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Materials Selection & Corrosion Control for Surface Operating
Process Facilities

Document ID SP-2161

Document Type Specification

Security Restricted

Discipline Materials & Corrosion

Owner UEOC

Issue Date September 2014

Version 0

Keywords: This document is the property of Petroleum Development Oman, LLC. Neither the whole
nor any part of this document may be disclosed to others or reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
or transmitted in any form by any means (electronic, mechanical, reprographic recording or
otherwise) without prior written consent of the owner.

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Approval and Issue Record


Date

Description
(see Revision Record for
details)

Author
(name)

Approved
(name)

September-14

Original issue under PDO


SP-2161

Pedro Rincon
Steve Jones
Janardhan Saithala
Cheng Ai Khoo

Nasser Behlani

Issu
e No

Revision Record
Issue No
0

Description of Revision
Original Issue under PDO SP-2161

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Table of Contents
1

INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................................................... 6
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6

PURPOSE .............................................................................................................................. 6
SCOPE................................................................................................................................... 6
SPECIFICATION OWNERS RESPONSIBILITY............................................................................. 7
REVISION AND CHANGES TO THE DOCUMENT ....................................................................... 7
DEFINITION OF TERMS.......................................................................................................... 7
ABBREVIATIONS & ACRONYMS ........................................................................................... 8

HIERARCHY OF STANDARDS ........................................................................................................... 10

MATERIALS SELECTION PROCESS ................................................................................................ 11


3.1
3.2
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3

MATERIALS SELECTION METHODOLOGY ................................................................................. 14


4.1
4.2
4.3
4.3.1
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7

GENERAL ........................................................................................................................... 11
TECHNICAL INTEGRITY ASPECTS ........................................................................................ 11
Health safety and environment .......................................................................................... 11
Sustainable development ................................................................................................... 11
Philosophy ......................................................................................................................... 11

INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS FOR MATERIALS SELECTION STUDY.................................. 15


DELIVERABLES OF MATERIALS SELECTION IN VARIOUS PROJECT PHASES ........................... 17
FACTORS AFFECTING MATERIALS SELECTION .................................................................... 25
Information required and review of factors affecting materials selection ......................... 25
APPLICATION OF CARBON STEELS....................................................................................... 25
DEGRADATION MECHANISMS ............................................................................................. 25
ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF MATERIALS SELECTION ................................................................. 30
NON- OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS ............................................................................... 30

GENERAL MATERIALS DESCRIPTION AND SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS ........................... 31


5.1
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIFIC MATERIALS GROUP ............................................ 31
5.1.1
Sour service ....................................................................................................................... 31
Alloy UNS N0625 ....................................................................................................................................... 33
5.2
SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS.................................................................................................... 34
5.2.1
Metallurgically bonded clad plates ................................................................................... 34
5.2.2
Welding including clad and overlay equipment ................................................................ 34
5.3
PROTECTION AGAINST CATASTROPHIC FAILURE MECHANISMS ........................................... 34
5.3.1
Chloride stress corrosion cracking ................................................................................... 35
5.4
PROTECTION OF STAINLESS STEELS FOR CORROSION UNDER INSULATION (CUI) WITH
35
ALUMINIUM.
5.5
SEALING MATERIALS .......................................................................................................... 35
5.6
AMENDMENTS TO ISO 15156 ............................................................................................. 35

MATERIALS SELECTION BY EQUIPMENT SYSTEMS................................................................ 37


6.1
6.1.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.5.1
6.5.2
6.5.3
6.5.4
6.6
6.7
6.8

INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................. 37
General .............................................................................................................................. 37
VESSELS AND PIPING .......................................................................................................... 37
PIPING, FITTINGS VALVES AND OTHER COMPONENTS.......................................................... 40
SMALL BORE INSTRUMENT, HYDRAULIC AND CHEMICAL INJECTION TUBING ...................... 40
HEAT EXCHANGERS ............................................................................................................ 40
Shell-and-tube heat exchangers......................................................................................... 40
Plate coolers ...................................................................................................................... 42
Air cooled heat exchangers ............................................................................................... 43
Compact coolers (printed circuit heat exchangers)........................................................... 44
GLYCOL DEHYDRATION SYSTEM ........................................................................................ 44
FLARE & RELIEF SYSTEMS .................................................................................................. 44
ROTATING EQUIPMENT ....................................................................................................... 44
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A)

6.9
6.10
6.11
6.12
6.13
6.14
6.15
6.16
6.17
6.18
6.19
6.20

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COMPRESSORS FOR PDO SHALL BE DESIGNED FOR SOUR SERVICE. .................................... 44


PUMPS ................................................................................................................................ 44
BOLTING ............................................................................................................................ 45
ELASTOMER SEAL SELECTION ............................................................................................ 45
PIPELINES ........................................................................................................................... 45
DRY HYDROCARBON FLOW LINES: ..................................................................................... 47
FLOWLINES ........................................................................................................................ 47
WATER INJECTION FLOW LINES .......................................................................................... 49
FLEXIBLES .......................................................................................................................... 49
MULTI SELECTIVE VALVES (MSVS) ................................................................................ 49
UTILITIES ........................................................................................................................... 50
STEAM INJECTION SYSTEMS ............................................................................................... 50
ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY (EOR) ............................................................................ 50

MATERIALS SELECTION STUDY ROLES & RESPONSIBILITIES ............................................ 51

CONTENT OF MATERIALS SELECTION REPORTS .................................................................... 51


8.1
8.2
8.3

SELECT PHASE ................................................................................................................. 51


DEFINE PHASE ................................................................................................................. 51
EXECUTE PHASE ............................................................................................................. 52

CORROSION MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK ............................................................................... 52

APPENDIX A: BASIC INFORMATION REQUIRED AND FACTORS EFFECTING MATERIALS


SELECTION .................................................................................................................... 53
APPENDIX B: RISK ASSESSMENT ............................................................................................................. 56
APPENDIX C: CMF TEMPLATE .................................................................................................................. 58
APPENDIX D: FEED AND DETAILED DESIGN MSR MINIMUM STANDARD REQUIREMENTS
TEMPLATE..................................................................................................................... 59
APPENDIX E: TEMPLATE FOR REQUIRED PROCESS INFORMATION IN MATERIALS
SELECTION REPORT. ................................................................................................. 62
APPENDIX F: MATERIALS SELECTION DIAGRAMS (MSD) ............................................................... 63

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Introduction
1.1

Purpose

The document provides the requirements on the process of materials selection and corrosion control
for surface equipment that shall be used during project life cycle to ensure technically proven and
economically acceptable materials selection for PDO projects. This specification also addresses
some of the roles and responsibilities of projects, function, designers, contractors and vendors to
ensure materials are designed, manufactured, procured and constructed to meet Company specified
technical requirements within agreed delivery timeframe.
The objective of this document is to achieve designs where materials are selected to maximise the
likelihood of no loss of containment for the design life at lowest life cycle cost by:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Ensuring acceptable corrosion rate at lowest life cycle costs


Minimise corrosion by using resistant materials as the primary barrier
Design not to use chemical treatment as a barrier for on plot facilities
Design to ensure at least one primary barrier or two secondary barriers (e.g. CRA or
corrosion inhibitor and corrosion allowance)

Materials selection and corrosion control are elements of corrosion management, and this guideline
develops further clarification and interpretation of CP-208 Corrosion Management Code of Practice
and DCAF requirements.
This Specification is intended for use by Petroleum Development Oman LLC (PDO), its
Contactors/Subcontractors and Design Consultants and vendors for all PDO equipment and facilities.
This specification covers all surface equipment from the connecting flanges to the Christmas tree.

If you are reading a hard copy of this standard, you should consider it uncontrolled and refer
instead to the version currently on the PDO intranet live link or appropriate search database.

1.2

Scope

The scope of this specification is to cover the surface facility materials selection for different phases
of the project from identify to operate phase.
This specification shall be read in conjunction with other Company, Shell and International standards
such as DEP 39.01.10.11-Gen, 39.01.10.12-Gen and DEP.30.10.02.15 . This document provides
further requirements on other company specifications (SPs), Shell DEPs and MESC SPEs and
International Standards for materials selection process and requirements.
In case of any conflict between this specification and other standards, this specification shall take
precedence.
This standard defined the minimum Company requirements for selecting materials of construction
and corrosion control measures to support the corrosion management strategy for a facility within the
company. It addresses requirement for identifying and evaluating all applicable corrosion threats,
materials deterioration mechanisms, selecting optimum materials of construction, corrosion control
measures and appropriate corrosion monitoring measures and the data necessary to ensure the
requirements of this standard are effectively implemented.
This standard does not cover downhole materials selection requirements. For downhole materials
selection, refer to DEP 39.01.10.02-Gen, DEP 30.10.02.15-Gen and WS 38.80.31.31-Gen.

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1.3

Specification owners responsibility

The owner of this specification, UEOC, as CFDH Materials and Corrosion, is responsible for
authorising all proposed deviations or amendments to the specification and for the instigation of
periodic reviews and updates in accordance with Clauses 1.2 and 1.5.
The requirements of this specification shall remain in force indefinitely unless superseded by an
authorized revision.
The range of business areas and various life cycle stages of projects to which this standard applies
as below:
All PDO Development/Projects
Business Segment
Stage

1.4

Upstream
Identify

Assess

Select

Define

Execute

Operate

Revision and changes to the document

This specification will be reviewed and updated as and when required. The review authority will be
UEOC, (CFDH Materials and Corrosion).

1.5

Definition of Terms

Company

The term Company shall refer to Petroleum Development Oman L.L.C.

Contractor

The party which carries out all or part of the design, engineering,
procurement, construction, commissioning or management of a project, or
operation or maintenance of a facility.

Shall

The word 'shall' used throughout this specification indicates a Contract


requirement.

Should
UEOC
Sour Service

The word 'should' used throughout this specification indicates a


recommendation.
Technical Authority Level 1 (TA-1) for Materials, corrosion and integrity
discipline appointed by the Technical Director (TA0).
As stipulated in SP-2041

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1.6

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Abbreviations & Acronyms


Term

Definition

AC

Atmospheric Corrosion

ALARP

As Low As Reasonably Practicable

BfD

Basis for Design

CAPEX

Capital Expenditure

CE

Carbon Equivalent

CFDH

Corporate Function Discipline Head

CMF

Corrosion Management Framework

CORRAT

Shell proprietary corrosion modelling computer program for corrosion


rate: for calculating single point calculation corrosion rates (the most
basic option in HYDROCOR)

CP

Cathodic Protection

CRA

Corrosion Resistant Alloy

CS

Carbon Steel

CSCC

Chloride Stress Corrosion Cracking

CUI

Corrosion Under Insulation

DEP

Design Engineering practice

EFC

European Federation of Corrosion

FEED

Front End Engineering Design

FMEA

Failure Modes and Effects Analysis

GRP

Glass Reinforced Plastic (fibreglass). Also known as Fibre Reinforced


Plastic (FRP) (fibre reinforced plastic) or Glass Reinforced Epoxy
(GRE) (glass reinforced epoxy)

HE

Hydrogen Embrittlement

HEMP

Hazards and Effect Management Process

HIC

Hydrogen Induced Cracking. Also known as SWC

HRC

Rockwell Hardness

HSE

Health Safety Environments

HV

Vickers Hardness

HYDROCOR

Shell proprietary corrosion modelling Shell computer program for


calculating corrosion rates

HRC

Rockwell Hardness

MatHelp

Shell proprietary system for accessing materials and corrosion


information

MCI

Materials, Corrosion and Inspection

MDMT

Minimum Design Metal Temperature

NACE

National Association of Corrosion Engineers

OCTG

Oil Country Tubular Goods

OPEX

Operating Expenditure

OPMG

Opportunity and Project Management Guide

OR&A

Operations, Readiness & Assurance


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Term

Definition

PDO

Petroleum Development Oman

PFP

Passive Fire Protection

PTE

Principal Technical Expert

PWC

Preferential Weld Corrosion

RAM

Risk Assessment Matrix

S-RBI

Shell Risk Based Inspection (methodology)

SCC

Stress Corrosion Cracking

SLC

Service Life Corrosion - (total estimated wall thickness reduction of


carbon steel over the life of a project the equipment)

SME

Subject Matter Expert

SOHIC

Stress Oriented Hydrogen Induced Cracking

SSC

Sulphide Stress Cracking

SWC

Step Wise Cracking. Also known as HIC

TOL

Top Of Line

WPS

Welding Procedure Specification

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HIERARCHY OF STANDARDS
1.

2.

3.

PDO Standards

SP-2161 (2014): Materials Selection and Corrosion Control for Surface Operating
Process

SP-2041(2014): Selection of Cracking Resistant Materials for H2S-Containing


Environment

SP-1246: Specification for Painting and Coating of Oil and Gas Production Facilities

SP-2156 - Specification for use of non metallic materials in PDO

DEPs

DEP 39.01.10.11-Gen: Selection Of Materials for Life Cycle Performance


(Upstream Facilities) - Materials Selection Process

DEP 39.01.10.12-Gen: Selection of Materials for Life Cycle Performance (Upstream


Facilities) - Equipment

DEP 30.10.02.14-Gen: Carbon Steel Corrosion Engineering Manual for Upstream


Facilities

DEP 30.10.02.15-Gen: Materials for Use in H2S Containing Environment in Oil and
Gas Production (Amendments/Supplements to ISO 15156:2009)

International Standards

ISO 15156-1: Petroleum and natural gas industries-Materials for use in H2Scontaining environments in oil and gas production-Part 1: General principles for
selection of cracking-resistant materials

ISO 15156-2: Petroleum and natural gas industries-Materials for use in H2Scontaining environments in oil and gas production-Part 2: Cracking-resistant carbon
and low alloy steels, and the use of cast irons

ISO 15156-3: Petroleum and natural gas industries-Materials for use in H2Scontaining environments in oil and gas production-Part 3: Cracking-resistant CRAs
(corrosion-resistant alloys) and other alloys

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MATERIALS SELECTION PROCESS


3.1

General

Materials selection is primarily a process of short-listing technically acceptable materials for an


application and then selecting the technically viable option with lowest life cycle cost for the required
operational life, bearing in mind Health, Safety and Environmental aspects, Sustainable
Development, Technical Integrity and operational constraints. This is a multi-variable process, which
might require several iterations before an optimal solution can be obtained. Part of this process
should also be to assess which systems require materials optimisation and which can use standard
materials selection guidelines.
The materials selection process shall follow the Corrosion Management Framework (CMF) as
described in DEP. 39.01.10.11-Gen section 2.2.3.

3.2
3.2.1

Technical Integrity aspects

Health safety and environment

Materials selection shall be in accordance with the HSE Hazards and Effect Management Process
(HEMP). This process identifies and assesses HSE hazards, implements control and recovery
measures, and maintains a documented demonstration that major HSE risks have been reduced to a
level that is As Low as Reasonably Practicable (ALARP). This shall be done for the full lifecycle of
assets and operations and uses the Risk Assessment Matrix (RAM). For High Risk and/or Severity
hazards bow tie diagrams with links to relevant details should be used to demonstrate tolerability and
ALARP.

