RESTAURANT OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES and PRACTICES Jack D. Ninemeier David K. Hayes PART 1 RESTAURANT BASICS 1.

INTRODUCTION TO RESTAURANTS and THE RESTAURANT INDUSTRY EUROPEAN RESTAURANT HISTORY There is evidence that food was sold in public marketplaces seven-thousand years ago and historical accounts describe the banquets and feasts enjoyed by the ancient Greeks and Romans twenty-five hundred years ago. The oldest written recipes date from the fourth century B.C. in a cookbook written by Apicius. The earliest recorded cuisine, then is that of the ancient Romans. France with its haute cuisine, became a leader in fine dining by improving on many basic food preparation and service techniques that had been developed earlier in several European countries including Italy and Spain. Before the 1600s, just a few inns were available for travelers, who primarily traveled for trade and religious purposes; there was little travel for pleasure. In fact, the word ´travelµ comes from ´travailµ which means to toil at hard labor. In the mid-1700s, a Frenchman began selling soups, which he suggested were health restorers in an establishment called a restauer (French for ´to restoreµ). And the term restaurant was born. U.S. RESTAURANT HISTORY In the United States, an increasing number of taverns and inns became popular in cities during the early 1800s. As they grew in wealth and size communities began to support more extravagant and expensive eating out alter natives. American Plan : The hotel pricing structure in which some (or all) of a guest·s meals are included in the basic guest room rate. (Full -Board) Modified American Plan : Half-Board ( Zimmer mit Halbpension ) A la Carte (Menus): Menu pricing in which each meal component is sold (priced) individually. European Plan: The hotel pricing structure in which guests pay only for the meals they consume; food charges are not part of the basic room rate. ( accommodation only ² Zimmerpreis ohne Pension ) The secret of success: The secret of success in restaurant operation includes cleanliness excellent service and high-quality silverware/linen; most importantly; the food should be very good . The successful restaurant operators generally own their own farms to provide milk, butter, and eggs. In the 1950s, the McDonald·s restaurant chain began its rise to popularity. Other chains followed with specialties including fried chicken, roast beef sandwiches, fish, and pizza

among many others. and low prices.

Their advantage; clean premises, standardized menus, quick service

Before the 1970s, many Americans did not drink wine at all: Many know little about the beverage and were reluctant to try it. Since that time, wines have dramatically increased in popularity and by the 1980s, some of the best California wines had excellent reputations and could successfully compete with their French counterparts. By the early 1980s American began to eat out more frequently. One reason was demographics (more single and divorced persons and a growing proportion of working women).

The Travel / Tourism Industry The travel / tourism industry identifies three major segments: hospitality transportation services destination alternatives

Commercial Operations (foodservices): Foodservices offered in hotels and restaurants and other organizations whose primary financial goal involves generation of profits from the sale of food and beverage products. Noncommercial Operations (foodservices): Foodservice operations whose financial goal does not involve generating profits from the sale of food and beverage products, also called institutional foodservices. Self-operated (Noncommercial foodservices): A type of non-commercial foodservices operation in which the program is managed and operated by the organization·s own employees. Contract Management Company-operated (Noncommercial food services): A type of noncommercial foodservices operation in which the program is managed and operated by a company specializing in foodservices management. WHAT IS A RESTAURANT ? A restaurant is a for-profit foodservice operation whose primary business involves the sale of food/beverage products to individuals and small groups of guests. Restaurants may have few or many seats; they may be free-standing or located within a hotel, resort or shopping mall. They may or may not serve alcoholic beverages in addition to food and may have extensive or limited menus.

They may offer fine dining at high prices (gourmet food served by highly experienced service staff to guests seated at tables covered with tablecloths and set with the finest tableware. They may also be quick-service properties with lower prices offering food served at a counter by a cashier. They may offer a theme to complement the dining area with modest tables/chairs and /or booths and counters. Restaurants offer alternative service methods. Restaurant (Independent ): Properties owned/operated by an entrepreneur which are not affiliated with a franchised or multiunit organization. Restaurant (Multiunit): Properties which are affiliated with a franchise or other organization containing multiple (sometimes thousands) properties; also called a ´chainµ. Franchise: An arrangement whereby one party (the franchisor) allows the owner of the hospitality business (the franchisee) to use the franchisor·s logo, name, systems, and resources in exchange for a fee. Franchisor: Those who own and manage the brand and sell the right to use the brand name to franchisees. Receiving : The transfer of ownership from a supplier to the hospitality operation which occurs when products are delivered. Storing: The process of holding products under optimal storage conditions until they are needed for production or use. Issuing : the process of moving products from storage areas to the point of use (place of production) Preparing : The steps involved in getting an ingredient ready for cooking or serving. For example, celery must be cleaned and chopped before being cooked in a stew or cleaned and sliced before use on an appetizer tray. Cooking: The application of heat to food to make the food more palatable and/or enjoyable for consumption. Holding: The task of maintaining food items at proper serving temperature after they are prepared. Holding involves keeping hot foods hot and cold foods cold.

