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Visual Impairment Awareness

SNFWB

Programme
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Introduction and Quiz


Anatomy of the eye: Common eye conditions that
challenge functional vision
Accessibility: the physical environment
Activities of daily living, problems solutions and
emotional responses
Communications Exercise
Sighted Guide AwarenessTraining
Accessibility and information: how to ensure
information is accessible for people with a visual
impairment
Summary.
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Aims
This training course is about visual
impairment. The aims of the course are to
give participants a better understanding of
the issues affecting people with a visual
impairment. It also covers challenges and
solutions for those who are learning to
provide effective assistance. It is designed
to improve inclusive practice and suggest
solutions to make life better for everybody.
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Learning outcomes for the morning


session
Participants will be able to:
List at least three eye conditions and explain how they
could affect functional vision using handouts
List 3 factors which make for an inclusive environment
using handouts
Experience six tasks of daily living under simulation
Discuss and give details of any difficulties
experienced and emotional reactions to the simulation
List at least 4 aids to daily living and their uses, using
handouts provided.
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Structure of the Eye


The Structure of the Eye
Retina

Iris
Fovea

Aqueous

Macula
Cornea

Optic Disk
Optic
Nerves

Pupil
Lens

Choroid
Sclera

Functions of Vision

Focus : the lens of the eye brings the image into focus at the back
of the eye much like the lens of a camera
Movement: Eye movement is controlled by muscles around the eye
visual acuity: This term refers to the ability to see fine detail
visual field: This is the area your vision covers, normally about 180
degrees
stereoscopic vision: The ability to see with both eyes allows
judgments to be made about distance
colour vision: The ability to distinguish different colours
contrast sensitivity: Black on a white background provides good
contrast. Some people need better contrast than others to assist
with vision
light sensitivity: the pupil expands and contracts to allow light into
the eye, this can be painful for some people.
visual perception: the ability of the brain to make sense of visual
information.
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How do we See?
Tricks we can do

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Eye Conditions
Macular degeneration: Loss of central vision
affects ability to see fine detail
Glaucoma: Loss of peripheral vision, opacity,
can affect fine detail
Diabetic retinopathy: Causes patchy vision
Nystagmus: Difficulty in focusing
Retinitis Pigmentosa: Loss of peripheral vision,
night blindness
Cataracts: Reduced detail vision
Neurological Vision Loss: causes loss of
visual field in both eyes.
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Visual Acuity 1

Loss of detail Vision: Here we see the same scene


from the point of view of someone with perfect vision
and someone with a loss of visual acuity. Consider
how bright light or glare, and changing lighting levels
might affect someone with this type of sight loss. This
type of loss might be caused by cataracts.

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Visual Acuity 2

Here is an everyday object seen from different


perspectives with different degrees of visual acuity.
Notice how colour and contrast is important in
deciphering the nature of the object

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Visual Acuity 3
What is helpful in this picture for people with
a visual impairment?

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Field Loss 1

Here is a street scene viewed at different times of the


day, the picture on the right shows a peripheral field
loss. Consider the difficulties that this might cause. This
type of field loss might be a result of Retinitis
Pigmentosa and could lead to night blindness

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Field Loss 2

Road Crossing with a severe sight loss. In this


example we can see how difficult mobility can
be with a severe tunnel vision.
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Field Loss 3

In this picture we see how central field loss can affect vision. As
central vision is also responsible for clear vision, we can see how
this type of loss affects acuity, causing problems with recognition
of faces and reading. This type of visual loss can be a result of
macular degeneration.
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Field Loss 4

Here we see two pictures illustrating retinal scarring, with patchy


vision, which can result from diabetic retinopathy or retinal
damage.

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Field Loss 5 ( set of 4)

Here we see a loss of half the visual field in each eye, in the
following slides we can see some of the effects of this.

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Access to the Physical


Environment
Exercise 1. Discussion topic. Split into four groups.
What factors might affect vision and someones ability to
get around.
Exercise 2. In your groups look at the pictures and
identify any helpful and unhelpful features for someone
with a sight loss. Where there are unhelpful features
what improvements could be made?
Exercise 3. In your groups consider your own workplace
and identify 3 features that could be improved and three
positive design features for each place of work.
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Factors affecting accessibility and


vision

Quality and fluctuation of light and lighting


Reflected light and glare
Audible information
Tactile information
Contrast and design
Weather
Eye condition and functional vision
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Access 1
Consider any difficulties that someone with a visual
impairment might experience with this situation.
How could it be improved? Are there any good
design features here?

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Access and Design 1

Signage board easier to read at eye level


Lettering should contrast with background
Tactile lettering and Braille are accessible
A non reflective surface eliminates glare
Shaded patterns make the lettering
difficult to read. Place sign where there is
no shade.
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Access 2
Consider any difficulties that someone with a visual
impairment might experience with this situation.
How could it be improved? Are there any good
design features here?

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Access and Design 2


Clear line of travel
Well maintained pavement
Low bollards on left of pavement are a trip
hazard as contrast is poor good contrast
is necessary
Parked vehicles to left of bollard are a
hazard for visually impaired people
Parking policies need to be enforced
Pavement parking is always a problem
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Access 3
Consider any difficulties that someone with a visual
impairment might experience with this situation.
How could it be improved? Are there any good
design features here?

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Access and Design 3


White contrast on risers generally a good point
Separate well lit flight of steps for people with a
visual impairment would be better
In this case steps lead to obstacle in shape of
ramp
Wheelchair ramp results in steps of uneven
height
No lighting for dark nights
Poor design a result of catch all policy designing
for two different disabilities
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Access 4
Consider any difficulties that someone with a visual
impairment might experience with this situation.
How could it be improved? Are there any good
design features here?