3.2.2

Sustainable development

Sustainable development principles shall be applied as part of the materials selection process.
During the past decade it has become clear that the availability of materials and the manufacturing
capacity for materials and products is rapidly becoming a major constraint on construction
capabilities and hence, on energy production and development. Therefore, it is important to use
materials that are readily available and in ways that facilitate standardisation. Thus, one of the
considerations should be to avoid mixing materials in such a way that they cannot be separated
easily as this downgrades their value and limits their availability in the longer term.

3.2.3

Philosophy

Materials selection shall be based on the project life cycle and Basis for Design (BfD) document as
defined in Section 4.1 of this standard.
Materials of construction shall be selected to achieve a balance of minimum CAPEX with reduced
operating costs (OPEX) to maximise project value and minimise risks. The CAPEX shall be the raw
material and fabrication/construction costs. The OPEX shall be the corrosion protection and
inspection/maintenance cost.
The materials selection process shall reflect the overall philosophy regarding design and operating
conditions, design life time, cost profile (CAPEX/OPEX), inspection and maintenance philosophy,
safety and environmental profile, failure risk evaluations, remnant life assessments of existing similar
equipment, lessons learnt via integrity studies, compliance with local and international regulations
and other specific project requirements.

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General Principles
A high level materials selection, aimed at identifying unusually high cost materials is carried out
during the project Select phase and feeds into the Level 1 (CAPEX and OPEX) cost estimate (+40
%/25 %). For main process stream items, initial materials selection is carried out in the Select phase
of a project. Materials selection for secondary process streams is usually carried out in the project
Define phase as part of the Front End Engineering Design (FEED). During the FEED, materials
selection may be optimised, with the approval of the Materials and corrosion Function, as more
information becomes available in order to reduce costs to a minimum in line with specific project
parameters and risk philosophy. At this stage, more refined judgements on corrosion rates, life
predictions and risk assessments shall be carried out to ensure that the proposed materials selection
will be fit for purpose. For long-lead and/or bulk items (e.g. Line pipe), key materials decisions should
be made as early as possible in the project, preferably during the Select phase, i.e., ahead of FEED.
If the new project will make use of and tie into existing installations, the materials in place and their
current condition should be ascertained in the Select phase. Operations personnel shall be included
in the project team or consulted for these types of developments.
Materials selection is a risk based decision making process with the aim of selecting materials that
give rise to major accident hazard risks that are tolerable and ALARP. The tools of materials
selection decision making and the means of assuring (calibrating) the decision are summarised in the
diagram from SP-2062. - HSE Specification: Specifications for HSE Cases:
Figure 1: Risk based decision making process

The materials selection philosophy should be one that will not require PDO values to be called upon,
i.e. acceptance can be achieved by no more than internal (including Shell) peer review. In practice,
the majority of materials selection decisions will be driven by reference to the GU-611 PDO codes of
practice, specifications, procedures and guidelines; that is to say, the standard materials selection
option described in this document.
The selection process is structured based on:
a) Standard materials selection
Guidance on the selection of technically proven and economically acceptable materials
selection for most equipment is given in Section 6 of this standard. Selection is based upon
the stated information on the environmental conditions for each system. Standard materials
selection is used to fill in the details for the systems that do not require materials optimisation.
Some optimisation may be required on some process systems, if conditions are encountered
that are not adequately covered in this standard, or if it is required to consider other materials
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choices, in the interest of potential cost savings. This will generally require justification based
on a life cycle cost analysis and a technical integrity verification.
For carbon steel applications, the process of corrosion control option selection, corrosion
control system availability and corrosion allowance selection shall follow the requirements of
DEP 30.10.02.14-Gen.
b) Experimental evaluation (specialist consultation)
Experimental work might be necessary to evaluate materials for specific applications. It shall
be carried out in accordance with the material testing methodology selected for the failure
modes anticipated. Where this is required to assess the suitability of the lowest cost option, it
should be carried out ahead of the Field Development Plan (FDP, in the project select phase).

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MATERIALS SELECTION METHODOLOGY

The standard materials selection process includes the following steps:a) Define the requirements and the environment
The intended design life of the proposed equipment shall be stated.
The internal and external environments for the equipment shall be defined, including any non routine or non-operational conditions that might be encountered. The variables characterising of
the corrosive environment shall be quantified for normal operating conditions and to some extent,
for unusual or upset conditions.
At this point, the operation has to be characterised, e.g., in terms of manning levels, access by
operators, capabilities of operators, in-house or contract operated, access to supplies, spare
parts availability, etc.
b) Assess the applicability of carbon steel and define possible corrosion control options
As an initial step in the materials selection process, the suitability of the potentially low cost
option involving the use of carbon steel should be thoroughly investigated and evaluated to serve
as a baseline against which to compare more corrosion resistant, and possibly more costly,
alternatives. Part of this process will involve the calculation of the Service Life Corrosion (SLC)
for the proposed operating conditions.
For the carbon steel option, possible corrosion control options to protect the steel from premature
failure should be investigated. These could include chemical corrosion control, coatings, cathodic
protection and control of process fluids, e.g., pH stabilization and dehydration. The results of
these studies could lead to a lower value of SLC being appropriate. This will often result in more
than one corrosion control option being taken forward for further consideration (e.g., carbon steel
with a corrosion allowance and inhibition system versus carbon steel with a (different) corrosion
allowance and a dehydration system). The availability of these solutions should be taken into
account. For example, it is notoriously difficult to achieve a consistently high availability of
corrosion inhibitors, so if this is considered, the training and organizational responsibilities should
be realized.
c) Make materials choices
Typical materials shall be selected with the aid of the guide tables for each type of equipment
(see Section 6 of this standard). While a material included is technically acceptable, it will not
necessarily be the most cost-effective choice. This will often lead to more than one technically
acceptable materials being taken forward for further consideration (e.g., carbon steel with a
corrosion allowance versus one or more alternative corrosion-resistant materials).
d) Develop corrosion management framework
See Section 9 of this standard.
e) Assess economics of choices
In the final analysis, selection of the corrosion control option (which includes materials selection)
is often an economic decision, assessing the total cost of each alternative over the total life of the
system, including quantification of the risks and uncertainties (life cycle cost). These include the
risk of failure of corrosion control, the economic impact of corrosion control, RBI, sand
management, inhibition and the possibility of market changes, whereby certain materials could
become more or less economic. Where the risk of failure of corrosion control is high, the
consequences should be taken into account, e.g., enhanced corrosion control measures, and
enhanced inspection and repair. These will be reflected in the economic consequence of failure,
as assessed in S-RBI. Operations personnel should be involved in the life cycle cost assessment
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to ensure all operating costs are considered. This work shall be completed as part of the
corrosion control options selection report and the materials selection report. It is the responsibility
of the project engineer to complete the life cycle costing. The Life cycle cost shall be completed
as per DEP.82.00.10.12-Gen Life cycle costing.

f) Maintain live documents


The Corrosion Management Manual, RBI Plan and Maintenance Reference Plan are live
documents for the lifetime of the facility. These shall be updated whenever there are (approved)
materials substitutions (e.g., during procurement and fabrication), changes to the corrosion
control system and changes to the operation and process, and as monitoring, inspection and
maintenance data are collected during the lifetime of the facility. Service company personnel
often carry out this type of data collection. Personnel involved shall be made aware of the
importance of this work.
The activities associated with the materials selection process can be represented by the flow chart
shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2: Standard materials selection process

Activity 1
Activity 2
Activity 3
Activity 4
Activity 5
Activity 6

4.1

Information Requirements for Materials Selection Study

SELECT Phase
It is expected that the initial inputs will come from the defined DCAF deliverables of the Assess phase
as per the PDO DCAF Description. The process may be initiated with this information and constantly
revisited as the inputs are further refined and the Select phase deliverables are matured ready for
Define. Materials, corrosion and Inspection (MCI) TA2 will define the required deliverables for each
project.
Activity 1: Define
requirements and environment

Production Profile possibly Hydrocarbon Production Forecast (DCAF


24 DCAF 1482)
Water Management Assessment (DCAF 18, GU-672 Assess and
Select)

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Activity 2: Determine threats


and barriers for carbon steel
and other materials (FMEA)
for all materials

Activity 3: Assess feasibility of


corrosion allowance and
corrosion control

Activity 4: Assess CRA and


non metallic options and rerun
threats and barriers

Activity 5: Identify gaps and


opportunities for qualification
testing
Activity 6: Make materials
choices and develop corrosion
management framework

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Operations & Maintenance Philosophy (DCAF 216 and 218)


Risk Management Plan & Risk Register (DCAF 84 DCAF 201)
Pipelines Flow & Flow Assurance Study (focus on scale and sand
management) Preliminary (DCAF 33 DCAF 110 Pipelines Flow &
Flow Assurance Strategy Reports)
Pipeline & Flowline System Conceptual Design Report (DCAF 117)
Heat & Materials Balance Report (DCAF 108)
Process Flow Schemes (DCAF 112)
Chemicals Requirement Report Preliminary (DCAF 1272)
Utility Flow Schemes (DCAF 1360)
Equipment Listing (DCAF 1496)
Section 4.5

SP-2041
DEP Specification 30.10.02.14-Gen
DEP Specification 30.10.02.31-Gen
If the operating conditions are beyond currently qualified corrosion
inhibitors, the likelihood of successfully qualifying an inhibitor may be
assessed using the NACE paper by A Crossland, et al.
Section 4.5 of this standard
SP-2041
DEP Specification 39.01.10.12-Gen (as amended by this document)
DEP Specification 30.10.02.15-Gen

Project Schedule Level 2 (DCAF 186)

Concept Selection Report (DCAF 99)


Equipment specifications (PDO and DEP)
Facility Status Reports/Current Status Reports (for brownfield projects
see CP 114)
DEP 31.38.01.84-Gen
DEP 30.10.02.11-Gen

DEFINE Phase

Activity 1 to 6

Basic design package (DCAF 235)


Chemical requirements Report (DCAF 250)
Operations and maintenance philosophy (DECAF 363)
Process flow scheme (PFS) (DCAF 242)
Process engineering flow scheme (DCAF 243)
Utilities flow scheme (UFS) (DCAF 1390)
Utilities engineering flow scheme (DCAF 1391)
Equipment listing (DCAF 1497)
Pipelines flow and flow assurance design and operability report.
(DCAF 248)
Operations and maintenance philosophy (DCAF 363)
Rotating equipment type selection report (DCAF 273)
Pipeline design report (DCAF 315)
Reliability, availability and maintainability report (DCAF 332)
Performance standards & assurance tasks for safety critical
elements/equipment (DCAF 384)
Maintenance and integrity strategy (DCAF 409)

Operations and maintenance philosophy (DCAF 49)


Chemical requirement reports (updated) DCAF 1224)
Heat and materials balance report final (DCAF 420)
Pipelines flow and flow assurance report final (DCAF 679)

EXECUTE Phase

Activity 6

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Process flow scheme (DCAF 1213)


Process engineering flow schemes (PEFS & P&IDs), (DCAF 1214)
Utility flow schemes (UFS) (DCAF 1435)
Utilities engineering flow schemes (UEFS/P&IDs), (DCAF 1449)
Equipment listing (DCAF 1498)
Vibration assessment report (DCAF 487)
Detailed HAZOP report (DCAF 449)
Asset Reference plan (DCAF 438)
Reliability, availability and maintainability report (DCAF 486)
Process control (DCAF 46)
Process control narrative (DCAF 683)
Line List

Assurance process (design conditions vs actual and future


operating conditions. Including IOW
Assessed corrosion rate

OPERATE Phase

Assurance

4.2

Deliverables of materials selection in various project phases

The following MCI deliverables and requirements shall be implemented for any project regardless of
the scope and value. These are as per PDO version of DCAF.
Table 1: Mandatory deliverables and requirements for Select phase from Materials Corrosion and
Inspection discipline
ORP
Phase

ID

Name

Accountable
Discipline

Description

Select

47

Erosion Management
Philosophy (DG3a)

Materials
Corrosion
Inspection

and

Select

60

Corrosion
Management
Philosophy (DG3a)

Materials
Corrosion
Inspection

and

SP-2161
DEP 39.01.10.11-Gen
DEP 39.01.10.12-Gen (MC CFDH)
Materials and Corrosion Engineer specifies
the acceptable velocity ranges for materials
of construction with respect to corrosion. The
Erosive velocity calculation is done by the
process engineers.
At this stage the overall philosophy should be
defined together with the integrity impact and
need to interface with other disciplines. The
detailed materials selection and details of
inspection techniques will be covered later in
the Preliminary Corrosion and Erosion
Management Manual in the define phase
(ID300).
Provide input on the materials limitation with
respect to erosion velocity. And input into
Preliminary
Corrosion
and
Erosion
Management Manual in the define phase
(ID300).
CP 208 - Corrosion Management Code of
Practice
Mandatory for all projects.
Recommendation
made
in
Corrosion
Management Strategy shall be embedded in
the Corrosion Management Philosophy
including inspection requirements.

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Petroleum Development Oman LLC

Select

210

Initial
Materials
Selection
Report
(including Corrosion
Management
Strategy) (DG3a)

Materials
Corrosion
Inspection

and

Revision: 0
Effective: September-2014

SP-2161
DEP 39.01.10.11-Gen
DEP 39.01.10.12-Gen (MC CFDH)
DEP 30.10.02.14-Gen
CP 208 - Corrosion Management Code of
Practice
Mandatory for all projects.
The
corrosion
management
strategy
including initial failure mode effect analysis
and the preliminary (high level) materials
selection reports are based on are based
information provided by the project that shall
include
the
required
minimum
information/deliverables as per DCAF for this
phase of the project (e.g. H&MB, etc.).This
should normally consist of referring to the
applicable standards and mention any
important choices that are made, e.g. carbon
steel + corrosion inhibition versus corrosion
resistant alloy. This also includes the
deliverable of materials threats analysis and
the erosion management philosophy.
Materials selection reports shall be prepared
by function (UEOC) for any project. The
report shall be peer reviewed and signed off
by at least two Materials and Corrosion
Engineer TA2s from the Function other than
the author of the report.
External peer review shall be completed for
projects above 1 bln

Table 2: Mandatory deliverables and requirements during the Define phase for Materials Corrosion
and Inspection discipline
ORP
Phase

ID

Name

Accountable
Discipline

Description

Define

64

MCI Failure Modes


and Effects Analysis
Report

Materials
Corrosion
Inspection

and

Define

297

Materials Selection
Report - updated

Materials
Corrosion
Inspection

and

SP-2161
DEP 39.01.10.11-Gen
DEP 39.01.10.12-Gen (MC CFDH)
Mandatory for all projects to be made part of
the materials selection report. The report
shall be endorsed and approved by Materials
and Corrosion Engineer TA2 from Function.
This is an FMEA of the corrosion control
systems; for each mode of operation and
corrosion risks, analysis looks at the barriers
and monitoring that need to be in place.
SP-2161
DEP 39.01.10.11-Gen
DEP 39.01.10.12-Gen (MC CFDH)
Mandatory for all projects
Based on the preliminary report (ID 210), this
report shall include detailed assessment to
ensure the agreed materials selection for all
aspects of the projects is properly
documented independently from the Select
phase report based on the updated design
basis.
The updated Materials selection shall be peer
reviewed by PDO Materials and Corrosion
Engineer TA2 other than the author of the
report and Materials and Corrosion Engineer
TA2 from Function. The final endorsement
and approval shall be by Materials and
Corrosion Engineer TA2 from Function.

