Kassie Vaughn

PPAT

Student Teaching

Task 3- Designing Instruction for Student Learning
Contextual Information =>
a) I teach a Second grade class of now eighteen students the subjects of Reading/Grammar, Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies. Among the children, there are twelve males and six females, and their ethnicities are displayed as fourteen White and four African American. Concerning relevant special needs, one child is a repeater, and two children are currently being referred for learning delays (have already been evaluated by the Student Support Team). Another student is being claimed as developmentally delayed, in order for her to receive the appropriate additional assistance and accommodations she needs to acquire a successful education. We have two students who scored extremely above average on their MAP and DIBELS tests, and one of those children has qualified to be in the Gifted and Talented Program at our school next year when he is in Third grade. b) Throughout my Student Teaching experience, I have been confronted with several factors and considerations that have greatly impacted the instruction and learning in my classroom. Regarding the behavioral factor, two students have difficulty staying on task. This class is very intelligent, but the children seldom strive to apply themselves when learning! Pertaining to linguistic considerations, one student has a Speech IEP and another is going to interventions for Speech. Concerning health issues, one child has sleep apnea and asthma (504 Plan) and one child only has asthma. According to the student with sleep apnea's 504 Accommodation Plan, we are required to allow him to move frequently, provide him with cues to stay awake throughout the day, give him frequent breaks during tests to get him up and walking to keep him from falling asleep, and not to reprimand or punish him for falling asleep. There is a variety of learning styles that exist among my students: the majority of the class are kinesthetic learners; however, there are 5 children whom I would consider to be visual and auditory learners as well. c) Similar to our classroom demographics, the school and surrounding community factors have surprisingly affected the teaching and learning that occurs in my classroom as well. There are 428 students enrolled in our school and a teacher-student ratio of 1:20 exists in the classrooms. The somewhat small classroom sizes greatly benefit the effectiveness of the children's learning. The school has been recognized for the Palmetto Gold Award and has an Excellent rating from the State Department. Therefore, the students are all held at uniquely high educational standards, which they are clearly made aware of on a daily basis. Overall, we are part of a very small district and the community is rural, with middle- to low- class socioeconomic statuses and diverse ethnicities. As a result, the children come from unique backgrounds and possess a wide range of prior knowledge that must be adequately addressed through activities in the classroom.

Step 1: Planning the Lesson- 3.1.1: Standards and Learning Goals =>
a) Constructivism is the learning theory that will guide my planning process. According to constructivism, learning is an active process of constructing knowledge rather than acquiring it. The constructivist theorists (Vygotsky, Piaget, Dewey, and Bruner) believed that knowledge is constructed based on personal experiences and hypotheses of the environment, which children are continually testing through social interactions. Each student has a different interpretation and construction of knowledge process, based on past experiences and cultural factors. In order to utilize the learning theory, the children will work together with designated partners to complete a hands-on activity. By participating in the activity, the children will be able to become thoroughly engaged in their learning of the subtraction of three-digit numbers, as they work with manipulatives to compete against each other. b) My lesson is in alignment with the following Common Core Math Standards: 2.NBT.7: Add and subtract within 1000, using concrete models or drawings and strategies... and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method. Understand that in adding or subtracting three-digit numbers, one adds or subtracts hundreds and hundreds, tens and tens, ones and ones. 2.NBT.9: Explain why addition and subtraction strategies work, using place value and the properties of operations.

Kassie Vaughn

PPAT

Student Teaching

The specific learning goal is as follows: While participating in a Four Corners activity with a partner, children will practice subtracting three-digit numbers using a standard algorithm. Working in partner groups, children will participate in a Four Corners activity while solving problems that involve subtracting three-digit numbers. c) In Topic 9, children used the standard algorithm and paper and pencil to subtract two-digit numbers. In Lesson 11-7, they used models to subtract three-digit numbers. In this lesson, children subtract three-digit numbers using the standard subtraction algorithm and paper and pencil. They regroup 1 ten as 10 ones or regroup 1 hundred as 10 tens as needed. The standard subtraction algorithm for three-digit numbers breaks the calculation into simpler calculations using place value starting with the ones, then the tens, and then the hundreds. d) Two difficulties students might encounter with the content are: 1- understanding a new method for subtracting three-digit numbers, and 2- forgetting to take away a ten or hundred when regrouping the ones or tens place. In order to address the difficulties, I will work to provide the children with multiple opportunities to practice the subtraction algorithm through hands-on, engaging activities.

