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Gerunds &

Gerundives
Practice
Stage 40

A Participle is a
verbal adjective,
an adjective
formed from a
verb.

A Participle is a
verbal adjective,
an adjective
which describes a
noun.

Most Latin verbs


have
4 participles or
verbal adjectives.

emo, emere, emi, emptum, buy:


pres.
perf.
f. act.
f. pass

emens
emptus
empturus

emendus

buying
h. b. bought
about to buy
about to be
bought

future passive
participle (emendus)

The

is also called a

gerundive.
gerundive

A Gerundive is a
verbal adjective.

As a 1st/2nd declension adjective there


are thirty forms of the gerundive.
emenda
emendus
emendum
emendae
emendi
emendi
emendae
emendo
emendo
emendam
emendum
emendum
emenda
emendo
emendo
emendae
emendi
emenda
emendarum emendorum emendorum
emendis
emendis
emendis
emendas
emendos
emenda
emendis
emendis
emendis

When used with a


form of sum the
future passive
participle or
gerundive shows
obligation.

cibus emendus est.


The food must be bought.

cibus emendus erat.

The food had to be bought.

cibus emendus erit.

The food will have to be


bought.

A Gerund is a
verbal noun.

In English a gerund is
a noun ending in -ing,
made from a verb.

running
jogging

noun

I live for running.


I saw the boy running in
the race.
participle

Gerund

I live for running.


I saw the boy running in
the race.
Gerundive

in Latin a gerund is a
verbal noun of the
second declension
neuter, used only in the
singular.

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

us
i
o
um
o
i
orum
is
os
is

um
i
o
um
o
a
orum
is
a
is

2nd

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

um
i
o
um
o

2nd
neuter
singular

Gerunds have the same formation as


gerundives, but only 4 forms.
emenda
emendus
emendum
emendae
emendi
emendi
emendae
emendo
emendo
emendam
emendum
emendum
emenda
emendo
emendo
emendae
emendi
emenda
emendarum emendorum emendorum
emendis
emendis
emendis
emendas
emendos
emenda
emendis
emendis
emendis

The nominative
verbal noun is an
infinitive.

To run is good.
Running is good.
currere est bonum.

laudo, laudare
1 & 2 conjugations:
2nd p.p. laudare
lauda
-re
+ nd laudand
laudandi,
laudando

+ i, o,
laudandum,laudando
um, o
st

nd

moneo, monEre
1 & 2 conjugations:
2nd p.p. monEre
mone
-re
monend

+ nd
monendi, monendo
+ i, o,
monendum, monendo
st

um, o

nd

dico, dicere
3rd & 4th conjugations:
1st p.p. dico
dic
-o
+ end dicend
dicendi,
dicendo

+ i, o,
dicendum,dicendo
um, o

sentio, sentire
3rd & 4th conjugations:

1st p.p.
-o
+ end
+ i, o,
um, o

sentio
senti
sentiend
sentiendi, sentiendo
sentiendum,
sentiendo

Nominative emere

monEre

dicere

sentire

Genitive

emendi

monendi

dicendi

sentiendi

Dative

emendo

monendo

dicendo

sentiendo

Accusative emendum

monendum dicendum

sentiendum

Ablative

monendo

sentiendo

emendo

dicendo

Gerunds can function


in a sentence like
other nouns.
Gerundives function in
a sentence agreeing
with nouns in any case.

Genitive Case

with caus or grati


(for the sake of)
to express purpose

miles caus emendi pugnavit.


The soldier fought for the
sake of buying.
miles gloriae emendae grati
pugnavit.
The soldier fought for the
sake of buying glory.

with special adjectives


such as cupidus:
desirous

miles erat cupidus emendi.


The soldier was desirous of
buying.
miles erat cupidus gloriae
emendae.
The soldier was desirous of
buying glory.

Dative Case

as the indirect object,


translated as
to or for.

miles multum temporis emendo


dedit.
The soldier gave much time to
buying.
miles multum temporis praemiis
emendis dedit.
The soldier gave much time to
buying rewards.

with special adjectives,


such as idoneus: fit for

miles erat idoneus emendo.


The soldier was fit for
buying.
miles erat idoneus praeminiis
emendis.
The soldier was fit for
buying rewards.

Accusative Case

with ad to show
purpose

miles ad emendum pugnavit.


The soldier fought for the
purpose of buying (to buy).
miles ad praeminia emenda
pugnavit.
The soldier fought for the
purpose of buying rewards (to
buy).