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Define

298

Corrosion Inhibition
System Design &
Test Proposal

Materials
Corrosion
Inspection

and

Revision: 0
Effective: September-2014

For projects more than 100 mln USD or for


new field development including EOR/severe
sour environments, the Materials selection
reports shall be endorsed and approved by
Materials and Corrosion Engineer TA1.
For projects 1 billion and above, materials
selection shall be endorsed by DRB1.
This is one of Materials, Corrosion &
Inspection key deliverables which requires
interaction
with
many
disciplines.
Presentations to key disciplines are
recommended to ensure everyone is aware
of the choices and implications. The
consequence of materials selection must be
understood / agreed by the Operator.
Philosophy
should
be presented to
Operations representative and if necessary to
the Operators Management to ensure all
consequences are understood / agreed. The
control also includes deliverable of pipeline
preservation / transportation / storage and
etc.
Long lead items finalized at FEED stage shall
be endorsed and approved by Materials and
Corrosion Engineer TA2 from Function.
Materials selection report shall be aligned
and verified with the HAZOP, and ALARP.
MCI TA shall participate in HAZOP and
ALARP assessment.
DEP 30.10.02.14-Gen
DEP 31.01.10.10-Gen
PR 1103 - Chemical Injection
Mandatory for all projects where applicable
Materials selection report identifies the
requirement of corrosion inhibitor. Unless a
corrosion inhibitor (CI) application duplicates
an existing application, tests are required to
qualify the CI. Corrosion inhibition testing
protocol and the test results shall be
evaluated by Materials and Corrosion TA2.
This document defines the use of availability
requirements for corrosion inhibitors, test
program and an update of ID 301 the
Preliminary Chemical Compatibilities Matrix.

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Define

300

Corrosion
Management
Framework
Preliminary

Materials
Corrosion
Inspection

and

Define

302

Welding & Weld


Inspection
Specifications

Materials
Corrosion
Inspection

and

Revision: 0
Effective: September-2014

Mandatory for all projects.


Corrosion Management Framework (CMF)
covers corrosion risks, means of mitigation,
monitoring and demonstrating integrity. There
is synergy with the CMF, Safety Critical
Elements / Technical Integrity Framework
and RBI. Incorporates data from Performance
Standards for Safety Critical Elements (ID
384), the Materials Selection report (ID 297)
and the CI System Design (ID 298). It
includes deliverables of critical flow velocity
report, erosion mgt manual, integrity mgt
philosophy, CP designs and for sour systems
sulphur depositions evaluation, oxygen
ingress into the pipeline, potential corrosion
implications such as:a) Execute Failure Mode and Effects
Analysis
b) Produce
preliminary
Corrosion
Management Framework
c) Pipeline
Integrity
Management
Philosophy
d) Include erosion and sand handling
e) Corrosion and inspection integrity
management philosophy
f) Inspection
strategy
shall
be
included.
This report shall be reviewed by PDO
Materials and Corrosion Engineer TA2 other
than the author of the report and Materials
and Corrosion Engineer TA2 from Function.
The final endorsement and approval shall be
by Materials and Corrosion Engineer TA2
from Function.
Shall refer to PDO welding and NDT
specifications
Generate welding and weld inspection
specifications (or instruct contractor to do
such).
For CRAs materials grades not listed in SP1173, the specifications shall be developed
and approved by Materials and Corrosion
Engineer TA2 from Function.

Table 3: Mandatory Deliverables and requirements during the Execute phase for Materials corrosion
and inspection discipline
ORP
Phase

ID

Name

Accountable
Discipline

Description

Execute

Local
Rule

Updated
Materials
Selection Report

Materials
Corrosion
Inspection

and

Mandatory for all projects.


Materials selection peer review sessions shall
be organized by the Materials and Corrosion
Engineers from the projects or the author of
the report and ensuring participation from
Process, Mechanical, Rotating and Pipeline
engineering. This report shall be approved by
Materials and Corrosion Engineer TA2 from
Function.
For projects more than 100 mln USA or for
new field development including EOR/severe
sour environments, the Materials selection
reports shall be endorsed by TA1.
A final Materials selection report shall be
generated during Execute phase to ensure
the outcome of the FEED and DD
assessment is included in the final

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Execute

51

Set-up
and
Optimisation of
Corrosion
Control System

Materials
Corrosion
Inspection

and

Execute

77

Corrosion
Inspection
Management
System Selection
and Population

Materials
Corrosion
Inspection

and

Execute

79

Corrosion
Inhibitor
Selection Report

Materials
Corrosion
Inspection

and

Execute

82

Execute

87

Execute

88

Execute

168

Execute

170

Approval
by
Function
Inspectors
&
Jointers for Non
metallic
for
contractor staff
Approval
by
function:Calculation of PE
Liner thickness
Approval
by
function:- use of
external
MCI
consultancies,
test laboratories
and
test
requirements
Approval
by
Function
operators
for
specialized NDT
processes
Approval
by
Function
Contractors
welding
Engineers & NDT
level III

Materials
Corrosion
Inspection

and

Materials
Corrosion
Inspection

and

Materials
Corrosion
Inspection

and

Materials
Corrosion
Inspection

and

Materials
Corrosion
Inspection

and

Revision: 0
Effective: September-2014

deliverable. This report shall be approved as


indicated in Section 8.
This report should be completed and peer
reviewed before material is procured.
Long lead items finalized at FEED stage shall
be endorsed and approved by Materials and
Corrosion Engineer TA2 from Function.
Mandatory for all projects.
Prove that all corrosion control equipment is
working and operators understand the
procedures; demonstrate that corrosion is
under control. This first requires the corrosion
and erosion monitoring systems to be tested
and accepted.
To be signed off by Corrosion Control TA2
from Function.
Mandatory for all projects.
There are many different CIMS used in the
Shell Group, e.g. Pacer, IMSA, etc (see
toolbox). The correct system has to be
selected for the operating region, the system
has to be set up and populated with
equipment and a baseline generated.
Communicate with business unit to determine
who has ultimate responsibility and what the
requirements and expectations are.
To be signed off by Materials Corrosion &
Inspection TA2 from Function.
Mandatory for all projects and new
equipment.
Developed from the philosophy document
(ID60), and the Corrosion Management
Framework (1194) and linked to Performance
Standard for Safety Critical Elements (ID
452).
To be signed off by Corrosion Control TA2
from Function.

Mandatory for all projects if the material is


applicable for the project.

Mandatory for all projects if the material is


applicable for the project.

Mandatory for all projects if the material is


applicable for the project.

Mandatory for all projects if the material is


applicable for the project.

Mandatory for all projects if the material is


applicable for the project.

Page 21 of 63

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Execute

171

Execute

173

Execute

174

Execute

175

Execute

176

Execute

177

Execute

178

Execute

182

Execute

183

Execute

217

Execute

484

Approval
by
Function:- GRE
1000 hrs test
pressure,
material and type
of joints type
Approval
by
function:New
coating
applicators
or
coating products
Approval
by
function:New
coating
testing
program
Approval
by
function:New
shrink sleeves
All
specialized
material
and
weld qualification
testing
Approval
by
function:CP
design for buried
pipelines, tanks
and submarine
loading liners
Approval
by
function:Approval of Well
casing corrosion
protection
strategy
Review
and
approval of the
corrosion
monitoring plans
for
corrosion
inhibitors,
CP,
DCVG, CIPS
Approval
of
pipeline
and
equipment
integrity
report
including
RBA
and RBI reports
Approve
Assessed
corrosion rate

Field Inspection
Plan / RBI Plan /
Baseline
Inspection
/
CIMS
(for
Operate)

Materials
Corrosion
Inspection

and

Materials
Corrosion
Inspection

and

Materials
Corrosion
Inspection

and

Materials
Corrosion
Inspection

and

Materials
Corrosion
Inspection

and

Materials
Corrosion
Inspection

and

Materials
Corrosion
Inspection

and

Materials
Corrosion
Inspection

and

Materials
Corrosion
Inspection

and

Materials
Corrosion
Inspection

and

Materials
Corrosion
Inspection

Revision: 0
Effective: September-2014

Mandatory for all projects if the material is


applicable for the project.

Mandatory for all projects if the material is


applicable for the project.

Mandatory for all projects if the material is


applicable for the project.

Mandatory for all projects if the material is


applicable for the project.

Mandatory for all projects if the material is


applicable for the project.

Mandatory for all projects if the material is


applicable for the project.

Mandatory for all projects if the material is


applicable for the project.

Mandatory for all projects if the material is


applicable for the project.

Mandatory for all projects if the material is


applicable for the project.

Mandatory for all projects if the material is


applicable for the project.

Mandatory for all projects.


Developed from the Corrosion Management
Framework (ID300, Define Phase and
ID1194, Execute Phase) and linked to
Performance Standard for Safety Critical
Elements (ID 452 - Execute Phase. This
includes the selection and population of
CIMS (Corrosion Inspection Management
System and the Field Inspection Plan / RBI
Plan.
Inspection plan shall be included.
To be signed off by Material Corrosion &
Inspection TA2 from Function.

and

Page 22 of 63

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Execute

488

Welding,
Fabrication
Inspection
Procedures

and

Materials
Corrosion
Inspection

and

Execute

1194

Execute

Corrosion
Management
Framework

Materials
Corrosion
Inspection

Final
Material
selection Report

Materials
Corrosion
Inspection

and

and

Revision: 0
Effective: September-2014

PQR, WPS, NDT procedures, heat treatment


procedures shall be authorised at project
levels except for below mentioned areas. To
be signed off by Welding and NDT.
TA-2.
PQR, WPS, heat treatment procedures
involving for CRAs (25% Cr and above), low
temperature applications, >X65 steels (within
the standards) shall be approved by the
material and corrosion function (UEOC). To
be signed off by Specialized Welding & NDT
TA-2.
Advanced NDT technique procedures such
as AUT, Phased Arrays, TOFD, and
radioscopy. To approved and signed off by
Specialized Welding & NDT TA-2.
Non-metallic, bonding procedures, PE lined
fusion bonding procedures shall be approved
by and signed Materials and Corrosion TA2
in Non-metallic from Function.
Mandatory for all projects.
Update of the preliminary document,
developed in the Select phase (ID 300) and
Performance Standards for Safety Critical
Elements (ID 384).
Mandatory for all projects.
Update of the preliminary document.
To be approved by Materials and Corrosion
TA2 from function.

Table 4: Mandatory Deliverables and requirements during the operate phase for Materials corrosion
and inspection discipline

ORP
Phase

ID

Name

Accountable
Discipline

Description

Operate

25

Risk
Based
Inspection

Materials
Corrosion
Inspection

and

Mandatory for all operations.


Risk Based Inspection (RBI) covers the
verification of the integrity of the assets. It
includes analysis (using S-RBI see toolbox),
inspection
planning
and
work
pack
development for internal and external
corrosion, non-intrusive inspection (NII)
analysis, inspection execution, storing the
data in CIMS (see toolbox), inspection data
analysis, fitness for purpose assessment,
external corrosion analysis and modelling
(using ECM/EXCOR see toolbox), corrosion
modelling. Local legislation requirements for
inspection (review and reporting), reporting to
asset custodian and feedback of data into the
CMF (ID NEW above).
RBI shall be approved by Materials Corrosion
and
Inspection
TA2
from
Function.

Page 23 of 63

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Operate

1197

Corrosion
Management
Framework

Materials
Corrosion
Inspection

and

Operate

1206

Materials Failure
Investigation
Report

Materials
Corrosion
Inspection

and

Revision: 0
Effective: September-2014

Mandatory for all operations.


The CMF was set up in the Execute phase
(ID 1194) and is an "evergreen" document for
the life of the facilities. This assessment
looks at how well the corrosion control
systems are working, and feeds into the
integrity management of the different assets
(the integrity management manuals are
covered under ID 484). If availability targets
are not met this may also require shutdown
of the assets to prevent (further) corrosion.
To be approved by Corrosion Control
Engineer TA2.
Conduct periodic review of CMF and identify
break down of barriers. Continue of operation
with one or more broken barrier can only be
authorized by MCI TA1.
Mandatory for all material failures.
Failure investigation related to material failure
such as corrosion, cracking and ruptures, or
failure during manufacturing such as weld
failures shall be investigated by a Material
and Corrosion Engineer and corrosion control
Engineer along with Integrity Engineer from
function.
The final report to be signed off by relevant
Material and Corrosion TA2 from Function.

Certificate of statement of fitness related to process containment/materials shall be completed as per


SP-2062 before initial operation and shall include Materials, Corrosion and Inspection TA2 signatures
for items related to process containment integrity assurance.

Page 24 of 63

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4.3
4.3.1

Revision: 0
Effective: September-2014

Factors affecting Materials selection

Information required and review of factors affecting materials selection

Shall be as per DEP.39.01.10.11-Gen, Section 2.3.3 with the following amendments:a) Section 2.3.3.2. Replace Table 1 with the Table A.1 in Appendix A of this document.
b) Remove reference to EFC 17 as worst case for chloride when not other information is
available.
c) Add the following:
Chlorides carry over evaluation:
For gas production environments (produced gas or without produced water) and downstream
of separator. Salt accumulation scenarios shall be evaluated as part of materials selection
process.. Presence of formation water shall be included in the evaluation. Assumptions of
lower Chloride levels can only be determined with a proper salt materials balance studies
approved by the respective technical discipline authority (process) and supported by
operation and maintenance philosophy.

d) Section 2.3.3.4 and Appendix E Table E.1 for low temperature requirements shall be
replaced by DEP.30.10.02.31-Gen.

4.4

Application of carbon steels

Shall be as per DEP 39.01.10.11-Gen, Section 2.4. and DEP 30.10.02.14-Gen

4.5

Degradation mechanisms

A standardised checklist of corrosion threats is compiled by reference to DEP 39.01.10.11, API RP


571 and the Energy Institute (EI) Guidance for Corrosion Management. Materials and Corrosion
Engineer shall be consulted to ensure all the degradation mechanisms are evaluated including all the
normal and upset operating scenarios.
The following table contain the possible damage mechanisms that shall be evaluated during
materials selection process and the mandatory requirements associated to each damage
mechanism.
Damage
Mechanism

Description
CO2 corrosion is one of the most common forms corrosion resulting in wall
thickness loss in carbon steel oil / gas preproduction systems. CO2 corrosion is
caused by electrochemical reactions between the steel and carbonic acid.

