113;L1aTenbCTBO «B.

lIIeBqYK» MOCKBa2006

YCCKHe opHaMeHTbI

COCTaBHTenb H aBTop npe;LIHcnoBHH B. VI. VlBaHoBcKaH

ISBN 5-94232-038-1

© B.l1. l1BaHoBcKaR, cocrasnenae, npeAItCnOBlte © 113AaTenbcTBo «B. IIIeBQYK», 2006

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PYCCKMM OpHaMeHT

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OpHaMeHT rrOCTpoeH na pMTMMqeCKOM sepenosanaa M306pa){(aeMbIX MOTMBOB, nponaaonnaa OT <pOPMbI M rro.n;qMHRIO~aRCH ew CTpyKTypa. 0pHaMeHT He MO)!(eT 6bITb paCCqMTaH MaTeMaTMqeCKM, OH rrOKpbIBaeT rrOBepXHOCTb npenMeTa, rrOBTopRR ero M3rM6bI, nonaepxaaaa MX MJIM CKpbIBaR. HeJIb3R paCCqMrars, KaKMM 6y.n;eT 3aBMTOK, KOTOPbIW rrOJIO){(eH MaCTepOM.

BpeMR rrORBJIeHMR nepnsrx opHaMeHTaJIbHbIX KOMrr03MQMW B PYCCKOM MCKyCCTBe HeM3BeCTHO, onnaxo MO){(HO npennonoacrrs, qTO nnrepec K YKpaIlleHMIO rtpemieron pa3BMBaJICR o.n;HOBpeMeHHO C OCBoeHMeM oKpy){(aIO~erO MMpa.

11CCJIe.n;OBaTeJIRMM, PYCCKMMM M 3apy6e){(HbIMM, rrpe.n;rrpMHMMaJIMCb nonsrrKM M3yqMTb MCKYCCTBO rrOCTpoeHMH opHaMeHTaJIbHbIX KOMrr03MQMW. 0 pycCKOM opHaMeHTe rrMCaJIM apXeOJIOrM, arnorpatpu, MCTOPMKM, MCKYCCTBOBe.n;bI. B rrepByIO osepens BHMMaHMe HayqHOrO MMpa 6bIJIO 06pa~eHO na M3yqeHMe MCKyccTBa XI-XVII BB. Cpenn HaM60JIee M3BeCTHblX y-rensrx, 3aHMMaBIllMXCR aonpocoa opnasieara, 6bIJIM <1>. r. COJIHQeB, <1>. 11. EYCJIaeB, 11. M. Cnernpea, B. 11. EYTOBCKMW, B. B. Cracos, M3BeCTHbIW <ppaHQY3cKMW yqeHbIW E. BMOJIeJIe-)],IOK. OHM 3aHMMaJIMCb MCCJIe.n;OBaHMeM pYCCKoro opnauenra BO scex ero rrpORBJIeHMRX - He TOJIbKO KaK YHMKaJIbHOrO RBJIeHMR, HO M KaK COCTaBHOW qaCTM <pOPMbI M nexopa pa3JIMqHbIX npeuaeron.

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3

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PaHHMe naMRTHMKM yqHTbIBaJIM BM3aHTMMCKMe MCTOqHMKM - KHMrM, npHuremune na TeppMTOpMIO KHeBCKOM PYCH M3 KOHCTaHTMHOnOJIR. TIpoM3Be,n;eHHR BM3aHTMMCKOrO KHM)I(HOrO MCKYCCTBa 3aQaCTYlO CJIY)!(HJIM u;eHHbIM MaTepMaJIOM ,n;JIR PYCCKMX nepemrcaaxos M MMHMaTlOpMCTOB. B XII-XV BB. uenrpaaa C03,n;aHMR PYKOnMCHbIX KHMr 6bIJIM HOBrOpO,n;, POCTOB, 3aTeM MOCKaa M MOHaCTblpM B MOCKOBCKOM 06JIaCTM. HeCOMHeHHbIM 60raTCTBOM M nbIIIIHOCTblO OTJIMQalOTCR PYKonMcM XVI-XVII BB. OHH YKpaIIIaJIMCb MHoroq)J.1- ryPHbIMM KOMn03HU;MRMH M 3aTeMJIMBbIM 0pHaMeHToM.

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Iopasno paHbIIIe, B 1860 r., non PYKOBO)J;CTBOM B. 11. EYToBCKoro 6bIJIO nonrOTOBJIeHO M aanexaraao )J;pyroe YHMKaJIbHOe M3,n;aHMe - «I1CTOpMR pyCCKOro opHaMeHTa XI-XVI BB.». B 3TOM 60raTo HJIJIIOCTpHpoBaHHoM aJIb60Me npencrasnensr BceB03MO)!(Hble BapMaHTbI YKpaIIIeHMR pYKonMcHblx KHMr - OT OT)J;eJIbHbIX 3JIeMeHTOB pyccKoro opnauenra no M306pa)!(eHHbIX B HaTypaJIbHbIM pa3Mep 3aCTaBOK H HHMU;MaJIOB. TIpMMepbI pyccKoro opHaMeHTa 6bIJIM ony6JIMKOBaHbI KaK HayqHoe nocoone ,n;JIR MOJIO,n;bIX Xy,n;O)!(HHKOB. BM,n;R, KaK He06xo,n;MMO ,n;JIR MOJIO,n;bIX CneU;MaJIMCTOB 3HaHMe HaU;MOHaJIbHOM KYJIbTypbI, KOTopaR MO)!(eT 6bITb nepenaaa TOJIbKO xepes opHaMeHTaJIbHOe MCKYCCTBO, B. 11. EYTOBCKMM pa60TaJI BMeCTe C nenaroraxra H yqeHHKaMM nan C03,n;aHHeM «3HU;MKJIOne,n;MM PYCCKMX 0pHaMeHToB». <PaKTHqeCKH, B. 11. EYTOBCKMM nepBbIM TaK IIIMPOKO npo,n;eMoHCTpMpOBaJI sraorootipaaae H KpacoTy pyccKoro opnaaenra XI-XVII BB.

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4

B 1865 r. Bsrcrasnenasre na otioapenne 3KcnOHaTbI rrpoaasena na ny611MKY orpoxraoe snesarneaae. Ilocerarenefi nopasnna YAMBMTellbHaJI KpaCOTa pyccxoro opHaMeHTa, asmomreaaoro ApeBHMMM MacTepaMM.

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MOTMBbI QBeTOB, BeTOK, BMHorpaAHbIX 1I03, )KryTOB TaK)Ke 3aHMMallM Ba)KHoe MeCTO B CTpyKType PYCCKoro opHaMeHTa. ITlIeTeHbIM MlIM pacrarensnsnt opnaaear B BMAe 3aBMTKOB, lIMCTbeB, 'IaillellMCTMKOB IIlMPOKO npMMeHRlICR B YKpaIIleHMM HOBropOACKMX PYKonMCHbIX KHMr XII -XIV BB. Yrtpyrne pacrnrensnsre 3aBMTKM qaCTO BCTpe'IaIOTCR B nexope naMRTHMKOB XIV-XVII BB.

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5

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6

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