BASIC MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES Planning : Defining goals, establishing strategies to achieve them and designing ways to get work done. Organizing : Developing and grouping work tasks. Coordinating: Arranging group efforts in an orderly manner. Staffing: Finding the right people for the job. Directing : Supervising the work of staff members. Controlling : Determining the extent to which the organization ´keeps on trackµ of

achieving goals. Evaluating : Assessing the extent to which plans are attained ; evaluation can identify issues (problems) which should be considered by additional planning. Staffing: Job descriptions and specifications should be developed for each position and should be kept current. A job description indicates the tasks which a person working within a position must be able to perform. By contrast, a job specification indicates the personal requirements judged necessary for someone to successfully complete the tasks required by a position. Orientation: The process of providing basic information about the hospitality operation which must be known by all employees in every department. Positive discipline : Supervision activities designed to reinforce desired performance. Negative Discipline : Supervision activities designed to correct undesired performance.

ALTERNATIVE LEADERSHIP STYLES Leadership style Bureaucratic Example of Leadership Approach Do it by the book Useful When standardized work (accounting, for example) must be done

Democratic

Let·s figure it out together

For experienced and motivated employees

Laissez-faire Dictator (Autocratic)

You figure it out Do it my way !

For consultants and subcontractors for new employees doing relatively simple tasks

STEPS IN THE CONTROL PROCESS Steps Step 1 Standards must be established Example The restaurant·s operating budget establishes a 35.5% food cost goal.

Step 2 Actual performance must be measured

The income statement indicates that the actual food cost is 39.3%

Step 3 Variance between standards and actual performance must be assessed

The variance of 3.8% (39.3 ² 35.5%)is unexplainable and excessive.

Step 4 Corrective actions to address variances between standards and actual performance must be implemented

Decision-making (problem-solving) techniques are used to generate / select solution alternatives. Two tactics (improved purchasing and use of portion control procedures ) are implemented.

Step 5 Corrective actions must be evaluated to assure success

37.8% ; a step towards the 35.5% goal has been taken ; further corrective actions will be planned and implemented.

BASIC PLANNING TOOLS Planning tool Vision Example Vision: to be the restaurant of choice for social groups in the community

Mission

Mission statement: to meet needs of social groups by providing desired food/beverages and services at the prices which represent value for the guests.

Long-Range Plan

Long-Range Plan : to obtain 60% of all social group business in the community within five years.

Business Plan

Business Plan: to increase market share of all social group business in the community by 5% within the next 12 months.

Marketing Plan

Operating Budget

Marketing plan : Strategies and tactics to increase social group revenues within the next 12 months.

Operating Budget : Expected revenue generated from and costs associated with social group business.

CHAPTER 2 THE RESTAURANT MANAGER AND SANITATION When you buy an automobile, you expect it to get you ´from here to thereµ safely and without breakdown or other incident. As the purchaser, you have little or no concern about the challenges confronted by the manufacturer as the auto was designed, assembled, inspected, and shipped to the point of sale (auto dealer). In much the same way guests visiting your restaurant purchase a meal and expect it to be safe to eat and pleasant tasting (among other expectations). They, in turn, may have no concern for the challenges the restaurant manager faces as products are purchased stored, issued, produced, and served. Instead, they want to enjoy their meal and they have, literally, put their health and well-being into the hands of the manager and his/her staff. This chapter will explore what goes on ´behind the scenesµ to help assure that food is safe for human consumption. We·ll begin by explaining an obvious point that a concern for sanitation is critical. What is the best way to manage sanitation in a restaurant? The answer is to know and implement a system of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP). We will review this system and illustrate how it can provide a practical approach to anticipating and preventing sanitation/related problems before they occur. SANITATION IS CRITICAL Restaurant managers have many responsibilities. They must, for example, meet budget goals to satisfy their own boss and undertake ongoing marketing efforts to discover what their guests want and need. Then they must work to ´deliverµ product s/services that consistently meet previously determined quality and quantity standards. However, no responsibility is more important than the manager·s obligation to protect the health and well-being of the guests and staff members who consume the products which the restaurant serves. FOODBORNE ILLNESS: A sickness caused by consuming food which has been contaminated by microorganisms, chemicals, or physical hazards.