CO2 Corrosion

The Hydrocor model has been developed for predicting the likely worst case
corrosion rate of carbon steel. Hydrocor is a model for quantifying the
corrosivity of the operating environments associated with the production and
transportation of water-wet hydrocarbons in carbon steel facilities. The
predicted corrosion rate is used to identify Service Life Cycle (SLC) and to
determine the appropriate corrosion allowance for a carbon steel system or
whether Corrosion Resistant Alloy (CRA), non-metallic materials or other
corrosion mitigation method is required. The HYDROCOR model (Appendix F)
or an alternative model approved by TA1 shall be used for corrosion modelling
in systems containing CO2. The aim of calculating the CO2 corrosion rate is to
Page 25 of 63

Petroleum Development Oman LLC

Revision: 0
Effective: September-2014

establish the SLC and thereby decide what corrosion allowance might be
needed or whether a CRA is required.
Welds and their surrounding heat-affected zones may have lower resistance to
CO2 corrosion than the parent metal. This phenomenon is known as
Preferential Weld Corrosion (PWC). This may arise for a number of reasons,
partly geometrical, partly chemical and partly metallurgical. Corrosion control by
means of inhibition has been shown to prevent PWC, provided that a suitable
corrosion inhibitor is selected and injected to provide a sufficiently high
concentration. See also DEP.39.01.10.11 (Appendix B). It should be assumed,
for sweet production systems, that the corrosion rate of the weld and heat
affected zone is three times that of the surrounding parent steel.
For more details information, refer to:
DEP 39.01.10.11-Gen Informative, Section 2.4.3
EI Guidance, Annex B1
API RP 571, Section 4.3.6
NORSOK M-601
Compared to CO2 corrosion of steel, H2S may not cause severe metal weight
loss corrosion because the corrosion product, iron sulfide (FeS) usually forms a
protective film on the steel surface. However, whenever the film is imperfect or
damaged, a corrosion cell is set up between FeS covered surface and the bare
metal, resulting in very localised, accelerated corrosion (e.g., pitting corrosion).
Therefore, the corrosion failure mode in sour systems is pinhole leaks, which
are extremely dangerous, considering the health risks associated with H2S.

H2S Corrosion

For carbon steel, the Hydrocor model can be used for corrosion rate prediction
in H2S containing systems. The empirical correlation included in Hydrocor for
o
sour conditions is only verified up to 50 C and 15 bar ppH2S. Above these
values/levels, the corrosion prediction is not considered reliable. Sour corrosion
modelling typically gives over prediction as Hydrocor model provides a worst
case pitting scenario, depending on factors like whether sulphur is present or
not. Testing shall be carried out to optimise the corrosion assessment with
laboratory testing and reviewing operating field analogues.
For more details information, refer to: DEP 39.01.10.11-Gen Informative, Section 2.4.4.2
API RP 571, Section 5.1.1.10
The presence of elemental sulphur increases the corrosivity of the environment
for pitting corrosion, stress corrosion cracking and particularly weight loss
corrosion thus assessment for elemental sulphur deposition shall be carried out
for high H2S content reservoir (>2Mol%). The presence of chloride ions greatly
enhances sulphur corrosion.

Elemental
sulphur

Top-of-Line
Corrosion
Amine Corrosion

Where elemental sulphur is likely to form in carbon steel systems, sulphur


solvents shall be used to prevent the sulphur depositing. Hydrocarbon liquids
are generally good sulphur solvents. The volume of liquid hydrocarbon present
and its capacity to dissolve sulphur should be assessed to determine whether
any additional sulphur solvent is required. In sour systems that contain oxygen,
sulphur can form in situ. All potential sources of oxygen in sour systems should
be reviewed and where required eliminated or minimized.
CRA materials are not immune to elemental sulphur (pitting/cracking). The
application limits in SP/DEP/ISO 15156 for CRA do not include any presence of
Elemental sulphur.
Top of line corrosion is due to condensation rate
DEP 39.01.10.11-Gen Specification, Table 2
API RP 571, 5.1.1.1,
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ErosionCorrosion

Oxygen
Corrosion

Revision: 0
Effective: September-2014

EFC 46
DEP 39.01.10.11-Gen Informative, Appendix D;
EI Guidance, Annex B12;
API RP 571, 4.2.14
In aqueous corrosion, oxygen is a more corrosive gas than CO2 and H2S. For
bare carbon steel system, pitting corrosion will occur when exposed to
seawater even with only traces amount of oxygen, but the rate of corrosion is
proportional to the mass transfer rate of dissolved oxygen to steel surface. If
oxygen is continually maintained at < 10ppb, a bare carbon steel or lower grade
CRA should be acceptable with minimum expected corrosion downstream of
the oxygen removal point. However, during upset conditions, which are
unavoidable in almost all cases, the dissolved oxygen concentration can reach
fully aerated levels. For carbon steel systems the corrosion rate is proportional
to the rate at which oxygen reached the steel. For hydrocarbon production
systems oxygen is deemed an operationally avoidable corrodent. Where it may
have an impact is in utility water systems for example. Aqueous oxygen
corrosion rates can be predicted with HYDROCOR.
CRA oxygen corrosion is a form of galvanic attack where the normal protective
passive surface oxide film fails at one small point and becomes a small anode
to the surrounding intact surface, resulting in very rapid localised pitting attack.
Oxygen pitting attack on a CRA is often more rapid than on CS, with
penetration rates as much as 6 times higher.
Materials selection for hydrocarbon application does not consider presence of
oxygen in the system. The facilities shall be designed to avoid any potential
ingress of oxygen.

Crevice
Corrosion

Pitting Corrosion

Under Deposit
Corrosion
(UCD)/dead leg

Galvanic
Corrosion

The application limits of CRAs defined in company standards are based on


oxygen free conditions.
Crevice corrosion tends to occur within a tight gap, or underneath deposits (see
also UDC) where an occluded environment can develop, e.g. a tube to tube
sheet joint. It can also be considered under flange face corrosion as described
in EI Guidance, Annex B8.
Likelihood of crevice corrosion shall be minimized by materials selection and
design considerations.
Considered separately to pitting caused by other corrosion threats, in this
context it is applied to CRAs with passive films in production and utility
environments. In production environments the key parameters are temperature
and chloride content, whilst in utility environments it will generally be oxygen
(oxidiser) content, flow rate, temperature and chloride content.
Likelihood of pitting shall be minimized by materials selection and design
considerations.
The deposition of solids creates a shielded environment that provides
conditions for other degradation mechanisms, such as MIC, to occur. Solids in
straight piping runs are considered to settle out when film velocities are less
-1
than 1 ms . Loosely adherent scale can also creates a shielded environment in
the same way as settled deposits.
Dead leg corrosion, detailed in EI Guidance, Annex B4, Shall be assessed
during all phases of the project.
Galvanic corrosion occurs when two dissimilar alloys are coupled in the
presence of a corrosive aqueous solution. The more active materials will be the
anode and will be preferentially corroded, while the other, more noble materials
will be the cathode and is protected from corrosion. A large ratio of cathode to
anode surface area must be avoided because the galvanic attack is
concentrated in the small areas of the anode.
For more details information, refer to
EI Guidance, Annex B5

API RP 571, Section 4.3.1


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Microbial
Induced
Corrosion (MIC)

Revision: 0
Effective: September-2014

Microbiologically Induced Corrosion (MIC) is a corrosion resulting from the


presence of active biological microorganisms from contaminated well operating
fluids, a contaminated reservoir, contamination during construction, surface
commissioning fluids, seawater injection, the design or practice of disposing
surface water in oilfiled pipelines, open drain systems, etc. Microorganisms
tend to attach themselves to solid surfaces, colonise, proliferate and form
biofilms, which can create a corrosive environment at the biofilm / metal
interface radically different from the bulk medium in terms of pH, salts and
dissolved gas. As a consequence, either a galvanic corrosion cell and / or
acidic action may develop causing metal attack. Instead of causing general
corrosion, MIC is a localised attack and may take the forms of pitting corrosion,
crevice corrosion, under deposit corrosion, selective dealloying and galvanic
corrosion.
Once bacteria are present in the system it is almost impossible to eliminate
them. Bacterial surveillance program shall be performed during field
commissioning and after any significant new activity. Methods to mitigate
bacteria presence is chemical treatment (commonly with biocide), operational
pigging and robust surveillance program in place. The likelihood of MIC can
also be assessed using HYDROCOR.

Preferential Weld
Corrosion

Intergranular
Corrosion
Strong Acid (Well
Workover)
Corrosion

For more details information, refer to: EI Guidance, Annex B4


API RP 571, Section 4.3.8
Welds and their surrounding heat-affected zones may have lower resistance to
CO2 corrosion than the parent metal. This phenomenon is known as
Preferential Weld Corrosion (PWC). This may arise for a number of reasons,
partly geometrical, partly chemical and partly metallurgical. Corrosion control by
means of inhibition has been shown to prevent PWC, provided that a suitable
corrosion inhibitor is selected and injected to provide a sufficiently high
concentration.
For more details information, refer to: DEP 39.01.10.11-Gen Informative, Appendix B
EI Guidance, Annex B6
Principally occurring in austenitic stainless steels it is characterised by attack
along grain boundaries where precipitation of chromium carbides, nitrides or
intermetallics has reduced the corrosion resistance of adjacent materials. This
effect is known as sensitisation.
See DEP 39.01.10.11-Gen Specification, 3.3 for mandatory requirements. Post
stimulation mitigation and management approach are given in RMP
31.40.00.50 (for sour service).

Internal Cracking
SP-2041; DEP 39.01.10.11-Gen Specification, 2.4.4.3; EI Guidance, Annex B2;
API RP 571, 5.1.2.3, ISO 15156.

Sulphide Stress
Cracking

SSC is a rapid form of cracking that can cause catastrophic failure. Control of
this form of cracking SHALL [PS] be through selection of materials not
susceptible to cracking under all expected modes of operation (including start
up and shutdown). Materials selection shall be carried out using DEP
30.10.02.15 AND SECTION 5 of this SP.
Many of the requirements of DEP 30.10.02.15-Gen. are related to hardness
restrictions, and it uses both Rockwell C (for non-welded materials) and Vickers
10 kg (22 lb) (for welded materials). Approximate hardness conversion tables
are given in ASTM A370. Note that the conversion factors do not apply to all
types of materials. For hardness conversions of martensitic and
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Hydrogen
Induced Cracking

Stress Oriented
Hydrogen
Induced Cracking
Amine Stress
Corrosion
Cracking
Hydrogen
Embrittlement
Chloride Stress
Corrosion
Cracking

Revision: 0
Effective: September-2014

austenitic/ferritic materials the Principal shall be consulted.


SP-2041; DEP 39.01.10.11-Gen Informative, 2.4.4.4; EI Guidance, Annex B2;
API RP 571, 5.1.2.3 Where no HIC testing for certain product forms is required
by Table 4 the need for such testing should be evaluated based on the criticality
of the components in question.
HIC requirements SHALL be as per SP-2041. SP-2041 replaces HIC
requirements in section 2.4.4.4 of DEP.39.01.10.11. The test method has been
shown to be very sensitive to small variations; therefore a control sample of
known HIC sensitivity shall be included in HIC tests to make sure that the
results are calibrated against a standard.
EI Guidance, Annex B2; API RP 571, 5.1.2.3

API RP 571, 5.1.2.2; EFC 46


DEP 39.01.10.11-Gen Specification, 2.4.4.6; API RP 571, 4.5.6

EI Guidance, Annex B11; API RP 571, 4.5.1

Liquid Metal
API RP 571, 4.5.5
Embrittlement
Corrosion
API RP 571, 4.5.2
Fatigue
External corrosion
Atmospheric
Corrosion
Corrosion Under
Insulation
Crevice and
Pitting Corrosion
Galvanic
Corrosion
High temperature
oxidation
Sulphidation
Soil Corrosion

EI Guidance, Annex B9; API RP 571, 4.3.2


EI Guidance, Annex B10; API RP 571, 4.3.3
EI Guidance, Annexes B9 and B11
EI Guidance, Annex B5; API RP 571, 4.3.1
API RP 571, 4.4.1
API RP 571, 4.4.2
Applicable to such items as flare tips operating with H2S
API RP 571, 4.3.9. Including MIC corrosion.

External Cracking
Chloride Stress
Corrosion
Cracking
Hydrogen
Embrittlement
Liquid Metal
Embrittlement
Corrosion
Fatigue

EI Guidance, Annex B11; API RP 571, 4.5.1


DEP Specification 39.01.10.11-Gen, 2.4.4.6; API RP 571, 4.5.
API RP 571, 4.5.5
API RP 571, 4.5.2

Mechanical Degradation

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Erosion by Solids
and Liquids

DEP Informative 39.01.10.11-Gen, D.2.1, D.2.2; EI Guidance, Annex B12; API


RP 571, 4.2.14

External
Abrasion & Wear

DEP Specification 31.38.01.29-Gen


Issues that may fall under this categorisation are: piping clashes, fretting and
wear at pipe supports.

Fatigue Cracking

API RP 571, 4.2.16 and 4.2.17; Energy Institute Process Pipework Fatigue
Guidelines
High Temperature Creep and Stress Rupture

High
Temperature
Creep and Stress
Rupture
Thermal Fatigue
Low Temperature
Embrittlement
Long Running
Ductile Fracture

API RP 571, 4.2.8

Galling

Non-Metallic Seal
Degradation

4.6

API RP 571, 4.2.9


DEP Specification 30.10.02.31-Gen; API RP 571, 4.2.7
DEP 31.40.00.10-Gen Specification, 8.1.6
Applicable to gas and multiphase pipelines where fluid decompression
characteristics can drive initiated cracks for substantial distances
Galling is a form of adhesive wear and occurs by dynamic metal-to-metal
contact between two surfaces sliding relative to one another when there is poor,
or non-existent, lubrication. It can occur at flange/gasket interfaces and lead to
poor sealing.
DEP 39.01.10.12-Gen Specification, Appendix C
Rapid gas decompression is a major cause of elastomeric seal failure in high
pressure gas service. Seals can also fail by ageing where the service
environment induces chemical or physical changes. Supporting information for
study is given in UK HSE Research Reports 320 and 485.
Refer to DEP30.10.02.13 for non metallic testing requirements.

Economic aspects of materials selection

Shall be as per section 2.5, DEP 39.01.10.11 Gen.

4.7

Non- operational considerations

Materials selection shall consider all the operating modes including non operational considerations as
per section 3 of DEP 39.01.10.11-Gen.

