m [5]). The tree needs a warm
climate and is sensitive to cold but quite drought resistant.
[1, 5]



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L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
No information available.


M. soil and site conditions :
Limes can even grow on poor soils and tolerates heavier soils than oranges, if good drainage
prevents waterlogging.
[1]
N. Utilization and importance :
In Cambodia the tree is primarily cultivated for its fruits.
[Wood]: No information available.
[Non-wood]: Limes are an everyday ingredient of the food in South-East Asia. The fruit is used in
nearly every home in South-East Asia mainly to flavor food, but also to prepare drinks. "The rich flavor
and acid taste make lime a favorite for hot and spicy dishes, either fresh or in the form of pickles and
sauces. The refreshing qualities come to the fore in lime juice, lime tea and the use on other fruit, e.g.
papaya. In Malaysia the fruit is preserved in brine and vinegar; it is enjoyed as an appetizer when fried
in oil with sugar added" [1]. In Cambodia fruits are candied and used to flavor poultry-meat dishes. It
is also broadly used in Cambodian medicine: The leaves and fruits have many medicinal uses, some
of which are linked with the belief that limes drive evil spirits away. "The juice and pulp of fruits contain
citric acid and vitamin C. Both young and old leaves contain the coumarin isopimpinellin. The volatile
oils consists of limonene. sabinene, terpinolene, citral, alpha- and beta pinenes, alpha terpinol,
linalool, alpha bergamotene and beta bisabolene. The coumarins include limettin, bergamottin,
bergapten, dimethoxycoumarin and gamma geranoxypsoralen isoimperatoren. This is a main source
of vitamin C. The leaves are steamed with Cymbopogon nardus to relieve the symptoms of cold and
flu. The fresh fruits have reputedly been used as an expecorant and a cough remedy. There is limited
medicinal use of lime, although there have been numerous studies on immuno-modulatory effects.
Lime is commonly used as a photosynthesizer for suntan preparations" [4].
[Others]: No information available.
[1, 4, 7]

O. Cambodian wood classification :
No class. [3]

P. Silviculture and management :
[Establishment]: The juvenile phase lasts about 5 years. [5]
[Management]: Lime is an everbearing tree [5]. "Under dry conditions irrigation is necessary to obtain
good quality fruits. Unpruned trees have a dense twiggy canopy and crowded branches may die back
due to competition. Hence, trees are pruned to thin the branches and to remove suckers and limbs

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infected by canker. To influence the harvest time, irrigation is withheld for 3 weeks in the dry season;
resumption of irrigation triggers a flush which brings on flowering" [1].
[Harvesting]: The fruit needs 5.5-6 months [1] from flowering to harvest. "The fruit is harvested by
hand when it is mature green or yellow. Immature fruits, although less juicy, may be included during
the season of poor supplies. In Thailand there is little fruit in March-April. This may be due to early
ripening (coloring) of the fruit during the cool dry period of December-February. Alternatively, the gap
in supplies may be caused by poor flowering or fruit set during September-October (the second half of
the rainy season)" [1].
[Production]: "Layered trees can produce fruits in the second year after planting, but growers aim at
maximum growth to get a more substantial crop in the third year. The average yield of lime in Thailand
during the 1988/1989 season was 2,400 kg/ha. In India trees are expected to bear 600-1,500 fruits
per year. A single tree in the home garden can meet a family's requirements. Urban people depend
on this fruit which is produced in orchards" [1].

Q. Propagation :
"Unlike other citrus species, limes are rarely propagated by budding. In South-East Asia, air layering
is the normal method, elsewhere the trees are raised from seed. Sturdy twigs, preferably suckers, are
selected for layering and the dust of coconut husk after fiber extraction is the medium used in
Thailand. The layers are potted and nursed for 2-4 weeks before planting" [1].

R. Hazards and protection :
[Pests]: "The obnoxious citrus leaf miner (Phyllocnistis citrella) causes leaf malformation and early
leaf fall. The pest affects almost every tree and to the extent that flowering is diminished. Control by
insecticides is difficult because the caterpillars are relatively safe in their tunnels in the underside of
the leaves, and life cycles are short and overlap. The increased use of insecticides seems to have
aggravated the pest, perhaps because predators are more vulnerable" [1].
[Diseases]: "High incidence of bacterial canker is a limiting factor in the wet tropics. Limes are
susceptible to tristeza virus, but the more serious threat is bacterial canker (Xanthomonas campestris
p.v. citri), which shortens the life of trees by girdling the trunk. The bacteria can infect any part of the
tree through wounds; even the stings of sucking insects afford entry. The bacteria are distributed by
rain. Strict orchard hygiene, i.e. removal of infested branches, spraying with copper early in the rainy
season, and spraying with streptomycin are recommended" [1].

S. Conservation :
No information available.

T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :
It was introduced into Cambodia where the fruit is widely cultivated. [4]

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U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
[Native]: India
[7]
[Introduced]:
Asia (Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Thailand,
Vietnam)
Central America: (Mexico, Dominica)
Africa: (Ghana)
[1, 7]




V. Miscellaneous
4
:
[World Production]: "According to FAO statistics the world produced 6 million t of limes and lemons
(Citrus limon (L.) Burm.f.) in 1988, the figures showing a rising trend. The lime crop is by far the
smaller of the two, but since lemons are hardly grown in South-East Asia, the following FAO figures
must refer to limes: Cambodia 1,000 t, Laos 8000 t, Malaysia 3,000 t, Thailand 1,000 t. Statistical data
from Thailand give a more realistic production estimate of 53,600 t from a total area of 29,100 ha in
1987/1988. Trade statistics show that exports from Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand are
insignificant in relation to domestic consumption. Large-scale production for the international trade in
juice and oil is mainly found in Central America (hence the names Mexican lime or West Indian lime),
Dominica and Ghana" [1]
[Fruit properties]: "The mature yellow fruit usually has a thin rind and a very acid juice: 7-8% citric acid
by weight. The juice extract is about 41% of the fruit weight. Analyses in Thailand give the following
composition per 100 g edible portion: water 91 g, protein 0.5 g, fat 2.4 g, carbohydrates 5.9 g, fibre
0.3 g, vitamin A 17 IU, vitamin C 46 mg; energy value is about 150 kJ per 100 g" [1].

W. Further readings
5
:
Sethpakdee, R., 1992. Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. & Panzer) Swingle. In Coronel, R.E. & Verheij,
E.W.M. (Eds.): Plant Resources of South-East Asia. No. 2: Edible fruits and nuts. Prosea Foundation,
Bogor, Indonesia. pp. 126-128.
[6]

X. References:
[1] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4, 5(1), 6-8. (CD-ROM).
[2] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).
[3] FA, 2002 (draft), List of Trade Names of Commercial Wood in Cambodia, Trade Names of

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Commercial Woods, unpublished
[4] Kham, L., 2004: Medicinal Plants of Cambodia - Habitat, Chemical Constituents and
Ethnobotanical Uses.
[5] ECOPORT: http://ecoport.org/ep?Plant=2242&entityType=PL****&entityDisplayCategory=full
(Internet source)
[6] World Agroforestry Center: AgroForestryTree Database
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/SpeciesInfo.asp?SpID=18077
(Internet source)
[7] Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.
[8] Petri, M. (DED), 2006: Own observations.


Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Citrus hystrix DC]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Citrus hystrix DC]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Citrus hystrix DC
B. English name (s) ³ Mauritius papeda, leech-lime [1], kaffir lime, kieffer lime
[5], Indonesian lime, wild lime [7]

C. Synonym ³ Citrus papuana Bail. [6]

D. Other
1
³ citron combera, citron ride (France) [1, 3] - jeruk purut, limo
purut, jeruk obat (Indonesia) [1, 5] - limau purut (Malaysia) [1]
- kabuyau, kulubut, kolobot (Philippines) [1] - shouk-pote
(Myanmar) [1] - 'khi 'hout. (Laos) [1] - ma kruut (Thailand) [1]
- tr[us]c, chanh s[as]c (Vietnam) [1]

E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³: RkUcesIc
Source: [3]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ krauch soeuch [1]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³:
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Rutales [4] / Sapindales [6]
Family: Rutaceae
Gunus: Citrus
Species: Citrus hystrix DC.
Source :[ 4]


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H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: Small tree or shrub with a height of 12 m [1] (5-10 m [3, 8], 6-8 m [6]). Trunk crooked and
thin, with slender sharp thorns. There are hybrid forms existing between C. hystrix and C. aurantifolia.
[Leaves]: The leaves and inflorescence are similar to those of C. aurantifolia. The leaves are broadly
egg-shaped or oblong 3-15 cm x 2-6 cm [1] and of shiny dark color with the leaf-shaped leafstalks
sometimes winged together, creating an 'hourglass-shape' of the leaf and leafstalk.
[Flowers]: The flowers are small, white and fragrant.
[Fruits]: The fruit (=berry) is egg-shaped to ellipsoidal, 5-7 cm [1] (4 cm [5], 8 cm [6]) in diameter,
bright green to yellow, with an irregularly rough thick skin and very little edible yellowish green pulp
inside of 10-12 segments. The peel of the fruit is very fragrant and the sap is very sour.
[1, 3, 5, 6, 8]

I. Wood properties:
No information available.

J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
Citrus hystrix is often grown in home gardens but is not very vigorous.
[1]

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
The species mainly occurs in lowland areas and is cultivated in the warm regions.
[6, 8]

L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
No information available.

M. soil and site conditions :
[Wood]: No information available.
[Non-wood]: In Cambodia it is cultivated for domestic uses. It is widely used in Thai cuisine and Lao
cuisine. Leaves are also popular in the west of Cambodia, but less in Vietnam. The Malay and
Indonesian (especially Balinese) cuisines use them sporadically with chicken and fish. The leaves can
be used fresh or dried and can be stored frozen. Although the most common product are its leaves
(which impart a sharp lime/neroli flavor to Thai dishes such as tom yum, and to Indonesian food such
as 'sayur assam' which means sour vegetables). "In Thai cuisine, C.hystrix is frequently combined
with garlic, galanga, ginger and fingerroot, together with liberal amount of chilies. Fresh Thai basil is
needed for the authentic fragrance. The fruit juice, which is very sour and has the same fragrance as
the leaves, is used for seasoning and sometimes added to fish or poultry dishes in Malaysia or
Thailand" [7]. It is also used to prepare drinks. The fruits may be eaten crystallized, but is often used
in slices in religious ceremonies where it is cut in slices and mixed with water. Fruits are also used as
an insecticide, as a shampoo and treating the feet to kill land leeches. The leaves and the peel of the

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fruit make condiments. They are sold in all Asian groceries shops around the world. "The rind is
sliced, dried slightly and triturated to powder and mixed with Tinospora powder for stomach aches.
The juice is also reputedly used as an expectorant. The fruit peels possess carminative properties.
Antifertility and repellency effects have both been observed in this species of plant" [3]. "Kaffir lime
fruit peel contains an essential oil comparable to lime fruit peel oil; main components are limonene
and β-pinene" [7].
[Others]: No information available.
[1, 3, 5, 7, 8]

N. Utilization and importance :
No class [2]

O. Cambodian wood classification :
No information available.

P. Silviculture and management :
No information available.


Q. Propagation :
No information available.


R. Hazards and protection :
No information available.


S. Conservation :
No information available.


T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :
C. hystrix is cultivated in the warm regions of Cambodia. [3]

U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
[Native]: Malaysia
[8]
[Introduced]: Cambodia, Myanmar, India, Indonesia, Laos, Brunei, Philippines, Papua New Guinea,
Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam.
[1, 9]




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V. Miscellaneous
4
:
[Terminology]: "The Oxford Companion to Food (ISBN 0192115790) recommends that the name
'kaffir lime' should be avoided in favor of makrut lime because Kaffir is an offensive term in some
cultures, and also has no clear reason for being attached to this plant. However, kaffir lime appears to
be much more common" [5]. "The species name hystrix (Greek hystrix [ὕστριξ] “porcupine”) refers to
the many thorns of the plant".
[7]
[Chemical Properties]: "The compound responsible for the characteristic aroma was identified as (-)-
(S)-citronellal, which is contained in the leaf oil up to 80%. Minor components are citronellol (10%),
nerol and limonene."
[7]

W. Further readings
5
:
No information available.

X. References:
[1] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4, 5(1), 6-8. (CD-ROM).

[2] FA, 2002 (draft), List of Trade Names of Commercial Wood in Cambodia, Trade Names of
Commercial Woods, unpublished.

[3] Kham, L., 2004: Medicinal Plants of Cambodia - Habitat, Chemical Constituents and
Ethnobotanical Uses.

[4] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).

[5] Answers.Com: http://www.answers.com/topic/kaffir-lime (Internet source)

[6] ECOPORT: http://ecoport.org/ep?Plant=713&entityType=PL****&entityDisplayCategory=full
(Internet source)

[7] Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages Table of Content page:
http://www.kfunigraz.ac.at/~katzer/engl/Citr_hys.html (Internet source)

[8] Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.

[9] Petri, M (DED), 2006: Own observations.

Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr
B. English name (s) ³ pummelo, shaddock, pomelo [1], pompelmous [3]

C. Synonym ³ Citrus aurantium L. var. grandis L. (1753), Citrus
grandis (L.) Osbeck (1757), Citrus decumana L. (1767). [1]

D. Other
1
³ pamplemoussier (France) [1] - jeruk besar, jeruk bali
(Indonesia) [1] - jambua, limau betawi, limau bali
(Malaysia) [1] - muli (Papua New Guinea) [1] - lukban,
suha (Philippines) [1] - shouk-ton-oh (Myanmar) [1] -
kièngz s'aangz, ph'uk, sômz 'ôô (Laos) [1] - som-o, ma-
o (Thailand) [1] - b[uw][owr]i (Vietnam) [1]

E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³: RkUcføúg
Source: [-]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ krôoch thlông [1]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³:
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Rutales
Family: Rutaceae
Gunus: Citrus
Species: Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.

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Source :[ 4]


H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: Small to medium-sized low-branching and spiny tree with a height of 5-10(-15) m [1] (10-15
m [3]). Stems of young trees are hairy and occasionally spines are produced. Branches are
spreading, spiny (seed propagation) or spineless (vegetative propagation), with spines up to 5 cm
long also hairy when young.
[Leaves]: The leaves are egg-shaped to elliptical, 5-10 (-20) cm x 2-5 (-12) cm in size [1] with a
rounded base. Leaf margin entire to shallowly wavy, with a pointed leaf tip, glandular dotted. Leaf-
stalk broadly winged, up to 7 cm wide [5], with broad wings.
[Flowers]: Inflorescences axillary, with a cluster of a few flowers or a single flower. Flowers are large,
2-3 cm x 3-5 cm [1] when fully expanded and hairy. Flower leaves are creamy-white. Male organs
(=stamens) 20-25 (-35) [5], female organ (=ovary) with 11-16 loculi. "In the tropics the trees flower 2-4
times per year, mainly in conjunction with shoot growth flushes. The main flowering period follows the
onset of the monsoon rains, unless it is brought forward by irrigation as in Thailand (bloom in January-
February). Fruit matures 7-10 months after flowering, in Thailand mainly from August to October. Most
cultivars are self-sterile" [1].
[Fruits]: The fruit (=berry) is subglobular to pyriform and large with 10-20(-30) cm in diameter [1],
greenish-yellow and densely glandular dotted. The peel is 1-3(-4) cm thick [1] with large segments
that contain pale yellow or pink pulp-vesicles, filled with a sweetish sometimes bitter juice. Each
segment of the fruit is covered by a strong membrane. Seeds are usually few, large, plump, ridged,
yellowish and monoembryonic.
[1, 3, 5, 7]

I. Wood properties:
No information available.

J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
The pummelo thrives in the lowland tropics and is cultivated in orchards and home gardens for its
fruit.
[1, 7]

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
C.maxima can be grown up to 900 m a.s.l. [5], however the upper limit for commercial fruit production
is 400 m a.s.l [1, 5]. It is cultivated in areas with an annual rainfall of 1,500-1,800 mm [1] and a dry
season of 3-4 (-5) months [1, 5]. "In Thailand mean monthly temperatures are about 25-30°C with a
few cooler (and dry) months" [1].
[1, 3, 5, 7]



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L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
No information available.

M. soil and site conditions :
C. maxima tolerates a wide range of soils from coarse sand to heavy clay, including brackish and
salty conditions. However, it prefers deep and medium-textured, fertile soils which are free from salts.
The best sites are situated on the banks of current and former river courses.
[1, 5]

N. Utilization and importance :
[Wood]: The wood is used for tool handles.
[Non-wood]: Pummelo is mainly cultivated for domestic use. In Cambodia the fruits are often eaten
fresh out of the hand or in culinary preparations like fruit salads. The white inner part of the peel can
be candied after the outer peel containing oil glands has been removed. Sometimes the juice is
extracted. "The aromatic flowers are used to make perfume in Vietnam. Even if the fruit is of inferior
quality, the tree may still be grown for the medicinal applications of leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds,
including the treatment of coughs, fevers and gastric disorders, (cholera and epilepsy [3])" [1].
[Others]: No information available.
[1, 3, 7]

O. Cambodian wood classification :
No class. [2]

P. Silviculture and management :
[General]: "In South-East Asia pummelo is grown in home gardens, in mixed citrus orchards and in
pure pummelo orchards (Thailand, Philippines). In Thailand the areca palm is also found as intercrop,
or as a border plant along the ditches where the pummelos are grown on raised beds" [1].
[Establishment]: "Trees are spaced 8-10 m x 6-8 m [1], depending on vigor, on well-prepared land;
they are shaded and watered frequently until they are established. The planting material is cut back,
especially if bare-rooted. A banana intercrop can serve as windbreak, shade and source of early
income" [1].
[Management]: "Young trees are pruned to leave 3 main framework branches, the lowest being at
least 30-40 cm [1] off the ground. The trees also need some pruning in later years to keep the tree
interior open, to make sure that fruit on sagging branches does not touch the ground, and to remove
dead wood. Trees that bear well are propped up with bamboo poles. A cover crop suppresses weeds
to some extent, but in the rainy season weeds need to be slashed; early in the dry season the orchard
is hoed or treated with herbicide. Mulching under the trees with rice straw or other material is strongly
recommended to maintain root growth in the topsoil. Irrigation is important betwenn flowering and

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harvest to supplement rain. During the subsequent dry period irrigation is delayed until the trees show
signs of wilting. It is customary to force early flowering by irrigating the wilting trees, provided the
water supply is secure until the rainy season starts again. Forcing the trees to advance the harvest
has its limitations, as it is difficult to sustain new shoot growth and flowering during the hot dry months
preceding the rains. Fertilizer requirements of citrus also apply to pummelo, including attention to
magnesium and micro-nutrients (Zn, Mn, Cu, B). An annual or biennial dressing with manure forms a
good basis. In Nakhon Prathom (Thailand) growers are advised to apply about 5 kg NPK 16-16-
16/tree/year [1] in bi-monthly applications and foliar fertilizer for every new flush. In the last dressings
before harvest potassium-rich NPK 13-13-21 is used to improve fruit taste. Elsewhere 2 fertilizer
dressings are recommended, the first before flowering and the second 4-6 months later." Yields
depend on cultivar and environment. 70-100 fruit/tree/year (Thailand), 20 t/ha per year (Malaysia)" [1].

Q. Propagation :
"Although many trees in home gardens are raised from seed, the common propagation method in
South-East Asia is air layering. When certified virus-tested mother trees become available, budding is
recommended. Pummelo seedlings of sufficiently uniform populations can be used as rootstocks. In
the Philippines shield budding is already the standard method" [1].

