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Capstone Project

Lisa-Dai Keen Venker

Lights-I would prefer more natural light than any other if possible. However, hybrid natural/
non-natural will be needed. Incandescent bulbs will be used but only the 3500 which are not
too pink or too blue. We need to also be sure that they do not admit to much ballast noise. I
think indirect incandescent light should also be used when needed. Structures should be made
out of a matte metal that allows light to reflect up into the sky.

Metal Light fxture

Natural light will work in our area especially since we are so much further than the equator
where too much light would be an issue. There should be direct natural light in the office space
with either windows or skylights or a combo of both. Computer areas should also have natural
light with as little glare on computer screens as possible.
All seated reading stations should have soft lamp lights for ease on eyes.
Perimeter lights should be mounted and face above the bookshelves, to give
additional light but not directly on the books or materials. Additionally, no ultra
violet light should be used. It is bad in excess of amounts to humans and to the
books in the collection.
Windows should be facing north where daylight is less direct. If possible
southern facing windows should also be used however; curtains or blinds
should be used for afternoon light. Other examples of indirect light should
be used when available. On such example is bounced natural light.

Other lighting concerns are that most areas that hold books do not have direct lights onto book
shelves but on aisle to save and help preserve materials. Computer areas should have the lights
that offer the least amount of glare. Aisle ways should also be lighted instead of book
shelves. All tables used for reading should also have soft reading lights for long periods
of reading. One area that should be darkened is the large presentation area in the library
that would be used for a multitude of uses. The ability to dim and close window and
blinds should be encouraged here.

Blinds & Curtains

Finally, blinds and curtains should be kept to a minimum so as to not
add dust. Vertical blinds should also be used instead because they can be
cut to fit window, replaced easily, are harder to collect dust and can completely block light
when needed. Another option is open-mesh fabric. Mesh can be rolled up and hidden. It
allows the holes in the mesh to be open to some light. It also allows for glare control and should
be of neutral color.
Floor Finishes
Some of the floor finishes I evaluated all have the ability to meet ADA codes for handicapped
students/citizens. Some considerations of finishes include the material they are made from,
whether or not they release any harmful ingredients in the air, and how they need to be cleaned.
Again, no cleaning agents that have health/environmental concerns should be used.
For the entry or high traffic areas I chose a stone floor with a
slate/marble/limestone/granite finish. All of these stones hold up under
the harshest wear and tear, can easily be polished, and cleaned with
minor/non-strong soaps and detergents. Granite is the best choice and is
the hardest of the above stones. It can be made smooth or matte and is
easily polished. Granite of at least 2 centimeters thick should always be
Carpet should be used in limited areas as it allows for collation of dust, mites, and any spills.
Acoustics is also important to libraries as carpet helps to minimize any unnecessary noise. Tiles
should be used rather than whole pieces of carpet for a variety of reasons. They dont fray, they
allow for raised access for changes in the floor due to electrical or construction concerns. Tiles
can also be easily replaced when soiled or damaged and the cost is
minimal to whole floor carpet purchases.
Of carpet that can be purchased, one with 50% loop which is very
dense, and is usually not solid in color (easier to hide the stains), low
height is ideal and the density of the fibers should be 45,000 or higher.
The best cut of carpet would be ones with both cuts and loops. This
again helps to hide stains and allows carts and wheel chairs to easily
roll over them. Heathered yarn is great to use because it gives a
mottled effect even though it is solid in color, again stains. And
finally, nylon is the best choice for material due to its ability to not
harbor as many mites and parasites as natural materials may.
Cork tiles are also very important in the use of the library. Pulling
cork from trees does little damage and is a renewable resource. Tiles are made to be interlocking
which allows them to easily be replaced. 5/16th is the best to use as it is heavy duty, and durable.
Cork itself is unicellular, is made of 80% air and can easily recover to its natural thickness when
compressed. Cork is also great on the foot because of its ability to compress. It absorbs sound
and it often found in natural and neutral warm colors. It is low maintenance and only requires
mild soap and water to clean. Some disadvantages are that UV light will warp and discolor cork.

However, the cork in the floor at the University of Berkeley

has lasted for 60 years. It was just recently replaced.
All colors in a library should be warms
colors and earth tones.
The ceiling should
be used to bounce
light, allow for
recessed lighting, and
to give indirect
light. Some ideas to
help make libraries
more natural and
outdoors-like is to
add items to ceilings.
One item that
could be used i s
dropped or attached pieces of molded acoustic blockers. Glass reinforced
gypsum is a great choice to block and absorb sound as well as helps to diffuse
direct light. Gypsum is high strength, light weight, can be easily molded to any shape, and is
non-combustible. It is also easily taped and can be painted which allows for a variety of
decorative ideas. 1/18th 3/16th is less expensive than plaster. I would love to see a basic painted
ceiling with added shaped gypsum. Using shapes like those of a cloud could lead visitors to just
look up stare and imagine what each piece might be floating above them while they read.
Latex paint is easily cleaned and is the best choice for libraries. Flat
or matte should be used because they are low glare. Flat should only
be used on ceilings. Regular walls should use eggshell coating
which is washable and durable. Multi-flecked paint is best as it
easily hides stains and is easy to clean, however, it is hard to match
or duplicate when needed to be repainted.
Other Ideas
I like the idea of 2 floors. The second should be open to the one below and wall and railing
should be holed so that sight access is available to librarians. I also saw one having a mixed high
and low ceiling to be an advantageous. It allows for better air movement, different acoustics
when needed to present to large groups, and to accommodate a variety of light.
I like

at a

having an open but gated/fenced storage area where items can be monitored in the
open because behind the counter space is at minimum. It also allows
electric items to be plugged in but again has air flow so that they dont
overheat. At one school I saw a very round and open circulation
desk and round library area so that all students, books, and
equipment can be seen easily. Still, another school had
periodicals stored in large moveable cabinets. I saw something similar
doctors office where the cabinets sit on tracks and can be cranked to
move left or right. The more storage available the better as space is
always at a minimum.