Restaurants known to have continual sanitation-related problems can never be successful. Those with even occasional problems will likely suffer reduced guest counts and lost revenues for many months or longer if serious problems become known to the public. ADULTERATED FOOD : Food that is unfit for human consumption because it contains filth, is decomposed or produced under unsanitary conditions, contains poisons or harmful substances, or is otherwise unfit to eat. MISBRANDED FOOD: Food that is packaged wit h false and/or misleading information on its label. INSPECTION (FOOD): Activities including the inspection of animals slaughtering conditions and meat processing facilities to assure that food being produced is fit for human consumption. WHOLESOME (FOOD): Food which is suitable for human consumption. GRADING (FOOD PRODUCTS): An assessment of foods relative to pre-established quality standards; grading is optional for all food products. RESTAURANT MANAGER Several sanitation concerns that directly involve the restaurant manager include: recognizing that sanitation / related problems pose an ever-present danger : The manager must have an attitude of concern (Problems can occur at my restaurant) learning about basic sanitation principles and practices training and supervising employees provide proper tools and equipment : Employees cannot, for example, monitor food temperatures while products are being held before service if accurate thermometers are not available. Likewise, poorly monitored refrigeration equipment or inadequate capacities of existing refrigerator units create problems caused by the manager not by the staff members

FOOD SERVICE ESTABLISHMENT INSPECTION SCORE WORKSHEET ADMINISTRATION FOOD TEMPERATURE FOOD SOURCE FOOD PROTECTION FACILITY DESIGN AND OTHER CRITICAL ITEMS PERSONAL HYGIENE AND OTHER FOOD PROTECTION

How can restaurant employees show their concern about sanitation? consistently handle food in ways that incorporate basic sanitation concern

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recognize and practice appropriate personal hygiene standards : a person·s ongoing health practices should include daily bathing, wearing clean clothes, and washing hands as necessary poor personal habits can create serious hazards, examples of inappropriate on-job behavior include: y smoking / eating and chewing gum (unless on a break away from food) y wearing jewelry such as rings, bracelets, and watches. (microorganisms on these items can contaminate foods when the jewelry comes in contact with foods) y Drinking water, coffee, or other beverages (except in a covered container that is handled in a way to prevent contamination of the foods / work surfaces with which it comes in contact)

An employee·s personal health can be a serious concern, for example, when a staff member reports to work with colds, intestinal illnesses, infected cuts on his / her hands, face, or arms. Staff members can infect food by sneezing or coughing on food or when blood fluid or pus comes in contact with food. Staff members who have been diagnosed with illnesses caused by specific microorganisms (salmonella, typhus, shigella spp and certain types of E.coli and hepatitis ) can be especially dangerous when working arou nd food. MICROORGANISMS: MICROORGANISMS : Living forms of life that are too small to be seen without magnification; also called microbes. Fortunately, most microorganisms are not harmful to humans. In fact, many are beneficial to us. Microorganisms are involved in the production of foods (for example, yogurt and beer), as an ingredient in some medicines, and even help clean up oil leaks in the ocean; others help synthesize nutrients in our bodies. Fortunately, relatively small but potentially very dangerous number of microorganisms are pathogens, which are harmful to humans. PROPER AND FREQUENT HANDWASHING IS CRITICAL Effective hand-washing procedures can do much to reduce the possibility of foodborne illness because organisms are frequently transfer red to food from the hands of employees who handle the food. Examples of times when hands should be washed include:
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before reporting to work after using the restroom after taking a break before beginning food preparation after touching any part of the body after sneezing, coughing, eating, drinking, smoking, or using a handkerchief / tissue after performing any task that might contaminate hands, such as cleaning tables or floors, handling clearing supplies, picking up items from the floor, and taking out the garbage

Some food handlers mistakenly believe that using plastic gloves eliminates the potential to spread microorganisms. In fact, plastic gloves are effective only until the first time they come in contact with soil or microorganisms. For example , they are ´cleanµ when first

worn. However, after an employee handles money, ties his / her shoes or scratches his / her face, they are just as contaminated as would be skin on an uncovered hand. Note: many persons have allergies to latex, which is used in the manufacturing of many plastic gloves. You should consider purchasing latex-free gloves for your restaurant if these items will be used.