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Access and Design 4


Urinals should contrast with background
Hand drier should contrast with the
background
Contrasting blue wall provides an
indication of line of travel
White dcor could result in glare from
shiny surfaces use matt surfaces
whenever possible
Lighting is even with no patchy areas
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Access 5
Consider any difficulties that someone with a
visual impairment might experience with this
situation. How could it be improved? Are
there any good design features here?

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Access and Design 5


All wall mounted features contrast well
with the background and can be easily
picked out
Lighting is even and there are no
confusing shadows
Floor and walls are plain with no confusing
patterns
Good use made of window light with
frosted glass to minimise glare
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Access 6
Consider any difficulties that someone with a
visual impairment might experience with this
situation. How could it be improved? Are
there any good design features here?

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Access and Design 6


Good colour contrast between rail and
walls
Lighting designed for even coverage
Signage clear and well positioned
Vertical Blinds good for controlling daylight
Glass entrance door could cause confusing
patterns on carpet in bright sunlight
Tactile clues underfoot given by floor mats
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An Inclusive Environment

Evenly lit with good task lighting


Consistent well designed signage
Tactile surfaces incorporated
Indoors window light controlled by vertical blinds
Non reflective surfaces
Audible signage
Smooth well maintained surface to walk on
Clear unobstructed path
Use of colour contrast e.g. stair edges
Plain unpatterned design for surfaces
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Aids to Daily Living: Exercise


Working in groups of twos or threes take turns at
each of the following exercises under simulation:

Pouring liquids
Writing with a writing frame
Reading a newspaper with sim specs and magnifier
Filling in a questionnaire with sim specs
Telling the time using a small dial watch
Examining the table with aids and devices and
consider their possible functions

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Aids to Daily Living


Patience and understanding
Talking/audible devices clock, radio,
newspapers, books, rain alert, Liquid level
indicator etc
Tactile devices Writing Frame, Braille, Moon,
rotating cone, signature guide etc.
Magnifiers
High tech solutions: Computer Programmes,
Video Magnifier, Braille computer etc.
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Daily Living: Hints and Tips


Allow people plenty time as tasks of independent
living can take longer and require more care
be understanding: Loss model grieving for loss
of ability can be like a bereavement
Always take time to listen to the person
Encourage independence by allowing people to
do things for themselves, even if this does take
more time
Do not underestimate peoples abilities to do
things for themselves.
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Objectives/Learning Outcomes for


afternoon session
Participants will be able to:
Discuss and identify at least three practical
interventions which demonstrate good practice in
communications
Demonstrate the guiding grip and position, narrow
spaces, inward turn, doors, stairs and seating. These
are guiding techniques
List at least 3 Principles of good print design using
handouts
List at least three alternative formats for information
production
List two features of an accessible website.
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Communication Exercise
Discussion Exercise: The group should
discuss a controversial topic e.g.
1. Should blind children be placed in special
schools or integrated into mainstream
education?
2. Should elderly blind adults be placed in
care homes or remain in their own homes?
3. Do you think that there should be an extra
tax on blind people for healthcare?
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Communication Exercise
What was the volunteers experience of
this situation
What was the rest of the groups
experience of the situation
What made the situation difficult for
participants
What would make this situation easier for
all concerned
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Communications: Hints and Tips


Some people say they feel awkward about talking to a blind
or partially sighted person, however they do not really need
to if they remember a few simple things.
asking permission to record their sight loss on their records
(if appropriate) so that other staff can know is helpful
Announce that you are in the room and identify yourself and
any other person you are with to a person with a visual
impairment.
Say what you are doing, for example, coming to get
something.
Talk directly to the person - not through a companion.
Stand where you can be seen or let the person know where
you are. Try to avoid talking from behind the person.
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Communications: Hints and Tips


Speak distinctly to the person. You do not need to raise
your voice.
Always answer questions and be specific and descriptive in
your responses.
Say when you are leaving and where you are going if it is
appropriate, for example, going to the kitchen to get a cup
of tea.
If you offer assistance, wait until the offer is accepted. Then
listen to or ask for instructions.
Don't be afraid to ask questions when you're unsure of
what to do.
Relax. Don't be embarrassed if you happen to use
common expressions that seem to relate to a person's
disability. Such as "See you later" or "did you watch TV last
night?" These are commonly used expressions and rarely
cause offence.

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Sighted Guide Awareness


Sighted Guide is a form of communication
Verbal communication is central to good guiding
The guide should lead in almost all
circumstances
Being able to guide properly builds a trusting
relationship and is a positive contribution
Respect peoples wishes at all times unless they
are putting themselves or you in danger.
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Designing Printed Materials

Large Print 16 Point


San Serif Font e.g. arial
Matt surface no reflection
Uncluttered background
Good contrast between print and
background
Simple layout
Consider individual requirements
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Alternative Formats

Braille
Moon
Large Print
Audio
Electronic Format

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Learning outcomes for the morning


session
Participants will be able to:
List at least three eye conditions and explain how they
could affect functional vision using handouts
List 3 factors which make for an inclusive environment
using handouts
Experience six tasks of daily living under simulation
Discuss and give details of any difficulties
experienced and emotional reactions to the simulation
List at least 4 aids to daily living and their uses, using
handouts provided.
49

Objectives/Learning Outcomes for


afternoon session
Participants will be able to:
Discuss and identify at least three practical
interventions which demonstrate good practice in
communications
Demonstrate the guiding grip and position, narrow
spaces, inward turn, doors, stairs and seating. These
are guiding techniques
List at least 3 Principles of good print design using
handouts
List at least three alternative formats for information
production
List two features of an accessible website.
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