R. Hazards and protection :
The mixing of different citrus species at the same area complicates crop protection in the orchard. [1]
[Pests]: "All the citrus pests seem to be at home on the pummelo, including the obnoxious leaf miners
Phyllocnistis citrella (in Java it has been recommended to protect young trees with a mosquito net!),
leaf-eating caterpillars, fruit-boring caterpillar (Citripestis sp.), scales, red mites, fruit flies, nematodes
and vermin (rats)" [1].
[Diseases]: "Pummelo is particularly susceptible to bacterial canker, also on the fruit, following fruit fly
stings. Frequent spraying with copper fungicides in Thailand does not give adequate control. Root rot,
gummosis on the trunk and brown rot of the fruit, all caused by Phytophthora fungi, appear to shorten
the life of many trees in South-East Asia, even though pummelo is not rated as very susceptible" [1].

S. Conservation :
No information available.

T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :
Pummelo occurs in the warm regions of Cambodia as an introduced species.
[3]
U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
[Native]: Malaysia
[7]
[Introduced]: Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Myanmar, Laos
[1]

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V. Miscellaneous
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:
[Fruit Properties]: "The edible segments form only a small fraction of the thick-skinned fruit;
Thai sources give the composition per 100 g edible portion as: water 89 g, protein 0.5 g, fat
0.4 g, carbohydrates 9.3 g, vitamin A 49 IU, vitamin B1 0.07 mg, vitamin B2 0.02 mg, niacin
0.4 mg and vitamin C 44 mg. Naringin is the characteristic glucoside found in the fruit" [1].

W. Further readings
5
:
Chaiwongkeit, D. & Chaireongyod, T., 1988. Som O - The pummelo. Bangkok. 76 pp.
[1]
Chomchalow, N., 1984. Genetic wealth of pummelos in Thailand. IBPGR Newsletter, Regional
Committee for South-East Asia 8(3): 27-29.
[1]
Fachzurozi, L., 1978. Apakah benar jeruk besar (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) mulai menghilang? [Is
the pummelo really disappearing?]. Buletin Kebun Raya 3(4): 133-136.
[1]
Martin, F.W. & Cooper, W.C., 1977. Cultivation of neglected tropical fruits with promise. Part 3: The
pummelo. ARS-S-157, U.S. Department of Agriculture, New Orleans. 17 pp.
[1]
Ochse, J.J., Soule, M.J., Dijkman, M.J. & Wehlburg, C., 1961. Tropical and subtropical agriculture.
Vol. 1. Macmillan, New York, pp. 486-488.
[1]


X. References:
[1] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4, 5(1), 6-8. (CD-ROM).
[2] FA, 2002 (draft), List of Trade Names of Commercial Wood in Cambodia, Trade Names of
Commercial Woods, unpublished.
[3] Kham, L., 2004: Medicinal Plants of Cambodia - Habitat, Chemical Constituents and
Ethnobotanical Uses.

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[4] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).
[5] ECOPORT: http://ecoport.org/ep?Plant=712&entityType=PL****&entityDisplayCategory=full
(Internet source)
[6] World Agroforestry Center: AgroForestryTree Database –
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/SpeciesInfo.asp?SpID=18078
(Internet source)

[7] Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.

[8] Petri, M. (DED), 2006: Own observations.


Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Cocos nucifera L.]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Cocos nucifera L.]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Cocos nucifera L.
B. English name (s) ³ coconut [2], copra, coconut palm [4]

C. Synonym ³ Calappa nucifera (L.) Kuntze, Cocos nana Griffith [4]

D. Other
1
³ coconut (trade name) [8] - narikel (Bangladesh) [8] –
mak-un, on (Myanmar) [8] - kokoye (Caribbean) [8] - Coco,
Cocos, Cocospalm, Klapperboom (Netherlands) [8] - coco,
cocotier, cocoyer, coq au lait, noix de coco (France) [8] -
Kokospalme (Germany) [8] - kelapa (Indonesia) [8] - kelapa
(Malaysia) [8] - coc, tubab sibo (W-Africa) [8] - coco da
Bahia, coco da India, coqueiro de Bahia (Portugal) [8] - coco,
coco de agua, cocotero, palma de coco, palmera de coco
(Spain) [8] - mnazi (E-Africa) [8] - tennai-maram (Sri Lanka)
[8]

E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³: dUg
Source: [-]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ daung, dong [3]

G. Taxonomic position(complete)³:
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Palmales / Principes [3] / Arecales [4]

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Family: Palmae [3] / Arecaceae [4]
Gunus: Cocos
Species: Cocos nucifera
Source :[ 3,4]


H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: Medium-size to large palm tree, 20-25 m [2] (2-30 m [3]) in height with a cylindrical trunk of
20-40 cm [2] DBH (45 cm [7]). Many rings mark the places of former leaves. "At the summit it bears a
crown of about 20 pinnate leaves that generally curve downward, each of which is about 3 to 4.5 m
(about 10 to 15 ft) long [7].
[Fruits] The fruit is roughly ovoid, up to 5 cm x 3 cm, composed of a thick, fibrous husk surrounding a
spherical nut with a hard, brittle, hairy shell. The nut itself has a size of 2-2.5 cm x 3-4 cm. "Three
sunken holes of softer tissue, called ‘eyes’, are at one end of the nut. Inside the shell is a thin, white,
fleshy layer known as the ‘meat’. The interior of the nut is hollow but partially filled with a watery liquid
called ‘coconut milk’. The meat is soft and jellylike when immature but becomes firm with maturity.
Coconut milk is abundant in unripe fruit but is gradually absorbed as ripening proceeds. The fruits are
green at first, turning brownish as they mature, yellow varieties go from yellow to brown. [8]"
[2, 7, 8]

I. Wood properties:
"The wood is difficult to saw, requiring tungsten carbide teeth" [4]. The central cylinder consists of a
parenchymatic tissue enclosing vascular and fibrous bundles. The vascular bundles of the periphery
have a higher density than those at the center closely packed with just a few layers of thin-walled cells
intervening.
[4, 9]

J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
Approximate limits: 27°N to 25°S [4], 20°N to 20°S (commercial). It generally occurs between the
Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. Occasionally (and decoratively) as far as 30°N and S [9] and in
heated glasshouses to 50°+ N and S [9] (note that as the latitude gets higher the altitude limit gets
lower with minimum temperature being the controlling factor). It is found throughout the humid tropics,
originally in coastal areas in the wild but almost anywhere when cultivated, even in considerable
distance inland.
[8, 9]

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
C.nucifera grows in an altitude of 520-900 m a.s.l. [8] (0-1,000 m [2], 0-1,200 m [4]) but commercially
below 300 m [9]. "At 1,000 m they grow vegetatively but do not set fruit (note that the altitude limit
gets lower as the latitude gets higher and as the minimum temperature gets lower) [9]." A bimodal,

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uniform rainfall of 1,000-1,500 mm [9] (1,200-2,300 mm [4]) is suitable for cultivation. However, C.
nucifera tolerates a dry season of 0-3 months [2] (0-4 months [4]) resulting in a lower nut production.
After 6 months of drought the palms stop flower production and death can follow a 9 month drought.
Mean annual temperature: 22-35°C [4] (20-28°C [8]) with optimal temperatures at 27-32°C. Mean
maximum temperature of hottest month: 30-38°C [4]. Mean minimum temperature of coldest month:
16-23°C [4]. Minimum temperature: >7°C [4]. However, established palms have been reported to
survive even short periods of sub-zero temperatures [9]. It requires medium to high amounts of
sunlight and is intolerant of shade. Precocity (earliness to flower) is delayed by shade and subsequent
flowering and fruit setting is prevented by heavy shade. It is highly resistant to winds and salt winds.
"Coconuts cannot survive in forests" [9].
[2, 4, 8, 9]

L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
No information available.

M. soil and site conditions :
Prefers deep, fertile and adequately drained alluvial coastal sands and sandy loams. It will suffer in
clay soils if these are compressed by the movement of vehicles or animals. Rocky, laterite or stagnant
soils are also unsuitable [8]. In case of organic (peat) soils a proper management is required. A pH of
5.5-6.5 [4] is preferred but it can grow from 5.0-8.0 [2]. A high water-table or continually replenished
surface soil moisture is suitable. "C. nucifera is salt tolerant on the sea coast and responds to
fertilization by sodium chloride when inland but it is not a halophile and salt accumulations need
flushing away by movement of ground water, by rain or by irrigation" [9].
[2, 4, 8, 9]

N. Utilization and importance :
[Wood]: The timber is used for poles, construction, furniture, boxes, fixtures, particle board, paper
pulp, charcoal, and occasionally veneers which are of lower quality.
[4]
[Non-wood]: "Besides its nuts, C. nucifera trees are of enormous general utility. Coconut milk may be
drunk or used as a medium for tissue culture. The copra (dried endosperm) is used for extraction of
oils for use in foods, cosmetics, and medicines. The cori (mesocarp fibres) is used to make
handicrafts like mats, ropes, carpets, brushes, brooms, bags and packaging material. The shell is
used to make bowls, cups, spoons, ladles, smoking pipes, ashtrays, vases, boxes, and toys. The
leaves are used in thatching, and the terminal bud as well as the young green stem may be eaten as
a vegetable. The roots have medicinal properties and are also used for livestock, as a deformer, and
to relieve bloat and constipation. C.nucifera also provides a sweet sucrose-rich liquid known as toddy.
In combination with a slow-release fertilizer the husk from old coir makes a good lightweight potting

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medium. It is also important as a dye and tannin-producing plant. The nuts are used for dyeing silk
green, and the fruit-stalk is used for coloring teeth black.
[2, 4, 5]

O. Cambodian wood classification :
No Class [1]

P. Silviculture and management :
[Management]: Coconut palms cannot survive in most forests but form an integrated part of many
agroforestry systems [10]. "Intercropping with yams, cassava, taro, coffee, and species is very
common. Interplanting with bananas for the first two years of production or in mixed fruit plantation
with mango (Mangifera indica), cocoa, rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), citrus (Citrus spp.) and others.
Cattle may be grazed under the canopy in plantations older than 6-8 years, usually 2-3 head of cattle
per ha. Irrigation during dry period increases fruit yields. Planting cover crops of nitrogen fixing
legumes under the canopy also increases yields. Growth: 20 cm/year after juvenile stage. C. nucifera
is characterized by a slow growth. Relatively high labor costs are created when the edible portion of
the fruit is removed" [2]. It has the ability to self-prune its leaflets. "Fertilizer response to nitrogen on
any soil is by increased leaf and flower production but greater susceptibility to fungal foliar infections.
Phosphate fertilizer is only required on depleted and or sandy soils. Potash is the major nutrient
requirement, improving fruit set and better resistance to leaf infections. Magenesium is required, but
not routinely, and boron only when deficiency symptoms become apparent. Other minor elements are
required on coral atoll soils" [9].
[2, 4, 9, 10]

Q. Propagation :
Naturally its nuts are dispersed by the oceans. In general, C. nucifera is propagated from seeds (the
nuts), which have to be soaked into water for 1-2 weeks and take 8-10 weeks to germinate. There is
no need to shade the nursery. After 30 weeks [4] (20-24 weeks [2]) they reach a planting-out size
after the shoot is well established. The seeds are viable for up to 2 years. Vegetative propagation is
possible by using tissue culture. Stand establishment is conducted by using natural regeneration or
direct sowing.
[2, 4]

R. Hazards and protection :
[Pests]: Insect pests include Aceria guerreronis, Aleurodicus destructor, Artona catoxantha, Aspidiotus
destructor, Brontispa longissima, Hidari irava, Homaledra sabalella, Oryctes monoceros, Oryctes rhinoceros,
Parasa lepida, Promecotheca, Rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus, Rhynchophorus vulneratus, Setora nitens,
Tirathaba, Xylotrupes gideon. A common vertebrate pest is Rattus rattus.
[4]

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[Diseases]: Fungus diseases are Bipolaris incurvata, Cerastomella paradoxa, Corticium penicillatum, Drechslera
halodes, Ganoderma boninense, Pestalotiopsis palmarum, Phytophthora palmivora, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus.
A known virus disease is Cadang-cadang
[4]

S. Conservation :
No information available.


T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :
Sihanoukville, Kampot, Koh Kong, Phnom Penh, Kandal, Siem Reap, Battambang, Kampong Cham,
Kratie, Kampong Speu, Kampong Chnang, Kampong Thom, Pursat, Prey Veng, Sway Rieng, Banteay
Meanchey, Takeo.
[10]


U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
C. nucifera originated from the Indo-Malayan to Western Pacific region and is now of pan-tropical
distribution.
[4]

[Native]: Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand,
Vietnam.
[8]

[Introduced]: Argentina, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Chile, China,
Colombia, Cook Islands, Cote d'Ivoire, Ecuador, Fiji, French Guiana, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea,
Guyana, Haiti, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Kiribati, Liberia, Madagascar, Mali, Marshall Islands,
Mauritania, New Caledonia, Niger, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Samoa, Senegal,
Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Surinam, Togo, Tonga, Uganda, United States of America,
Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Zanzibar.
[8]
V. Miscellaneous
4
:
[Terminology]: "The generic name was derived from the Portuguese word ‘coco’, meaning ‘monkey’"
[8]
[History]: "C.nucifera appeared some 4,000 years ago (the first mention of a coconut palm in China is
found in a Chinese poem of the 20th century B.C.)" [3].

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W. Further readings
5
:
Andrew M.H. (1972) A Century of Coconuts.
http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=reference&ReferenceID=523894
Anonymous IBPGR (1992) Descriptors for Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.).
http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=reference&ReferenceID=523935
Anonymous Coconis (1983) Production physiology in coconut.
http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=reference&ReferenceID=523941

Child R. (1974) Coconuts. http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=reference&ReferenceID=3328

Edmonson CH, 1941. Viability of coconut seeds after floating in the sea. Bishop Museum. Occasional
Papers 16, No. 2.

Foale M.A. (1986) Tabular descriptions of crops grown in the Tropics. 10. Coconut (Cocos nucifera
L.). http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=reference&ReferenceID=7887

Frémond Y. Ziller R. Nucé de Lamothe M. (1966) Le cocotier. G.P.
http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=reference&ReferenceID=524485

Gallego VC, San Juan NC, Gallego CE, Concibido EC, Aterrado ED, 1987. Survey and Evaluation of
Coconut Pest and Disease Incidence in the Philippines. PCA-ARDB Annual Report, 77-78.
Grimwood EB. 1975. Coconut palm products. FAO, Rome.

Gupta RK, 1993. Multipurpose trees for agroforestry and wasteland utilisation. Multipurpose trees for
agroforestry and wasteland utilisation., xv + 562 pp.; [18 pp. of ref + refs in text].

Haas A, Wilson L, 1985. Coconut wood. Processing and use. FAO Forestry Paper, No. 57:ii + 58 pp.;
[18 pl.]; 12 pp. ref.

Harries H.C. (1978) The evolution, dissemination and classification of Cocos nucifera L.
http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=reference&ReferenceID=524389


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IBPGR (1992) Descriptors for coconut.
http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=reference&ReferenceID=524538

Menon K.P.V. Pandalai K.M. (1958) The coconut palm, a monograph.
http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=reference&ReferenceID=494188

Ohler JG. 1984. Coconut, tree of life. Plant Production and Protection Paper No.57. FAO, Rome.
http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=reference&ReferenceID=212303

Ohler J.G. (1999) Modern Coconut Management. Palm Cultivation and Products.
http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=reference&ReferenceID=497805

Parrotta JA, 1993. Cocos nucifera (L.) Palmae. SO-ITF-SM-57. USDA Forest service, Southern
Forest Experiment Station, Institute of Tropical Ecology, New Orleans, LA.

Patel J.S. (1938) The Coconut. http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=reference&ReferenceID=524452

PCARRD, 1993. The Philippine Recommends for Coconut. Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines:
PCARRD-DOST.

Ratnambal M.J. Nair M.K. Muralidharan K. Bhaskara Rao E.V.V. Pillai R.V. (1995) Coconut
descriptors Part 1. http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=reference&ReferenceID=500163

Thampan P.K. (1981) Handbook on coconut palm.
http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=reference&ReferenceID=524420

Thanh-Tuyen NT, Apurillo DI, 1992. Plant Regeneration through Somatic Embryogenesis from
cultured zygotic embryos of coconut. Philippine Journal of Coconut Studies, 17(1):June 1992.

Velasco JR, 1997. Review of studies on the cadang-cadang disease of coconut. Botanical Review 63:
2, 182-196; 33 ref.


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Watling D. Bennett G. (2005) Palms of the Fiji Islands.
http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=reference&ReferenceID=555625
Sources: [1, 4, 5, 9]

X. References:
[1] Sok, Sokunthet (RUA), 2006: Own observations.
[2] Species Fact Sheets (Module 9), 1994: Forestry / Fuelwood Research and Development
Project. Growing Mulltipurpose Trees on Small Farms (2nd ed.). Bangkok, Thailand: Winrock
Interational. 320pp.
[3] Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.
[4] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).
[5] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4, 5(1), 6-8. (CD-ROM).
[6] CTSP, Cambodia Tree Seed Project-Institutional Capacity Building of the Tree Seed Sector , Dec
2003, Forest Gene Conservation Strategy-Part A: Conservation of Forest Genetic Resources.
[7] Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2005 © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. (CD-ROM).
[8] World Agroforestry Center: AgroForestryTree Database –
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/BotanicSearch.asp (Internet
source).
[9] EcoPort Report: http://ecoport.org/ep (Internet source).
[10] Petri, Mathias (DED), 2006: Own observations.


Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Dacrydium elatum (Roxb.) Wallich ex Hook.]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Dacrydium elatum (Roxb.) Wallich ex Hook.]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Dacrydium elatum (Roxb.) Wallich ex Hook. [8,27]
B. English name (s) ³ melur, also called meloor in English, American,(comprising 4
Dacrydium species);
C. Synonym ³ Dacrydium pierrei Hickel [4]; D. junghuhnii Miq.; D. beccarii
Parl. var.subelatum Corner, Juniperus elata Roxb. [8,16,31]
D. Other
1
³ Trade name: melur; in Indonesia all timber of the genus
Podocarpaceae is traded under the name melur(meloor, En),
this includes D. elatum, D. beccarii, D. nidulum; other names
are: cemara gunung, sampinur pali, melur ; sangur
(Indonesia-Sumatera); ekor kuda, ru bukit, (Malaysia-
Peninsular); melor (Malaysia-East); lokinai, (Philippines);
taw-kyet, gale pan, (Burma); long len, hi9ng horm, hing nam
(Laos); srol kraham (Cambodia); samphanpi, (Thailand-NE);
son hang-karok (Thailand-central); phayamakampom
(Thailand-SE); hoàng dàn giâ, (Vietnam).[2,8,16]

E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³
Source: [3]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ srô:l krâhâ:m [4]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Pinales
Family: Podocarpaceae
Gunus: Dacrydium Sol. ex J.G.Forster [16].