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GENERAL MATERIALS DESCRIPTION AND SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS


5.1

General Requirements for Specific Materials Group

5.1.1 Sour service


If hydrogen sulfide concentration (H2S) is present in the equipment over the lifecycle in any phase
the service shall be considered as sour service and the requirements of SP-2041 and
DEP.30.10.02.15 shall applied. Concentration of H2S shall be determined in accordance with DEP
25.80.10.18-Gen.
When assessing materials suitability, the pH and H2S partial pressure shall represent not only normal
life cycle exposures but also exposures as can reasonably be expected to occur during an upset or in
a stratified flow condition (e.g., normal packer fluid pH versus condensing water pH after tubing to
annulus leak, or pH of flowline fluid versus condensing water pH during stratified flow.
For vessels, internal protective coatings are acceptable to protect carbon and low alloy steels against
Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC) or stepwise cracking, provided that the coating integrity is ensured
by means of a suitable coating maintenance program and that a program to detect and monitor HIC
formation and growth is in place. (Informative: For practical purposes, this shall only apply to
vessels).
Stainless steels
The production stream phase behaviour SHALL [PS] be reviewed to identify if flashing conditions or
salt deposition from carryover fluids are present, which conditions concentrate fluid salinity. In the
event flashing conditions are present, either a salinity of 250 g/l (expressed as NaCl) or the greater
value equivalent to salt saturation in water at operating conditions shall be assumed when selecting
and testing the materials. Any testing shall be done in representative water chemistry.
The temperatures given in Table 5.1 shall be used to assess the risk of pitting corrosion, crevice
corrosion and chloride stress corrosion cracking of the most common stainless steel type used in
Upstream in offshore and onshore salt laden environments (e.g. desert environment). The risk for
other stainless steel types shall be referred to the MCI TA2 from Function.
Table 5.1: Typical stainless steel temperature limits.

Stainless
steel type(1)

Threshold
for pitting
corrosion

316L(2)
6Mo
22Cr
Duplex(3)
25Cr SuperDuplex(4)

Threshold
for crevice
corrosion

Negligible
risk of
CSCC

Significant
risk of
CSCC

5oC
50oC
40oC

<0oC
30oC
15oC

<50oC
<100oC
<80oC

>60oC
>120oC
>100oC

60oC

30oC

<100oC

>110oC

(1) Table gives requirements for generic stainless steel types. Specific materials and conditions may influence
the acceptable temperature
(2) Assumes minimum Molybdenum content of 2%. Higher temperatures may be possible at higher Mo
content.
(3) Assumes PREN > 35
(4) Assumes PREN > 40

Contact of zinc with stainless steel items SHALL[PS] be prevented, including zinc coating
contamination and contamination by zinc in fire scenarios from other equipment.
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Ferritic and Martensitic stainless steels such as those of the 13Cr family are susceptible to both
sulphide stress cracking (SSC) and stress corrosion Cracking (SCC) and therefore their application
shall be in accordance to DEP.30.10.01.15.
Austenitic stainless steels containing less chromium, nickel and molybdenum than AISI 316, such
as AISI 304, shall not be used / applied in PDO production facilities as defined in DEP 39.01.10.12Gen, Appendix A.
All the austenitic stainless steels wrought, forge and cast products shall be subjected to intergranular
corrosion testing in accordance with ASTM A262 Practice E. The materials shall pass required
criteria stated in ASTM A262 specification. The intergranular corrosion test shall be performed for
each heat in the purchase order.
Austenitic/ferritic stainless steels (duplex stainless steels) can suffer both SCC and SSC, hence
hardness requirements from DEP 30.10.01.15 shall apply and strict H2S partial pressure limits shall
be followed as given in Part 6 and DEP 30.10.01.15. Both 22 Cr duplex and 25 Cr super-duplex
stainless steels are susceptible to CSCC at 80 C (176 F) under drop evaporation conditions, and
their use at points of salt accumulation shall be avoided.
Applications of duplex stainless steels at Lower Design Temperatures (LDT), for which the design
code asks for proof of toughness by impact testing, require an additional specification of the steel
being ordered and confirmation of proven toughness on the steel certificate. Welding procedures
shall be qualified or re-qualified with impact testing included, when required by the design code for
the given LDT. The minimum design temperature of duplex stainless steels is -50C (-58F) with
maximum thickness of 40 mm (1.6 in) unless otherwise qualified in accordance with
DEP 30.10.02.31-Gen section 5.4. Duplex stainless steel shall have PREN > 34, with a nitrogen >
0.14%. The super duplex stainless steel shall contain at least 25%Cr and PREN > 40 and nitrogen >
0.2%. Duplex stainless steel and super duplex stainless steel shall comply with DEP 30.10.02.35Gen requirements.
All the DSS and SDSS wrought, forge and cast products shall meet following requirements in
addition to requirements stated in respective MESC SPEs and relevant DEPs.
Transverse tensile test:
Transverse tensile testing is not required for the pipe nominal diameter 6. Diameters 8 and above
shall be subjected to transverse tensile test.
Pitting Corrosion testing:
The materials shall be capable of passing the ferric chloride test in accordance with ASTM G 48,
Method A, with the following amendments. This corrosion test shall be performed for product
qualification only.
The exposure time shall be 24 hours. The test temperature for 22Cr duplex (ferritic-austenitic)
stainless steel shall be 25 C for parent metal and 22 C for welds.
The test temperature for 25Cr superduplex (ferritic-austenitic) stainless steel shall be 40 C for
parent metal and 35 C for welds.

The temperature variation shall not exceed 0.5 C.


The surface finish of the test face shall be as-produced. Cut faces shall be ground to 1200
grit.
The evaluation of results shall be via weight loss measurement and macroscopic
investigation of the surface. Macrographs obtained by low magnification microscopy shall be
provided.

The acceptance criteria shall be a weight loss < 4.0 g/m2 and no initiation of localized corrosion >
0.025 mm (1 mil) at the test face. Note that only corrosion (e.g. pitting) at the test face counts. If the
weight loss is > 4.0 g/m2 and it can be positively identified that this is only due to corrosion at the cut
faces, the test will be invalid. In this case re-testing shall be carried out on replacement specimens.
Frequency of testing shall be each heat in the purchase order.

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Super austenitic stainless steels (>6 % Mo) to ensure corrosion resistance of welds, a nickel alloy
filler with increased Mo, such as alloy 625, shall be used. 6Mo materials shall comply with DEP
30.10.02.35-Gen requirements.
All the UNS S31254 wrought, forge and cast products shall be subjected to ferric chloride test in
accordance with ASTM G48, Method A. The test temperature shall be 50 C and the exposure time
shall be 24 hours. The test specimens shall be in the as-delivered condition. The test shall expose
the external and internal surfaces. No pitting is acceptable at internal or external surfaces at 20 times
magnification. The weight loss shall be < 4.0 g/m.
Frequency of testing shall be each heat in the purchase order.
Precipitation hardening stainless steels in Appendix A of DEP 39.01.10.12 Gen, such as
UNS S17400 (17-4 PH) and UNS S15500 (15-5PH) shall be prohibited for pressure containment
parts in sour environments. Alloy 17-4 shall be limited to a maximum stress of 50% for compressor
internal components.
Nickel alloys such as UNS N07718 (Alloy 718) shall meet the requirements of
DEP 39.01.10.32-Gen. UNS N07725 (Alloy 725) and UNS N07716 (Alloy 625+ ) shall be specified in
accordance with DEP 39.01.10.30-Gen. These materials may suffer from similar issues to those that
have been observed with Alloy 718, and, as such, care shall be taken during manufacturing and heat
treatment, particularly for critical or highly loaded components.
Alloy N08825 (Alloy 825) shall be supplied with Ni content greater than 39% and a PREN greater
than 30. Quality assurance in supply chain should be closely monitored.
Intergranular corrosion test in accordance with A262 Practice C. Acceptance criteria shall be weight
loss < 0.9mm/year and intergranular penetration shall not exceed 30 microns average, with minimum
individual maximum 50 microns into the surface that will be exposed to the corrosive environment in
the specific application when measures by micrography shall be performed at an appropriate
magnification in a minimum of eight separate viewing fields average. The intergranular corrosion test
shall be performed for each heat in the purchase order.
For materials cladded with Alloy 825 exposed to post weld heat treatment or other stress relieve
treatment during fabrication shall be subject to corrosion test at simulated worst case process
conditions to evaluate effect on the materials. Test shall include pitting and crevice assessment.
Alloy UNS N0625
All alloy 625 materials wrought, forge and cast products shall be subjected to integranular corrosion
test in accordance with ASTM G28, Method A. The maximum allowed corrosion rate is
0.075mm/month and intergranular penetration shall not exceed 30 microns average, with minimum
individual maximum 50 microns into the surface that will be exposed to the corrosive environment in
the specific application when measures by micrography at an appropriate magnification in a minimum
of eight separate viewing fields average.
Frequency of testing shall be each heat in the purchase order.
Where galling resistance is required, anti-galling compounds, electroplating, or use of different
materials should be used for the two parts that come into contact, e.g., N06625 and N07725.
Molybdenum Disulfide SHALL [PS] not be used. An alternative anti-galling approach that may be
used is to specify and assure a minimum difference in hardness of 25 HRB of the components.
Glass reinforced plastics. The choice of fibre and resin should be selected after full consideration
of the service requirements in accordance with SP-2092 and DEP 30.10.02.13-Gen. GRP pipelines
and piping shall be in accordance with SP- 2092, SP-2156 and DEP 31.40.10.19-Gen.
Note: Proprietary materials might be considered upon successful qualification and approval from MCI
Corporate Function Discipline Head (CFDH).
All the corrosion tests shall be carried out at PDO and ILAC approved laboratory.
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5.2

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Specific requirements

5.2.1 Metallurgically bonded clad plates


The plate materials used as clad plates (for explosive and roll bonding) shall be subjected to
corrosion testing as indicated for the base materials in section 5.1. If PWHT is applied the corrosion
test shall be conducted with the simulated actual PWHT cycles.
5.2.2 Welding including clad and overlay equipment
All the weld overlay materials (316L and 625) shall be subjected to integranular corrosion testing as
stated in the section 5.1.
Minimum undiluted weld overlay thickness after machining shall be 1mm for the piping components
and minimum clad thickness shall be 3 mm and two pass.
Alloy 825 weld overlay shall not be used for equipments and piping components.
Base material: For the sour service the base Carbon Steel materials shall meet sour service
requirements. Materials composition shall meet the HIC requirement. However, testing can be
exempted. Hardness values at the clad/weldoverlay interface shall not exceed 248 HV10. Apart from
the PQR qualification hardness testing (including PWHT cycles) shall be carried out.
Welding procedures for ferritic/martensitic materials with austenitic consumables require close
scrutiny, because a hard, brittle zone of relatively high carbon can form in the austenitic material
immediately adjacent to the fusion boundary. This brittle zone is very sensitive to hydrogen
embrittlement (hydrogen-induced stress cracking, sulphide stress cracking) and even brittle fracture
due to stress alone if the critical flaw size (as determined by means of CTOD tests) is exceeded.
Direct exposure of such hard zones to sour conditions and cathodic protection shall be avoided.
Hardness requirements defined in ISO 15156, such as 250 HV 10 is not sufficient, because the brittle
zone is so thin that it cannot be detected with the Vickers method of hardness testing.
A minimum of two layers of weld overlay shall be used. For Alloy 625, the maximum allowed iron
content due to dilution of deposited Alloy 625 by the underlying carbon or low alloy steel at 2.5 to 3
mm from the Alloy 625 surface, shall be 10%. On surface, chemical composition shall meet the
original materials specification, including 5% max Iron. Optical electron spectroscopy (OES) shall be
the only method to determine weld dilution. A cross section shall be taken during weld procedure
qualification and OES shall be done at 1 mm increments from the weld metal through the heat
affected zone, to a distance no less than 3 mm from the fusion line.
When carrying out buttering, the closure weld shall be made with UNS N06625 (Alloy 625). Maximum
hardness of 325 HV 10 in the base metal and HAZ are accepted for non-sour and sour service,
provided that the bore is fully clad (Refer to ISO 15156-3, Clause A13.1).
Single layer welding techniques, e.g., electro-slag, shall only be used with prior approval from the
MCI TA2 from Function.

5.3

Protection against catastrophic failure mechanisms

Sudden failure mechanisms such as stress corrosion cracking, Hydrogen embrittement (corrosion)
fatigue, and low temperature embrittlement shall be prevented by means of proper materials
selection and design. Coatings or corrosion inhibition shall not be used as the primary barrier for
environmental assisted cracking or corrosion-fatigue during design.
Performance tested/qualified Coatings or aluminium foils may be considered for mitigation of Cl-SCC
if the risk is assessed as negligible or manageable, approval from MCI TA2 from Function is required.

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5.3.1

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Chloride stress corrosion cracking

Austenitic and duplex stainless steels may suffer from external chloride induced stress corrosion
cracking (CSCC) when exposed to a combination of tensile stresses, chlorides, water, oxygen, and a
temperature threshold. This failure mode, typically caused by exposure to humid marine atmosphere,
may represent a higher risk than the internal service and is generally manifested by a sudden
fracture of pipe or equipment. PDO is operating in desert environment characterised by frequent
sandstorms and deposition of salt laden sand. Therefore the risk of Cl-SCC shall be evaluated and
documented.
Application of stainless steels with significant risk of CSCC above the given temperature shall be
subject to mitigation to an acceptable level (ALARP). Application of stainless steels with risk of CSCC
at high chloride concentration shall be subject to a risk assessment and mitigation if deemed
necessary.

The threshold temperatures which the material has an acceptable risk of external CSCC are shown
in Table 5.1. Above these temperature thresholds (significant risk of CSCC in Table 5.1) austenitic,
duplex stainless steel, super stainless steels and super austenitic stainless steel shall be externally
coated with Thermal Sprayed Aluminium coating (TSA) in accordance to DEP 30.48.40.31-Gen. If
welding is involved, TSA shall be done post welding.
Organic coating qualified for the service life can be applied if ALARP is demonstrated by risk
assessment.
TSA shall not be used for protection of small-bore (<DN 50) (<NPS 2)) components so selecting a
resistant material is the preferred option.

5.4

Protection of stainless steels for Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI)


with aluminium.

Stainless steels may be protected against external pitting and crevice corrosion under insulation by
means of coating with Thermally Sprayed Aluminium (TSA). Joints and ends shall be taped with selfadhesive aluminium tape. This aluminium foil acts as both a barrier coat and inhibitor. The applicable
temperature range for the use of aluminium foil under insulation is 50C to 200C (122 F to 392 F)
for continuous service and 50C to 480C (122 F to 896 F) for cyclic conditions.
Only the arc spray application process shall be used for CRA materials and all systems shall be
sealed using a silicone system. TSA shall be applied in accordance with DEP 30.48.40.31-Gen.

5.5

Sealing materials

Where metal-to-metal seals are used, there is a potential risk of galvanic corrosion. To prevent this,
the seal surface materials shall be at least as noble as the surrounding surfaces. Elastomer seals are
addressed in DEP 39.01.10.12, Section 3.2.13.

5.6

Amendments to ISO 15156

DEP. 30.10.02.15-Gen is written as amendments and supplements to the following ISO Standards:

ISO 15156-1:2009
ISO 15156-2:2009
ISO 15156-3:2009

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Wherever reference is made to the above ISO Standards, it shall be understood to mean the
ISO 15156-1:2009, ISO 15156-2:2009 and ISO 15156-3:2009 as amended/ supplemented by DEP.
30.10.02.15-Gen
Materials limits for sour service shall be in accordance with this SP, DEP 30.10.02.15-Gen, and ISO
15156. Remarks made in ISO 15156-3 tables indicating ANY combination of parameters (pH,
ppH2s, temperature and chloride, etc.) shall not be used for materials selections.