THE ´RECIPEµ FOR EFFECTIVE HAND -WASHING Step 1 ² wet hand with hot running water Step 2 ² apply soap Step 3 ² lather soap by rubbing between hands (20 seconds minimum) Step 4 ² use a brush to clean under fingernails and between fingers Step 5 ² rinse hand thoroughly under hot running water Step 6 ² dry hand with a clean paper towel or hand dryer Step 7 ² if possible, turn off water faucet with paper towel PATHOGENS: Microorganisms that are capable of causing disease, often called ´germsµ CONDITIONS FOR OPTIMAL GROWTH Microorganisms are living forms of life, and like humans , they require certain conditions to remain alive. These include:
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moisture: moisture in a usable form must available for growth and reproduction. Consider, for example, the moisture available in fresh meats and poultry upon which microorganisms thrive. By contrast, think about moisture in frozen meats and poultry, which is not usable to them, and which, therefore reduces (prevents) their growth while in frozen product. Note: Freezing products does not kill organisms in the food being frozen; rather, it only prevents the organisms from growing and reproducing while the food is frozen. Oxygen: some (aerobic) organisms require oxygen. Others (anaerobic) cannot survive if oxygen is present. Still others (facultative anaerobic) bacteria can grow regardless of whether oxygen is available. Organisms that cause foodborne illnesses are of all three types. Time: Microorganisms can grow and reproduce quickly. Temperature: Some (psychrophilic) bacteria grow best at cold temperatures ( 0 ² 21 degree C). Others (mesophilic) bacteria grow best at temperatures around that of the human body (37 degree C). Still other (thermophilic) microorganisms grow best at temperatures above (43 degree C). Organisms that cause foodborne illnesses grow best at a temperature range of (5- 60 degree C). Acidity

y

Food: most organisms like protein-rich foods, such as meats, poultry, and seafood, for example, and those that are high in protein such as casserole dishes containing these item, and beans, potatoes, and rice.

AEROBIX MICROORGANISMS: Microorganisms r equiring oxygen to live. ANAEROBIC MICROORGANISMS: Microorganisms that can live only when oxygen is not present. FACULTATIVE ANAEROBIC MICROORGANISMS: Microorganisms that can live with or without oxygen present PSYCHROPHILIC BACTERIA : Those which grow best at cold temperatures MESAPHILIC BACTERIA : Those which grow best at temperatures around that of the human body THERMOPHILIC BACTERIA: Those which grow best at temperatures above (43 degree C). CONTROLLING GROWTH OF MICROORGANISMS You have just learned that microorganisms causing foodborne illness require six elements for optimal growth and reproduction:
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Moisture Oxygen Time Temperature Acidity Food

Of these, three are the most important: time, food and temperature. Let·s look at these three factors more carefully;
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minimize time : food-handling procedures must minimize the time that microorganisms have to grow and reproduce. Many experts suggest that this time should be limited to four hours or less. Potentially hazardous foods: While all foods are potentially hazardous, you have learned that those high in protein content are among the most potentially hazardous. Temperature danger zone: As you learned in the previous section, the temperature range of most potential concern for foodborne illness is (5 to 57 degree C). --------------------------

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MICROORGANISMS AND FOODBORNE ILLNESSES Food can become contaminated by microorganisms in one of two ways:
y y y

The presence of microorganisms: food infections The presence of toxins (poisons) in the food : food poisonings NOT ALL FOODBORNE ILLNESSES ARE FOOD POISONINGS

FOOD INFECTION: A foodborne illness caused by the presence of microorganisms in food FOOD POISONING: A foodborne illness cau sed by the presence of poisons (toxins) in the food which are produced by microorganisms SOME COMMON FOODBORNE ILLNESS Bacterial Intoxications (Poisonings)
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clostridium botulinum clostridium perfringens streptococcus aureus bacillus cereus

Bacterial Infections
y y y y y y

salmonella Spp shigella vibrio Spp Escherichia coli Listeria monocytogenes Campylobacter jejuni