3.1.2: Instructional Strategies =>
a) As part of my planned assessment, I will use a variety of different instructional strategies including active participation, cooperative learning, and differentiation. For their pre-assessment, in order to engage in active participation, I will place a three-digit number subtraction problem on the board. The children will solve the problem on their individual boards using any strategy they prefer. Once I tell them to do so, the students will hold up their boards and display their answers to me, which will give me an idea of their prior knowledge regarding three-digit number subtraction. Regarding cooperative learning during the lesson, the children will work in designated partner groups to complete a Four Corners activity, which involves solving three-digit number subtraction problems. While students are playing, I will walk around and observe various partner groups in order to determine children's understanding of subtraction and their ability to work together as partners. Pertaining to differentiation, as far as my three lowest students are concerned, I will clearly state the objective and activities of the lesson at the beginning of my instruction to inform them of the topic we will be discussing and activities we will be doing. I will also focus in on them during my observations of partner work and personally work one on one with them, in order to make sure they are solving three-digit number subtraction problems accurately. Concerning my student who has sleep apnea, the partner activity will be beneficial to him as he remains actively engaged in the learning. In order to address higher-order thinking, I will encourage children to complete number nine on page 370 in their work pages if they were accurate on their assessments. b) The three instructional strategies I am incorporating into my lesson (active participation, cooperative learning, and differentiation) directly connect to the specified condition in my learning goal, which states, "While participating in a Four Corners activity with a partner..." In order to facilitate student learning, the children will work together with their partners to complete a hands-on activity, as they become thoroughly engaged in their learning of subtraction of three-digit numbers and work with manipulatives. c) Regarding the individual work, I decided to have students work on their own during the pre- and postassessments in order to assess each child's individual performance level. I used whole-group instruction to review the concept of subtraction of three-digit numbers and address any questions or concerns the children might have had. Concerning the small-group instruction that was used during the Four Corners Activity, I chose to have the students work together, in order to facilitate their learning and give them the opportunity to bounce ideas off of each other about the content.

3.1.3: Learning Activities =>
a) To prepare my class for the assessment, the children will work in designated partner groups to complete a Four Corners activity, which involves solving three-digit number subtraction problems. b) The chosen activity will help to determine children's understanding of subtraction and their ability to work together as partners. While the students are playing, I will walk around and observe various partner groups.

Kassie Vaughn

PPAT

Student Teaching

c) There is a variety of learning styles that exist among my students: the majority of the class are kinesthetic learners; however, there are 5 children whom I would consider to be visual and auditory learners as well. Concerning relevant special needs, one child is a repeater, and two children are currently being referred for learning delays (have already been evaluated by the Student Support Team). Another student is being claimed as developmentally delayed, in order for her to receive the appropriate additional assistance and accommodations she needs to acquire a successful education. We have two students who scored extremely above average on their MAP and DIBELS tests, and one of those children has qualified to be in the Gifted and Talented Program at our school next year when he is in Third grade. Therefore, our class demographics informed the design of the learning activities I chose, because I desired for the students to be involved in a hands-on activity that would address multiple performance levels.

3.1.4: Materials, Resources, and Technology =>
a) In order to support instruction and student learning, numerous materials and resources will be utilized. For their pre-assessment, the children will be given a white board and marker to record their response to the posed problem on the board. By using these two resources, I will be able to quickly assess students' independent performance levels. I will use this information to design future instruction and/or to form flexible small-group instruction for reteaching or enrichment. I will take note of their responses and understanding on an anecdotal checklist I have created, which will give me an idea of their prior knowledge regarding three-digit number subtraction. For their during-assessment, students will be given a Four Corners Activity sheet (courtesy of enVisionMATH Common Core by Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley [Topic 11]), number tiles 1-8, bowls, red squares, pencil, and paper. By using these materials, children will become more engaged as they are given the opportunity to learn through a hands-on activity. For their post-assessment, children will be given the assessment sheet I have created. Their completed assessments will indicate whether or not my students were successfully able to solve three-digit number subtraction problems. b) Regarding technology, I plan to use the Instructional Video (specifically for Topic 11 Lesson 8) on the Smart Board during my instruction. c) I will use my chosen technology to enhance my instruction in the lesson by having the children watch the video as an aid to enhance their learning of the subtraction of three-digit numbers using the standard algorithm.