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6

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MATERIALS SELECTION BY EQUIPMENT SYSTEMS

6.1

INTRODUCTION

6.1.1 General
This Section includes materials for process and utility equipment used in onshore operations for
surface facilities.
The materials selected shall meet minimum toughness requirements at the minimum design
temperature during low temperature events such as blowdown. The low temperature requirements of
materials are covered in detail by DEP 30.10.02.31-Gen. and DEP 31.38.01.15-Gen., which refers to
ASME B31.3.

6.2

Vessels and piping

Shall be in accordance with DEP 39.01.10.12-Gen, Section 3.2.5 with the following amendments.
a) Replace Table 3, with the following Table 6.1 below.

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Table 6.1: Vessels and piping
Internal Environmental conditions

Materials
selection
for
(10)
piping

Piping
(1)
class

Any*

CS with 1
mm (1/32
in) CA

1410,
1450, or
1470

As for piping

Any*

CS with 3
mm (1/8
in) CA

1430 or
1490

As for piping

Any*

CS with 3
mm (1/8
(2)
in) CA .
CS with
glassflake
lining if
only
limited life
is
(3)
required

1430 or
1490

As for piping + glass


(4)
flake
lining .
Temperature limit is
for the glass flake
lining.

Any*

SSC and
HICresistant
steel with
1 mm
(1/32 in)
CA

1420 or
1460

As for piping

Any*

SSC and
HICresistant
steel with
3 mm
(1/8 in) CA

1440

As for piping

Any*

SSC and
HICresistant
steel with
3 mm
(1/8 in) CA
(2) 3)
.

1440

As for piping + glass


(4)
flake
lining .
Temperature limit is
for the glass flake
lining.

3430

CS clad with AISI


316L or solid AISI
(5)
316L
or
22Cr
(5)
Duplex

SLC
mm
(in)

Temp
C
(F)

pH2S
mbar
(psi)

Cl
ppm

<1
(<1/32)

<200
(<392)

<3.5
(<0.05)

<3
(<1/8)

<200
(<392)

<3.5
(<0.05)

3 to 6
(1/8 to 1/4)

<1
(<1/32)

<3
(<1/8)

<80
(<176)

<200
(<392)

<200
(<392)

<3.5
(<0.05)

<100
(<1.45)

<100
(<1.45)

Vessel material
Comments

SLC
can
be
reviewed
based
on
inspection
frequency.

3 to 6
(1/8 to 1/4)

<80
(<176)

<100
(<1.45)

6
(1/4)

<120
(<248)

<3.5
(0.05)

6
(1/4)

<60
(<140)

<15
(<0.22)

60660

AISI 316L

3430

CS clad with AISI


316L or solid AISI
(5)
316L
or
22Cr
(5)
Duplex

6
(1/4)

<155
(<311)

<15
(<0.22)

<37000

AIS 316L

3430

CS clad with AISI


316L or solid AISI
316L or 22 Cr Duplex

Limit valid for pH


>3.8

6
(1/4

90

<2.0

165000

22Cr
Duplex

3832

Clad AISI 316L

pp CO2 < 1.5 bar

120

<2.0

170000

22Cr
Duplex

3832

Clad AISI 316L

pp CO2 < 0.43 bar

6
(1/4

120000

AISI 316L

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6
(1/4)

<200
(<392)

<10
(<0.15)

160000

6
(1/4

<120
(<248)

<350
(<5.08)

<1 g/l
(1000
ppm)

22Cr
Duplex

22Cr
Duplex

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3832

CS clad with AISI


(13)
904L
or solid 22Cr
(5)
Duplex

3832

CS clad with AISI


316L or solid 22Cr
(5),
Duplex

6
(1/4)

<200
(<392)

<20
(<0.30)

<160000

Super
Duplex

CS clad with AISI


(13)
904L
or solid 22Cr
(5)
Duplex

6
(1/4

<200
(<392)

<80
(<1.16)

<30330

Super
Duplex

CS clad with AISI


(13)
904L
or solid 22Cr
(5)
Duplex

6
(1/4)

<200
(<392)

<1,000
(<14.5)

<1
(640 ppm)

Super
Duplex

6
(1/4)

6
(1/4)

6
(1/4)

6
(1/4)

<200
(<392)

< 60

<200
(<392)

<200
(<392)

<20
(<0.30)

< 4000

<14,000
(<203)

<36,000
(<522)

<160,000

< 200
(120)

Super
Duplex

6Mo

<160,000

Alloy 825

<160,000

Alloy 28
(pCO2<25
bar (363
psi))

PDO has previous


issues with the
application
of
904L
grade,
CFDH approval is
required to select
904L as a material
of construction

PDO has previous


issues with the
application
of
904L
grade,
CFDH approval is
required to select
904L as a material
of construction

CS clad with AISI


316L or solid 22Cr
Duplex (5)

CS clad with AISI


904L or Alloy 825
Clad.

CS clad with Alloy


825 or solid 6Mo

PDO has previous


issues with the
application
of
904L
grade,
CFDH approval is
required to select
904L as a material
of construction
Laboratory
qualification tests
have shown 6 Mo
might
be
susceptible
to
pitting under high
chloride (>50,000
ppm)
in
sour
service.
Weld overlay of
alloy 825 shall not
be considered as
material
for
vessels and piping

CS clad with Alloy


825 or Alloy 625 or
solid Alloy 825

Weld overlay of
alloy 825 shall not
be considered as
material
for
vessels and piping

CS clad with Alloy


825 or Alloy 625 or
solid Alloy 825

Weld overlay of
alloy 825 shall not
be considered as
material
for
vessels and piping

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6
(1/4)

<240
(<464)

<30,000
(<435)

<160,000

Alloy
(8)
625

CS clad with Alloy


625 or solid Alloy 625

6
(1/4)

<100
(9)
(<212)

Any*

Any*

GRP

GRP

Weld overlay of
alloy 825 shall not
be considered as
material
for
vessels and piping

Note: Cladding and weld overlay are two different processes.

6.3

Piping, fittings valves and other components

Shall be in accordance with DEP 39.01.10.11-Gen, DEP 39.01.10.12-Gen, Section 3.2.6 and DEP
30.01.10.15-Gen. All the applicable MESC SPEs shall be followed for piping, fittings, valves and
other components.

6.4

Small bore instrument, hydraulic and chemical injection tubing

Shall be in accordance with DEP 39.01.10.12-Gen, Section 3.2.7, Table 4.

6.5

Heat exchangers

If carbon steel plus inhibition is used in upstream piping, the vessel exchanger shall be made of a
suitable CRA.
6.5.1 Shell-and-tube heat exchangers
The selection of materials for direct water coolers shall be derived from the materials selected for the
adjacent process piping and the coolant (Table 6.2).
Oxygen contamination of closed circuit cooling systems has been a problem in many cases, and
carbon steel shall only be used if oxygen can be successfully kept out of the system, or where a
sufficient corrosion allowance, based on a good estimate of corrosion rate, can be used. Where Ti is
selected, it SHALL [PS] not be coupled directly to carbon steel.
Glycol reboilers are addressed in DEP 39.01.10.12-Gen, Section 3.2.9, Table 8.

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Table 6.2: Shell-and-tube heat exchangers
Cooling water

Incoming pipe
material
(Table 3)

Tubes

Tubesheet and
Channels

Shell, baffles
and
tie-rods

Non-corrosive coolant on
tube side.
On shell side closed circuit
(no 02, inhibited,
(6)
monitored)

Carbon steel
SLC<1

Carbon steel

Carbon steel

Carbon steel

Carbon steel
SLC>1

Upgrade to
appropriate
stainless steel
(not martensitic).

Carbon steel with


corrosion
allowance, or
corresponding
stainless steel,
solid or clad.

Carbon steel

22Cr Duplex

22Cr Duplex

22Cr Duplex

Carbon steel

Super Duplex

Super Duplex

Super Duplex

Carbon steel

316L

316L

316L solid or clad

Carbon steel

6Mo

6Mo

6Mo solid or Alloy


825 solid or clad

Carbon steel

Alloy 625

Alloy 28

Alloy 825 solid or


clad

Carbon steel

Alloy 825

Alloy 825

Alloy 825 solid or


clad

Carbon steel

Alloy 625

Alloy 625

Alloy 625 clad

Carbon steel

Carbon steel

Super Duplex

Super Duplex

Carbon steel

22Cr Duplex

Super Duplex

Super Duplex

22Cr Duplex

Super Duplex

Super Duplex

Super Duplex

Super Duplex

6Mo

6Mo

6Mo

6Mo or 825 clad

Alloy 28

Alloy 625

Alloy 625 solid or


(3)
clad

Alloy 825 clad

Alloy 825

Alloy 625

625 solid or clad

825 clad

Alloy 625

Alloy 625

625 solid or clad

625 clad

Any

C276
Ti

Chlorinated aerated
seawater on tube side.
Max. temperature
<30 C (<86 F)

Chlorinated aerated
seawater on tube side.
Max. temperature
>30 C (>86 F)
NOTES: (1), (2)

(5)

(4)

or C22 or

(3)

(3)

(4)

C276 solid or
(3)
clad or Ti solid
(3)
or clad

As inlet pipe,
solid or clad

Notes not used

(3) Clad tubesheets assume the cladding is on the seawater side and tubes are front welded. The suitability of the
tubesheet carbon steel base metal for exposure to the process fluids shall be considered.
(4) Alloy C276 tubes have been known to fail due to the formation of a crevice under chloride-rich deposits. The
likelihood of the formation of such deposits should be duly considered before selecting a material.
(5) Alloy 28 shall be limited to a pH2S below 36000 mbar (522 psi).
(6) When cooling gas, the definition of non-corrosive service may include an assessment of the gas dew point and
corrosion within the tubes, provided appropriate operating controls are in place. Dew point assessment shall
consider field ramp-up flow rates, duration, and minimum controllable heat transfer capacity.

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6.5.2

Plate coolers

Table 6.3: Plate coolers


Max temp. C
(F)

Service
Seawater cooling oil or
produced water

30
(86)

200
(392)
Closed circuit water cooling
crude oil/gas

NOTE:

Incoming
pipe

Plate material

625, 825, 28,


GRP

625

6Mo, GRP

6Mo

All others

Super duplex

Any

Alloy 625, Alloy C276, or titanium

60
(140)

AISI
316L
subject
to
the
environmental limitations given in
(2.2.1)

200
(392)

As adjacent produced fluid piping.


Otherwise, Alloy 825, Alloy 625,
Alloy C276, or titanium

See DEP 39.01.10.12-Gen, Section 3.2.9.

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6.5.3 Air cooled heat exchangers


Materials for air cooled heat exchangers shall be per Table 6.4 which refers to external limits. For
internal limits refer to Table 6.1 in Section 6.2.
Table 6.4: Air cooled heat exchangers
Incoming pipe
(Table 6.1)

Tube material

Header Box material

Carbon steel SLC<1

Carbon steel with fully


extruded aluminium fins

Carbon steel fully coated


with TSA, or upgrade to
appropriate stainless steel
below depending on
maximum temperature

Carbon steel SLC>1

Upgrade to appropriate
stainless steel below
depending on maximum
temperature

Carbon steel with


corrosion allowance fully
coated with TSA, or
upgrade to appropriate
stainless steel below,
depending on maximum
temperature

316L

316L

316L

50 (122)

(1)

22Cr Duplex

22Cr Duplex

22Cr Duplex

80 (176)

(1)

Super Duplex

Super Duplex

Super Duplex

110 (230)

(1)

316L

316L with fully extruded


(2)
aluminium fins

316L fully coated with TSA


or 316L internally clad
carbon steel

120 (248)

(2)

22Cr Duplex

22Cr Duplex with fully


(2)
extruded aluminium fins

22Cr Duplex fully coated


with TSA

190 (374)

(2)

Super Duplex

Super Duplex with fully


(2)
extruded aluminium fins

Super Duplex fully coated


with TSA

190 (374)

(2)

6Mo
Alloy 625

NOTES

(3)

6Mo

Alloy 28

(3)(4)

Max. temp.
C (F)

6Mo

200 (392)

Alloy 28

200 (392)

(3)

Alloy 825

200 (392)

(3)

Alloy 625

200 (392)

Alloy 825

Alloy 825

Alloy 625

Alloy 625

(1)

The maximum temperatures are dictated by the risk of external chloride SCC, see (2.2.1).

(2)

These temperatures only apply to heat exchangers with coated tubes that have fully extruded aluminium
fins.

(3)

Likely to have extruded aluminium fins for heat transfer requirements, but not required as part of the
corrosion design as these materials are resistant to Chloride SCC up to at least 200 C (392 F).

(4) Alloy 28 ishall be limited to a pH2S below 36000 mbar (522 psi)
If extruded aluminium fins are used on tubes, no external corrosion allowance is required. There shall
be no exposed steel tube area for both CS and CRA tubes. Achieving no exposed steel at the
tubesheet end is often problematic and requires special attention. For the fins, aluminium Alloy 5083
(UNS A95083) has the best reported performance.
If coating is required on the header boxes, the tubesheet shall be TSA coated prior to inserting the
tubes in the tubesheet, with any repairs to the coating carried out as each row of tubes is inserted.

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6.5.4

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Compact coolers (printed circuit heat exchangers)

Printed circuit heat exchangers have very fine channels, which restricts them to relatively clean
duties (such as gas or NGL cooling). Upstream filters shall be specified and maintained to reduce the
risk of channel plugging.
Materials shall be selected to withstand erosion in the small channels and also crevice corrosion at
the anticipated service condition.
Material choice is limited by the Manufacturers and the manufacturing method to AISI 316L, 22 Cr,
Cu or Ti.

6.6

Glycol dehydration system

Shall be in accordance with DEP 39.01.10.12-Gen, Section 3.2.9, Table 8. For severe sour service,
materials selection shall be peer review and approved by TA2 MCI from function.

6.7

Flare & relief systems

Shall be in accordance with DEP 39.01.10.12-Gen, Section 3.2.10, Table 9.

6.8

Rotating equipment

Shall be in accordance with DEP 39.01.10.12-Gen, Section 3.2.11.


Add the following table in the first paragraph related to rotating equipment
a)
b)

c)

6.9

Compressors for PDO shall be designed for sour service.


For dry gas environment confirmed by process. Carbon steel suitability to be
defined based on corrosion assessment vs. % of incidental wet scenarios (upset
conditions leading to free water presence).
For wet or significant SLC, CRA materials shall be specified in sour service as per
Table 5.

Pumps

Centrifugal pumps shall be in accordance with DEP 31.29.02.30-Gen.

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6.10 Bolting
Shall be in accordance with DEP 39.01.10.12-Gen, Section 3.2.12, Table 10 and Table 11.
Add the following notes after second paragraph:

PTFE coating may be used up to an operating temperature of 200 C (392 F).

Quality control procedures shall be developed to cover PTFE handling during


transportation, storage and installation to avoid coating damage.

Cadmium plated bolts shall not be used.