Viral Infections
y y

Norwalk virus Hepatitis A

HOW CAN YOU TELL IF FOOD IS CONTAMINATED ? Some foods that are safe to eat may smell, can be cloudy, or might even feel somewhat slimy (as in the case of fish or meat), other foods, by contrast, that are not safe to consume may have no unusual smell, look, or feel. Most contaminated food does not have an unusual taste (if it did, guests eating it would eat only the first bite rather than the entire meal). Some contaminated foods do not even contain living microorganisms, For example, food containing organisms causing food intoxications can be cooked to high temperature for a sufficient period of time to destroy the microorganisms in the food. Unfortunately, however, the toxins they produced while living may remain harmful because the poison is not ´killedµ or inactivated by heat. The answer to the question above (how can you tell if food is contaminated?) is s imply. ´You cannotµ. Since restaurant managers do not have access to sophisticated testing methods required to detect the presence of microorganisms and / or their toxins, it becomes necessary to focus their efforts on preventing rather than on detecti ng contaminated food.

TACTICS TO PREVENT FOODBORNE ILLNESS Purchasing Receiving Storing

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Production After Production Handling Managing leftovers Clean Up

PUCHASING Refrigerated / frozen products need to be maintained within appropriate temperature ranges during transport from the supplier·s facility to the restaurant RECEIVING Refrigerated foods must be at a temperature below 5 degree C; frozen food must be at a temperature below 17.8 degree C. Fruits and vegetables may be visibly inspected for decay , mold growth or other deterioration. Canned items can be randomly checked for bulges and dents along side seams and rims. STORING Proper storage temperatures are:
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Refrigerated storage 5 degree C or below Frozen food storage ²17.8 degree C or below Dry storage foods 10 ² 21.1 degree C

Food should be stored away from walls and at least six inches off the floors to allow for air circulation and for proper cleaning. Raw food products should be stored beneath cooked / ready-to-eat foods. Items should not be stored under water/sewer lines located overhead that can be a source of contamination. Foods should never be stored near sanitizing, cleaning, or other chemicals. If practical, chemicals should be stored in a different room to reduce still further misidentification and related problem. PRODUCTION Frozen foods should not be thawed at room temperature or left in a sink full of water overnight. There are three appropriate methods for thawing frozen foods: thaw in the refrigerator, thaw as part of the cooking process thaw in a sink with cold running water

Foods in production should be kept at room temperature for a minimal amount of time. A common practice of removing all items to be produced at the beginning of a shift for production during the shift is not a good one. Utensils such as knifes and cutting boards and the work counters upon which they are used should be properly cleaned between food preparation tasks to prevent cross-contamination. AFTER-PRODUCTION HANDLING Some items such as proportioned steaks are served to guests immediately after production and the time within the temperature danger zone is minimal. However, other items such as casserole dishes and sauces may be held for extensive time periods before service. When this occurs, it is necessary to consistently assure that the product is held above 57 degree C until it is served to guests. Some restaurants provide self-service salad bars and / or hot food counters and allow guests to help themselves to these or other items. It is just as important to keep food

being held in public areas at temperatures of 57 degree C or higher or at 5 degree C or below as it is for foods held in nonpublic areas of the kitchen. Sneeze Guard (Food services) : A see-through sold barrier used to protect foods in selfservice counter and other areas from guests who might otherwise cough or sneeze onto food.

MANAGING LEFTOVER Accurate food production estimates will minimize the amount of leftovers that remain at the end of guest service. However, foods which do remain to be used at an other time must be quickly brought to a temperature below 5 degree C. Tactics to do this include storing items in shallow containers, using ice baths, and frequently stirring products in containers ( to relocate the warmer center-of-container product to the sides, bottom, and top of the container to speed up heat dispersion). It is generally best to not freeze leftovers for late used; microorganisms can grow and reproduce during the product·s cool down period, will not die after the product is frozen. (They will just be inactivated ), and the organisms will continue to grow during the initial time that the product is being thawed. CLEAN-UP Final tactics in the process to prevent foodborne illness relate to clean-up activities for tableware and pots/pans along with furniture, fixtures, and equipment. Tableware and Pots / Pans Numerous activities are necessary after products have been produced and served to guests. These include readying tableservice items and pots / pans for future use. Let·s define two terms: Cleaning and sanitizing. Cleaning involves removing soil and residues of food from items being cleaned. By contrast, sanitizing involves eliminatin g disease-causing microorganisms that remain after cleaning. Cleaning (foodservices) : The removal of soil and residues of food from the items being cleaned. Sanitizing (Foodservices) : The elimination of disease-causing microorganisms that remain after cleaning. After items have been cleaned they can then be sterilized by one of two methods:
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Use of heat (typically 82.2 degree C) in mechanical dish or pot / pan washers and (73.9 degree C) in manual wash sinks Chemicals such as chlorine or quaternary ammonium compound-based chemicals in specified concentrations