Step 2: The Focus Students- 3.2.1: Understanding Each of the Two Focus Students and Differentiating Instruction =>
Focus Student 1: a) Related to the learning goal of this lesson, she could possibly have difficulty transferring her knowledge over to the activity sheet. Worksheets often complicate prior information she has acquired in her mind. However, I am confident she will display her knowledge when doing the partner activity. b) I will clearly state the objective and activities of the lesson at the beginning of my instruction to inform her of the topic we will be discussing and activities we will be doing. I will also focus in on her during my observations of partner work and personally work one on one with her, in order to make sure she is solving threedigit number subtraction problems accurately. c) In order to show the progress she makes toward the learning goal, I have designed pre-, during-, and post- assessments to conduct throughout the lesson. For my pre-assessment, the children will write their answer on their white boards, hold it up for my review, and I will record their responses on an anecdotal checklist I have created. This process will allow me to quickly access students' independent performance levels, plan future instruction, and form flexible small-group instruction for reteaching or enrichment. Also, for my post-assessment, I will have each child complete a sheet I have created and I will record their performance on an additional checklist I have designed. The assessment practice will provide information on the students' conceptual and skill development.

Kassie Vaughn

PPAT

Student Teaching

Focus Student 2: a) Related to the learning goal of this lesson, he could possibly have difficulty understanding the content when I first introduce the use of the standard subtraction algorithm. However, I am confident he will grasp onto the concept very quickly and further display his knowledge when doing the partner activity. b) I will seek to encourage him to achieve higher order thinking and performance by asking him to complete number nine on page 370 in his work pages if his work is accurate on the created assessment. The higher-order thinking question states: Write a story about 543-206 and solve the problem. c) In order to show the progress she makes toward the learning goal, I have designed pre-, during-, and post- assessments to conduct throughout the lesson. For my pre-assessment, the children will write their answer on their white boards, hold it up for my review, and I will record their responses on an anecdotal checklist I have created. This process will allow me to quickly access students' independent performance levels, plan future instruction, and form flexible small-group instruction for reteaching or enrichment. Also, for my post-assessment, I will have each child complete a sheet I have created and I will record their performance on an additional checklist I have designed. The assessment practice will provide information on the students' conceptual and skill development.

Step 3: Analyzing the Lesson- 3.3.1: Analyzing the Lesson for the Whole Class =>
a) The instructional strategies, learning activities, student groupings, materials, resources, and technology were effective as there was clear evidence of student learning from the pre-assessment and post-assessment data. Through active participation, cooperative learning, differentiation, and numerous provided manipulatives, children were given a variety of opportunities to engage in hands-on learning in order to further their understanding. Based on my graphic representation of the post-assessments, approximately 70% of my class were successfully able to solve three-digit number subtraction problems using a standard algorithm and further showing their work. On the other hand, about 16% of the students seemed to be a little confused on the content and did not do as well on the assessment. I did not receive three of the children's assessments. There is evident improvement in the students' performance on the post-assessment and pre-assessment though. According to the graphic representation of the pre-assessments, approximately 60% of my class appeared to possess prior knowledge regarding the topic, while the other 40% simply did not. b) The students used the content presented in a partner activity and individual assessment to demonstrate meaningful learning. Working in partner groups, the children participated in a Four Corners activity while solving problems that involved subtracting three-digit numbers. The class also completed an assessment I designed by engaging in independent practice of the subtraction of three-digit numbers. c) In order to better support student engagement and learning, I implemented a variety of modifications and adaptations during my instruction of the lesson. Regarding my three lowest students, I clearly stated the objective and activities of the lesson at the beginning of my instruction to inform them of the topic we would be discussing and activities we would be doing. I also focused in on them during my observations of partner work and personally worked one on one of them, in order to make sure they were solving three-digit number subtraction problems accurately. Concerning my student who has sleep apnea, the partner activity of subtracting three-digit numbers and competing to cover four corners first, was beneficial to him as he remained actively engaged in the learning. In order to address higher-order thinking, I encouraged children to complete an additional problem in their work pages that asked for them to create a word problem about a given number sentence. Pertaining to those who finish early, they were given a Daily Common Core Review to work on, in order to help them review and relate their knowledge to prior-learned topics. d) As a way to foster teacher-to-student interactions, I instructed each child to bring their paper to me to check as they finished. If the student answered a problem incorrectly, I explained what they did wrong and worked with them on how to fix the mistake, as a way to help improve the children's engagement and overall learning. As a way to encourage student-to-student interaction, I had the children participate in a Four Corners activity with a designated partner, while solving problems that involved subtracting three-digit numbers. With this partner activity, the students worked together with their partners and were able to become thoroughly engaged in their learning of the subtraction algorithm, as they worked with manipulatives to compete against each other.

Kassie Vaughn

PPAT

Student Teaching

e) Regarding feedback I provided during the lesson, I instructed each child to bring their paper to me to check as they finished. If the student answered a problem incorrectly, I explained what they did wrong and worked with them on how to fix the mistake, as a way to help improve the children's engagement and overall learning. I also walked around and observed various partner groups while they were working, in order to determine children's understanding of subtraction and to answer any questions, thoughts, or concerns they might have had.