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Species: Dacrydium elatum (Roxb.) Wall. ex
Hook.
Source :[2; 4 ; 11; 16]


H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: Big tree up to 30 m high, with 80 cm diameter, bole straight [2]; tree, 20-30 m tall with
straight trunk [4]; tree up to 20 m tall [5]; trees up to 40 m high, up to 100 cm diameter, bole straight,
crown a billowy dome with tufts of more or less erect branches [8]. Evergreen, usually dioecious,
small to fairly large trees up to 40 m tall, or less often shrubs (stunted trees). Bole cylindrical; up to 70
(100) cm diameter, with pyramidal shape; branches verticillate, slightly pendulous when young;
branches often ramified, often curving upwards, the ultimate branches aggregated into dense tufts. [8,
16]
[Bark]: Brown, to grey brown, dark or reddish-brown, weathering to grey; slightly flaking, often fluted at
base [5]; bark surface hard, and smooth with fissures, breaking off in plates with many small lenticels
[8,16].
[Leaves]: There are 2 types of leaves(dimorphic): On young trees and on young twigs leaves curvedly
awl-shaped with quadrangular (tetragonal) cross-section, 0.8-1.6 cm long, sometimes 2.0-2.1 cm. On
older trees and branches leaves are shorter and slightly curved Flower and fruit-bearing branches
with-scale-like leaves, slightly curved, imbricate, tip acute, 0.3-0.5 cm long, longitudinally fissured [2].
Leaf 0.8-1.6 cm pressed close to twigs, overlapping, needlelike, with long, tapering tip, shiny. Leaves
near end of fertile twigs much smaller, ± 0.15 cm triangular and scale-like [5]. Leaves dimorphic,
spirally arranged. Young leaves and leaves on young trees awl-shaped, imbricate, 0.8-2.0 cm long.
Leaves and twigs with cones scale-like and triangular, hard, base decurrent , apex often curved [8 ].
Adult leaves imbricate, triangular and scale-like, sharply keeled outside, 1.0-1.5 mm x 0.4-0.6 mmm;
apex of microsporophyll triangular; mature seed completely exposed above short cone bract, 4.0-4.5
mm long [16]. Flower- and fruit-bearing branches with scaly leaves, slightly curved, imbricate, tip
acute, 0.3-0.5 cm long, longitudinally fissured [2].
[Fruit]: Cones monosexual, dioecious, similar to Podocarpus. Male cone solitary and terminal,
cylindrical, 0.7-0.8 cm long . Female cones solitary or arranged in small groups, axillary or terminal,
apex of microsporophyll triangular. Only one carpel and one ovule develop. Seeds ovoid, having
ashen form, 0.4-0.5 cm long by 0.2-0.3 cm wide, 1/3 of base covered with pseudopericarp [2]. Seed
cones 0.5 x 0.3 cm, nut-like ovoid, obliquely seated on dark-red shallow fleshy cup (podophyll) [5].
Seeds ovoid, suberect, 1/3 of the base covered by epimatium [8]. Mature seed completely exposed
above the short cone tract, 4.0-4.5 mm long. Flowering in March, fruiting in October-November [2].
Cones in February to April, mature ones October, November [8].




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I. Wood properties:
The following technological data are average values applying to the Genus Dacrydium, since no
information is given for selected species due to the limited volume traded. Dacrydium yields a light-
weight to medium-weight softwood. ( In trade softwood generally means coniferous species,
hardwood means broadleaved species. Hence, in principle a softwood may be harder than a
hardwood and vice versa). The heartwood is yellow-brown, pinkish yellow, golden, pale to brown or
red-brown, not clearly demarcated from the sapwood. The specific gravity is 425-720kg/m³ at 15%
m.c. The grain is fine, straight, rarely wavy, texture fine and even, resistant to bending and pressing.
The wood generally lacks figure, occasionally with fine dark streaks giving an attractive appearance;
without taste or odor [16].
A test in Fiji on D. nidulum wood at 12% m.c. provided the following figures: Modulus of rupture 106
N/mm², modulus of elasticity 11590 N/mm², compression parallel to grain (fiber direction) 61.5 N/mm²,
shear 14 N/mm², cleavage 38 N/mm² radial and 54.5 N/mm² tangential; Janka side hardness 5430 N
and Janka end hardness 8635 N.
The rates of shrinkage (indicating dimensional stability when moisture content decreases) are fairly
low to moderate from green to 12% m.c. 2.0% radial and 4.5% tangential. The wood seasons well
with very little collapse, but thicker boards must be dried slowly to avoid surface checking. Warping in
the form of slight to moderate twist may occasionally occur, while backsawn boards may cup to a
slight extent. The recommended kiln schedule (for artificial drying) is at a dry bulb temperature of 65-
80 ºC. Kiln-drying 25 mm (=1 inch English-American measure) of D. nidulum wood from green to 12%
m.c takes about 3-4 days and 50 mm thick boards take about 2 weeks. The timber can also easily be
air-dried under cover. A high humidity treatment should be given to relieve stresses, but when
considerable twist occurs, a saturated steaming treatment for 2-4 hours should be given instead. The
wood is stable in service.
Dacrydium timber is easy to saw and works well with hand and machine tools.The wood turns and
planes well to a smooth surface and takes a high polish. Gluing, nailing and peeling properties of D.
elatum are satisfactory [16].

J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
A rare species found only in a few provinces of Vietnam [2] It occurs on mountains of countries with
monsoonal rains; in India, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, Malay Archipelago,
Philippines, Sumatra, western Borneo/Indonesia, Fiji Islands. In Cambodia on Mt. Bokor mixed with
Dacrycarpus imbricatus, however, height of neither of the 2 species exceeded 2-4 m (stunted growth,
dwarf forest) because of the harsh climate and seasonal changes between drought and flooding. It is
also found in low, dense coastal forests but always in a dwarf state.[4] Occurs in montane and heath
forests, often associated with Pinus merkusii, along mountain creeks in high valleys. It seems that
habitat requirements limit its distribution,- this is at least valid for Laos [7].
Genus Dacrydium comprises about 25 species and is distributed from mainland Southeast Asia
through Malesia towards the Pacific Islands, New Zealand and Southern Chile (South America). 5

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species occur in Peninsular Malaysia; also scattered in moist rain forests at 1300-1700 m a.s.l., but
also found in tropical forests up to 2000 m. [8] It is often associated with Podocarpus spp., and
Agathis spp. [2], also mixed with Castanopsis spp., Cupressus spp., Dacrycarpus imbricatus, Fokienia
hodginsii and Illicium griffithii in evergreen montane forests [4,8, 16].

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
Dacrydium is found in moist, evergreen montane forests between 500-and 2000 m a.s.l. It is a light
demanding species preferring a cool climate, yellow soil, moist and rich in humus. [2,4, 8]

L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
unknown

M. soil and site conditions :
D. elatum occurs on limestone soils, or stony soils on mountains, on humid, yellow, humus-rich soils,
but also podsolic heath forests [2,4,7.8]

N. Utilization and importance :
[Wood]: Dacrydium elatum is probably the main source of sempilor timber in southeast Asia.
Dacrydium timber is red [4], resinous and relatively hard and used for light construction, furniture,
joinery, mouldings, light-traffic flooring, door and window frames, masts, interior finish, veneer and
plywood, and packing cases. It is suitable for pulp and paper production, but also used for bridges,
boats, in shipbuilding, and fine arts.
[Non-Wood]:l An essential oil can be extracted by distillation from the wood. It is used for joss sticks,
but also in some form against rheumatism and abdominal troubles [2,4,8,16].
Dry resinous branches are used as torches.

O. Cambodian wood classification :
not included

P. Silviculture and management :
D. elatum is a light demander. Natural regeneration is abundant in gaps but is sparse elsewhere. It
responds well to to liberation thinning when not too intensive. Regeneration of pure stands is difficult
in the absence of mother trees. [16]

Q. Propagation :
Can be propagated by seed, wildlings or cuttings. Seed requires pre-treatment. Natural regeneration
in gaps, also by planting [7, 16]

R. Hazards and protection :
Red-listed as a threatened species by IUCN because of over-exploitation and lack of seed trees [27].


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S. Conservation :

T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :
at higher elevations, in dwarf form in coastal forests and on Mt. Bokor

U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
India, Nepal, Burma. Sri Lanka, Indochina, Thailand, Malaysia and parts of Borneo native.

V. Miscellaneous
4
:


W. Further readings
5
:
Brown FG, 1955. Forest trees of Sarawak and Brunei and their products. Kuching: Government
Printing Office.

de Laubenfels DJ, 1969. A revision of the Malesian and Pacific rainforest Conifers I. Podocarpaceae,
in part. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum, 50:274-314.

Burkill IH, 1966. A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsula (2nd edition). Kuala
Lumpur, Malaysia: Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives.

de Laubenfels DJ,1988


X. References:
2) Nguyen et al.1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. Agricultural Publishing House, Hanoi, 788 pp.
4) Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House; Phnom Penh,. 915 pp.
7) Lehmann, L.,Grejmans, M. and Shenman, D., 2003: Forest Trees of the Central Highlands of Xieng
Khouang, Lao P.D.R. – A field guide. DANIDA-DED-NAWACOP, Vientiane-Laos. 246 pp.
8) Sam, H. V.,Nanthavong, Kh.and P.J.A. Kessler 2004: Trees of Laos and Vietnam: A field guide to
100 economically or ecologically important species.BLUMEA J. Plant Tax. and Plant Geogr. 49(2004) p.
201- 349 pp., Univ. Leiden Br., Leiden, The Netherlands
16) Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I. And W.C. Wong (Eds.) 1995: Plant Resources of Southeast
Asia 5(2) Timber trees: Minor commercial timbers. Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia, 655 pp.
18) Dept. of Forestry and Wildlife 2003: Cambodia Forestry Statistics to 2002.(in Khmer and English)
Planning & Accounting Off., Statistics Sect., Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 97 pp.
27) Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/species name (Internet source)
31) http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/earle/po/ da_m/elatum. htm:(internet source).



Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Dalbergia cochinchinensis Lanessan,Dalbergia cochinchinensis Pierre ]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Dalbergia cochinchinensis Lanessan,Dalbergia cochinchinensis Pierre ]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Dalbergia cochinchinensis Lanessan ,
Dalbergia cochinchinensis Pierre
B. English name (s) ³ Siamese rosewood, Thailand rosewood [1]
C. Synonym ³ Dalbergia cambodiana Pierre [4]

D. Other
1
³ mai ka young [1], khanhung (Laos) [2] - payoong
(Thailand) [1] - trac, suá nam bo (Vietnam) [2] - shisham,
sissoo, biti, eravadi, kalaruk (India) [7]

E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³: RkjÚg
Source: [3]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ kra-nhourng [4]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³:
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Fabales
Family: Fabaceae [1] / Leguminosae [6]
Gunus: Dalbergia
Species: Dalbergia cochinchinensis
Source :[ 1,6]




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H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: Large evergreen tree, 8-30 m [5] (15-30 m [2], 25-30 m [4]) high with a DBH of up to 60 cm
[5] (sometimes even 120 cm [5]), profusely branched with a spherical crown.
[Bark]: The bark is light brownish yellow, longitudinally fissured, sometimes peeled off into fragments.
[Leaves]: The leaves are pinnate, with 7-9 leaflets, the upper-most is the largest. Leaves 13-25 cm
long, leathery, egg-shaped, 3-8 (-10) x 1.8-4 (-5) cm, leaf tip blunt or short pointed, leaf base blunt or
rounded, hairless, secondary veins 7-9 pairs, venation below is a fine network. Leaf stalk 3-4 mm
long.
[Flowers]: Inflorescence with axillary or terminal seed head, 10-20 cm long. Flowers are white or
whitish, 5-6 mm long, sparsely hairy. Flowering in May and June.
[Fruits] The fruits (=pods) ripen in November and December. They are very flat, narrow, straight, 4-7.5
x 0.8-1.2 cm, contain 1 or 2 seeds, both margins parallel at the seed areas, wall thin, hairless. Seeds
are kidney-shaped, 6 x 4 mm in the central part, brown or reddish.
[2, 4, 5]

I. Wood properties:
[Wood properties]: Rosewood is very attractive with a distinctive sap- and heartwood. Sapwood
greyish, heartwood brown-red or purplish black with beautiful dark veins. Texture uniform and fine.
Wood very hard, durable and heavy with a density of 1.0-1.8 g/cm³ [4] (1.09 g/cm³ [9], specific gravity
r15 of 0.85 g/cm³ [7]) but easy to work. It produces a very smooth surface and cut wood releases a
rose-like fragrance. High bending and crushing strengths with low stiffness and medium resistance to
shock loads. Resistant to insects and (moderately to) termites. Does not split when dry. Tendency to
produce buttresses and become crooked. Becomes blackish when old.
[1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9].

J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
Approximate limits: Occurs between 22°N and 10°N [1]. Native to Indo-China and adjacent countries.
Grows sparsely in open and semi-deciduous forests, occasionally in pure stands.
[1, 4, 6]

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
Altitude range: 400-500 m a.s.l. [4, 6] (100-350 m a.s.l. [1]). Prefers an uniform rainfall regime with a
mean annual rainfall of 1200-1650 mm/year. Tolerates a dry season length of 3-6 months. Mean
annual temperature: 20-32ºC. Mean maximum temperature of hottest month: 27-39ºC. Mean
minimum temperature of coldest month: 12-24ºC. Absolute minimum temperature: >10ºC. Shade
tolerant as a sapling and becomes light demanding. Drought tolerant.
[1, 4, 6]




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L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
Coastal Cardamons (A), Northern Cardamons (B), Northwestern Lowlands (D), Central Lowlands (d),
Central Annamites (G), Southern Annamites (g)
[4]
[Seed Source Locations (Projection: UTM; Horizontal Datum: Indian coordinates)]:
Kampong Thom (X:566524 Y:1400818), Kampong Thom (X:535833 Y:1441034), Kampong Thom
(X:551179 Y:1433097), Kampong Thom (X:540066 Y:1423043), Kampong Thom (X:533981
Y:1446062), Kampong Thom (X:530806 Y:1401082), Preah Vihear (X:514728 Y:1535416), Ratanak
Kiri (X:712611 Y:1549021), Pursat (X:354350 Y:1348656), Kampong Thom (X:561743 Y:1395530),
Siem Reap (X:400806 Y:1543940), Kratie (X:594844 Y:1446830), Siem Reap (X:430346 Y:1472875),
Kampong Thom (X:534018 Y:1458959), Siem Reap (X:400757 Y:1520273), Koh Kong (X:285400
Y:1263350), Stung Treng (X:589200 Y:1518300), Preah Vihear (X:516893 Y:1536291), Mondul Kiri
(X:720556 Y:1351058).
[4]

M. soil and site conditions :
D. cochichinensis is able to grow on most soils with no high demand in soil conditions. It prefers deep
sand, clays, or calcareous soils with a medium texture, a free soil drainage and a pH below 7 (acid
soil).
[1, 4, 6, 9]

N. Utilization and importance :
[Wood]: Very popular wood for the manufacture of luxury and high quality furniture, veneers for
paneling, art handicrafts, musical instruments, cabinetmaking, shop, office and bank fitting, flooring,
beams, woodware, doors, posts, joints, industrial and domestic woodware, tool handles, wood
carvings, wood turnery, sewing machines, brake blocks, boat construction and building poles for
heavy construction. The root base and root is also used for high quality art handicrafts. Other uses are
fuelwood and charcoal.
[1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7]
[Non-wood]: No information available.
[Others]: It is able to fix nitrogen and thus improves soil quality. It is also commonly used as an
ornamental tree.
[1]

O. Cambodian wood classification :
Luxury [3, 4]


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P. Silviculture and management :
[General]: Grows sparsely in open and semi-deciduous forests, occasionally in pure stands. Self-
pruning tree. Stand establishment using natural regeneration or planting stock, used in agroforestry
and revegetation. Classified by the Department of Forestry and Wildlife as a main tree species for
timber production in Cambodia and as tree species for plantations. D. cochinchinesis has quite a slow
growth rate but regenerates well by coppicing.
[1, 6, 8, 9]

Q. Propagation :
It is defined as "long term seedling category" by the Department of Forestry and Wildlife [8]. Seed
storage orthodox, vegetative propagation by cuttings, air layering, grafting and tissue culture.Dark
brown seeds are mature. The pods are collected when color turns from green to yellow to minimize
insect predation. The branches are cut or shaken and the seeds collected from tarpaulin spread on
the ground. After collection, the pods are dried in the sun for about three days. The dry pods remain
closed and must be cut into one-seeded pieces. A seed thresher could probably extract the seeds
effectively, but care should be taken not to damage the seeds. "Weight of 100 seeds is 18.5 g, and
100 g of seed can provide up to 54,000 propagules" [4]. "Seed requirements per hectare for open
plantations: Number of seeds/kg = 40,000. Planting spacing 3 x 3 m. Net seedlings required per ha =
1,112. Rate of loss: 1,335 = 20% (planting site), 1484 = 10% in transit, 1855 = 20% at the nursery.
Germination rate: 50%. Purity: 95%. Total seed requirement is 0.11 kg" [10].
[1, 4, 10]

R. Hazards and protection :
[Pests]: Insect pests: Apoderus, Aristobia approximator, Aristobia horridula, Hypomeces squamosus,
Plecoptera reflexa, Psilogramma menephron, Sphenoptera, Threnetica lacrymans. [1]
[Diseases]: Fungus diseases: Maravalia pterocarpi, Phyllachora pterocarpi.
[1]
S. Conservation :
IUCN Conservation category: VU A1c,d (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). Considered vulnerable in
Viet Nam and Thailand. Deforestation and exploitation are threats to this species.
[6]

T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :
Kampong Thom, Preah Vihear, Ratanakiri, Pursat, Siem Reap, Kratie, Koh Kong, Stung Treng, and
Mondulkiri.
[4]
U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
[Native]:Cambodia, India, Laos, Myanmar, Southern China, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam
[1, 2, 7]
[Exotic]: No information available.

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V. Miscellaneous
4
:
No information available.

W. Further readings
5
:
Asia Regional Workshop, 1997. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project workshop
held in Hanoi, VietNam, August 1997
[6]

Chính, N.N, Chung, C.T., Cân, V.V., Dung, N.X., Dung, N.K., Dào, N.K., Hop, T., Oanh, T.T., Quynh,
N.B., Thìn, N.N., 1996. Viet Nam Forest Trees. Forest Inventory and Planning Institute. Agricultural
Publishing House: Hanoi. pp.788.
[6]

Phan Thuc Vat 1996. Red data book of Viet Nam. Volume 2 Plants. Science and Technics Publishing
House.
[6]

Vu Van Dung (Ed.) 1996. Viet Nam Forest Trees. Agricultural Publishing House, Hanoi.
[6]

X. References:
[1] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).

[2] Sam, Hoang Van; Nanthavong, Khamseng: Kessler, P.J.A., 2004: Trees of Laos and Vietnam: a
field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important species. BLUMEA.

[3] FA, 2002 (draft), List of Trade Names of Commercial Wood in Cambodia, Trade Names of
Commercial Woods, unpublished.

[4] CTSP, 2003: Forest Gene Conservation Strategy - Gene Conservation Strategy, Species
Monographs, Gene Ecological Zonation, Species Site Matching Model. (CD-ROM).

[5] Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.

[6] Tree Conservation Information Service : http://www.unep-wcmc.org/trees/trade/dal_coc.htm.
(Internet source).

[7] Rosewood Facts: http://www.1-unicarpenter-oy.com/Wood%20facts/Rosewood%20facts.htm.
(Internet source)

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[8] Dept. of Forestry and Wildlife, 2003: Cambodia Forestry Statistics to 2002.

[9] Nguyen et al., 1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. JICA/Vietnam Inventory and Planning Institute.

[10] FA/CTSP-DANIDA, 2005: Farmers Tree Planting Manual - Guidelines for Site Selection and Tree
Planting. (CD-ROM).

[11] Petri, M. (DED), 2006: Own observations.


Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Dalbergia oliveri]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Dalbergia oliveri]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Dalbergia oliveri
B. English name (s) ³ No information available.
C. Synonym ³ Dalbergia bariensis Pierre, Dalbergia dongnaiensis Pierre,
Dalbergia duperreana Pierre, Dalbergia mammosa Pierre [1]
D. Other
1
³ kham phi leung, padong deng, cam lai, cam lai bong,
cam lai mat (Laos) [1] - trac lai (Vietnam) [1]
E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³: nagnYn
Source: [-]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ neang nuon [2, 4]

G. Taxonomic position(complete)³:
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Genus: Dalbergia
Species: Dalbergia oliveri
Source :[ 1,6]






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H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: Medium to large deciduous tree, 15-30 m [1] (20-25 m [7], 20-35 m [2]) high with 50-60 cm
[2] (40-60 cm [7], 60-90 cm [1, 6]) DBH. Open spreading crown when mature. Branches stout, slightly
hairy.
[Bark]: Dark grey bark, with white and yellow spots, not fissured, thick, scaly and flaking in small
pieces.
[Leaves]: The leaves are 15-25 (-30) cm long. Leaflets alternate, 13-17 rarely 9-11 or 19-21, egg-
shaped, 4-8 x 1.2-3 cm, lateral and terminal leaflets similar in shape and size, apex blunt or
acuminate, often pointed a the top, base rounded. Clear vein network, secondary veins 9-12 pairs.
Young leaves pale, pink with silky hairs, mature leaves dark grey green, smooth.
[Flowers]: Inflorescenses are axillary or terminal spreading, 10-45 cm long. Inflorescense stalk 8-10
cm long, slightly hairy. Flowers purple in bud, pale purple or white, in branched clusters at end of
twigs, 10-12 mm long.
[Fruits] The fruits ( = pods) are elliptical, 9-14 x 2.5-4.5 cm, flat, bulging over the seeds, fruit stalk 1-
1.5 cm long. Seeds usually 1, sometimes 2 or 3, bean-shaped, 12.5 x 9 mm, in the central part,
flattened, brown or reddish.
[1, 2, 6]

I. Wood properties:
[Wood Properties]: The wood is hard and heavy, with a wood density of 1.07-1.15 g/cm³ [2]. It
produces attractive veins, is easy to polish and is resistant to termites. "Several commercial varieties
can be distinguished by the wood color: Rose-yellow, brown veined, red with black veins and purple
streaked by yellow" [5].
[2, 5]

J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
Trees occur individually or in groups of 5–10 trees, and usually in evergreen tropical forests or semi-
deciduous forests that are dominated by Lagerstroemia and dipterocarps.
[2]

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
Grows at altitudes up to 1,100 m [5] (1,200 m. [1], <900 m [2]). Trees can tolerate some level of shade
at an early age, but they generally prefer light.
[1, 2, 5]

L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
Northern Cardamons (B), Northwestern Lowlands (D), Central Lowlands (d), Lower Mekong
Floodplain (E), Central Annamites (G)
[2]
[Seed Source Locations (Projection: UTM; Horizontal Datum: Indian coordinates)]:

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Preah Vihear (X:491881 Y:1560352), Kratie (X:575520 Y:1453205), Kampong Thom (X:570229
Y:1406639), Preah Vihear (X:498262 Y:1514060), Kratie (X:606741 Y:1423572), Kratie (X:631083
Y:1419339), Preah Vihear (X:494558 Y:1517764), Kratie (X:586368 Y:1412724), Kratie (X:594306
Y:1376211), Ratanak Kiri (X:710881 Y:1547976), Preah Vihear (X:511900 Y:1531250), Preah Vihear
(X:519800 Y:1541250), Preah Vihear (X:511900 Y:1534350), Preah Vihear (X:515564 Y:1536686),
Ratanak Kiri (X:704001 Y:1504648), Ratanak Kiri (X:708916 Y:1550449), Kampong Thom (X:561882
Y:1396560), Kratie (X:595445 Y:1447118), Stung Treng (X:636350 Y:1522763), Siem Reap
(X:396300 Y:1539500), Stung Treng (X:589200 Y:1518300), Pursat (X:354350 Y:1348650), Preah
Vihear (X:494650 Y:1516781), Ratanak Kiri (X:721623 Y:1515900), Siem Reap (X:400757
Y:1520273)
[2]
M. soil and site conditions :
Occurs generally in moist areas, along streams and rivers, and on hill sides. Grows well on reddish
brown and yellowish-brown ferralitic soil. Avoids very degraded areas.
[2, 6, 7]

N. Utilization and importance :
[Wood]: The wood resembling Brazilian rosewood is widely used for making high quality furniture,
luxury cabinets, art and handicrafts, decorations etc.
[2, 5]
[Non-wood]: No information available.
[Others]: No information available.

O. Cambodian wood classification :
Luxury
[2, 3]

P. Silviculture and management :
[General]: Occurs usually sparsly or in groups of 5-10 individuals in primary- and secondary
dipterocarp forest, mixed deciduous forest, tropical evergreen or semi-deciduous forest along
streams.
[1, 7]
[Management]: Trees generally grow slowly in both natural and man-made forests.
[2]





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Q. Propagation :
Individuals of this species often produce many seeds, but natural regeneration is often poor due to
low germination rates or disadvantageous weather and site conditions. "Seed requirements per
hectare for open plantations in Cambodia: Number of seeds per kg: 5,000. Planting spacing: 3 x 3 m.
Net seedlings required per ha: 1,112. Rate of loss: 1,335 = 20% (planting site), 1,484 = 10% in transit,
1,855 = 20% at the nursery. Germination rate: 50%. Purity: 95%. Total seed requirement: 0.79 kg" [8].
[2, 8]

R. Hazards and protection :
No information available.
S. Conservation :
"Due to its economic value, Dalbergia oliveri is facing serious depletion by illegal cutting. The number
of remaining individual trees is very low, and these are disappearing on a local level. In many areas of
its natural range, mature and large sized trees are rarely to be found. Efforts to regenerate the
species on a large scale have been few and limited. The species is facing the possibility of extinction
if no effective protection measures are taken. In 2002, the second CTSP meeting on the Forest Gene
Conservation Strategy defined Dalbergia oliveri as a priority species, and one that is in need of
immediate conservation interventions and appropriate protection. This species is protected by
Cambodian Forestry Law No.35" [2].

T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :
Kratie, Preah Vihear, Kampong Thom, Ratanakiri, Stung Treng, Pursat and Siem Reap.
[2]

U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
[Native]: Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar,Thailand, Vietnam.
[1, 2]
[Introduced]: No information available.

V. Miscellaneous
4
:
No information available.

W. Further readings
5
:
No information available.

X. References:
[1] Sam, Hoang Van; Nanthavong, Khamseng: Kessler, P.J.A., 2004: Trees of Laos and Vietnam: a
field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important species. BLUMEA
[2] CTSP, 2003: Forest Gene Conservation Strategy - Gene Conservation Strategy, Species
Monographs, Gene Ecological Zonation, Species Site Matching Model. (CD-ROM)
[3] FA, 2002 (draft), List of Trade Names of Commercial Wood in Cambodia, Trade Names of
Commercial Woods, unpublished.

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[4] Rollet, B., 1979: The Vegetation of Cambdia. (Draft Translation into English by K. Panzer)
[5] Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.
[6] Gardner,S.; Sidisunthorn, P.; Anusarnsunthorn, V., 2000: A Field Guide to Forest Trees of
Northern Thailand.
[7] Nguyen et al., 1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. JICA/Vietnam Inventory and Planning Institute.
[8] FA/CTSP-DANIDA, 2005: Farmers Tree Planting Manual - Guidelines for Site Selection and Tree
Planting. (CD-ROM)
[9] Petri, M. (DED), 2006: Own observations

Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook.) Raf.]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook.) Raf.]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Delonix regia ( Boj er ex Hook. ) Raf. [ 4] .
B. English name (s) ³ flame tree, peacock flower, fire tree [4]
C. Synonym ³ basionym: Poinciana regia Bojer ex Hook. [8,20].
D. Other
1
³ seinban (Burma); fang han nhoung, in si (Laos); hang nok
yung farang (Thailand); phuong, diêp bông do, diêp tây
(Vietnam) [6,8], flamboyant, poinciana (French) [20]
E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³ ek¶ak)araMg
Source: [-]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ k´ngaôk barang [4]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Fabales
Family: Caesalpinioideae
Gunus: Delonix
Species: Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook.) Raf.
[4]
Source :[4 ; 11]









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H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: A small to moderate-sized semi-deciduous tree with short trunk, often root-like buttresses
and a wide, spreading, umbrella-shaped crown, reaching 15 m in diameter [6,8]. A tree 10-15
(max.18) m, up to 60 cm diameter; trunk large, buttressed and angled towards the base [26]. Crown
umbrella-shaped, spreading with long, nearly horizontal branches forming a perimeter wider than the
trees height. Twigs stout, greenish, finely hairy when young, becoming brown. Roots shallow [26].
[Bark]: Grey, smooth, stipules pinnately 4 or 5 lobed; with vertical lines of brown spots [6,8]. Bark
smooth, greyish-brown, sometimes slightly cracked and with many dots (lenticels); inner bark light
brown [26].
[Leaves]: The compound leaves are alternate, 20-60 cm long and divided into 15-25 pairs of pinnae,
each of which has about 14-30 pairs of small, oblong leavelets, 8-10 mm long and 3-4 mm wide [6].
Leaves bipinnate, main rhachis 50-60 cm long; pinnae opposite, 9-24 pairs, up to 10 cm long. Leaflets
10-40 pairs per pinna, opposite, subsessile or sessile, narrowly elliptic, 5-15 by 2-5 mm, base slightly
oblique, apex rounded, mucronate, both surfaces finely puberulous, glabrescent [8]. Leaves
biparipinnate, alternate, light green, feathery, 20-60 cm long, 10-25 pairs of pinnae, 5-12 cm long,
each bearing 12-40 pairs of small, oblong-obtuse leaflets that are about 0.5-2.0 cm long and 0.3 cm
wide, petiole stout. The numerous leaflets are stalkless, rounded at the base and apex, entire, thin,
very minutely hairy on both sides, green on the upper surface. At the base of the leaf stalk there are
two compressed stipules that have long, narrow, comb-like teeth [26].
[Flowers]: The numerous showy red flowers with yellow margins grow in dense clusters sometimes
almost entirely covering the crown [6]. Inflorescences axillary racemes, 10-15 cm long, glabrous.
Flowers 5-10. Pedicels 5-8 cm long. Hypanthium shortly bell-shaped. Sepals 5, narrowly elliptic, 4-7
by 2.0-2.5 mm, apex acuminate, reddish inside. Petals 5, unequal, total length 3-7 cm long, blade
orbicular, 3-4 cm wide, narrowed into an up to 3 cm long claw, one yellowish-white and scarlet, the
others only scarlet. Stamens 10, equal in length; filaments up to 4 cm long, red with white base;
anthers elliptic c. 4 mm long. Ovary slightly velutinous; style filiform, glabrous, c. 2.5 cm long; stigma
indistinct [8]. Corymbs 15-30 cm long, borne laterally near the end of the twig, each with loosely
arranged, slightly fragrant flowers. Flowers 5-13 cm across, with 5 equal petals, on slender stalks, 5.0-
7.6 cm long. Petals 5.0-6.5 cm long, 2-3 cm wide, orbicular, broadly spoon-shaped, rounded but
broader than long, slightly wavy-margined or crisp, tapering into claws about 2.5 cm long, widely
extended and bending backwards before falling. Petals 4, orange-red, almost scarlet, 1 longer and
narrower than the others, whitish inside with red spots and streaks; stalk very long, slender and hairy.
Sepals 5, thick, green outside and reddish with yellow border within, reflexed when the flowers open,
pointed, finely hairy, about 2.5 cm long. Stamens 5 with 10 red filaments; pistil has a hairy 1-celled
ovary about 1.3 cm long and slender style about 3 cm long [26].
[Fruit]: The fruit pods are stout, woody, reddish, brown or black, flat and up to 40 cm long [6]. Pods
narrowly elliptic, flat, slightly curved, pendulous, 30-80 by 3.5-7.0 cm, woody-valved, blackish,
beaked. Seeds 20-40, elliptic, compressed, 25 by 8 mm. Fruit green and flaccid when young turning
to dark-brown, hard woody pods, 30-75 cm long, 3.8 cm thick, 5.0-7.6 cm broad, ending in a short

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beak when mature, with many horizontally partitioned seed chambers inside, indehiscent, finallly
splitting into 2 parts. The conspicuous pods hang down and remain attached most of the year even
when the trees are leafless. Seeds 30-45, hard, greyish, glossy, to 2 cm long, oblong and shaped very
much like date seeds, transversely mottled with a bony testa. They are arranged at right angles to the
length of the pod. The generic name "Delonix", is derived from the Greek "delos" (visible), and onyx
(claw), in an allusion to the conspicuously clawed petals. The specific name "regia" is derived from the
Latin word "regis" (royal, regal, magnificent). Most of its common names are derived from its large,
flame-red flowers [26]. Flowering April-July, fruiting May to August [8].

I. Wood properties:
The sapwood is light yellow, and the heartwood is yellowish to light brown. It is soft, heavy, specific
gravity 800kg/m³ (440kg/m³ [12], coarse grained, weak, brittle, takes good polish and is rather
resistant to moisture and insects although very susceptible to attack by dry-wood termites [20,26].

J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
Endemic to Madagascar. An ornamental tree widely cultivated in the tropics in Africa, South America
and Asia, including Burma, Thailand, Indochina and the Philippines under the name flamboyant or
flame tree [6,8]. The tree is native to Madagascar and has been widely planted for the last 150 years
or more as a garden and avenue tree in both dry and moist regions of tropical India as far as Jammu
in the northwest. It is also one of the most extensively planted ornamental trees in tropical and
subtropical regions throughout the world. In Sri Lanka, the tree is grown as an ornamental; it has been
tried in Cyprus, but it could not stand the winter cold. Trials carried out in Ghana failed, but in addition
to India, it has been grown successfully in Burma, Jamaica, Nigeria, Borneo, South Africa, Egypt,
Tanzania and Uganda. It is also been planted in southern Florida including Florida Keys, southern
California, Bermuda, Mexico, Brazil and throughout the West Indies [26].

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
Cultivated around villages, buildings, parks, along roads and alleys. It is a quick growing, light
sensitive species that will need about 5 years to bloom [9]. Trees can grow at higher altitudes than
recommended, but flowering becomes erratic. The tree demands light and grows weakly and sparsely
under shade. It grows in areas with both high and scanty rainfall. D. regia has a superficial root
system and competes successfully with the neighbouring shrubs and flowering plants, rendering bare
the ground under its canopy. It should therefore be planted away from other plants in the gardens.
Trees are deciduous only where the dry season is long and pronounced [26]. The altitudinal range is
from 0 to 2000 m a.s.l., annual rainfall should reach from 700mm/m² to 1800mm/m² with a uniform
summer rain distribution. The dry season may last between 1 and 6 months. Mean annual
temperature range is from 14 to 26ºC., but must not drop below 6ºC [12].

L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
Not determined


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M. soil and site conditions :
Likes well-drained fertile soil for optimum growth and flowering [9]. D. regia has been planted up to an
altitude of about 2000 m on alluvium, shale and limestone soils and on a wide range of other soil
types. However, optimum growth is obtained on light, well-drained soils. It tolerates slight salinity [12].
Soil texture should be light, with free drainage, soil reaction close to neutral, suitable soil types are
given as alluvials, limestone and saline soils [12].

N. Utilization and importance :
[Wood]: Delonix regia produces a very durable construction timber but large dimension timber is
rarely available [13]. Wood and pods are suitable as fuelwood [17,26].
[Non-Wood]: D.regia is predominantly planted as ornamental and shade tree [6,8]. Flowers are
reputed to produce bee forage [20,26].
The tree yields a thick mucilage of water-soluble gum in yellowish or reddish-brown warty tears; the
seeds contain gum that may find use in textile and food industries [20,26].A dye and a gum can be
produced from the bark [13].
The seeds edible [8].
Bark has medicinal properties, a leaf decoction presumably has anti-rheumatic effects [4,26]. The
hard, elongated seeds are occasionally used as beads [26].
D. regia bark produces large amounts of a granular, yellowish- or reddish-brown gum. The gum is
soluble in water, forming a thick opalescent mucilage. It contains a large quantity of calcium oxalate
[12].
The seeds can be made into necklaces; they contain a gum which can be used in the textile and food
industries. The pods are edible and have good potential as a dietary protein source for humans and
livestock. The leaves (with 39.5% protein) provide nutritious fodder and browse for livestock. In the
Virgin Islands, the annual dry matter yield of forage from D. regia has been estimated as 13.45 t/ha
and protein as 1.45 t/ha [12].
The aqueous extracts of D. regia contain allelopathic compounds, including phenolic acids, alkaloids
and flavonoids; these can be used as natural herbicides and pesticides to increase the productivity of
agricultural crops. An extract of D. regia leaves has been found to disrupt insect growth and
development [12].
It can be planted as a multipurpose tree on eroded sites for erosion control, and for soil rehabilitation
and improvement through atmospheric nitrogen fixation. In alley cropping studies in the uplands of
Sierra Leone, D. regia trees were very effective in conserving soil moisture and reducing soil
temperature (Karim, 1987). D. regia is planted in tea plantations to provide shade. It is a useful tree in

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agroforestry, for soil improvement, soil conservation, erosion control, amenity and ornamental planting
[12].

O. Cambodian wood classification :
Not included [18].

P. Silviculture and management :
D. regia can be planted in areas where rainfall is less than the recommended amount, as long as
irrigation is practised. It is fast growing, and pollarding is a suitable practice. Careful pruning will
achieve good crown form. The trees have shallow root systems and the wood is weak; they are
therefore liable to being uprooted during strong storms and broken by strong winds. After the leaves
are shed, the trees are less attractive, with their conspicuous pods remaining on the bare branches
and with prominent tunnels and nests of termites that commonly attack this species. Another
objectionable feature is the surface root system, which sometimes breaks sidewalks and walls.
Because of these undesirable characteristics, some authorities classify flamboyant as a tree that
should not be planted [26].

Q. Propagation :
D. regia is a light-demander and under shady conditions it grows slowly. It is almost evergreen and is
only briefly deciduous during the dry season. It has an extensive superficial root system, which
renders it vulnerable to windthrow during storms. Because of its spreading root system, other plants
are killed through competition, thus rendering the surrounding ground bare [12]. It is naturally
regenerated by seed. D. regia seed is able to germinate at a wide range of soil pH values (4.9-10.6),
but take a long time to germinate and may lie buried in the soil for 2-3 years without germinating. It
grows quickly, reaching a height of up to 8 m in three years. It tolerates severe pruning and salt winds.
It is a nitrogen-fixing species and the roots have mycorrhizas [12].
D. regia is usually grown from seed. There are 1600-3700 seeds per kilogram, with about 10.5%
moisture content. The seed can be stored in a clean dry store for up to 4-5 years without losing
viability. Seed pre-treatment is necessary to hasten and improve germination and several options
exist. The seed is treated with sulfuric acid for about three hours, soaked in hot water for 24 hours or
mechanically scarified before sowing. Soaking in hot water at 90°C for 10 seconds, followed by
soaking for 24 hours under controlled conditions of 28.2°C and 83% relative humidity, gave 80%
germination. Scarification and soaking in 400 ppm gibberellic acid for 48 hours also improved
germination [12].
Seeds are sown in nursery beds, pots or polythene bags without shade. Plants ready for field planting
are obtained in 4 months. These may be allowed to grow for up to 10 months for the production of
stump plants, with 5 cm shoot and 25 cm root portions. Plants raised from seed may have flowers of
different colours. Therefore, vegetative propagation by stem cuttings can be advisable, especially for
propagating trees with scarlet flowers. Under ordinary conditions, rooting of cuttings is poor, but this
can be enhanced by application of growth substances, such as IBA. Rooting of cuttings can also be

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increased by mist propagation techniques in a chamber. D. regia has been successfully
micropropagated from a number of different explants on suitable media [12].
After seeds are sown in unshaded nursery beds, they germinate within 5-10 days, with a germination
rate of up to 90%; subsequent growth in the nursery is quite fast. Alternatively, the seeds can be
directly sown in polythene bags, 4-5 seeds/bag. Seedlings watered and weeded regularly are planted
out in the rainy season, with total time required in the nursery being 3-5 months. Keeping the plants
for more than 9 months is not desirable, as they become too tall to handle, but seedlings can be
transplanted even when 20-25 cm high. Natural regeneration is common. Young plants are not fire
resistant and should be protected from grazing [20,26].
D. regia is easily propagated from seeds that have a hard, woody testa and take a long time to
germinate. They may lie for 2-3 years in the soil without germinating and usually take 12-349 days to
germinate. To break this dormancy, pretreatment is practised; a small portion of the seed coat is
clipped, or seeds are boiled in hot water, then allowed to soak for 24 hours. Trees can also be
propagated from branch cuttings [20].