6.11 Elastomer Seal Selection


Shall be in accordance with DEP 39.01.10.12 -Gen, Appendix C.

6.12 Pipelines
Pipelines materials selection shall cover the construction materials for below systems:a) Process pipelines
b) Dry hydrocarbon pipelines
c) Water injection pipelines
Carbon steel is widely used for pipelines with or without corrosion inhibition. The corrosion allowance
shall be calculated using DEP 30.10.02.14-Gen. There are two applicable standards for carbon steel
linepipe, according to whether it is critical or non-critical service. Carbon steel line pipe shall conform
to the following standards as appropriate:

Critical Service

DEP 31.40.20.37-Gen.

Non-Critical Service

DEP 31.40.20.35-Gen.

Guidance on the evaluation of pipeline service criticality is given in DEP 31.40.00.10-Gen.


For linepipe that is required to be resistant to external CSCC, refer to Section 5.3.1in addition to the
information contained in DEP 31.40.20.37-Gen.
When required by the design or welding code, the strain aging shall be applied as part of the weld
procedure qualification program.
CRA line pipe shall conform to the following standards:
Table 6.5: CRA Line pipe standards
Solid Pipe:

Duplex and Super Duplex Stainless Steel Line


pipe

Solid Pipe:

Weldable Martensitic Stainless Steel (13Cr and


Super
13Cr
linepipe).
All applications of weldable martensitic steel shall
have materials testing of welded product form to
confirm resistance against embrittlement and
stress corrosion cracking.
The Principal's
materials and corrosion expert shall be consulted.

(1)

DEP 31.40.20.34-Gen.
DEP 31.40.20.36-Gen.
production.

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Clad Pipe:

Metallurgically bonded clad layer

CRA Lined
Pipe:

CRA lined (mechanically bonded) steel pipe will


require a supplementary project specification in
addition to DEP 31.40.20.32-Gen.

NOTES

DEP 31.40.20.32.Gen

(1) Weldable Martensitic stainless steel materials is not considered suitable


materials option for PDO due to high chloride and H2S

Suitable materials for process pipelines are given in Table 6.6 and shall be in accordance with DEP
39.01.10.11-Gen, DEP 39.01.10.12 and DEP 30.01.10.15-Gen.

Table 6.6: Process pipelines


Item

Onshore/subsea
pipelines

Conditions

(1)

SLC

Temp.

pH2S

Cl

mm (in)

C (F)

mbar (psi)

g/l

(2)

Material

<8
(<3/8)

<200
(<392)

<3.5
(<0.05)

Any

CS
with
appropriate
corrosion allowance

<8
(<3/8)

< 200
(<392)

< 100
(<1.45)

Any

SSC and HIC resistant CS


with appropriate corrosion
allowance

N/A

<140
(<284)

0
(0)

<100

Weldable
martensitic
(6)
stainless steel

N/A

<200
(<392)

0
(0)

<12

Weldable
martensitic
(6)
stainless steel

N/A

< 120
(<248)

<3.5
(<0.05)

<120

CS clad with AISI 316L

N/A

<200
(<392)

<10
(<0.15)

<150

22Cr Duplex

N/A

<155
( <311)

15
(<0.22)

<38

N/A

60
(140)

15
(<0.22)

60

N/A

<200
(<392)

<20
(<0.29)

<150

Super duplex

N/A

<200
(<392)

<80
(<1.16)

<30

Super duplex

N/A

<200
(<392)

<350
(<5.08)

<0.6

22Cr Duplex

N/A

<200
(<392)

<1,000
(<14.50)

<0.6

Super duplex

N/A

<200
(<392)

<22,000
(<319)

<120

CS clad/lined with Alloy 825

N/A

<240
(<464)

<30,000
(<435)

<120

CS clad/lined with Alloy 625

N/A

<100
(<212)

N/A

N/A

GRP (see flowline


metallic table)

N/A

<60
(<140)

N/A

N/A

RTP
(Reinforced
thermoplastic pipes) (see
flowline non metallic table
6.7

(3)

(4)

CS clad with AISI 316L


CS clad with AISI 316L

(4)

non

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Item

Conditions

Notes:

(1)

Material

SLC

Temp.

pH2S

Cl

mm (in)

C (F)

mbar (psi)

g/l

N/A

<60
(<140)

N/A

N/A

Thermoplastic
lined
CS
(see flowline non metallic
(5)
table 6.7

N/A

<200
(<392)

<22,000
(<319)

<200

CS clad/lined with Alloy 825

N/A

<200
(<392)

<22,000
(<319)

<200

CS clad/lined with Alloy 825

(1)

For some Corrosion Resistant Alloys, e.g., AISI 316L, more detailed sour service SCC limits can be
found in DEP Part 4.

(2)

If there is any chance of H2S increase during the lifetime (e.g., due to reservoir souring) order SCC
and HIC resistant CS, even if the pH2S is below 3.5 mbar (0.05 psi).

(3)

These limits are valid for pH 3.8.

(4)

The recent CP studies completed revealed that the optimum CP level in DSS lines is recommended to
be adjusted to a potential no less negative than -650 mV. This value is in the range recommended by
ISO 15589 and DEP 30.10.7310 for DSS structures. Previous level ranged from -850 to -1150 mV
increased the risk of internal stray current. This value will reduce significantly the amount of internal
stray current, reducing the risk of failures in the IJ.

(5)

Higher temperature applications are possible refer to DEP 31.40.30.34-Gen. for higher temperature
thermoplastic liners.

(6)

Higher temperature applications are possible refer to DEP 31.40.30.34-Gen. for higher temperature
thermoplastic liners.

6.13 Dry Hydrocarbon flow lines:


Shall be in accordance with DEP 39.01.10.12-Gen, Section 3.3.3.

6.14 Flowlines
Flowline material selection philosophy shall be as per section 2.1 of SP-2156. For non-metallic flow
line material selection shall be performed in accordance with Table 6.7. For metallic materials
flowlines shall be as pipeline Table 6.6.
Table 6.7: Limitations of non-metallic materials
GRE

HDPE lined CS

(SP-2092)

(SP-2094)

Y
4

Wet Gas

Required Service

FBE coated CS
Flow lines

Reelable Pipes

(SP-2416)

(DEP
31.40.1020-Gen)

Multiphase

Dry gas

Max 7 mol%

Max 3 mol%

Region 1 as per
ISO 15156

No limit

No limit

Corrosivity < 3
1
mm/year.

Water
Oil

H2S

CO2

Max 1 mol%

2 (add

permeation issue)

No limit
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Chlorides
>1% Acide
exposure
pH

No limit

No limit

Corrosivity < 3
1
mm/year.

No limit

Corrosivity < 3
1
mm/year.

3.5 to 12

Sand > 10 g/m3

GOR
Production
Chemical
Wax and Asphalt

Fluid velocity

Design pressure

3.5 to 12

3.5 to 12

No specified limit

300

Up to 10 m/sec
liquid velocity

10 m/s gas
velocity
As per SP2092

Max 180 bar


70deg C for
water service
and 65 deg C for
oil service

300

4 m/sec liquid
velocity

Limited by rapid
decompression

2-4 m/sec

Limited by rapid
decompression

Up to 10 m/sec
liquid velocity

70bar Max

65deg C
(This refers to
Maximum
operating
temperature)

Design
Temperature

Max 100 deg C

Maintenance
pigging

Shall be in Liquid
form

Shall be in Liquid
form

Shall be in Liquid
form

Shall be in Liquid
form

> 20 years

20 years

10 years

Max 2 years

Buried
pipeline/flowlines

Above ground
pipeline/flowlines

Y limited by
corrosion rate
and piping
configuration

Y limited by
corrosion rate and
piping
configuration

Y only water/
burried close drain

Y limited by
corrosion rate
and piping
configuration

Y limited by
corrosion rate and
piping
configuration

Viscosity
Design life

Manifolds

On plot piping

(This refers to
Maximum
operating
temperature)

90 deg C

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Pressure Vessel
Tanks

X As SP 1246

Internal liner

X As SP 1246

Notes:
1. For service life corrosion requirements refer to section 4.4.
2. Pipe materials can work however, the connections are metallic and the limitations shall
be checked with Materials and corrosion engineer before use.
3. For fluids having PH out of this range shall be referred to Materials and corrosion TA2 for
review and recommendation.
4. Electrical conductivity of the fluid shall not be less tahn 10,000pS/m
5. Flow assurance study shall demonstrate that the produce sand, wax, asphat, etc. will
not have any erosion effect in pipe service and that solid removal will not be required
during the life time of the project. No test data viable. Any sand production areas it is not
recommended to use the non metallic materials without study. Consult MCI Engineer.
6. Paffin wax and Asphalt deposits may have swelling effect on PE materials. Consult
Materials & Corrosion Engineer before selection.
7. Design pressure changes with size & connections. Max Design temperature changes
with type of curing systems used. Refer to SP2092-1 for more details.
8. Compatibility test shall be carried out

Symbols:
Y The material may be considered within the boundaries specified in the above table
- No test data or filed experience available. Consult with the PDO materials function TA2 authority
for more details.
X Shall not be used.

6.15 Water Injection flow lines


Shall be in accordance with DEP 39.01.10.12-Gen, Section 3.3.4.

6.16 Flexibles
Shall be in accordance with DEP 39.01.10.12-Gen, Section 3.3.6. Corrosion Prevention and Control
for Water Injection Systems shall be per DEP 31.01.10.11-Gen.

6.17 Multi Selective Valves (MSVS)


S. No.
1
2
3
4

Body
CS
CS
CS
CS+3mm two pass undiluted
316L weld overlay

Internals
CS
316L
825
316L

Skid piping
CS
CS
CS
CS+3mm two pass 316L weld overlay
or
solid SS316L
or
CS+1mmCA+rotolining
or
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5
6

7
8
9

CS+3mm two pass undiluted


(1)
625 weld overlay
CS+3mm two pass undiluted
625 weld overlay

DSS

316L
DSS
SDSS

316L
DSS
SDSS

625

Revision: 0
Effective: September-2014

CS+3mmCA + FBE coated


DSS
CS+625 weld overlay
or
solid 825
or
CS+1mmCA+rotolining
or
CS+3mmCA + FBE coated
316L
DSS
SDSS

NOTE (1) DSS weld overlay is feasible but the application requires MIC TA approval.

** Material limits to be in accordance with Table 3 (vessel/piping materials)


6.18 Utilities
Materials selection for utilities shall be in accordance with DEP 39.01.10.12-Gen, Section 3.4. Utilities
materials selection shall cover the construction materials for below systems and the criteria for
individual selection is as stated in DEP 39.01.10.12 -Gen

Water systems
Fresh potable water
Brackish/seawater for service water system
Closed circuit cooling water
Fire fighting system
Water injection system
Tubing materials and completion accessories for water injection and disposal wells
Seawater caissons and dip tubes
Inhibitors and other chemicals (shall be in accordance with DEP 39.01.10.12-Gen, Table
22.
Miscellanies Utilities systems (e.g. air system, instrumentation, etc) shall be in accordance
with DEP 39.01.10.12-Gen, Table 23.
Diesel fuel systems (shall be in accordance with DEP 39.01.10.12-Gen, Table 24)

6.19 Steam Injection systems


DEP 39.01.10.12-Gen, Section 3.5. shall not be used for the selections of steam projects. The
construction materials recommendations included in the DEP 39.01.10.12-Gen, Section 3.5.1, Table
25, is based on experience in North America and Canada where continuous high temperature
production of heavy oil with typical low corrosion have been observed. This is not applicable for PDO
steam operations. Materials selection shall be completed based on standard material selection
process as specified in Section.3 of this SP.

6.20 ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY (EOR)


Materials selection for enhanced oil recovery is based primarily on proven operating experience.
Where CRAs are required, process conditions shall be used to determine the type of CRA from the
relevant tables in this standard. The materials selection shall be endorsed by the Principals Materials
and Corrosion TA1.

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7

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MATERIALS SELECTION STUDY ROLES & RESPONSIBILITIES

Materials selection report for all SELECT phase shall be carried by PDO Materials and Corrosion
engineering discipline (Function).
During the DEFINE and EXECUTE phase, materials and corrosion deliverables shall be prepared by
materials, corrosion and welding specialists that have been assessed and approved by PDO
Materials and Corrosion Engineering discipline (UEOC) prior the start of FEED and DD studies.
FEED and DD materials selection report shall be endorsed and approved by PDO Materials and
Corrosion Engineering discipline (UEOC) in peer review session following the requirements indicated
in Section 4.1. Materials selection peer review sessions shall be organized by the Materials and
Corrosion Engineers from the projects or the author of the report and ensuring participation from
Process, Mechanical, Rotating and Pipeline engineering.

CONTENT OF MATERIALS SELECTION REPORTS


8.1

SELECT Phase

Materials selection report shall contain the following but not limited to:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
k)
l)
m)
n)
o)
p)
q)

8.2

Executive Summary
Project Introduction and Description
Purpose of the document
Abbreviations and Definitions
Project documents referred to
Standard referred to
Design Basis
Corrosion Predictive Modelling
Erosion Assessment
Materials Selection Discussion
Recommended Materials Selection
Specific Materials Manufacturing / Fabrication Requirements
Specific Corrosion Control Requirements
Threat-Barrier Matrix
Outline of Corrosion Monitoring Methods
Technical References
Attachments / Appendices

DEFINE Phase

During the DEFINE phase Materials selection report shall include detailed assessments and
specifications to develop required materials and corrosion testing program. The detailed assessment
should be carried out as per the sequences of the process flow diagrams. The materials selection
shall discuss the process description for each system and the basis for the materials selection shall
be documented. All the unknowns identified during select phase shall be addressed, documented
and close.
Typical template with the required content for a materials selection in DEFINE phase is shown in
Appendix D.
Materials selection report shall consider and document all the process information and assumptions
for each stream and shall be presented as per the template included in appendix E.

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8.3

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EXECUTE Phase

Required content shall be as per DEFINE phase and shall be updated to as approved for
construction status for handover.

CORROSION MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK

Elements of corrosion management framework and corrosion management manual (CMM) shall be
in accordance with DEP 39.01.10.11- Gen.
Template for typical CMF is shown in Appendix C.