3.3.2: Analyzing the Differentiated Instruction for Each of the Two Focus Students =>
a) Overall, Student #1 displayed improvement somewhat in her performance. During the pre-assessment, she was not able to subtract three-digit numbers using a standard algorithm and it appeared the same on the postassessment she completed. However, even though she did not do well on the activity sheet and it did not seem so on my checklist records, she was displaying excellent work during the Four Corners partner group activity. I believe that the idea of a "worksheet" complicated the concept in her mind. Regarding Student #2, overall his performance level remained the same while his confidence appeared to improve when solving this type of subtraction problem. During both the pre- and post- assessments, he was able to correctly solve the problems, but he hesitated a little when working the problem out on his white board. However, once he practiced the concept through the partner activity, he assuredly answered all of the problems on the activity sheet correctly and further provided his other classmates with help on using the algorithm. b) Regarding Student 1, I clearly stated the objective and activities of the lesson at the beginning of my instruction to inform her of the topic we would be discussing and activities we would be doing. I also focused in on her during my observations of partner work and personally worked one on one with her, in order to make sure she was solving three-digit number subtraction problems accurately. Concerning Student 2, I sought to encourage him to achieve higher order thinking and performance by asking him to complete number nine on page 370 in his work pages if his work was accurate on the created assessment. The higher-order thinking question stated: Write a story about 543-206 and solve the problem.

Step 4: Reflecting- 3.4.1: Reflecting on the Lesson for the Whole Class =>
a) Pertaining to those who did not achieve the learning goal, I will clearly state the objective and activities of the lesson at the beginning of my instruction to inform my three lowest students of the topic we were discussing and activities we were doing. I will also focus in on them during my observations of partner work and personally work one on one with them, in order to make sure they are solving three-digit number subtraction problems accurately. Concerning my student who has sleep apnea, the partner activity will be beneficial to him as he remains actively engaged in the learning. Regarding technology, I will display the Instructional Video (specifically for Topic 11 Lesson 8) on the Smart Board if the children seem to be having difficulty understanding the content. b) My specific data analysis allowed me to quickly assess each student's independent performance levels throughout my pre-, during-, and post- instruction. The information also helped me to plan future instruction and form flexible small-group instruction for reteaching and enrichment based on my children's needs. Because several of the students in my class have difficulty completing a worksheet, I would modify the post-assessment designed for this lesson from a sheet to an independent hands-on activity that better diagnoses students' strengths and weaknesses. By evaluating an independent hands-on activity as the post-assessment, each child would be given the opportunity to display their knowledge of the content while still remaining actively engaged in their learning. Overall, I was pleased with the effectiveness of the learning activities, student groupings, materials, resources, and technology I chose to utilize for this lesson. However, if I were to do this lesson again, I would modify my instructional strategies to include a Think-Pair-Share activity at the beginning of my instruction after my pre-assessment. Through a Think-Pair-Share activity, students would be encouraged to increase their math talk in the classroom by responding to the introduced topic and further sharing their thoughts with a partner. An activity

Kassie Vaughn

PPAT

Student Teaching

such as this would be especially effective for students who are reluctant participants as they get to rehearse their response in front of one classmate.

3.4.2: Reflecting on the Lesson for Each of the Two Focus Students =>
a) My specific data analysis allowed me to quickly assess each student's independent performance levels throughout my pre-, during-, and post- instruction. The information also helped me to plan future instruction and form flexible small-group instruction for reteaching and enrichment based on my two focus students' needs. b) Because several of the students in my class, including Student #1, have difficulty completing a worksheet, I would modify the post-assessment designed for this lesson from a sheet to an independent hands-on activity that better diagnoses students' strengths and weaknesses. Therefore, by evaluating an independent hands-on activity as the post-assessment, each child would be given the opportunity to display their knowledge of the content while still remaining actively engaged in their learning. Overall, I was pleased with the effectiveness of the learning activities, student groupings, materials, resources, and technology I chose to utilize for this lesson for my two focus students' learning. However, if I were to do this lesson again, I would modify my instructional strategies to include a Think-Pair-Share activity at the beginning of my instruction after my preassessment. Through a Think-Pair-Share activity, students would be encouraged to increase their math talk in the classroom by responding to the introduced topic and further sharing their thoughts with a partner. An activity such as this would be especially effective for students who are reluctant participants as they get to rehearse their response in front of one classmate.