R. Hazards and protection :
Beetles and larvae of Poecilips sierralemensis bore into the pods to release the seeds. Trees are
susceptible to attack by shoot borers and are occasionally defoliated by a caterpillar or an insect;
leaves may be eliminated completely. D. regia is attacked by Ganoderma lucidum root rot, especially
in the high rainfall areas [17]. D. regia plants are susceptible to attack from termites and shoot borers .
Pteroma plagiophleps is a serious pest of avenue plantings of this species. A severe outbreak of the
bostrichid Sinoxylon anale was observed on D. regia in Israel in 1984. Similarly, larvae of the noctuid
Pericyma cruegeri have been observed causing severe defoliation of trees in Nagaland, India .
Acanthopsyche reimeri is a bagworm of tropical Africa. Its larvae are polyphagous, feeding on the
leaves of various dicotyledonous trees, principally open-grown trees and ornamentals. It has caused
severe defoliation of D. regia in Kenya.
Anoplocnemis curvipes is a bowlegged bug and is widely distributed in tropical Africa. Both the adults
and nymphs of this species are polyphagous, feeding on the sap of many agricultural and garden
plants. In Malawi it has been recorded on D. regia, and is a pest of some importance as heavily
infested shoots become disfigured and increment is considerably reduced; it has even been known to
kill 1-year-old plants.
Leptostylus praemorsus has been recorded in Antigua, Bermuda, Dominica and St. Lucia. A longhorn
beetle, known principally as a pest of citrus, it also infests other trees, both dicotyledons including D.
regia, and conifers.
Orthezia insignis is also very widely distributed in the tropics, subtropics and warmer parts of
temperate zones. In Malawi, it is frequently injurious to D. regia and other trees, principally
ornamentals, and often kills seedlings or even fully-grown trees if heavily infested.

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Oxyrhachis latipes is a tree-hopper, which feeds on the sap of D. regia in Malawi. Records of
infestation are few and it is apparently unimportant. Injury from Schedorhinotermes lamanianus has
been recorded on D. regia. The beetle and larvae of Poecilips sierraleonensis can bore into the pods
of D. regia and damage the seed [12].
A Ganoderma sp. has been observed attacking seedlings of D. regia in Australia. Root rot is caused
by Fusarium oxysporum in the northern Guinea region of Nigeria. Root and butt-rot disease is
characterized by affected parts slowly enlarging and development of a thick, dark brown mycelial
sheath around the bases of infected trees. Wilting and discoloration of the leaves and development of
brown mycelial mats on roots and basal stems, followed by death of D. regia plants, has been
reported.
A fungus, Pleiochaeta setosa, has been noticed on D. regia in India. This attacks the cotyledons of
germinating seedlings and the leaves of young seedlings, causing shrivelling, leaf death and leaf
shedding. The seedlings however, do not die.
The well known root rot fungus Armillaria mellea has a worldwide distribution and extensive host
range, including D. regia. Thick, white mycelia form a felty sheet between bark layers and also
between the dead bark and underlying wood.
Sphaerostilbe repens, known as stinking root disease, affects D. regia. Infection is by waterborne
spores through root contact. It produces dark brown or reddish rhizomorphs beneath the root bark.
The inner surface of the root is bleached and a strong odour is produced due to the combined activity
of fungus and bacteria [12].


S. Conservation :
Not a threatened species [17].


T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :
In most provincial towns, in villages

U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
Introduced and naturalised in all towns and villages in countries with tropical climate [8]. Native to
Madagascar, Zambia; introduced to Brazil, Burkina Faso, Cyprus, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, India,
Jamaica, Kenya, Mexico, Niger, Nigeria, Puerto Rico, Singapore, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan,
Tanzania, Uganda, United States of America [26].

V. Miscellaneous
4
:





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W. Further readings
5
:
Anon. 1986: The useful plants of India. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi,
India
Bein E. 1996: Useful trees and shrubs in Eritrea. Regional Soil Conservation Unit (RSCU), Nairobi,
Kenya.
Bekele-Tesemma A, Birnie A, Tengnas B. 1993: Useful trees and shrubs for Ethiopia. Regional Soil
Conservation Unit (RSCU), Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA).
Birnie A. 1997: What tree is that? A beginner's guide to 40 trees in Kenya. Jacaranda Designs Ltd.
Gbadegesin RA, 1993: Root rot of Delonix regia caused by Fusarium oxysporum in the northern
Guinea zone of Nigeria. Discovery and Innovation, 5(3):255-259; 18 ref.
Grant G, More LJ, McKenzie NH, Dorward PM, Buchan WC, Telek L, Pusztai A, 1995: Nutritional and
haemaglutination properties of several tropical seeds. Journal of Agricultural Science, 124(3):437-445;
32 ref.
Hood IA, Ramsden M, Allen P, 1996: Taxonomic delimitation and pathogenicity to seedlings of
Delonix regia and Albizia lebbeck of a species related to Ganoderma lucidum on broadleaf trees in
Queensland. Australasian Plant Pathology, 25(2):86-98; 27 ref.
Hutchinson J, 1964: The genera of the flowering plants. Oxford, UK: The Clarendon Press.

Luna RK. 1996: Plantation trees. International Book Distributors, Dehra Dun, India.

Millat-E-Mustafa M, 1989: Effect of hot water treatment on the germination of seeds of Albizia lebbeck
and Delonix regia.. Bano Biggyan Patrika, 18(1-2):63-64; 4 ref.

Pandey J, Agrawal M, 1994: Evaluation of air pollution phytotoxicity in a seasonally dry tropical urban
environment using three woody perennials. New Phytologist, 126(1):53-61; 56 ref.

Saxena SC, Yadav RS, 1986: A preliminary laboratory evaluation of an extract of leaves of Delonix
regia Raf. as a disruptor of insect growth and development. Tropical Pest Management, 32(1):58-59;
10 ref.

Streets RJ. 1962: Exotic forest trees of the British Commonwealth. Claredon Press, Oxford.
Vogt K. 1995: A field guide to the identification, propagation and uses of common trees and shrubs of
dryland Sudan. SOS Sahel International (UK).

X. References:

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4 ) Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plant s used in Cambodia. Olympic Print ing House;
Phnom Penh, 915 pp.

6) Jensen, M. , 2001: Trees and Fruit s of Sout heast Asia. An illust rat ed field guide.
Orchid Press, Bangkok, 234 pp.

8) Sam, H. V. ,Nant havong, Kh. and P. J. A. Kessler 2004: Trees of Laos and Viet nam:
A field guide t o 100 economically or ecologically import ant species. BLUMEA J. Plant Tax.
and Plant Geogr. 49( 2004) p. 201- 349 pp., Univ. Leiden Br. , Leiden, The Net herlands,

9) Barwick, M., 2004: Tropical and Subt ropical Trees: A Worldwide Encyclopaedic
Guide. Thames & Hudson Lt d. , London, 484 pp.

11) Heywood, V. D. ( Ed. ) 1993: Flowering Plant s of t he World. Oxford Universit y
Press, New York; 336 pp.

12) CABI Forest ry Compendium Edit ion 2003 ( on CD ROM)

13) Baert els, A. , 1993: Farbat las Tropenpflanzen- Zier- und Nut zpflanzen ( Colour At las
Tropical Plant s- ornament al and fruit plant s) Eugen Ulmer Publ. St ut t gart , illust rat ed,
384 pp.

18) Dept . of Forest ry and Wildlife 2003: Cambodia Forest ry St at ist ics t o 2002. ( in
Khmer and English) Planning & Account ing Off., St at ist ics Sect . , Phnom Penh, Cambodia,
97 pp.

19) Rehm, S. and G. Espig 1991: The Cult ivat ed Plant s of t he Tropics and Subt ropics.
Josef Margraf, Publ. Scient ific Books; Weikersheim, Germany, 552 pp.

20) Salim AS, Simons AJ, Orwa C, Chege J, Ovuor, B, and Mut ua A, 2002:
Agroforest ree Dat abase. World Agroforest ry Cent re ( on CD ROM) .


26) World Agroforest ry Cent re
ht t p. www. worldagroforest ry. org/ sea/ Product s/ AFDbases/ AF/ asp/ Speciesinfo. asp?
( I nt ernet source)


Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Dimocarpus longan Lour.]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Dimocarpus longan Lour.]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Dimocarpus longan Lour.
B. English name (s) ³ longan [1], dragon's eye, longan tree, lungan [5]
C. Synonym ³ [for ssp. longan var. longan]: Dimocarpus longan Lour.
(1790), Euphoria longana Lamk. (1792) nom. illeg.,
Nephelium longana Cambess. (1829) [1, 2], Euphoria longan
Steud. [4], Nephelium long-yan Bl. [5]
[for ssp. longan var. longepetiolulatus Leenh.]: Euphoria
morigera Gagnep. (1950) nom. inval. [1]
[for ssp. longan var. obtusus (Pierre) Leenh.]: Euphoria
scandens Winit & Kerr. [1]
[for ssp. malesianus Leenh. var. malesianus]: Nephelium
malaiense Griff. (1854), Euphoria cinerea Radlk. (1878) nom.
illeg., Euphoria malaiensis Radlk. (1879) nom. illeg.,
Euphoria gracilis Radlk. (1913) nom. illeg. [1]
[for ssp. malesianus Leenh. var. echinatus Leenh.]: Euphoria
nephelioides Radlk. (1914) nom. illeg. [1]
D. Other
1
³ longanier, oeil de dragon (France) [1] - lengkeng, buku, ihau,
medaru, kyet mouk (Indonesia) [1, 4] - lengkeng, mata
kucing, isau, sau, kakus (Malaysia) [1] - kyet mouk
(Myanmar) [1] - lam nhai, nam nhai (Laos) [1] - lamyai pa,
lamyai khruer, lamyai tao, lahm-yai (Thailand) [1, 4] -
nh[ax]n, nam:nhan (Vietnam) [1, 4] - mamoncillo chino
(Spain) [5]
E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³: emon
Source: [5]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ mien [1]



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G. Taxonomic position(complete)³:
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Sapindales
Family: Sapindaceae
Genus: Dimocarpus
Species: Dimocarpus longan Lour.
Sub-species: Dimocarpus longan longan
Lour. / Dimocarpous longan
malesianus Leenh.
Source :[ 1]


H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: A small to medium-sized, evergreen tree, in cultivation 9-14 m in height [4] (9-12 m [5], 10-
20 m [3]) and with a round very dense crown that attains a width of 14 m [4]. Unmanaged trees can
become up to 40 m in height [1, 4] (-30 m [2, 8], 20-40 m [11]), but may exceptionally become a
scandent shrub. The trunk, sometimes buttressed, is up to 75-100 cm in diameter [4] (76.2 cm [5], 100
cm [1], 20-40 cm [11]). Branches are long, spreading, slightly drooping, with 5 faint grooves,
sometimes warty lenticellate and heavily foliaged. The roots grow 2-4 m deep [3, 4] to the water table.
[Bark]: The bark is first smooth, later rough and flaking.
[Leaves]: Leaves are alternate, paripinnate, with 4-10 [4, 5] opposite leaflets (2-6 leaflets [1], 6-8
leaflets [11]), elliptic, egg-shaped to oblong or spear-shaped and a blunt tip. The leaflets attain a size
of 10-20 x 3.5-5 cm [5] (3-45 x 1.5-20 cm, 1-5 times longer than wide [1], 9-18 x 3.2-6 cm [8], 7-20 x
2.5 x 5 cm [11]) and are leathery, wavy, glossy-green on the upper surface, minutely hairy and
greyish-green beneath. Young leaves are wine-colored and showy. Each leaf has 14-17 pairs [8] of
side veins (10-14 pairs [11]) that are not joined. The leafstalk is 1-20 cm long [1, 4] (7-12 cm [11]), the
leafletstalk 0.5-35 mm [4] (2-10 mm [8]).
[Flowers]: The inflorescences (=terminal panicles) are 8-40 cm long [1] and densely covered with fine
hair. The flowerheads contain (1-)3-5 flowers [4], male and female mingled, with 1-4 mm long [4]
flowerstalks and 1.5-5 mm long bracts (=reduced leaves) [4]. Flowers consist of a 2-5 mm x 1-3 mm

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[1] calyx lobe and 5 [1] (5-6 [5]) inner flower leaves (=petals), yellow brown to pale-yellow, 1.5-6 mm x
0.6-2 mm in size [1], densely woolly to hairless and larger than those of the litchi. The male flowers
contain (6-)8(-10) stamens [1] with 1-6 mm long filaments. "Male and female phases of flowering
overlap 4-6 weeks depending on cultivars. Pollination, by insects such as ants, flies and honey bees
(Apis cerana, Apis florea and Apis dorsata) is most effective between 8.00 a.m. and 2.00 p.m. In one
study fruit set per panicle improved greatly with bloom rating for the tree, leading to a sharp
progression in yield per tree (and an obvious risk of biennial bearing). The period from bloom to
harvest is 5-7 months, depending on cultivar and climate. In Thailand it flowers just before or after the
temperature rise at the end of the cold, dry season. Most fruit is harvested in August and September"
[5].
[Fruits]: The fruit (=drupe) occurs in clusters and is broad-ellipsoid to globular with 1-3 cm [1] in
diameter (1.25-2.5 cm [5]). Its rind is thin, brittle, yellow-brown to light reddish-brown and more or less
roughly pebbled. The flesh (=aril) is moist and sticky, whitish, translucent, with a sweet smell and
taste, "but not as sweet as lychee and with less 'bouquet'" [5]. The seed is round, jet-black or
blackish-brown, shining, with a circular white spot at the base, giving it the aspect of an eye.
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8]

I. Wood properties:
[Wood Properties]: The heartwood of ssp. longan is red, hard, not fissured and takes a fine polish,
while the wood of ssp. malesianus is fairly hard and of light brown to yellow color.
[ 1, 6, 11]

J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
Approximate limits: The optimal latitudinal distribution of D. longan ssp. longan ranges from 15°N to
15°S with 20°N to 20°S as absolute limits [3]. Subspecies malesianus is confined to 10°N and 10°S
[1]. Some authors limit the area of origin to the mountain chain from Myanmar through southern
China; others extend it to south-west India and Sri Lanka, including the lowlands. The crop is mainly
grown in South China, Taiwan and North Thailand with small acreages elsewhere in Indo-China
(Cambodia, Vietnam) as well as Queensland (Australia) and Florida (United States) and scattered
trees at higher elevations in South-East Asia. Subspecies longan grows mainly in the understorey of
primary forests, sometimes secondary forests from lowlands to highlands, where frequent fires are
absent. "In Thailand it occurs mainly in the river basins" [10]. Under cultivation, it does especially well
on high ground near ponds and is more seldom grown under orchard conditions than is the litchi.
Subspecies malesianus occurs all over Indo-China and Malesia (Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines)
with the greatest variation found in Borneo mainly in the substage or understorey in primary or
sometimes secondary forests.
[1, 2, 4, 8, 10]





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K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
Subspecies longan occurs from lowland to highland areas and can be grown at elevations up to 1,500
m a.s.l. [1] in SW-India, up to 900 m [1] in Giava and up to 1,300 m [1] in Bengala. Subspecies
malesianus thrives in the humid tropical lowlands near sea level around 150-450 m a.s.l. [5]. "Longan
is a subtropical tree that grows well in the tropics but requires a prominent change of seasons for
satisfactory flowering" [1]. The following climate zones are suitable for cultivation: tropical wet & dry
(Aw), tropical wet (Ar), subtropical humid (Cf) and subtropical dry winter (Cw) [3]. D. longan ssp.
longan requires a rainfall of 1,300-2,000 mm/year [3] (1,500-2,000 mm [1]) for optimal growth and an
absolute rainfall range from 800 to 3,000 mm [3]. The rainfall for ssp. malesianus ranges from 2,500
mm to more than 4,000 mm per year [1] with a relative humidity of 65-95% [1]. It needs an adequate
supply of water and can even stand brief flooding, but not prolonged drought. The temperature range
for growth is 7-36°C [4] with the optimum between 18-30°C [4] [15°C [5]] for ssp. longan and 25-30°C
[1] for ssp. malesianus. Subspecies longan "needs chilling temperatures of about 7-12°C, or a 2-3
months period with temperatures about 15-22°C and a short dry period to stimulate flowering. From
fruit set and onwards night temperatures should not be above 20-25°C" [3]. It cannot stand heavy
frosts. Young trees may be damaged by -0.5º to -1ºC [4] and are killed at just a few degrees lower.
Larger trees show leaf injury at -2º to -3ºC [4], small branch injury at -3º to -4ºC [4], large branch and
trunk show damage symptoms at -4.5°C [4] and sometimes fail to recover. Mature trees will only
tolerate -3 to -5°C [3] for few hours. Regarding the photoperiod it is not sensitive, tolerating short days
(<12 hours [3]), neutral days (12-14 hours [3]) and long days (>14 hours [3]). Young trees need some
shade, whereas older trees thrive in full sunlight.
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
No information available.