Dish and pot / pan washing machines range from single rack units to conveyor -type machines through which items to be washed can be continually fed. These machines have controlled wash, rinse and sanitizing cycles of specified water temperatures and durations. By contrast, manual dish wash and pot / pan washing sinks require at least three separate sinks for these purposes. Most manual washing systems are designed to perform required tasks in a left-to-right sequence.

Items to be washed can be placed on the soiled dish counter and can then be scraped and rinsed before being placed in the wash sink. After cleaning with the proper detergent in the proper concentration, items are then placed in the rinse sink and finally, in the sanitizing sink. They are then removed to the clean counter where they can drain and air dry before being or reused. Another sanitation precaution: don·t towel-dry. This principle becomes easier to implement when the clean counter is of sufficient size (length) to hold the number of items (racks) being washed at one time. Drawing of Manual Dish and Pot / Pan Washing Sink 1 2 3 4 5

Soiled dish(pot/pan) counter with disposer in trough and overhead spray/rinse attachment Wash sink Rinse sink

Sanitized sink

Clean dish (pot/pan) counter

Note: For illustration purposes only; not do drawn to scale Furniture, Fixtures, and Equipment Equipment including that used for food production and service must be cleaned according to the manufacturer·s instructions. Basic tactics include using a clean cloth, brush, or scouring pad and warm soapy water. Clean from the top-to-bottom (or from one side to another) and then rinse with fresh water and a clean cloth. An approved chemical sanitizing solution can be swabbed or sprayed onto food-contact service, and areas should be allowed to air dry before further use. Hand-washing facilities must be conveniently located and continuall y stocked with liquid or powered soap. OTHER SANITATION ISSUES Chemical Hazards Food can also be contaminated by chemicals. Toxins can be found in shellfish and mushrooms. Examples of manmade chemicals that cause foodborne illnesses. Some colorings in fruits and vegetables such as maraschino cherries may also cause illnesses/allergies. Pesticides are applied to many fruits and vegetables to protect them before harvest. Residues may remain on these products when they reach the restaurant and proper washing is a ´mustµ.

Other chemicals including those used for facility and equipment cleaning and sanitizing sometimes get into /onto foods and can cause serious illness and even death. Storing cleaning items away from food products carefully labeling of items and using them according to the manufacturer·s instructions are among tactics to minimize risks from using these items. Chemical poisonings can also occur if foods are stored / processed in inappropriate containers, such as those made from cadmium or galvanized metals. Physical Hazards Foods can be contaminated with physical hazards which can cause illness, injury and sometimes death. Physical hazards (foods): Foreign objects in food such as glassware and metal shavings that can cause illness and injury if they are consumed. Examples of physical hazards include glass fragments (from glassware broken around food and / or in food preparation areas), metal shavings (from can openers), wood splinters (from toothpicks / skewers used in food production), human hair labels from food containers and stones or rocks which may be found in bags of rice, beans, and other grains. Food handlers must process foods safely, carefully inspect products being produced, and should not wear unnecessary jewelry which can be ´lostµ in food while it is being produced. Pest Control Hazards Pests including rats, mice flies, and cockroaches, carry disease -causing bacteria and can cause food contamination as they move about food preparation areas and onto food ingredients. They to reducing problems caused by pests involves prevention. Finally it is important to use a pest control program to eliminate those that have entered the restaurant. Food should be stored properly and garbage should be promptly removed from food preparation areas and should be kept covered until removal on a regularlyscheduled basis. All areas of the restaurant should be regularly cleaned and tight -fitting screens, doors, and / or air curtains can help prevent the entry of flying insects. Proper housekee ping procedures can reduce problems of cockroaches, rats and mice infestation. Cracks small holes, and other areas where these pests can enter must be discovered and concealed. Incoming foods / supplies should be checked at time of receiving for signs of infestation as should the restaurant·s own storage areas. An integrated pest management program (IPMP) is recommended which involves a five step effort of:
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Inspection Identification Sanitation Application of pest management control procedures Evaluation of effectiveness with follow-up inspections