Ablative Case

in prepositional
phrases using de, ex,
etc.

miles ex pugnando fugit.


The soldier fled out of the
fighting.
miles ex urbe incendo fugit.
The soldier fled out of the
burning city.

Practice

As a 1st/2nd declension adjective there


are thirty forms of the gerundive.
scribenda
scribendae
scribendae
scribendam
scribenda
scribendae
scribendarum
scribendis
scribendis
scribendas
scribendis

scribendus
scribendum
scribendi
scribendi
scribendo
scribendo
scribendum
scribendum
scribendo
scribendo
scribendi
scribenda
scribendorum scribendorum
scribendis
scribendos
scribenda
scribendis

As a 2nd declension neuter noun there


are only forms of the gerund.
scribenda
scribendae
scribendae
scribendam
scribenda
scribendae
scribendarum
scribendis
scribendis
scribendas
scribendis

scribendus
scribendum
scribendi
scribendi
scribendo
scribendo
scribendum
scribendum
scribendo
scribendo
scribendi
scribenda
scribendorum scribendorum
scribendis
scribendos
scribenda
scribendis

As a 2nd declension neuter noun there


are only forms of the gerund.
scribenda
scribendae
scribendae
scribendam
scribenda
scribendae
scribendarum
scribendis
scribendis
scribendas
scribendis

scribendus
scribendum
scribendi
scribendi
scribendo
scribendo
scribendum
scribendum
scribendo
scribendo
scribendi
scribenda
scribendorum scribendorum
scribendis
scribendos
scribenda
scribendis

gerund, gen.
1. ego sum cupidus
scribendi.
I am desirous of
writing.

gerund, dat.
2. ego eram idoneus
scribendo.
I was fit for writing.

gerund, acc.
3. ego ad scribendum
vivo.
I live for the purpose
of writing (to write) .

gerund, abl.
4. ego scribendo vivo.
I live by writing.

infinitive, nom.
5. scribere est
mirabilis.
To write (writing) is
wonderful.

gerund, gen.
6. ego nullam spem
scribendi habeo.
I have no hope of
writing.

gerund, gen.
7. ego causa scribendi
vivo.
I live for the sake of
writing .

gerundive, abl.
8. ego libris scribendis
vivo.
I live by writing books.

gerundive, gen.
9. ego nullam spem
librorum scribendorum
habeo.
I have no hope of
writing books .

gerundive, gen.
10. ego spem libri
scribendi habeo.
I have hope of writing
a book .

gerundive, dat.
11. ego eram idoneus
libro scribendo.
I was fit for writing a
book.

gerundive, dat.
12. ego sum idoneus
libris scribendis.
I am fit for writing
books.

gerundive, gen.
13. ego gratia librorum
scribendorum vivo.
I live for the sake of
writing books .

gerundive, gen.
14. ego eram cupidus
librorum scribendorum.
I was desirous of
writing books.

gerundive, acc.
15. ego ad libros
scribendos vivo.
I live for the purpose
of writing (to write)
books.

gerund, abl.
16. ego nihil de arte
scribendi scio.
I know nothing about
the art of writing.

gerundive, abl.

17. ego nihil de arte


librorum scribendorum
scio.
I know nothing about
the art of writing
books.

gerund, abl.

18. scribendo ego me


delecto.
I please myself by
writing.

gerundive, abl.

19. libris scribendis ego


me delecto.
I please myself by
writing books.

gerund, abl.

20. scribendo ego


nullam pecuniam accipio.
I receive no money by
writing.

gerundive, oblig.

21. mihi liber


scribendus est.
The book must be
written by me.

gerundive, oblig.

21. mihi liber


scribendus est.
I must write the book.

gerundive, oblig.

22. mihi liber


scribendus erat.
The book had to be
written by me.

gerundive, oblig.

22. mihi liber


scribendus erat.
I had to write the
book.

gerundive, oblig.

23. mihi liber


scribendus erit.
The book will have to
be written by me.

gerundive, oblig.

23. mihi liber


scribendus erit.
I will have to write the
book.

gerundive, oblig.

24. mihi libri scribendi


sunt.
The books must be
written by me.

gerundive, oblig.

24. mihi libri scribendi


sunt.
I must write the books.

gerundive, oblig.

25. mihi carmina


scribenda erant.
The songs had to be
written by me.

gerundive, oblig.

25. mihi carmina


scribenda erant.
I had to write the
songs.