M. soil and site conditions :
Longan thrives best on deep, well drained rich sandy loam and nearly as well on sand rich in organic
material. It also grows to a large size and bears heavily in oolitic limestone. Poor drainage is tolerated
very well (saturated >50% of the year [3]). The optimal pH for ssp. longan ranges between 5.5 and 6
[3] with an absolute range of 5-8 [3] "In organic muck soils, blooming and fruiting are deficient,
probably because shoot growth continues for too long. In northern Thailand orchards are often
situated on the lighter soils along former river courses, a ribbon of trees winding between the sawahs"
[1]. Additional soil properties: "Optimal soil depth: deep (>150 cm). Absolute soil depth: shallow (20-50
cm). Optimal soil fertility: high. Absolute soil fertility: moderate. Soil salinity: low (<4 dS/m)" [3]. “In
Sarawak, ssp. malesianus grows on alluvial soil, often on river banks. In other areas the trees grow on
a wider range of soil types. A pH range of 4.5-6.5 is common in this region" [1].
[1, 3, 4]



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N. Utilization and importance :
[Wood]: D. longan is not often cut for timber. The wood, however, can be used for posts, construction
and agricultural implements. If the timber has a high quality, it can be used for wood carving,
moulding, domestic joinery and furniture. Its value for fuel is limited.
[6, 11, 12]
[Non-wood]: Fruits of this species are mainly eaten fresh. Some sources mention that the fruit is
improved by cooking. "There are substantial canning industries for longan in Thailand, China and
Taiwan" [1]. Large fruits are used, preferably those with small seeds. Fruit can be canned in its own
juice with little or no sugar, due to the high level of soluble solids. "In China, the majority are canned in
syrup or dried. The canned fruits were regularly shipped from Shanghai to the United States in the
past. Today, they are exported from Hong Kong and Taiwan" [5]. Canned longans retain their
individual flavor better than rambutan or lychee. Longans can also be preserved dry, either intact or
after removal of the pericarp. For drying, the fruits are first heated to shrink the flesh and facilitate
peeling of the rind. Then the seeds are removed and the flesh dried over a slow fire. The dried
product is black, leathery and smoky in flavor and is mainly used to prepare a refreshing drink. A
liqueur is made by macerating the longan flesh in alcohol. The seeds, because of their saponin
content, are used like soapberries (Sapindus saponaria L.) for shampooing the hair. Seeds and fruit
flesh of longan have several medicinal uses: "The flesh is administered as a stomachic, febrifuge and
vermifuge, and is regarded as an antidote for poison. A decoction of the dried flesh is taken as a tonic
and treatment for insomnia and neurasthenic neurosis. In both North and South Vietnam, the 'eye' of
the longan seed is pressed against snakebites in the belief that it will absorb the venom" [5]. The
seeds prevent heavy sweating and the pulverized kernel, which contains saponin, tannin and fat,
serves as a styptic. The leaves, containing quercetin and quercitrin, and flowers are sold in Chinese
herb markets. Dried flowers are also exported to Malaysia for medicinal purposes. The seeds and the
bark are also burnt for fuel "and are part of the payment of the Chinese women who attend to the
drying operation" [6].
[1, 3, 5, 6]
[Others]: "In eastern Thailand ssp. longan var. obtusus is grown as an ornamental climber" [1]. In
Bengal and elsewhere the Longan tree is cultivated as an ornamental and shade tree and is also
considered to be a useful species for agroforestry.
[1, 3, 5]

O. Cambodian wood classification :
No class. [9]

P. Silviculture and management :
[General]: Subspecies longan is a fast growing light demander which can be mainly found in the
understorey of primary forests, sometimes secondary forests from lowlands to highlands, where
frequent fires are absent. "In Thailand it occurs mainly in the river basins" [10]. Under cultivation, it

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thrives exceptionally well on high ground near ponds and is more seldom grown under orchard
conditions than is the litchi. Subspecies malesianus occurs all over Indo-China and Malesia (Malaysia,
Indonesia, Philippines) with the greatest variation found in Borneo mainly in the understorey of
primary or sometimes secondary forests.
[Establishment]: Tree spacing ranges from 6 m x 6 m to 12 m x 12 m [1]; where the latter spacing may
also be a result of a subsequent thinning of the stand. For orchards the trees may be spaced 10 m x
10 m [1], in a square or hexagonal pattern. In general, there is a trend towards closer spacing.
"Regular bearing would help to limit tree size to fit spacings of 6 m x 8 m to 7 m x 10 m" [1]. "In China,
if the longan is raised on the lowlands it is always put on the edges of raised beds. On high ground,
the trees are placed in pre-enriched holes on the surface" [5].
[Management]: The trees begin to bear fruits 4-5 years [3] after sowing. The economic life-span may
reach about 25 years [3]. Young longan trees are pruned to limit the number of main branches. A tree
can be converted to a preferred cultivar by cutting it drastically back and veneer-grafting the new
shoots. "In bearing trees harvesting is a form of pruning, since the entire panicle is cut. Soon after
harvest this should be followed by cutting out some of the subtending twigs. Cutting out these twigs
completely simplifies the canopy structure and admits more light to the interior of the tree; it also
removes twigs that are least likely to fruit next year, since they have fruited this year. If this is not done
side shoots emerge below the cuts of the harvested panicles. These shoots make the canopy more
dense and come too late to initiate inflorescences for the next crop. According to an old report
growers in Fukien Province in China practise flower thinning in 'on' years. Since prolific bloom in
longan appears to be associated with heavy fruit set, the risk of over-thinning is small and as many as
50% of the panicles may be removed (3/4 = 75% of the flower spikes in the cluster may be removed
[5]). Side shoots emerge below the cuts sufficiently early in the season to mature in time to initiate
flowers for the next crop. Thus alternate bearing is suppressed by thinning. Current pruning practice is
mainly to remove suckers in the interior of the tree as well as branches that have lost vitality and
panicles that remain after harvest; the skirt is maintained at a height of at least 1 m. These pruning
practices do not restrict tree size" [1]. The longan needs an adequate supply of water and can even
stand brief flooding, but not prolonged drought. Irrigation is necessary in dry periods. Moisture is
especially needed from flowering until shortly before harvest and may be preserved by mulching.
"Once the trees become dormant at the end of the growing season, rainfall may trigger a new flush of
shoot growth, upsetting floral differentiation and resulting in failure of flowering. There is no specific
information on fertilizer requirements. Chinese work indicates that high yields are correlated with leaf
nutrient levels as follows: N higher than 1.70%, P 0.12-0.20%, Mg 0.20-0.30%. Levels of 0.60-0.80%
and 1.50-2.50% are recommended for K and Ca, respectively, but no relation to yield has been found.
For 'mata kucing' and related types husbandry is largely limited to harvesting and cutting back of the
fruiting twigs" [1]. The period from bloom to harvest is 5-7 months [5], depending on cultivar and
climate.
[Fruit harvesting]: "Longan fruits, including the fruits of ssp. malesianus, are non-climacteric and have
to be harvested when ripe. Maturity is determined by fruit shape, skin color and taste. Immature fruits

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are tasteless. The mature longan fruit has a dark, smooth skin, the inside of which is netted and tastes
sweet. Longan trees should be picked twice at an interval of 7-10 days; 'mata kucing' fruit can all be
picked in a single harvest. The whole panicle is cut with a knife or scissors. Panicles should not be
dropped. They are sorted and bunched" [1].
[Yield]: In Thailand the average longan yield ranged from 0.99-1.65 t/ha in 1981 to 1987 [1] (1-6 t/ha
[3]). These average yields are extremely low when compared with well-kept orchards, which should
produce up to 12 t/ha per year [1]. For 10-15-year-old trees yields ranging from 60-190 kg/tree [1]
(120 kg/tree [3]) have been obtained. In East Java the very best trees produce 150-300 kg [1] in a
good year (200-300 kg [3]). In China, full-grown trees given sufficient room–at least 12 m apart–may
yield 180-225 kg [5] in good years. Crops in Florida from trees 6 m tall and broad, have varied from
light (22.5-45 kg [1]) to medium (68-113 kg [1]) and heavy (135-225 kg [1]). Rarely such trees may
produce 272-317 kg [5]. The variation occurs largely due to irregular bearing, often one good year
followed by 1 or 2 poor years [5].
[Handling after harvest]: "Thai growers traditionally pack longan fruits with stalk intact in 35 cm x 50
cm round woven bamboo baskets containing 21-22 kg and lined with longan leaves. Fruit for export,
often detached from the panicles, may be packed in corrugated boxes or plastic baskets. Since
longan fruit have high sugar content, they have a shelf life of a few days only at ambient temperature
(25-31°C). Longan fruit subjected to hydrocooling or forced air cooling can be stored at 5°C for 40-45
days and at 10°C for 20 days with a relative humidity of 85-90%. For long-term storage fruits can be
fumigated with SO2" [1].
[1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 12]

Q. Propagation :
[Seed collection and storage]: The seed storage is recalcitrant. Seeds "lose viability at 18% moisture
content. There is 70% survival after 7 weeks storage with anesthetic substances such as moist
storage at 8-10°C with 100% relative humidity and with 80% nitrous oxide + 20% oxygen, but no
viability when water is used; and 67% germination after 250 days moist storage in moist (20 %
moisture content) perlite + 4% chlorthalonil, at 15°C" [5]. Seed viability can also be prolonged for
some time by treatment with a fungicide and keeping the moisture level of the seed above 30% [1].
[Seed Propagation]: Most longan trees are grown from seed. After drying in the shade for 4 days [5],
they should be planted without delay, but no more than 2 cm deep [5], otherwise they may send up
more than one sprout. Germination takes place within 7-10 days [3, 5]. The seedlings are transplanted
to shaded nursery rows the following spring and set in the field 2-3 years [5] later during winter
dormancy. Seedling growth is slow and the juvenile phase lasts about 7 years [3].
[Vegetative Propagation]: In Thailand longans are propagated through air layering, in China through
approach grafting using seedlings of the same cultivar as rootstocks applying the modified Forkert
method. However, slow and uneven budbreak remains a problem. "In the rainy season air layers root
in 2-2.5 months; they are nursed in the shade for 6-12 months after separation. Trees obtained by air
layering are more susceptible to wind than grafted trees; therefore either they are supported by

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permanent bamboo props, by soil mounded around the trunk, or rooted seedlings are planted close to
the young tree and inarched to improve stability" [1]. "In Kwangtung Province (China), when
vegetative propagation is undertaken, it is mostly by means of inarching, nearly always onto 'Wu
Yuan' trees 3-5 years old and 5 to 6 ft (1.5-1.8 m) high. The union is made no less than 4 ft (1.2 m)
from the ground because it is most convenient. Grafting is uncommon and when it is done, it is a
sandwich graft on longan rootstock, 3 or 4 grafts being made successively, one onto the beheaded
top of the preceding one, in the belief that it makes the graft wind-resistant and that it induces better
size and quality in the fruit. Conventional modes of grafting have not been successful in Florida, but
whip-grafting has given 80% success in Taiwan. Air-layering is frequently done in Fukien Province
(China) and was found a feasible means of distributing the 'Kohala' from Hawaii. Air-layers bear in 2
to 3 years after planting. A tree can be converted to a preferred cultivar by cutting it drastically back
and veneer-grafting the new shoots" [6]. Stem cuttings are rarely used.
[1, 5, 6]

R. Hazards and protection :
[Pests]: "Numerous pests are found on longan. Of particular importance is the longan stink bug
(Tessaratoma javanica) which can ruin bloom in a year with light flowering. There is also a flower-
eating caterpillar. Chemical control interferes with pollination and the interests of bee keepers; the
stink bug can be controlled by a hymenopterous parasitoid reared on silk-worm eggs. The fruit is
attacked by piercing moths, borer caterpillars and fruit flies. Thai growers (and also Cambodian
growers [13]) sometimes bag the panicles to protect them. The fruit - and that of 'mata kucing' c.s. - is
also eaten by bats; (In Thailand and Cambodia, fruit panicles are sometimes protected with a woven
bamboo basket [13]). A draconian control method is electrocution by a high screen of thin, parallel
electric wires in the orchard" [1]. Another source ([5]) describes longan as a tree which is relatively
free of pests.
[Diseases]: "The only disease of importance in longan in Thailand is rosette shoot or witches' broom,
caused by a mycoplasm. Affected trees show abnormal growth and poor flowering. No cure is known
and affected trees should be grubbed out and burned. Powdery mildew infects inflorescences and
young fruit of 'mata kucing', causing the same kind of damage as in rambutan. Thread blight occurs
on branches and leaves of 'mata kucing'" [1].
[Others]: "At times, there may be signs of mineral deficiency which can be readily corrected by
supplying minor elements in the fertilization program" [5].

S. Conservation :
Due to an extensive cultivation, this species is not considered to be threatened.
[ 12]
T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :





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U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
[World Distribution]
[Native]: S-China, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka.
[2, 3, 5]
[Introduced]: Australia (Queensland), Bermuda, Cambodia, China, Cuba, Indonesia (ssp. malesianus
only), Laos, Mauritius, Malaysia (ssp. malesianus only), Puerto Rico, Philippines (ssp. malesianus
only), Reunion, Taiwan, Thailand, United States of America, Vietnam
[2, 4, 5]
V. Miscellaneous
4
:
[Production and international trade]: "Longan production in Thailand was 20,100 t in 1986/1987 and
58,660 t the following year - showing the prominent tendency to biennial bearing - from an area
estimated to be 23,500 ha. The exports of fresh, canned and dried fruit, mainly to Singapore, Hong
Kong and the EC, were 10600, 2950 and 0.4 t respectively in 1986. Elsewhere in South-East Asia
only East Java produces an appreciable quantity of longan. The other fruits, such as 'mata kucing',
are found in their season in some local markets only" [1].
[Fruit properties]: "Food value per 100 g of edible portion: Calories: 61 (fresh), 286 (dried). Moisture:
82.4 g (fresh), 17.6 g (dried) (458 kJ/100 g [1]). Protein: 1.0 g (fresh), 4.9 g (dried). Fat: 0.1 g (fresh),
0.4 g (dried). Carbohydrates: 15.8 g (fresh), 74.0 g (dried) (25.2 g [1]). Fiber: 0.4 g (fresh), 2.0 g
(dried). Ash: 0.7 g (fresh) (0.5 g [1]), 3.1 g (dried). Calcium: 10 mg (2 mg [1]) (fresh), 45 mg (dried).
Phosphorus: 42 mg (fresh) (6 mg [1]), 196 mg (dried). Iron: 1.2 mg (fresh) (0.3 mg [1]), 5.4 mg (dried).
Thiamine: 0.04 mg (dried). Ascorbic Acid: 6 mg (fresh), 28 mg (dried)" [6]. "Vitamin A 28 IU, vitamin
B1 0.04 mg, vitamin B2 0.07 mg, niacin 0.6 mg and vitamin C 8 mg. The composition of 'mata kucing'
fruit is not very different, but carbohydrates - and energy values - are much lower, whereas much
higher figures are given for mineral content" [1].
[Subspecies and cultivars]: "The two subspecies and five varieties of D. longan, listed above, are
distinguished mainly by differences in the leaflets. Within ssp. malesianus, var. malesianus shows the
greatest variation in Borneo. The fruits are globular to slightly oblong and smooth to warty. In
Peninsular Malaysia, the most common form of this taxon is the one with globose smooth fruits which
turn brown when ripe. This is the true 'mata kucing' and has usually been identified as Euphoria
malaiensis. It has a very thin arilloid and is hardly worth eating. This form also exists in Borneo and
Sumatra. The more superior forms are found in Sarawak, all with densely thick warty fruits and thicker
arilloids. These forms can be roughly grouped into three types based on the fruit characteristics: the
'isau' with fruits which are globular and remain green when ripe, the 'sau' with fruits which are slightly
oblong and also remain green when ripe, and the 'kakus' with globular fruits which turn brown when
ripe. The leaves, flowers and tree forms also differ. The 'kakus' is more widespread in Sarawak, while
the 'isau' and 'sau' are mainly confined to the river banks of the Rajang river and to the Bareo valley.
Var. echinatus differs from var. malesianus in that the fruits have rather long spines resembling the
rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.). This variety is found in Sabah where the 'kakus' also exists.
Three edible longan types are distinguished in Thailand, which presumably all belong to ssp. longan.

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The first one is a large forest tree with small fruits and a very thin aril, possibly of interest for breeding
purposes. The second one is the common longan ('lamyai kraduk'), growing in the northern part of the
country as an erect tree, producing small fruits with large seeds and is recommended as a rootstock
for commercial cultivars. The third type is formed by the commercial cultivars ('lamyai kraloke') which
produce large fruits and small seeds. Important longan cultivars in Thailand are: 'Daw', 'Chompoo',
'Haew', 'Biew Kiew', 'Dang', 'Baidum', 'Luang' and 'Talub Nak'. In China 'Fu Yan', 'Wu Long Ling' (both
in Fujian), 'Wu Yuan' and 'Shi Xia' (both in Guangdong Province) are leading cultivars, in Taiwan
'Yong Tao Ye' and 'Chiau On Diao'" [1].
[Genetic resources]: "Seeds are too short-lived for germplasm collection. Thailand has large tree
collections of longan in Chiang Mai and Lamphun. The Thai cultivars differ in shoot, flower and fruit
characters from the Chinese cultivars, but on the whole, genetic diversity appears to be narrow. There
are several cultivar collections in Australia, the largest being in Kamerunga Horticultural Research
Station near Cairns, Queensland. The University of Agriculture Malaysia with its branch campus at
Bintulu, Sarawak, is now the largest collector of germplasm of D. longan ssp. malesianus. The great
diversity in Sarawak offers a great opportunity to select superior material. Explorations in remote
areas have been regularly made to identify trees with good quality fruit - thick flesh, fruit in
consolidated panicles - and to collect budwood" [1].
[Breeding]: "Seedling progeny are extremely variable and small fruit size appears to be a dominant
characteristic. Therefore through the centuries improved cultivars have resulted merely from selection,
in particular on large fruit size, high edible portion, crisp flesh, good flavor, and high sugar content. In
so doing heavy and regular yields appear to have been sacrificed in comparison with the common
longan in Thailand. Now marketing characteristics, such as early or late harvest, a long shelf life and a
pure white aril for the canned product, must also receive more attention" [1].
[Prospects]: "Small fruit size and biennial bearing is the main constraint for expansion of the crop. The
suggestions made above to ensure more regular bearing are based on piecemeal evidence, but they
are simple to test. It is probably easier to attain good and stable yields of longan than of lychee; since
these fruits substitute for one another this considerably enhances the prospects for longan. If trees
bore regularly, growth would be moderated and it would be easier to prune to keep trees a
manageable size. Small trees, coupled with closer spacing and regular yields would allow production
to be intensified. The superior races of the spp. malesianus, in particular the var. malesianus in
Sarawak and other parts of Borneo, may offer an attractive alternative to longan for the humid tropical
lowlands" [1].
[Fruit storage]: "At room temperature, longans remain in good condition for several days. Because of
the firmer rind, the fruit is less perishable than the lychee. Preliminary tests in Florida indicate that the
fruit can be frozen and will not break down as quickly as the lychee when thawed" [6].





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W. Further readings
5
:
Anonymous, 1987. Lychees and longan. Union Offset, Bangkok. pp. 44-71. (Thai).
[1]

Holtum, R.E., 1953. Gardening in the lowlands of Malaya. The mata kucing. The Straits Times Press,
Singapore. pp. 294-295.
[1]

Knight Jr., R.J., Manis, W.E., Kosel, G.W. & White, C.A., 1968. Evaluation of longan and lychee
introductions. Proceedings Florida State Horticultural Society 84: 314-317.
[1]

Leenhouts, P.W., 1971. A revision of Dimocarpus (Sapindaceae). Blumea 19: 113-131.
[1]

Liu, X., Zheng, J., Pan, D. & Xie, H., 1986. An investigation on the leaf nutritional diagnosis criteria of
longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.). Journal of the Fujian Agricultural College 15 (3): 237-247.
[1]

Menzel, C.M., Watson, B.J. & Simpson, D.R., 1989. Longans - a place in Queensland's horticulture?
Queensland Agricultural Journal 113(5): 251-265.
[1]

Morton J. (1987) Fruits of warm climates; Longan.
[4]
Tongdee, S.S., 1977. Study on the characteristics of longans during storage. Kasikorn 50(2): 95-97.
(Thai).
[1]
Verheij, E.W.M. & Koopmans, A., 1984. Flowering and fruiting of longan (Euphoria longana Lam.) in
East Java in 1983. Agrivita 7(1): 14-19.
[1]

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van Welzen, P.C., Lamb, A. & Wong, W.W.W., 1988. Edible Sapindaceae in Sabah. Nature
Malaysiana 13: 10-25.
[1]
Wong, K.C., Ibrahim Yusof, Pearce, K.G. & Alau Tayan, D., 1988. Isau - A potential tropical longan
(Dimocarpus longan) of Sarawak. Proceedings of the Third National Biology Symposium, Subang
Jaya (in print).
[1]

X. References:
[1] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4, 5(1), 6-8. (CD-ROM).
[2] ARCBC BISS Species Database: http://arcbc.org/cgi-bin/abiss.exe (Internet source)

[3] ECOCROP: http://ecocrop.fao.org (Internet source)
[4] ECOPORT: http://ecoport.org/ep (Internet source)

[5] World Agroforestry Center: AgroForestryTree Database -
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/SpeciesInfo.asp?SpID=179
76 (Internet source)

[6] Morton, J. 1987: Longan. p. 259–262. In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL.