HACCP and THE MANAGEMENT OF SANITATION HACCP ( Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points ): A practical system using proper foodhandling procedures along with monitoring and record keeping to help assure that food is safe for consumption. Procedures specified in the HACCP program were initially developed for the US space program to protect astronauts who on their flights into outer space, would lack medical assistance desired in case of a foodborne illnes s. The system was later adapted by food manufacturers who produced large quantities of food for distribution around the country and the world. Many restaurant organizations have now adapted the system. HACCP emphasis is on anticipating and correctin g potential food safety problems before they occur rather than on taking corrective actions after a problem arises. The HACCP system incorporates the basics of microbiology (the study of factors which help promote growth of microorganisms) and proper food handling procedures which incorporate these ´basicsµ into an on-going management and control system. STEPS IN THE HACCP SYSTEM 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Assess Hazards Identify critical control points (CCP·s) Define limits for each CCP Monitor CCP·s Implement corrective actions when critical limits are exceeded Establish record keeping system Verify success of HACCP System

Hazard (food contamination): Microorganisms, chemicals and physical objects which can contaminate a food product. Critical Control Points ( CCP ): Something that can be done in the movement of food from the times of receiving to service which will help prevent eliminate, or reduce hazards to persons consuming the food. Critical control points are steps or procedures in the food handling process whic h are used to control :
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Time Temperature Product acidity Receiving procedures relating to products including ready -to-eat foods if a subsequent step in production will not prevent a hazard.

Examples of CCP·s include cooking, cooling, reheating, and holding hot and cold products at the temperature which recognize the importance of the danger zone ( 5 to 60 degree C). Of these, cooking and reheating relate to efforts to destroy harmful microorganisms. The remaining three (cooling, hot food holding and cold food holding) involve efforts to prevent or, at least to slow the rate of bacterial growth. Fresh seafood and frozen ground beef become special concerns during the preparing step. They are potentially hazardous foods and are treated carefull y by production personnel trained to handle these products. Note: In this restaurant, frozen ground beef is thawed as part of the storage (refrigeration) process, and procedures are in place to assure that thawing is done properly.

Concerns about fresh seafood during the preparing step include minimizing the time that the product is at room temperature during cleaning and portioning. It is held in a refrigerated unit in the work station until it is prepared for immediate service. Ground beef is removed from the refrigerator after thawing at the time it is to be added to the casserole dish. The casserole is baked and is then held at a temperature above 57 degree C until service. Any product that remains at the end of the meal period is not reused. When reviewing the holding step, you will note that fresh seafood is not a critical control point. Why ? In this property, it is not held ! Fresh seafood fillets are only purchased for use as an entre, and they are prepared to order for immediate service. By contrast, frozen ground beef is an ingredient in a casserole dish, which is made using a batch-cooking process after which proper holding temperatures are required.

Batch cooking: The preparation of food needed in large quantities in small volumes (batches) rather than all-at-once to maximize food quality by reducing holding times until service. Critical limit ( HACCP Program ): Boundaries (maximum/minimum limits) which define the extent to which a critical control point must be controlled to minimize risks of food borne illness. Casserole dishes containing the ground beef will need to be held at a temperature above 57 degree C until service as measured at frequent intervals by an accurate thermometer. A cook on the serving line may check the internal temperature of a casserole dish every fifteen minutes. Holding temperature of a potentially hazardous food is below 60 degree C. MANAGING FOODBORNE ILLNESS INCIDENTS Let·s review the restaurant·s interaction with the guest(s):
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Obtain information about the complainers (complainants) and the restaurant visit in question: gather information such as the complainants· name, address, and telephone number and the date and time of the visit to the restaurant. Determine all possible information about the incident: what occurred ? what exactly was consumed ? What were the symptoms that suggest it might be food borne illness ? how long after visiting the restaurant did the illness symptoms occur? Were there other persons in your party ? did they become ill ? (i f a physician has not been contacted, urge the guest to do so). Did you take leftovers home ? did you eat any other food between the time of your visit and the outbreak of the illness ? our list of questions can continue; our point is the need to determine all possible information relative to the alleged incident. Maintain records. Make careful notes of all conversations with the guests including the time of the conversations.

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