A small group or private computer carousels might also be ideal for students who really want to
focus and work on assignments. I also believe computer areas should be created so that
keyboards fit under desks at hip height and the desk above is allowed to be open for books, study
materials, and personal items. I would also prefer flat screens so that more space is available on
the desk top.

When Shopping

Circulation Desk
I found a display case that could be used as a circulation desk. This was unique in that it
included open shelf areas, enclosed glass shelf areas, and solid wood storage behind the counter.
It was very much like something you would find at a jewelry store. I thought the extra storage
and glass shelves could be used for displays as LMSs are always trying to advertise their items.
Found at

Magazine Rack
Another great find was a rotating magazine rack. It allowed visitors
to see the title and some of the magazine, enticing them, and allowed
up to 40 to be held at one time. A great space saver, also found at
Regular Tables

Tables that have radius style edges allow for

sharp edges to harm users. Laminate,
however not the best to use, is a great option
that you can get mixed colored tops which
for hiding wear and tear. The variety of
colors is also of wide range. One specific
I liked was found a Demco. It is the Paragon Infinity (TM) Lib Table. The laminate is 1-1/8th
thick with particle board and is impact resistance. The great thing about this is the legs are
adjustable for both handicap accessibility and for different sized students.
Computer Tables
Again from Demco I found a Paragon Challenger Series that allows tables to
be moved in circular or serpentine pattern. The desk has a
recessed keyboard at hip height and an upper shelf area on
the sides for cups, pens, etc. The desk area itself is flat
and open to allow for lots of work. The CPU cart is under and to the sides of
the desk. Finally it has a pug area, and is moveable. Another one that was
similar holds 3 students with a very similar lay out.
Having large ADA approved signs is a must. Some are 3-D
made of foam, whiles others are flat with metal or plastic
materials. An outside electronic sign may also be advantages to
advertise items and uses of the library. I really liked the signs
that stuck out of each aisle. I found range finder signs at Demco
that are made from a clear styrene plastic. They open on the top
for easily switching out 3 x 5 signs. For other signage, I liked
the classification sets from Demco that had both the general title, picture, and Dewey numbers
on it. I did find some signs that could be used on for room identification at Demco. They were
called Intera Sliding Panel Signs. They showed rooms as vacant or occupied, were ADA
approved, and had grade 2 Braille writing.
One thing I learned through reading was to get book shelves with backs to
them so books dont get lost behind them. Some things that I thought were
important in shelves are that they are mobile and made of solid wood, or at
least veneer. At Demco, I liked the Paladin; they offer
shelving that comes in sections or pieces. They also offer
seating areas in the corner of shelves with cubby areas underneath
for again, more storage. They moveable pieces can be used to make
many shapes and patterns depending on floor plan. I liked the variety and
style they offered. The options would allow any LMS to alter or change
the library should the need come.

I choose more traditional seating with little to no cushions. My concerns were for
the cleaning and harboring of chemicals, allergens, stains, and bacteria that can be
found in cushions. Of those, I looked for chairs that were solid wood, and that
could handle even the heaviest students, and would indeed last forever. They also have vertical
slats that allow the back to move or shift in the chair for comfort. No arms should be used to
again leave for shifting of the body and the oversize shape of possible students. I
found at Highsmith chairs called Community Addison Library Chairs. They
were all wood, had curved back for better posture and a curved buttocks
area. They are also kiln dried to resist wear and tear and the ageing of wood.
They did come in many colored wood, and had both armed and non-armed
varieties. Some negatives were that they were not stackable and had no
storage underneath for books.
Other chaired areas should have lounge tables and maybe even caf chairs to encourage students
to come in relax and read. I found one great over size chair again at Highpoint. I believe it
maybe pleather which again leaves for easy cleaning and no cushion harboring to toxins. These
chairs were deep and looked like that they would allow students to bend their knees and cuddle
with a good book.

Bertland, Linda. (n.d.). Resources fro school librarians. Retrieved from
Deen, Edward, and AIA. (2005). Day lighting design in libraries. Retrieved from, Initials. (2009). Design share designing for the future of learning:
Imagining the future of the school library. Retrieved from
Division of Instruction and Staff Development School Library Media Services Branch,
Initials. (1998). Facilities guidelines for library media programs. Retrieved from
Henrico County Public Schools, Initials. (2006, April). Henrico county public schools.
Retrieved from
Johnson, Doug. (2000, May/June). Doug Johnson: Designing Digital libraries. Retrieved
Johnson, Doug. (2007, June). Doug Johnson: some design considerations. Retrieved
Lamb, Annette. (2007). The School library media specialist: program
administration: facilities management. Retrieved from
Melman, David and Architectural Lighting Design. (2005). Lighting for libraries.
Retrieved from
Morris, Beverly. (2004). Library interior finish materials. Retrieved from
Office of Library Information Services, Initials. (n.d.). Library media center. Retrieved

The Maryland State Department of Education, Initials. (1987). Standards for school
library media programs in Maryland. Retrieved from
Williams, Inger M. . (n.d.). Computer ergonomics for elementary school. Retrieved from
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