[7] Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.

[8] Gardner,S.; Sidisunthorn, P.; Anusarnsunthorn, V., 2000: A Field Guide to Forest Trees of
Northern Thailand.

[9] Department of Forestry and Wildlife, 1988: Cambodian Forestry Law No. 35, 25th June 1988.
Phnom Penh.

[10] Rehm, S.; Espig, G., 1991: The Cultivated Plants of the Tropics and Subtropics.

[11] Nguyen et al., 1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. JICA/Vietnam Inventory and Planning Institute. Hanoi

[12] Barwick, M., 2004: Tropical and Subtropical Trees. A Worldwide Encyclopedic Guide.

[13] Petri, M (DED), 2006: Own observations.

Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb. ex G. Don]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb. ex G. Don]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb. ex G. Don [10]
B. English name (s) ³ hairy-leafed apitong [10], Indonesian gurjun [9]
C. Synonym ³ Dipterocarpus gonopterus Turcz., Dipterocarpus lemeslei
Vesque, Dipterocarpus incanus Roxb., Dipterocarpus unesbi
Vesque [4], Dipterocarpus philippinensis Foxw. [7]
D. Other
1
³ keruing yang, keruing (Trade name) [9, 10] - yang-na
(Thailand) [7] - dàu rái, d[aaf]u r[as]i , dau nuoc, dzau con rai
trang, dau con rai (Vietnam) [5, 11, 12, 16] - nha:ng, nha:ng
kha:w, nhang, nhang khao, nhang mouk (Laos) [9, 10] -
hairy-leafed apitong, apinau, ayamban (Philippines) [10] -
keruing, kruen (France) [9] - dulia garjan, garjan
(Bangladesh) [9] - gurjin (India) [9] - kanyin, kanyin-byu
(Myanmar) [9]

E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³: eQITalTwk
Source: [15]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ chhe tiel tuk, chhe tiel thom [3], chhë: ti:ël bângku:ëy,
chhë: ti:ël ba:y [10], chhoeuteal tan, chur tuk, gnang [9],
chheutealteuk [15]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³:
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Malvales
Family: Dipterocarpaceae

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Gunus: Dipterocarpus Gaertner f.
Species: Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb. ex G.
Don
Source :[ 9]


H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: Dipterocarpus alatus is a medium-sized to very large deciduous tree attaining a height of
40 m or more [10, 11] (-45 m [16], 25-40 m [3], 45-53 m [4]). The bole is tall, straight, cylindrical and
branchless for up to 20 m [10] (20-30 m [4]) with a maximum DBH of 150 cm [10, 11, 16] (200 cm
[12], a girth of 3-4 m [4]). The crown is umbrella-shaped. Young twigs are covered with short tangled
hairs. Buds are spear-shaped and covered by yellow hair.
[Bark]: The outer bark is thin, whitish grey and smooth in young trees, later thick when mature with
deep and wide cracks. The epidermis peels off in large patches. The inner bark is yellowish brown
and resinous.
[Leaves]: The leaves are narrowly egg-shaped, egg-shaped or elliptical-oblong, 9-25 x 3.5-15 cm [11]
(10-20 x 6-11 cm [4], 16-20 x 8-10 cm [12], 14-25 x 6-15 cm [16]) with a pale green lower surface. The
leaf-base is wedge shaped to rounded; the leaf-tip is shortly pointed or tapering to a long point.
Secondary veins are in pairs of 11-18(-20) [11] (15 pairs [4], 11-20 pairs [16], sparsely hairy above,
densely hairy beneath. The leafstalk is 2.5-4.5 cm long [11] (2.5 - 3.5 cm [4]), with greyish-yellow
haired stipules. "Leaf and bud production in juvenile trees occurs from January to June, after which
constant temperature and humidity prevent further production; leaf fall occurs in mid-November (at a
time of low temperature and humidity and short day length)" [11].
[Flower]: The inflorescence is axillary and on the top of shoots and twigs. Flowers are large, radially
symmetrical, bisexual and scented. The 5 up to 8 mm broad outer flower-leaves (=sepals) form a
rounded hairless tube around the ovary (=female organ) which is more or less globe-shaped. Two of
the sepals are long, 14 cm x 3 cm [10] (12-15 x 3-5 cm [12]) oblong to spate-shaped, more or less
distinctly 3-veined. Three short ones are 12 mm x 14 mm [10] in size but sometimes all five are short.
The inner flower leaves (=petals) are large, oblong to narrowly oblong, strongly contorted and hairy
outside, cream-white with a prominent pink, red or purple stripe down the center. The fruit has many
stamens (=male organs) with flattened filaments. The ovary (=female organ) is densely hairy, the style
is 1 cm long [4], stout, ribbed and hairy in the lower part. Flowering season is November-December
[12, 16] (Thailand: early December [11]).
[Fruits]: Fruiting season is April-May [12, 16] (Thailand: mid-February [11]). Fruiting occurs almost
every year, and there seems to be a large supply of seeds. The fruit (=nut) is 1.8-2.4 cm long [4] 2-3
cm in diameter [12], with five 8 mm broad [16] ridges, green when young, turning brownish red when
ripe, and thinly covered with star shaped hairs. It is surrounded by a hairless tube formed by the 5
outer flower leaves, 2 larger ones up to 14 cm x 3 cm [11] (12 x 2.5 cm [4], 10-14 x 2-3 cm [16]) and 3

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shorter ones up to 1.2 x 1.4 cm [11] (1-1.4 x 1-1.3 cm [16]) which form the wings of the fruit. The
wings are red when young.
[3, 4, 6, 10, 11, 12, 16, 17]

I. Wood properties:
[Wood Properties]: The wood is medium hard and heavy of bright color and a with distinctive sap- and
heartwood. The sapwood is nearly white or greyish pink, the heartwood is reddish pink or greyish
brown and fairly straight grained. Annual rings are not conspicuous. Simple vessels with a large
diameter are scattered with a small number of vessels per mm² [12]. The wood fiber is of tracheid
form 1.1-1.4 mm long [12] with a thick wall. It has a density of 0.62-0.905 g/cm³ at 15% moisture
content [10] (0.78 g/cm³ of dry wood [12], specific gravity of 0.574 [4], 0.72-0.8 g/cm³ at 12% mc [4]).
Other wood properties: "Shrinkage percentage (green to oven dry): Radial 3.0%, tangential 7.5% and
volumetric 10.8%. Modulus of rupture (kg/cm²): 661.5 (green), 1020.7 (air dry). Modulus of elasticity
(kg/cm²): 103,900 (green), 151,900 (air dry). Maximum crushing stress (kg/cm² ): 318.4 (green), 552.1
(air dry)" [4]. "Volume shrinkage coefficient: 0.51. Grain saturation point: 26%. Pressure strength
(along the grain): 586 kg/cm². Collision bending strength: 0.6." [12].
[4, 10, 12]

J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
Approximate limits: 22°N to 2°N [9] (15°N to 5°N [6]). D. alatus is a native species of Indochina,
Thailand, East India (Andaman Islands), the Malay Peninsula and the Philippines (Luzon). It has
adapted to a wide range of forest types of the lowlands and hills and grows frequently in moist
evergreen forests, dry evergreen forests, dense semi-deciduous forests, moist deciduous forests and
dry deciduous forests. It grows abundantly in small pure stands along streams, on river banks and in
riparian valleys. In tropical evergreen or monsoon forests it is usually mixed with Dalbergia
cochichinensis, Dipterocarpus turbinatus, Pterocarpus macrocarpus and Sindora siamensis. In hill
forests it is mainly found in association with Swintonia floribunda and Artocarpus chaplasha while it is
mixed with Shorea cochinchinensis and Irvingia spp. in the transitional belts between evergreen and
deciduous forests which contain a quite dense undergrowth. In dipterocarp forests D. alatus forms an
ecological group of Dipteroarpaceae with Hopea odorata and Anisoptera costata. Sometimes these
species form pure stands in which D. alatus crowns make up a separate ecologically dominant or
emergent storey. "Within the perimeter of the park of Angkor (Siem Reap Province, Cambodia),
Dipterocarpus alatus, Lagerstroemia spp. and Tretrameles nudiflora are very numerous probably as a
result of shifting cultivation in ancient times" [20]. Generally it is often planted in temples and along
roadsides.
[2, 3, 6, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 20]

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
D. alatus is a tree of hills and lowlands and is confined to an altitude of 0-500 m a.s.l [2, 11, 17] (30-
500 m [9], 0-450 m [6], 300-900 m [3], 0-800 m [5], 200-500(-800) m [16]). A tropical monsoon climate
(tropical wet & dry (Aw) [6]) with an average humidity of 75-85% [12], a mean annual rainfall of 1,100-

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2,200 mm/yr [9] (1,500-2,200 mm [12], 3,500-4,500 mm (optimal) [6], 3,000-5,200 mm (absolute) [6])
and a maximum dry season length of 3-6 months [9] (4-6 months [12]) is suited. "The habit of the
Philippine populations is more seasonal than usual for those in Indo-China" [11]. The optimal mean
annual temperature for growth is 22-32ºC [6] (20-30ºC [9], 25-27ºC [12]) with a mean minimum
temperature of the coldest month 12-18ºC [9] and an absolute minimum temperature of 10ºC [6, 9]. A
mean maximum temperature of 30-40ºC [9] (36ºC [6]) in the hottest month is tolerated. According to
some sources D. alatus is a shade bearer [4, 9]; others describe it as light demanding tree when
mature but shade tolerant when young [5, 16]. It has adapted to a photoperiod of less than 12
hours/day [6] (short days). Flooding is tolerated, however a susceptibility to fire and wind has been
reported.
[2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 16, 17]

L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
No information available.

M. soil and site conditions :
This tree prefers well drained, fertile, light loamy to medium loamy or sandy soils along rivers and on
moist, flat land. Water logging is tolerated but only for a short period. Just like Hopea odorata and
Anisoptera costata, D. alatus grows on grey soils on shale, is a rapid colonizer on old sandy alluvium
and ferallit on mica schist or granite. Soils which are relatively poor in humus are also suited. It grows
well on slightly acid soils with a pH of 5-6 [12] and on neutral soils. Additional soil properties: "Optimal
soil depth: deep (>150 cm). Absolute soil depth: medium (50-150 cm). Optimal soil fertility: high.
Absolute soil fertility: moderate. Soil salinity: low (<4 dS/m). Soil drainage: well (dry spells)" [6].
[5, 6, 9, 10, 12, 20]

N. Utilization and importance :
[Wood]: D. alatus timber is used and traded as 'keruing' when not exploited only for its oily resin and is
one of the most important timber species of Southern- and Southeast Asia, especially South India, Sri
Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. In Thailand it is the most important timber species next to
teak. The valuable timber can be used for a variety of purposes such as general- and indoor
construction, veneer, plywood, flooring, wall paneling, cabinetwork, pallets, short fiber pulp, posts,
building poles, beams, chemical processing equipment, wood based materials, railway sleepers if
treated, fuelwood and boat building (framework for boats).
[3, 9, 10, 11, 22]
[Non-wood]: "The white oleoresin or wood oil which is obtained from the sapwood is known as 'minyak
keruing', 'damar minyak', 'minyak lagan' or 'balau'. The essential oil obtained from the oleoresin is the
well known 'gurjun balsam'. This is not a balsam in the strict sense, as it does not contain any
cinnamic or benzoic acid" [17]. In Thailand it is considered to be the best oleoresin of any native
species. It is used as a fixative in perfumery, particularly soap perfumes. It is a cheaper substitute for

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'patchouli oil' obtained from Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. The oleoresin is still traditionally used
for illumination, for bamboo furniture, to caulk boats, to make baskets watertight and to treat timber
which is exposed to the weather. In traditional medicine it is used as a disinfectant, laxative, diuretic,
mild stimulant and in analgesic liniments. It can be mixed with bee wax and used as an antiseptic in
bandages of ulcerated wounds. The bark of the young tree provided with 2-4 leaves is believed to
have medicinal virtues against rheumatism, diseases of the liver and to stimulate the appetite of
cattle. In modern societies the oil is used for (zinc-based) paint, printing ink industries, varnish for
walls and furniture and lacquer. It can even be used as a fuel in diesel engines.
[3, 9, 11, 12, 13, 17]
[Others]: D. alatus also has also a high potential in agroforestry. "In Thailand the taungya reforestation
method has been practiced primarily in order to rehabilitate wasteland with this tree. The organic
matter and NPK content of soils under the tree canopy have been shown to be higher than in soils
further away from the tree" [11]. It is also commonly intercropped with fruit trees. However studies in
Vietnam showed that intercropping with coffee (Coffea spp.) is not advisable, as people pruned the
young trees severely to promote the growth of coffee [12].
[9, 11, 12]

O. Cambodian wood classification :
2
nd
class [1].

P. Silviculture and management :
[General]: Dipterocarpus alatus has adapted to a wide range of forest types of the lowlands and hills
and grows frequently in moist evergreen forests, dry evergreen forests, dense semi-deciduous
forests, moist deciduous forests and dry deciduous forests. It grows abundantly in small pure stands
along streams, on river banks and in riparian valleys. In tropical evergreen or monsoon forests it is
usually mixed with Dalbergia cochichinensis, Dipterocarpus turbinatus, Pterocarpus macrocarpus and
Sindora siamensis. In hill forests it is mainly found in association with Swintonia floribunda and
Artocarpus chaplasha while it is mixed with Shorea cochinchinensis and Irvingia spp. in the
transitional belts between evergreen and deciduous forests which contain quite dense undergrowth. In
dipterocarp forests D. alatus forms an ecological group of Dipteroarpaceae with Hopea odorata and
Anisoptera costata. Sometimes these species form pure stands in which D. alatus crowns make up a
separate ecologicaly dominant or emergent storey. According to some sources D. alatus is a shade
bearer [4, 9]; others describe it as light demanding tree when mature but shade tolerant when young
[5, 16]. It has the ability to self prune.
[4, 5, 9, 10, 11, 12, 16, 20]
[Natural Regeneration]: In natural forests Dipterocarpus seedlings and saplings can survive in the
forest for years under heavy shade. Natural regeneration is good, especially along rivers or on moist
flat land. "In the first 2 years, major openings in the canopy are not tolerated, but after the seedlings
are well established (about 120 m tall) the canopy can be opened up, to speed up growth. Many

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species regenerate well only in primary forest" [17]. Natural regeneration of D. alatus has also been
observed in abandoned agricultural fields and protected forest land after logging.
[4, 11, 16, 17]
[Establishment]: Seedlings for planting should be 12-14 months old [12] with a mean height of 60-80
cm [12]. It is advisable to plant D. alatus on grey soil on old alluvium with pure planting system on
large areas or in bands 15-30 m wide [12]. The topography should be flat with bushes or grasses. In
Southern Vietnam, planting has been done right after the first rains of the rain season (June-July) [12].
It can be planted as pure plantation under the crowns of shade trees, such as Indigofera teysmanii,
Cassia siamensis, Acacia auriculiformis and Paraserianthes falcataria with an initial density of 1,000
trees/ha (3 x 3 m) [12] or 600 trees/ha [12] (Cambodia: 625 trees/ha [19]) (4 x 4 m) [12]. Direct sowing
under these trees is also possible if enough shade is provided. Seedlings develop best in association
with ectomycorrhizae of the genus Russula.
[4, 9, 12, 17]
[Management]: "Tending is carried out 7 successive years. 1
st
to 3
rd
year: (2x = before and after rainy
season) Weeding, breaking hard pan, liana cutting. 4
th
to 5
th
year: Shoot thinning, opening of canopy,
density regulation. In the dry season there must be a fire control. In year 7-10, thinning has to be
carried out leaving a final density of about 280-300 trees/ha (4 x 8 or 6 x 6 m)" [12].
[Resin harvesting]: "The technique for harvesting of the oleoresin from Dipterocarpus is similar
throughout SE-Asia and has not evolved much in the last 100 years. Tapping involves cutting a hole
in the stem with its base sloping down towards the center of the stem. This process is known as
'boxing'. Occasionally a scaffold is constructed to be able to reach above the buttresses of large trees.
D. alatus trees are only tapped when their diameter is over 50 cm, as smaller trees are not sufficiently
productive. The hole is usually triangular and may extend halfway through the stem. It is made on the
side of the trunk where the canopy has the largest concentration of branches and leaves. Boxing is
confined to the lower 2-3 m of the stem and a tree with a diameter of 75 cm usually has 2-3 holes.
Generally, the oleoresin starts to flow within an hour and collects inside the hole. It is removed once
every 7-8 days. After collection, the remaining hardened coat of oleoresin is set on fire to prevent
clogging and to stimulate further flow. The burning takes 20 seconds to 2 minutes, exceptionally up to
20 minutes. After the fire has been extinguished the burnt resin is scraped off the inner wall of the
hole and the oleoresin is left to flow again. When a hole becomes unproductive it is abandoned. The
use of ethrel instead of firing to stimulate oleoresin exudation has been investigated, but did not prove
to be much more efficient or less damaging to the tree. Tapping is done throughout the year, and
although the oleoresin flow is more abundant in the rainy season, the availability of labor then limits
harvesting frequency. Laotian tappers claim that D. alatus trees are productive for 50-80 years.
Tappers exert user rights over individual trees and these rights are inherited. Gregariously growing
trees usually have a single owner. Once the tapping of a tree is abandoned, the tapper loses his rights
over that tree. In Malaysia a refined technique has been developed which gives a somewhat better
product with a higher essential oil content. The 'bark chipping' method involves removing the outer
bark after which a strip of inner bark 2.5 wide is removed to expose the wood. This streak is about 1

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m long and directed upward at an angle of 30º to the horizontal. An apron and gutter system is fixed
just below the streak and a cup is installed at its bottom. Sulphuric acid is sprayed on the exposed
wood. In 4 experimental trees a concentration of 10% proved best, giving a daily yield of 78-320 g. A
polythene sheet is fixed to cover the apron and gutter system and prevent rain and dirt from
contaminating the exuding oleoresin. Without the application of a stimulant, oleoresin production is
negligible. It is doubtful whether this technique will replace the traditional tapping technique, as it
involves much extra work for little extra gain" [17].
[Handling after harvest]: "In Peninsular Malaysia the harvested oleoresin of Dipterocarpus is filtered
by means of gunny sacks and flour sacks, which are firmly fixed to wooden frames. The essential oil
fraction drips through, while the more viscous fraction settles inside the sacks. During this process,
some of the essential oil evaporates and probably not all essential oil is separated from the resinous
fraction. Distillation with water gives a higher essential oil yield" [17].
[Yield]: The annual production of D. alatus trees in Laos is estimated at 22.5-31 l/tree
[11, 17].