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APPENDIX A: Basic Information required and factors effecting materials selection


Table A.1: Basic information required and factors effecting materials selection

Basic Information Required for Materials Selection for Hydrocarbon Systems


Field Name
Design Life

Essential Information Required for materials Selection


Equipment
Carrying
produced
fluids

Utility Systems

Equipment
carrying sea
water
including
water injection
and fire water

Presence of free Water


Co2 content of Gas

mol%

H2S content of Gas

mol%

Dissolved H2S

ppm

Dissolved Co2

ppm

Elemental sulphur

ppm

Maximum Operating Pressure

Bara

Maximum design pressure

Bara

Maximum Operating Temperature

Maximum deign Temperature

Ambient Temperature

C
Multiphase/gas/oil

Type of fluid

Flow type

Stratified/ annular/
slug etc

Gas flow Rate

mIn Sm3/d

Oil Flow rate

m3/d

Water flow Rate

m3/d

Liquid Velocity

m/s

Debris present

yes/No

Inside diameter

Length

Km

Water cut

GOR

Reservoir Date
Reservoir pressure

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reservoir temperature

Bubble point pressure

Reservoir fluid density

Sand and silt production

Mercury

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Water analysis
type of water

Cond/form/iron
saturated

Bicarbonates

ppm

Sulphates

ppm

chlorides

ppm

Dissolved Fe2+ in Water

ppm

Total dissolved solids

g/l

Oxygen in water

ppm

Total suspended solids

ppm

pH
Sodium

ppm

ORGANIC ACIDS

ppm

Formic acid

ppm

Acetic acid

ppm

Propionic acid

ppm

Mercury

ppm

kg/kmol

Fluid Properties
Gas molecular weight
Gas compressibility factor

API gravity

Oil density

kg/m3

Oil viscosity @ reference temp

Ns/m2

Oil viscosity reference temp

deg C

Gas liquid surface tension

N/m

Water solubility in oil C1


Water solubility in oil C2

Additional information required for service life corrosion calculation


The full stream molar composition Whether inhibitor are
to be injected.

Water content in glycol (where added for corrosion or


hydrate control)

HCO3 content of water

projected operating pressure and temperature profile


over life of project

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Heat transfer coefficient of coating system used


(pipeline) reservoir type ( carbonate or sandstone)
for water injection system the anticipated amount and
particle size of corrosion products are often require to
manage well sand control efficiency
Inhibition philosophy

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- Inputs are required

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APPENDIX B: Risk Assessment


Corrosion risk assessment forms an important part of materials selection and risk based inspection.
It is necessary to perform these activities in a structured manner to ensure that all credible materials
and corrosion related threats are evaluated.
The corrosion risk assessment is, essentially, an analysis of the controls in place for preventing the
realisation of a loss of primary containment top event via the corrosion threats that may be identified
by a bow tie analysis as shown in Figure 1. Selection of the corrosion threats can be made from the
listing below. Users must ascertain the threats that apply in each case under consideration, and
positively discount those that do not apply. It is not sufficient to simply disregard a listed threat
without any justifying statement in the MSR.

Figure 91: Generic bow-tie model

Related Business Control Documents and References


Version

Reference

Title

API RP 571

Damage Mechanisms Affecting Fixed Equipment in the


Refining Industry
Maintenance and Integrity Management Code of
Practice
Corrosion Management Code of Practice
Corrosion Inhibitor Efficiency Limits And Key Factors,
NACE Corrosion 2011, Paper 11062
Metallic Materials Selected Standards

2 Edition

Carbon Steel Corrosion Engineering Manual For


Upstream Facilities
Materials For Use In H2S-containing Environments In
Oil And Gas Production (Amendments And
Supplements to ISO 15156:2009)

February 2012

CP-114
CP-208
Crossland, A., et al
DEP Specification
30.10.02.11-Gen
DEP Specification
30.10.02.14-Gen
DEP Specification
30.10.02.15-Gen

nd

Revision 5.0
1.0

February 2013

February 2013

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DEP Specification
30.10.02.31-Gen
DEP Specification
31.38.01.29-Gen
DEP 31.38.01.84-Gen
DEP Informative
39.01.10.11-Gen
DEP Specification
39.01.10.11-Gen
Energy Institute
Energy Institute
European Federation Of
Corrosion EFC
GU-475
GU-611
GU-637
GU-672
ISO 15156

Smart, J

SP-2041
SP-2062
UK HSE

UK HSE

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Metallic Materials Prevention Of Brittle Fracture In


New Assets
Pipe Supports

February 2013

Piping Classes Service And Materials Selection


Index
Selection Of Materials For Life Cycle Performance
(Upstream Facilities) Materials Selection Process
Selection Of Materials For Life Cycle Performance
(Upstream Facilities) Materials Selection Process
Guidance for corrosion management in oil and gas
production and processing
Guidelines for the Avoidance of Vibration Induced
Fatigue Failure in Process Pipework
Publication 46 Amine Unit Corrosion In Refineries

February 2013

Corporate Flowline Materials Selection Guideline


PDO Engineering Standards and Procedures
Sour Gas Wells Completion Materials Selection
Guidelines
Produced Water Analysis Requirement
Petroleum and natural gas industries Materials for
use in H2S-containing environments in oil and gas
production All parts
Flow Velocity Required for Solid Particle Movement in
Oil & Gas Pipelines, NACE Corrosion 2009, Paper
09469
Specification for Cracking Resistant Materials in H2S
Containing Environment
Specification for HSE Cases
Research Report 320: Elastomers for fluid
containment in offshore oil and gas production:
Guidelines and review
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr320.pdf
Research Report 485: Elastomeric seals for rapid gas
decompression applications in high pressure services
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr485.pdf

Version 1.0
18a
Revision 1.0

February 2013

February 2013
February 2013
May 2008
January 2008
2007

Revision 0
nd
2 edition with
Technical
Circulars

3.0
1.0

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APPENDIX C: CMF template

Typical Template for


CMF.xlsx

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APPENDIX D: Feed and Detailed Design MSR minimum standard requirements


template

Materials Selection Report (MSR)


FEED Stage
INDEX
1. PROJECT INTRODUCTION................................................................................................
2. PROJECT DESCRIPTION...................................................................................................
3. PURPOSE OF THE DOCUMENT .......................................................................................
4. ABBREVIATIONS ...............................................................................................................
5. STANDARDS AND PROJECT DOCUMENTS ...................................................................
5.1 Company Standards and Reference Documents ..............................................................
5.1.1 Company Asset Integrity Management Documents...........................................
5.1.2 Company Standards, Specifications and Procedures........................................
5.2 Project Documents..............................................................................................................
5.2.1 Mechanical .........................................................................................................
5.2.2 Pipelines .............................................................................................................
5.2.3 Piping...................................................................................................................
5.2.4 Process................................................................................................................
5.2.5 Structural .............................................................................................................
5.2.6 Materials & Welding ..............................................................................................
5.3 International, Regional, National and Industry Standards ..................................................
5.3.1 International Standards .......................................................................................
5.3.2 National Standards................................................................................................
5.3.3 Industry Standards ...............................................................................................
5.4 Document References .........................................................................................................
6. FIELD AND PROJECT DESCRIPTION FROM A CORROSION PERSPECTIVE ................
6.1 Existing Facility Experience ..................................................................................................
6.1.1 Corrosion / Leak History........................................................................................
6.1.2 Existing Chemical Treatment & Chemical Performance.................
7. MATERIALS SELECTION AND CORROSION CONTROL BASIS.........................................
7.1 Corrosion Study Basis..........................................................................................................
7.2 Materials Selection Basis.......................................................................................................
7.3 Corrosion Risk Analysis Basis..
7.4 Life Cycle Cost LCC Analysis Basis ....................................................
8. ASSUMPTIONS, UPSETS AND UNCERTAINTIES .............................................................
8.1 Assumptions.......................................................................................................................
8.2 Uncertainties and Impact of Possible Changes ...................................................................
8.2.1 Watercut ...............................................................................................................
8.2.2 CO2 and H2S Levels ..............................................................................................
8.2.3 Temperatures and Pressures................................................................................
8.2.4 Chloride Concentration..........................................................................................
8.2.5 Sand Production.....................................................................................................
8.2.6 Elemental Sulphur .................................................................................................
8.2.7 Organic Acids ........................................................................................................
8.2.8 Additional or Altered Chemical Treatments............................................................
8.3 New Technologies and Basis for Use....................................................................................
9. Corrosion Threats .......................................................
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9.1 Factors Affecting Fluid Corrosivity .......................................................................................


9.1.1 Sweet and Sour Corrosion Mechanisms .........................................................
9.2 CO2 Corrosion ......................................................................................................................
9.2.1 CO2 Corrosion in Satah Field Production Facilities..............................................
9.3 The Influence of H2S on Corrosion .....................................................................................
9.3.1 Control of H2S Corrosion in Satah Field Production Facilities ............................
9.4 H2S Cracking.......................................................................................................................
9.5 Oxygen Corrosion ...............................................................................................................
9.6 Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion ...............................................................................
9.6.1 MIC Mitigation.......................................................................................................
9.7 Chloride Stress Corrosion Cracking.....................................................................................
9.8 Erosion and Erosion Corrosion ...........................................................................................
9.9 Atmospheric Corrosion........................................................................................................
9.10 Corrosion under Insulation (CUI) ......................................................................................
9.11 Preferential Weld Corrosion...............................................................................................
9.12 Sour Water Corrosion ........................................................................................................
9.13 Galvanic Corrosion.............................................................................................................
9.14 Vibration Induced Fatigue ..................................................................................................
9.15 Polythionic Acid Stress Corrosion Cracking (PASCC)........................................................
9.16 Flange Face Corrosion........................................................................................................
9.17 Brittle Fracture.....................................................................................................................
9.18 Long Running Ductile Fracture ...........................................................................................
9.19 Degradation of Non-Metallic Seals .....................................................................................
9.20 Sulphidation ........................................................................................................................
9.21 Soil Corrosion......................................................................................................................
9.22 Corrosion Mitigation for Pipelines .......................................................................................
10. EXTERNAL CORROSION CONTROL COATING..............................................................
10.1 Onshore Plant Facilities .......................................................................................................
10.2 Topside Piping and Equipment ............................................................................................
10.3 Submerged Pipelines ...........................................................................................................
11. CATHODIC PROTECTION.....................................................................................................
11.1 Pipelines.................................................................................................................
11.2 Onshore Buried Piping, Buried Vessels and Vessel Interiors................................................
12. MATERIALS SELECTION PHILOSOPHY FOR VALVES, INSTRUMENTS AND BOLTING....
12.1 Valves...................................................................................................................................
12.2 Instrument Tubing and Fittings ..............................................................................................
12.3 Bolting ..................................................................................................................................
13. CORROSION INHIBTION AND MICROBIOLOGICAL CONTROL PHILOSOPHY ................
13.1 General..................................................................................................................................
13.2 Basis of Corrosion Inhibition Philosophy..................................................................................
13.3 Inhibitor Effectiveness and Availability.....................................................................................
13.4 Operation and Reliability..........................................................................................................
13.5 Chemical Performance.............................................................................................................
13.6 Delivery System Design............................................................................................................
13.7 Injection Locations and Equipment ..........................................................................................
13.7.1 Injection Location Considerations ..........................................
13.7.2 Associated KPIs ............................................................
13.7.3 Equipment and
Fittings.....................................................................................................
13.8 Chemical Compatibility........................................................................................................
13.9 Inhibitor Type and Indicative Injection Rates ......................................................................
13.10 Batch Inhibitor Treatment..................................................................................................
14. CORROSION MONITORING BASIS AND PHILOSOPHY (DETAILS TO BE COVERED IN CMF
DOCUMENT)
14.1 Aim ....................................................................................................................................
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14.2 Monitoring and Testing Facilities - General .........................................................................


14.3 Corrosion Monitoring Techniques and Equipment................................................................
14.4 Corrosion Coupons ..............................................................................................................
14.5 Electrical Resistance Probes ...............................................................................................
14.6 Permanent UT Monitoring Probes .......................................................................................
14.7 Bacterial Monitoring and Bioprobes .....................................................................................
14.8 Process Monitoring ..............................................................................................................
14.9 Inhibitor Residuals................................................................................................................
14.10 Submerged Corrosion Monitoring ......................................................................................
14.11 Corrosion Monitoring Instrumentation.................................................................................
14.11.1 Recommendation................................................................................................
14.12 Positioning and Spacing of Access Fittings ....................................................................
14.13 Corrosion Monitoring Manual...........................................................................................
15. PIPELINE PIGGING PHILOSOPHY (DETAILS TO BE COVERED IN CMF DOCUMENT)
15.1 General.............................................................................................................................
15.2 Control of Pyrophoric Iron Sulphide Scale..........................................................................
15.3 Operational Pigging Frequency ..........................................................................................
15.3.1 Other operational pigging requirements..............................................................
15.4 Intelligent Pigging Frequency..............................................................................................
15.5 Pigging and Corrosion Control at Low Gas Velocities ........................................................
15.5.1 Effectiveness of Continuous Inhibitor Injection
15.5.2 Capability for Operational Pigging....................................
15.5.3 Capability for Batch Inhibition between Pigs
15.5.4 Intelligent Pigging ................................................................................................
16. MATERIALS SELECTION FOR PROCESS SYSTEMS........................................................
16.1. Corrosion Rate Calculations (Stream wise)
16.2. Materials Selection Options (Stream wise) .
16.3. Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Analysis (For all valid options)..
16.4. Corrosion Risk Analysis (For selected option) ..
17. MATERIALS SELECTION FOR UTILITY SYSTEMS............................................................
17.1. Corrosion Rate Calculations (Stream wise)
17.2. Materials Selection Options (Stream wise) .
17.3. Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Analysis (For all valid options)..
17.4. Corrosion Risk Analysis (For selected option) ..
18. FABRICATION, WELDING AND INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS.....................................
ATTACHMENTS.........................................................................................................................
ATTACHMENT 1 INTERNAL CORROSION PREDICTION MODEL SUMMARY SHEETS........
ATTACHMENT 2 MATERIALS SELECTION DIAGRAMS (see Appendix F)
ATTACHMENT 3 CORROSION INHIBITOR TEST PROTOCOL................................................
ATTACHMENT 4 CHEMICAL TREATMENT REQUIREMENT................................
ATTACHMENT 5 INTERNAL MONITORING AND SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM SPECIFICATION.
ATTACHMENT 6 LINEPIPE AND FIELD JOINT COATING SPECIFICATION.................
ATTACHMENT 7 CATHODIC PROTECTION SPECIFICATION.....................................................
ATTACHMENT 8 PIGGING REQUIREMENTS................................................................................
ATTACHMENT 9 TECHNICAL QUERIES......................................................................................
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APPENDIX E: Template for required process information in materials selection


report.

MSR process
data.xlsx

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APPENDIX F: Materials Selection Diagrams (MSD)


The Materials Selection Diagram (MSD) shall be prepared during DEFINE phase and shall include
the information required by NACE SP0407 including the following:a) Materials selection and corrosion allowance for components and pipe line/piping systems shall
use an easily recognizable, generic materials description which shall be shown on the MSD.
b) The alloy type and minimum thickness for CRA lining or weld overlay and generic coating type for
an internal coating system shall use an easily recognizable, generic materials description which
shall be shown on the MSD
c) MSD shall be made by marking up each individual system / unit on PFS and should have colour
coding system for materials.
d) Changes in piping materials or corrosion allowances shall be clearly identified - if the change
occurs at a valve, the higher alloy (or corrosion allowance) shall be specified for the valve.
e) Mix points, third party entry points and chemical injection points shall be clearly identified.
f)

Corrosion mitigation measures applicable to a particular item or piping system (e.g. chemical
treatment, cathodic protection) shall be clearly identified.

g) If Contractor MSD does not record the above information for package licensor or Vendor units,
the licensor or Vendor shall supply their own MSD to record such information which shall then be
cross referenced in Contractors materials selection report.

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