Q. Propagation :
[Seed collection and storage]: D. alatus is a species with annual flowering and fruiting but produces
seed very irregularly, with a periodicity of 1-3 years or 1-6 years [9] depending on the location. Fruit
collection season is from March to April [12] when the fruits turn from green to dark green. Fruits can
be colleted right from the tree or after falling to the ground. However, they have to be colleted in time;
otherwise they will be rotten or destroyed by insects. After collection the fruit wings have to be
removed and they have to be immersed in warm water in about 5-6 h [12]. "The seed storage
behavior is intermediate, lowest safe moisture content is 17%, no seeds survive further drying out to
8% moisture content. At 12% moisture content, only 36% germination occurred after 939 days
hermetic storage at -18ºC compared to 80% viability before storage" [11].
[Seed Propagation]: There are 130-500 seeds/kg [11]. Seeds loose their germination ability quickly
(after 10-15 days germination rate can be reduced to 50% [12]), thus they must be washed clean and
sown right after collection. They are incubated by straw to sprout and then sown in PE pots (15-20 cm
[12]) with pot mixture of which 80-85% [12] is nursery soil and 15-20% decomposed farm yard manure
[12]. In nursery beds germination starts in about 10 days [4] (4-7 days at 25ºC [11]) and continues for
a month and the best germination success obtained is 27% [4]. The germination rate is higher in
shaded beds. "Seed requirements per hectare for open plantations in Cambodia: 300 seeds/kg.
Planting spacing: 4 x 4 m. Net seedlings required per hectare: 625. Rate of loss: 750 (20% in planting
site), 834 (10% in transit), 1,043 (20% at the nursery). Germination rate: 50%. Purity: 90%. Total seed
requirement: 7.74 kg" [19].
[Vegetative Propagation]: The irregular production of seeds, and their recalcitrant nature, makes it
difficult to propagate the species sexually. In the 1980s, trees were easily propagated by aided natural
regeneration and artificial regeneration was not practiced at all [4]. Nowadays, however, vegetative
propagation is done by cuttings, air layering and tissue culture. Cuttings taken from coppice shoots
produced after hedging rooted successfully with 44.5% rooting [11] (>75% of rooted cuttings [12])

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indicating the potential for mass production of rooted cuttings from hedge orchards for reforestation
purposes.
[4, 9, 11, 12, 19]


R. Hazards and protection :
[Pests]: Known insect pests are Coryphothrips trochiceps and Gynaikothrips siamensis
[9]
[Diseases]: The cerambycid, Celosterna pollinosa sulphurea (Synonym: Cerosterna pollinosa
sulphurea) attacks the tree in Thailand. Celosterna scabrator (Synonym: Cerosterna scabrator) also
damages D. alatus. Other fungus diseases include Croton lucidum, Croton sublyratus, Fomes
albomarginatus and Ganoderma applanatum.
[9, 11]
[Others]: A susceptibility to fire and wind has been reported.
[6]

S. Conservation :
Deforestation and exploitation are a general threat to this species. Thus is has been classified as
endangered (EN A1cd+2cd, B1+2c [2, 7, 12, 18]) according to IUCN (International Union for the
Conservation of Nature) World List of Threatened Trees. "Due to seriously abused exploitation in
Vietnam, the ecosystems of this species are almost completely destroyed there. Before 1975 there
was the intention to replant 6,000 ha of D. alatus and D. cochichinensis but due to the war the
intention failed. After 1975 thousands of ha of D. alatus have been planted by state forest enterprises,
as industrial plantation, forest improvement, forest enrichment, agroforestry etc. Many models were
considered successful on large scale such as 300-1,200 ha of plantation" [12]. In Thailand it found
throughout its potential distribution range, with a number of individual trees, but slightly declining. The
estimated number of individuals threatened in Cambodia (as defined on the National Workshop on
Tree Species Priorities organized by DFW and CTSP in 2000) amounts to >10,000 threatened by
logging and >1,000 threatened by fire.
[2, 7, 8, 12, 18, 21]

T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :


U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
[World distribution]
[Native]: Cambodia, Laos, E-India (Andaman Islands), N-Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines (Luzon),
Thailand, Vietnam
[11, 13]

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[Introduced]:Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka
[4, 5, 10, 13]


V. Miscellaneous
4
:
[Taxonomy]: "In 1993 it was discovered that D. alatus and D. philippinensis are conspecific (=of the
same species)" [10].
[Hybrids]: "Dipterocarpus alatus x D. costatus was recently reported from Khong Chiam Ubon
Ratchathani, where the hybrid D. costatus x D. obtusifolius is also known. It occurs in association with
Pinus merkusii in the transition zone between dry deciduous dipterocarp forest dominated by D.
obtusifolius and D. intricatus and dry evergreen dipterocarp forest dominated by D. costatus and D.
alatus. The leaf form and fruit characters including sizes and indumentum are intermediate. The
hybrid Dipterocarpus alatus x D. chartaceus has also been reported occurring by roadsides between
Songkhla and Ranote (Thailand), about 100-200 m behind the beach. The hairs on young twigs and
leaves with narrow keels on calyx tube are the same as in D. alatus, but the 3 smaller calyx lobes are
minute and hairless as in D. chartaceus" [2].
[Resin Production]: "Direct distillation at 255ºC of the oleoresin of D. alatus yields 70% reddish
essential oil and 30% resin. In the 1920s southern Vietnam produced about 1,000 t of oleoresin
annually, all obtained from D. alatus" [17].
[Timber trade]: "The price of round wood in 2003 in the world was about US$ 1,500-2,000/m³" [12].
[Toxicology]: "D. alatus dust causes boils" [11].


W. Further readings
5
:
Ankarfjard R and Kegl M. 1998. Tapping oleoresin from Dipterocarpus alatus (Dipterocarpaceae) in a
Lao village. Economic Botany. 52(1): 7-14.
[11]

Aniwat C, 1989. Common forest tree diseases in Thailand. Thailand Journal of Forestry, 8:216-226.
[10]

Hans JW, Valeriano SB, 1982. Aspects of Management and Silviculture of Philippine Dipterocarp
Forests. Philippine-German Rain Forest Development Project, Schriftenreihe der GTZ No. 132, 17-34.
[10]

Linington IM, 1991. In vitro propagation of Dipterocarpus alatus and Dipterocarpus intricatus.. Plant
Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 27(1):81-88; 21 ref.
[10]

Namura J, 1986. Forest management in Bangladesh. Tropical Forestry, No. 7:29-35.

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[10]

Ngampongsai C, Aksornkoae S, Tamanontha P, Sahunalu P, 1967. The Influence of Dipterocarpus
alatus Roxb. on Soil Properties. Research note. Bangkok, Thailand: Faculty of Forestry, Kasetsart
University.
[10]

RAPA, 1985. Dipterocarps of South Asia. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (RAPA)
Monograph 4/85. Bangkok, Thailand: FAO.
[10]

Sabhasri S, Boonnitee A, 1967. Growth and Development of Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb. in Natural
Forest. Bangkok, Thailand: Faculty of Forestry, Kasetsart University.
[10]

Smitinand T, Santisuk T, 1981. Dipterocarpaceae of Thailand with special reference to silvicultural
ecology. Malaysian Forester, 44(2/3):377-385; 9 ref.
[10]

Soerianegara I, Lemmens RHMJ, 1993. Plant resources of South-East Asia No. 5(1) Timber trees:
major commercial timbers. Plant resources of South-East Asia No. 5(1) Timber trees: major
commercial timbers., 610 pp.; [Also published by Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. PROSEA
NUGI 835.]; 817 ref.
[10]

Soonhuae P, Limpiyaprapant S, 1996. Rooting cutting of Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb. and Shorea
roxburghii Roxb. in nonmist propagators. Information note, ASEAN Forest Tree Seed Centre Project,
Muak-lek, Saraburi, Thailand.
[10]

Watanabe H, Sahunalu P and Khemnark C. 1988. Combinations of trees and crops in the taungya
method as applied in Thailand. Agroforestry Systems. 6(2): 169-177.
[11]



X. References:
[1] Department of Forestry and Wildlife, 1988: Cambodian Forestry Law No. 35, 25th June 1988.
Phnom Penh.


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[2] Dipterocarpaceae in Thailand - Taxonomic and Biogeographical Analysis:
http://www.forest.go.th/Botany/main/Research/RP_thesis/taxonomy/Dipterocarpus.htm (Internet
source)

[3] Dy Phon, 2000, Dictionary of Plants used in Cambodia

[4] Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, 1985: Dipterocarps of South Asia. RAPA Monograph
1985/4. Regional office for Asia and the Pacific. 321 pp.

[5] Nguyen et al., 1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. JICA/Vietnam Inventory and Planning Institute.

[6] ECOCROP: http://ecocrop.fao.org (Internet source)

[7] Forest Herbarium (BKF) National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Thailand –
http://www.dnp.go.th/Botany (Internet source)

[8] Sontara, S. (PNSA); Petri, M. (DED), 2006: Own observations.

[9] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).

[10] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4, 5(1), 6-8. (CD-
ROM).

[11] World Agroforestry Center: AgroForestryTree Database -
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/SpeciesInfo.asp?SpID=10
(Internet source)

[12] JICA, 2003: Use of indigenous tree species in reforestation in Vietnam.

[13] ARCBC BISS Species Database: http://arcbc.org/cgi-bin/abiss.exe

[14] Gardner,S.; Sidisunthorn, P.; Anusarnsunthorn, V., 2000: A Field Guide to Forest Trees of
Northern Thailand.

[15] CTSP/DANIDA, 2004: List of Tree Species. 7pp.


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[16] Sam, Hoang Van; Nanthavong, Khamseng; Kessler, P.J.A., 2004: Trees of Laos and Vietnam: a
field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important species. BLUMEA.

[17] PROSEA, 2001: Plant Resources of South East Asia 18 - Plant producing exudates.

[18] CTSP, 2003: Forest Gene Conservation Strategy - Gene Conservation Strategy, Species
Monographs, Gene Ecological Zonation, Species Site Matching Model. (CD-ROM).

[19] FA/CTSP, 2005: Guidelines for site selection and tree planting in Cambodia. 90pp. Phnom Penh

[20] Rollet, B., 1979: The Vegetation of Cambdia. (Draft Translation into English by K. Panzer).

[21] FAO:
http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/DOCREP/005/AC648E/ac648e04.htm
(Internet source)

[22] WWF Tropical Timbers - http://assets.panda.org/downloads/tropical_wood_images.pdf (Internet
source)



Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Dipterocarpus costatus Gaertner f.]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Dipterocarpus costatus Gaertner f.]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Dipterocarpus costatus Gaertner f.
B. English name (s) ³ No name available.
C. Synonym ³ Dipterocarpus insula[1], Dipterocarpus insularis
Hance (1876) [6], Dipterocarpus artocarpifolius Pierre ex
Lanessan (1889) [6], Dipterocarpus parvifolius Heim (1903)
[6]
D. Other
1
³ keruing bukit (Malaysia) [6] - kanyin in, kanyin po,
kanyin-ywet-the (Myanmar) [6] - nha:ng dè:ng (Laos) [6] -
yang-pai, yang-khao, yang-kabueang (Thailand) [6] - d[aaf]u
m[is]t, d[aaf]u c[as]t (Vietnam) [6]

E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³: eQITalbgÁÜy
Source: [3]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ chhe tiel nieng daeng, chhe tiel angkuey, nieng
daeng kraham [1], chheuteal bangkuoy[7], cheuteal [8]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³:
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Malvales
Family: Dipterocarpaceae[4]
Gunus: Dipterocarpus Gaertner f.[6]
Species: Dipterocarpus costatus Gaertner f.

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Source :[ 4,6]


H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: It is a 25-40 m [1] tall tree with a straight trunk and a rather open and spherical crown. D.
costatus can reach a diameter of up to 160 cm [6].
[Bark]: The bark is pale brown and peeling in thin, rounded flakes.
[Leaves]: The leaves are 8-14 x 4-8 cm [2] and usually egg-shaped. They have slightly pointed tips
and blunt or slightly heart-shaped bases. The young leaves are covered with star-shaped hairs.
Mature leaves have scattered short hairs on veins and the lower surface. [Flowers]: The flowers are 2
cm long [2] and pale orange. They appear in short unbranched clusters of 3-6 flowers [2] at axils of
young leaves.
[Fruit]: The fruit (=nut) has two long wings with a length of 8-12 cm [2]. The body of the fruit is 1.2-1.5
cm long [2]. Young fruits are bright red.
[1, 2, 6]

I. Wood properties:
The density of the wood is 0.74-0.97g/cm³ [6] at 15% moisture content. It is not durable if exposed to
the weather.
[4, 6]

J. Geogarphic distribution and vegetation :
Dipterocarpus costatus is a species of the Indochinese and Malay Peninsula, which is often found
together with D. turbinatus, although it is rather confined to higher altitudes. It grows in mixed dense
deciduous or half- deciduous primary forests of the plains and wet dense hillforests.
[1, 4]

K. Climate and environmental amplitude :
This tree thrives in an elevation of 0-1,200 m a.s.l. [5]. A tropical monsoon climate with a mean annual
rainfall of 2,500-4,500 mm [5] and dry season of 0-4 months [10] is suited best. However, the optimal
annual rainfall is between 2,800 and 3,500 mm [5]. The optimal temperature ranges from 21°C to
31°C [5]. The lowest temperature is 10°C [5] and the highest temperature is 38°C [5].
[5, 10]

L. Gene ecological zone in Cambodia :
No informat ion available.

M. soil and site conditions :
D. costatus grows on well drained medium fertile to rich soils with a heavy to medium soil texture. This
tree is adapted to a soil pH that ranges from 5 to 6 [5]. Only a low soil salinity of <4 dS/m[5] is
tolerated.

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[1, 5]

N. Utilization and importance :
[Wood]: The timber is used in construction and ship building, but is not durable if exposed to the
elements. It is also used for charcoal.
[1, 4, 5]
[Non-wood]: A valuable oleo-resin (=wood-oil) is collected from the tree which is used in the paint
industry, for the caulking of boats, the preparation of torches and in traditional medicine for treating
ulcers.
[1, 2, 4, 5, 6]
[Others]: No information available.

O. Cambodian wood classification :
Second class [ 8]

P. Silviculture and management :
[General]: Dipterocarpus costatus grows together with D. turbinatus in mixed dense deciduous or half-
deciduous primary forests of the plains and wet dense hill forests.
[Natural Regeneration]: "Dipterocarpus seedlings and saplings can persist in the forest for years
under heavy shade. In the first 2 years, major openings in the canopy are not tolerated, but after the
seedlings are well established (about 120 m tall) the canopy can be opened up, to speed up growth.
Many species regenerate well only in primary forest" [9].
[Establishment]: When the seedlings are planted in open areas shade trees are used, such as Acacia
auriculiformis and Paraserianthes falcataria.
[Management]: No information available.
[1, 4, 9]

Q. Propagation :
Natural regeneration is good. Seedlings are also used for planting.
[9]

R. Hazards and protection :
[Pests]: No information available.
[Diseases]: No information available.
[Others]: No information available.



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S. Conservation :
It has been classified as endangered ('EN' [4]) according to IUCN (International Union for the
Conservation of Nature) World List of Threatened Trees (='IUCN Red Databook').
[4]

T. Species location in Cambodia( native and introduced) :


U. Species location in the world( native and introduced) :
[World Distribution]:
[Native]: Bangladesh, Myanmar, India (Andaman Islands), Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand and N-
Malaysia
[4, 6]
[Introduced]: Apparently this species has not been introduced outside its natural range of distribution.
[10]


V. Miscellaneous
4
:
[Hybrids]: "A natural hybrid between D. costatus and D. obtusifolius has been observed in Thailand
and Myanmar, and between D. costatus and D. gracilis in Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia"[6].

W. Further readings
5
:
Foxworthy, F.W., 1932. Dipterocarpaceae of the Malay Peninsula. Malayan Forest Records No 10.
Printers Limited, Singapore. 289 pp.
[6]

Burkill, I.H., 1966. A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsula. 2nd edition. Ministry
of Agriculture and Co-operatives, Kuala Lumpur. Vol. 1 (A-H) pp. 1-1240. Vol. 2 (I-Z) pp. 1241-2444.
[6]

X. References:
[1] Dy Phon, 2000, Dictionary of Plants used in Cambodia

[2] Gardner,S.; Sidisunthorn, P.; Anusarnsunthorn, V., 2000: A Field Guide to Forest Trees of
Northern Thailand.

[3] JICA, 2003: Use of indigenous tree species in reforestation in Vietnam.

[4]ARCBC BISS species database http://arcbc.org/cgi-
bin/abiss.exe/spd?SID=76267485&spd=6286&tx=PL (Internet source)

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[5] ECOCROP: http://ecocrop.fao.org (Internet source)

[6] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4, 5(1), 6-8. (CD-ROM).

[7] CTSP/DANIDA, 2004: List of Tree Species. 7pp.

[8] Department of Forestry and Wildlife, 1988: Cambodian Forestry Law No. 35, 25th June 1988.
Phnom Penh.

[9] PROSEA, 2001: Plant Resources of South East Asia 18 - Plant producing exudates.

[10] Bertram, A., 2006: Own observations.


Supported by: German embassy, DED

Datasheet Report
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________
DATASHEET
[Dipterocarpus dyeri Pierre]


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Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
[Dipterocarpus dyeri Pierre]
A. Latin name (s) ³ Dipterocarpus dyeri Pierre
B. English name (s) ³ No name available.
C. Synonym ³ No synonym available.
D. Other
1
³ keruing etoi, keruing daun besar (Malaysia) [1] - kanyin thi
(Myanmar) [1] - yang-klong, yang-man-mu, yang-sian, yang
yung, yung, yung dam (Thailand) [1, 2] - d[aaf]u song n[af]ng
(Vietnam) [1]

E. Khmer name(s)(Khmer letter)³: eQITalQ¶
Source: [5]
F. Khmer name(s) (Latin letter) ³ chhë: ti:ël chngâ:(r), chhë: ti:ël pruhs, chngâ:(r). [1], royieng,
chhe tiel pruhs, chhe tiel th’ngor [3], cheuteal chngo [4],
chhoeuteal chhngar [9]
G. Taxonomic position(complete)³:
Kingdom: Viridiplantae

Phylum: Spermatophyta

Sub-Phylum : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Other : Malvales
Family: Dipterocarpaceae
Genus: Dipterocarpus Gaertner f.
Species: Dipterocarpus dyeri Pierre
Source :[ 1]




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H. Botanical characteristics :
[General]: A medium-sized to large semi-deciduous tree of up to 40 m [1] tall (30-40 m [3, 6]). "It is
one of the biggest tree species in S-Vietnam" [6]. The bole is cylindrical, straight and branchless for
up to 25 m [1] with low buttresses and a maximum DBH of 125 cm [1] (150 cm and more [6]). Young
twigs are almost hairless, while older twigs are red brown with a ring of stipule-scars and covered with
grey, reddish or brown hairs. The buds are egg- to spear-shaped and covered with velvety brownish
hair.
[Bark]: The bark surface is pale grey or blackish-brown, rough and flakes off into small pieces. The
inner bark is yellowish-brown to brown red and 6-10 mm [6] thick.
[Leaves]: The leaves are simple, narrowly egg-shaped to elliptical, 16-40 x 7.5-14 cm [1] in size (13-
45 x 8-20 cm [2], 5-25 cm long or more [6]) with a 5 mm long [1] pointed tip and a blunt, wedge-
shaped or heart-shaped base. Young leaves are covered with dense hair, especially on veins on
lower surface. Mature leaves, however, are hairless on the upper surface. The secondary veins are in
pairs of 24-30 [1] (20-30 [2], 18-31 [6]), ascending and obvious beneath. The leaf stalk is 4-6 cm long
[1] (3-8 cm [2], 4-8 cm [6]) with spear-shaped stipules 15-20 x 2-4 cm in size, red inside and hairy
outside.
[Flowers]: The inflorescence (=simple raceme) is hairy, 10-18 cm long [6] (10-20 cm [2]) with 6-8
flowers [6]. The outer flower-leaves (=sepals) form an ellipsoid and hairless tube, 1.7